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Durga
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Durga(Hindustanipronunciation:[d
ra]Sanskrit:

,IAST:Durg),meaning"theinvincible"[1]isthe

principalformoftheGoddess,alsoknownasDevi
andShaktiinHinduism.[2]Durgathemahashakti,the
formandformless,istherootcauseofcreation,
preservationandannihilation.Accordingtolegend,
Durgawascreatedfortheslayingofthebuffalo
demonMahisasurabyBrahma,Vishnu,Shiva,andthe
lessergods,whowereotherwisepowerlessto
overcomehim.Embodyingtheircollectiveenergy
(shakti),sheisbothderivativefromthemale
divinitiesandthemanifestedrepresentationoftheir
power.[1]
ForShaivasandShaktasDurgaisthewifeofShiva.
ForVaishnavasDurgaisanothername/formofUma
orParvati.[2]ThisisespeciallyprevalentintheShakta
denominationwithinHinduism,whichworshipsthe
GoddessDeviinallhermanifestations.Sheis
GoddessLakshmiandGoddessSaraswatiinhermild
formGoddessKaliandGoddessChandiinher
wrathfulform.Sheistheintelligenceinallbeingsand
isreferredasChamundhaye.Durgaisalsocalled
PadmanabhaSahodariandNarayani,thesisterof
LordVishnu.TobringbacklordShivainSansar,she
wasreborninhumanform(SatiandParvati)tomarry
Shiva.DurgagavebirthtohisfirstchildKartikeya.
DurgaPuja,heldannuallyinherhonour,isoneofthe
greatfestivalsofeasternIndia.

Contents
1Originsanddevelopment
2Stories
3Worship
4Westernreferences
5NotabletemplesofDurga
5.1InIndia
5.2OutsideIndia
6Seealso
7References
8Furtherreading
9Externallinks

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durga

(DevDurg)
GoddessofVictoryofGoodoverEvil

Devanagari

Sanskrit
Durg
Transliteration
Affiliation

Devi,MotherGoddess,Divine
Mother,AdiParashakti,Goddess
Shakti,manifestationof
Mahashakti

Abode

Shivaloka(MountKailasa/Kashi),
Manidvipa,asShakti(Energy)in
wholeUniverse

Mantra

(Sanskritfor:O

DuDurgyaiNama)

(DeviMahatmyam

"Gloryofthegoddess"alsoknown
asSaptashatiorsimplyas
ChandiPath
(bengaliforMahalaya)

Weapon

trident,discus,
Scimitar,lasso,
Conchshell,Mace,Bowand
arrow,spear,sword(longsword),
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Originsanddevelopment

shield,bell,pinklotusflower,
battleaxe,thunderbolt,elephant
goad,snake,rod,spade,vajra,
goblet,hammerweapon,iron
weapon,weaponmadeoutof
thorns,javelin,dagger

RamprasadChandawritesthefollowingaboutthe
developmentofDurgafromprimitivegoddesstoher
currentform:[3]
...itispossibletodistinguishtwodifferentstrata
oneprimitiveandtheotheradvanced.The
primitiveformofDurgaistheresultof
syncretismofamountaingoddessworshipedby
thedwellersoftheHimalayaandtheVindhyas,
agoddessworshipedbythenomadicAbhira
shepherd,thevegetationspiritconceivedasa
female,andawargoddess.Ashervotaries
advancedincivilizationtheprimitivewar
goddesswastransformedintothe
personificationofthealldestroyingtime(Kali),
thevegetationspiritintotheprimordialenergy
(AdyaSakti)andthesaviouressfromsamsara
(cycleofrebirths),andgraduallybroughtinto
linewiththeBrahmanicmythologyand
philosophy.

