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Sporocarp (ferns)

A sporocarp is a specialised type of structure found in specimens have been successfully germinated after being
some ferns whose primary function is the production and stored for more than forty years. Each growing season,
release of spores.
only one sporocarp develops per node along the rhizome
near the base of the other leaf-stalks.
The sporocarps are functionally and developmentally
modied leaves, although they have much shorter stalks
than the vegetative leaves. Inside the sporocarp, the modied leaets bear several sori, each of which consists of
several sporangia covered by a thin hood of tissue (the
indusium). Each sorus includes a mix of two types of
sporangium, each type producing only one of two kinds
of spores. Toward the center of each sorus and developing rst are the megasporangia, each of which will
produce a single large female megaspore. Surrounding
them at the edge of the sorus and developing later are the
microsporangia, each of which will produce many small
male microspores.

1 References

The European species Pilularia globulifera bearing sporocarps.

Among ferns, sporocarps are found only in the three


families of the order Salviniales, a group that is both
aquatic and heterosporous. The term actually refers to
two very dierent structures. In the Azollaceae and
Salviniaceae, the sporocarp is nothing more than a modied sorus, a single cluster of spore-producing tissues enclosed by a thin sphere of tissue and attached to the leaves.
In the Marsileaceae (water-clover family), however, the
sporocarp is a more elaborate structure formed from an
entire leaf whose development and form is greatly modied. These are hairy, short-stalked, bean-shaped structures (usually 3 to 8 mm in diameter) with a hardened
outer covering. This outer covering is tough and resistant to drying out, allowing the spores inside to survive
unfavorable conditions such as winter frost or summer
desiccation. Despite this toughness, the sporocarps will
open readily in water if conditions are favorable, and
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2 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

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Text

Sporocarp (ferns) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sporocarp_(ferns)?oldid=592523733 Contributors: Rich Farmbrough, Czar, Peter G Werner, EncycloPetey, Clicketyclack, Addbot, Lightbot, Erik9bot, EmausBot, , Fraulein451 and Anonymous: 1

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Images

File:Pilularia_globulifera_-_Thom.jpg Source:
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Thom%C3%A9.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
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Contributors:
Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Based on Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist:
Tkgd2007

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Content license

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