Consort

Shiva

Mount

lionortiger

ThedelusionofthesupremesoulisotherwisecalledShakti(power).Fromthispower,generatesall
formsofknowledgeoftheworldanditisacceptedasvitalcauseofcreation,existenceanddestruction.
Accordingto'ShreeDurgaShaptshatiRahasyam',theoriginalpowerisMahalaxmithatcreatedthree
pairsofSupremePowers.TheyareBrahma,VishnuandShivaasmaleandSaraswati,Laxmiand
Parvatiasfemale,andtheymarriedrespectively.MahaSaraswatiiswellknownasBrahmani,
MahalaxmiasVaishnaviandMahakaliasMaheswari.DurgaShaktiistheoriginalcauseofallthe
presentorpastworldlyoccurrences.DurgaShaktiiscalledasAdhyashakti,ParamatmaShaktiorAti
PrakrutikaShakti.Sheiscreatingandcontrollingothertwopowers:NaturalandGeneral.NaturalPower
iscalledasAtmaShakti,PrakrutikaShakti,PanchaMahabhutaShaktietc.ThisShakticreatesand
controlstheGeneralEnergy.GeneralEnergiesarecalledJadaShaktiorTamashakti.Bytheblessingsof
DurgaShakti,themotheroftheUniverse,manisabletogethisemancipationorsalvationandindulgein
enjoymentsinperformanceofhisdailyactivities.SoVyasadev,theeminentpoetof"DeviBhagwat",
hasaptlydescribed"RudrahinamVishnuhinamnavadantijanastathaShaktihinamYathasarbe
probodhantiNaradhamam".Thepowerlesspersonsaredespisedasmeanpersons.So,bybeingdevoted
totheSupreme,weshouldbestrongandpowerfulbyhergrace.

Stories
ShivaPuranagivesanaccountoftheoriginofDurga.Atthebeginningoftime,LordShivainvoked
Durga,theprimordialenergyfromhislefthalftocreate.Togethertheycreatedtheireternalabode,
Shivaloka,alsoknownasKashi.Thereafter,theycreatedVishnuandBrahma.
AsperShivaPuranaandDeviMahatmyah,Mahishasura,thesonofdemonRambha,unleashedreignof
terroronearth.Whengodsintervened,Mahishasuradefeatedgodsandbanishedthemfromheaven.
VanquishedgodswenttoTridevaBrahma,VishnuandShiva.Astheynarratedtheirwoefultale,
immensemassoflightmanifestedfromLordVishnu'smouth,whichwasjoinedbysimilarraysthat
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emergedfromtheenragedfacesofgods.Thismassoflighttransformedintoawoman.Thenallthe
Godsgavetheirdivineweapontothatsupremepower.AdishaktiremanifestedasDurgatoslay
Mahishasura.Armedwithcelestialweaponsofalldeitiesanddeckedwithdivineornaments,Durgarode
intothebattlefieldandchallengeddemonsforbattle.
Mahishasura'sentirearmy,ledbydemonslikeChikshur,
Chamar,Asiloma,Vidalaksha,Durdhara,Durmukha,Mahahanu
andmanymoreattackedDurgaatonce.ButDurgaslewallof
themwithunparalleledcruelty.AnenragedMahishasura
attackedDurgainguiseofabuffalo.ButDurgabounditwith
ropes.ThebuffalomorphedintoalionandleaptonDurga,but
shebeheadeditwithhersword.Atthis,Mahishasurabeganto
fightinformofaswordsman.Durgapinnedhimdownwitha
torrentofarrows.Mahishasuranowassumedformofagiant
elephantandtuggedatDurga'slion.Durgaloppedoffitstrunk
withherswordandfreedherlion.Theelephantturnedintoa
buffaloandchargedatDurga.Sippingfromherwinecup,Durga
flunghertridentandbeheadedMahishasura,finallykillinghim.

Worship
Thefourdaylong(SaptamitoDashami)DurgaPujaisthe
biggestannualfestivalinBengal,Assam,Odisha,Bihar,
JharkhandandNepal,whereitisknownasDashain.Itis
celebratedlikewisewithmuchfervourinvarious
partsofIndia,especiallytheHimalayanregion,butis
celebratedinvariousformsthroughouttheHindu
universe.
ThedayofDurga'svictoryiscelebratedas
Vijayadashami(Bihar,Bengali),Dashain(Nepali)or
Dussehra(Hindi)thesewordsliterallymean"the
VictoryontheTenth(day)".[4]

Durgaonalion

DurgaWorshipMantra
0:00

A51secondssampleofDurgaPuja
MantrarecitedinSanskrit.
Problemsplayingthisfile?Seemediahelp.

InAndhraPradeshsheisalsoworshippedasKanaka
Durgammathalli,wherethereisalsofamoustempleforGoddess
KanakaDurgainIndrakeeladri,Vijayawada.Sheisalsoknownby
thenameofChandiBhavani.
InKashmirsheisworshippedasshaarika(themaintempleisin
HariParbatinSrinagar).
Theactualperiodoftheworshiphowevermaybeonthe
MaaDurga
precedingninedays(Navaratri)followedbythelastdaycalled
VijayadashamiinNorthIndiaorfivedaysinBengal(fromthe
sixthtotenthdayofthewaxingmoonfortnight).[5]NineaspectsofDurgaknownasNavadurgaare
meditatedupon,onebyoneduringtheninedayfestivalbydevoutShaktiworshippers.DurgaPujaalso
includestheworshipofShiva,whoisDurga'sconsort(DurgaisanaspectofGoddessParvati),in
additiontoLakshmi,SaraswatiwithGaneshaandKartikeya,whoareconsideredtobeDurga'schildren.
[6]Worshipofmothernatureisdone,throughninetypesofplant(called"KalaBou"),includinga

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plantain(banana)tree,whichrepresentninedivineformsofGoddessDurga.[7]InSouthIndiaespecially,
AndhraPradeshDusseraNavaratriisalsocelebratedandthegoddessisdressedeachdayasadifferent
deviShailputriBramhacharinichandichandraghantaetc.fortheninedays.
InNorthIndia,thetenthday,iscelebratedasDussehra,thedayRamaemergedvictoriousinhisbattle
againstthedemon,RavanagiganticstraweffigiesofRavanaareburntindesignatedopenspaces(e.g.
Delhi'sRamLilagrounds),watchedbythousandsoffamiliesandlittlechildren.
InMysore(whichoriginatedfromMahishasooru)inKarnataka,
sheisworshippedasChamundeshwari,thepatrongoddessofthe
cityduringDussehra(Dasara).
InGujaratitiscelebratedasthelastdayofNavaratri,during
whichtheGarbadanceisperformedtocelebratethevictoryof
Mahishasuramardini,Durga.
TheGoddessDurgaisworshippedinherpeacefulformasMaha
Gauri,TheFairLady,ShreeShantadurgaalsoknownasSanteri,
isthepatronGoddessofGoa.SheisworshippedbyallGoan
Hindus.
InMaharashtra,TuljaBhavani,HedavdeMahalaxmiand
AmbabaiareworshippedasMahishasurMardini,whoisthe
patrongoddessoftheland.BhavaniisknownasTulaja,Amba,[8]
Renuka,YamaiSaptshrungiandJogaiindifferentplacesof
Maharashtra.SheistheinspirationalgoddessofRajaShivaji.As
perlegends,BhavaniappearedafterShivajiprayedtoherand
blessedhimtobeabletomakeHindustanorthethenIndia(ruled
bytheMughals)independentthekingdomheestablished
eventuallybecametheHinduPadPadshahi(sometimesalso
calledtheMarathaEmpire),whichcomprisedallthelandruled
bytheMughalsandbroughtIndiabackunderHindusovereignty.
InBangladeshalso,thefourdaylongSharadiyaDurgaPuja
(Bengali:

,autumnalDurgaworship)isthe
biggestreligiousfestivalsfortheHindusandcelebratedacross
thecountrywithVijayadashamibeinganationalholiday.

AtraditionalDurgaidolatapandal
inKolkata.

AnidolofDurgaPooja,comprising
GoddessDurga,herdaughtersLaxmi,
SaraswatiandhersonsGanesha,
Karitik

TheprominenceofDurgaPujaincreasedgraduallyduringtheBritishRajinBengal.[9]AftertheHindu
reformistsidentifiedDurgawithIndia,shebecameaniconfortheIndianindependencemovement.

Westernreferences
SomeearlyWesternaccountsrefertoadeityknownasDeumus,DemusorDeumo.Western
(Portuguese)sailorsfirstcamefacetofacewiththemurtiofDeumusatCalicutontheMalabarCoast
andtheyconcludedittobethedeityofCalicut.DeumusissometimesinterpretedasanaspectofDurga
inHindumythologyandsometimesasdeva.
ItisdescribedthattherulerofCalicut(Zamorin)hadamurtiofDeumusinhistempleinsidehisroyal
palace.[10][11]Thetemplewastwopaceswideineachofthefoursidesandthreepaceshigh,witha
woodendoorcoveredwithgodscarvedinrelief.Atthecentreofthetemple,therewasametalidolof
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Deumusplacedinaseat,whichwasalsomadeofmetal.
WesternaccountsalsodescribetherulerofCalicutworshipinganultimategodcalledTamerani
("Tamburan").Theaccountsalsodescribesamisunderstoodformofthe"hookswinging"ritualonce
commonlyperformedaspartofsomepopularHindureligiousfestivals.

NotabletemplesofDurga
InIndia
Assam
DeopaniTemple,inGolaghatdistrict,Assam
AndhraPradesh
KanakaDurgaTempleinVijayawada
Delhi:
ShriAdyaKatyaniShaktiPeethMandirinChattarpur
Goa
ShantaDurgatempleinGoa
Gujarat

ImageofDurgainasmalltemple
nexttoRewalsarLake,Himachal
Pradesh,India

[12]ArasuriAmbajiTempleinGujarat

UmiyaMatajiTempleatUnjha&Sidsar
KaliMatajiTempleinPavagadh
ChamundaMatajiinChotila
HimachalPradesh
ShooliniDevitempleatSolanHimachalPradesh
Jammu
BahuFortTempleinJammu
BalaSundriTempleinBillawarJammu
ChiChiMataTempleinJammu
KolKandoliTempleinJammu
MahamayaTempleinJammu
SukralaMataTempleinJammu
VaishnoDeviTempleinKatraJammu
Karnataka
ChamundeshwariTemple,MysoreKarnataka
KateelDurgaparameshwariTemple,nearMangalore,Karnataka
KollurSriMookambikaTemple,nearUdupi,Karnataka
Kerala
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AdichikkavuSreeDurgaDeviKshetram,Pandanad,Kerala
AmmathiruvadiTemple,Thrissur,Kerala
VengoorSreeDurgaDeviTemple,nearPerumbavoorKerala
KumaranalloorDeviTemple,Kottayam,Kerala
PadappadSreeDeviTemple,Thiruvalla,Kerala
BhagavathinadaSreeDurgaTemple,Venganoor,Trivandrum,Kerala
SankhumughamDurgaTemple,Trivandrum,Kerala
AruvikkaraDurgaTemple,Trivandrum,Kerala
KalarivathikkalDeviTemple,Kannur,Kerala
PattathilDurga&BhadraTemple,Vallikunnam,Kerala
[13]

Maharashtra
TuljaBhavaniTemple,inTuljapur,Maharashtra
HedavdeMahalaxmiTemple,inHedavdenearMumbaiclosetoViraronNh8Highway,
Maharashtra
SaptashrungiDeviTemple,Vani/Nanduri,Nashik
Odisha
BirajaTemple,Jajpur,Odisha
DurgaTemple,Baideshwar,Odisha
KatakChandiTemple,Cuttack,Odisha
KichakeshwariTemple,Odisha
ManikeshwariTemple,Bhawanipatna,Odisha.
Rajasthan
AmbikaMataTempleinthevillageofJagatnearMountAbuinRajasthan
ShilaDevitempleatAmber,Jaipur,Rajasthan
AaiMataTempleatBilaraDistJodhpur
TamilNadu
DurgaiAmmanTemple,Patteeswaram,Kumabakonam,TamilNadu
RajaDurgaTemple,Thiruvarur,TamilNadu
VanaDurgaParameshwariTemple,Kathiramangalam,Mayiladuthurai,TamilNadu
VanaDurgaTemple,Valarpuram,Sriperumpudur,TamilNadu
BhagavathiAmmanTemple,Kanyakumari,TamilNadu
DurgaiAmmanTemple,Eduthanur,villupuramDist.,TamilNadu
Tripura
Udaipur,Tripura
UttarPradesh
VindhyachaltempleatMirzapur
WestBengal
KanakDurgaTemple,Chikligarh,Medinipur,WestBengal
NavaDurgaTemple,Kolkata,WestBengal[14]
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23PalliDurgaTemple,Kolkata,WestBengal
SarbamongalaMandir,Burdwan,WestBengal

OutsideIndia
DhakeshwariTempleinDhaka,Bangladesh
PrambananTemple,Indonesia
SriSanthaDurgaDeviArmyCampinSungaiPetani,Malaysia
SriThurghaParameswaryAmmanAlayam,KampungTumbukPantai,TanjongSepat,inSelangor,
Malaysia

Seealso
Ayindri
DeviBhagavataPurana
DeviMahatmya
DurgaPuja
Shaktism

References
1. "Durga,"(http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/174252/Durga).EncyclopdiaBritannicaOnline.
Retrieved7October2009.
2. http://www.sanatansociety.org/hindu_gods_and_goddesses/durga.htm#.U1IhlfznYQ
3. McDaniel,June(2004).OfferingFlowers,FeedingSkulls:PopularGoddessWorshipinWestBengal
(http://books.google.com/books?id=caeJpIj9SdkC).OxfordUniversityPress.ISBN0195167910.p.214.
4. Esposito,JohnL.DarrellJ.FaschingToddVernonLewis(2007).Religion&globalization:worldreligions
inhistoricalperspective.OxfordUniversityPress.p.341.ISBN0195176952.
5. ParmitaBorah(2October2011)."DurgaPujaaCelebrationofFemaleSupremacy"(http://www.efi
news.com/2011/10/durgapujacelebrationoffemale.html).EFNewsInternational.Retrieved26October
2011.
6. Kinsley,David(1988).HinduGoddesses:VisionoftheDivineFeminineintheHinduReligiousTraditions
(http://books.google.com/books?id=hgTOZEyrVtIC).UniversityofCaliforniaPress.ISBN0520063392.p.
95.
7. "Kolabou"(http://www.bangalinet.com/kolabou.htm).Bangalinet.com.Retrieved20130625.
8. Gopal,Madan(1990).K.S.Gautam,ed.Indiathroughtheages.PublicationDivision,Ministryof
InformationandBroadcasting,GovernmentofIndia.p.64.
9. "ArticleonDurgaPuja"(http://online.assam.gov.in/web/durgapuja).
10. JrgBreud..zugeschrieben,IdolvonCalicut,in:LudovicodeVarthema,'DieRitterlichundlobwrdig
Reisz',Strassburg1516.(Bild:VlkerkundemuseumderUniversittZrich
11. Abriefecollectionandcompendiousextractofstraungeandmemorablethinges,gatheredoutofthe
CosmographyeofSebastianMunster,whereinismadeaplainedescriptionofdiuersandstraungelawes,
rites,manersandpropertiesofsondryenations,andashortreportofstraungehistoriesofdiuersmen,and
ofthenatureandpropertiesofcertainefovvles,fishes,beastes,monsters,andsondrycountryesandplaces,
publishedinLondonin1574byTomasMarshe
12. Ambaji
13. http://www.durgadevitemplevengoor.com/contact_us.php
14. http://wikimapia.org/811725/NAVADURGAMANDIR

Furtherreading
Amazzone,Laura(2010).GoddessDurgaandSacredFemalePower
(http://books.google.com/books?id=PM_TNDu8NHUC).UniversityPressofAmerica,Lanham.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durga

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ISBN0761853146.
Bandyopadhyay,Pranab(1993).MotherGoddessDurga.UnitedWriters,Calcutta.ISBN81
85328137.
Kinsley,David(1986).HinduGoddesses:VisionoftheDivineFeminineintheHinduReligious
Traditions(http://books.google.com/books?id=hgTOZEyrVtIC).MotilalBanarsidassPubl.,Delhi.
ISBN8120803795.
SenRamprasad(17201781).GraceandMercyinHerWildHair:SelectedPoemstotheMother
Goddess.HohmPress.ISBN0934252947.

Externallinks
Durga

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/)atDMOZ
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Durgsaptaat
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Durga&oldid=673772817"
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