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Co 4 41S1*

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Commission of the European Communities

Acronyms and initialisms


in
analytical methods and
instrumentation

?
Commission of the European Communities

Acronyms and initialisms


in
analytical methods and
instrumentation
J. Richter
Commission of the European Communities
Institute for Transuranium Elements
Postfach 2340
D-W-7500 Karlsruhe

Directorate-General
Science, Research and Development
Joint Research Centre

1991

PARL EU n :P D:b'eih.
N.C. EUR 13571 EN

Published by the
COMMISSION OF T HE EUROPEAN COMMUNIT IES
Directorate-General
Telecommunications, Information Industries and Innovation
L-2920 Luxembourg

LEGAL NOT ICE


Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on
behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the
following information

Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication

Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1991


ISBN 92-826-2772-1

Catalogue number: CD-NA-13571-EN-C


ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels Luxembourg, 1991

>

Printed in Belgium

ABSTRACT

This document records in alphabetic order abbreviations (acronyms,


initial isms, and other condensed forms) of analytical methods and
instrumentation. Furthermore a list of abbreviations of detectors and
electronics have been included at the end. It is intended to help
scientists and the growing number of online searchers to retrieve
information especially in the area of analytical chemistry. A few tips
concerning online searches in the databases are given in annex. Some of
the basic recommendations of IUPAC have been included in the explanatory
notes as well as definitions of the different abbreviation forms.

in

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

Explanatory Notes

Guide to the use of Abbreviations & Definitions

Analytical Methods & Instrumentation (Abbreviations)


A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
0
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

'. .

. . .
. .

5
7
7
9
12
16
19
20
22
25
25
25
28
32
34
34
38
38
40
46
49
49
50
50
51
51

Detectors & Electronics (Abbreviations)

53

Tips for information retrieval in scientific databases

55

References

57

Acknowledgment

59

INTRODUCTION
In 1974 we started to scrutinize on a regular basis abstracting journals
such as the "INIS Atom Index" and the former "Nuclear Sience Abstracts"
replaced in 1976 by the "Energy Research Abstracts". This evaluation was
done in order to attract the attention of the scientists in our Institute
to new publications (reports, proceedings
etc.) in relation with the
programmes or their special field of interest. In addition we used the
possibilities of offline searches (ENDS/CID, ZAED, FIZ-INKA...)* that have
been available since the early seventies. In 1986 we introduced online
searching of scientific databases, which since has become a powerful tool
for fast literature retrieval (bibliographical data & abstracts; numerical
data).
Very soon we became confronted with the proliferation of abbreviations
especially in the field of analytical methods and instrumentation. Very
often authors, specialists in their field, refer to their method only by
mentioning the usual abbreviation or possibly "creating" a new one, hoping
that colleagues will understand. Normally there is not a problem for
persons involved in this special field. For those who are not familiar with
the subject however, it can be hard to understand when reading only short
abstracts or when an abbreviation can have different meanings. The online
searcher has to use the right abbreviations in order to have a high recall.
Since the search for such- abbreviations can be very time-consuming, we
began in 1986 to collect these systematically in order to give scientists
and online-searchers a reference list which may help to cope with these
difficulties.
For further information we suggest consulting the specialised publications
in spectroscopical or analytical journals. A list of other publications
dealing with abbreviations is given at the end of this handbook.
In addition we would like to mention the database "EURODICAUTOM" (host:
ECHO) of the Commission of the European Communities, which contains more
than 140.000 abbreviations. Furthermore EURODICAUTOM (Europe-Dictionnaire
automatise) contains about 500.000 multilingual (9 languages) terminology
cards which corresponds to about 2.5 million terms. Please contact:
ECHO
European Commission Host Organization
BP 2373
L-1023 Luxembourg
Tel.: (+352) 48 80 41; Fax: (+352) 48 80 40; Telex : 2181 euro! Lu
*
ENDS/CID
ZAED
FIZ-INKA

European Nuclear Documentation System/Centre d'Information et de


Documentation des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg)
Zentralstelle fur Atomkernenergie-Dokumentation (Karlsruhe, FR6)
Fachinformationszentrum Energie. Physik, Mathematik GmbH Informationssystem Karlsruhe (FRG)

-1

EXPLANATORY NOTES

ARRANGEMENT
The abbreviations (acronyms, initial isms and other condensed forms) in this
document are arranged in alphabetical order. When two or more abbreviations are identical, the arrangement of the spelled-out form determines its
placement. The words in brackets are referring either to the full meaning
of a method, an instrument or an other term used frequently instead for the
preceding word.
CAPITALIZATION
Spelled-out forms of the abbreviations in this document are capitalized in
order to give a better understanding. In publications the spelled-out forms
(initial letters) are generally given in small letters.
HYPHENATION MARKS
They are given as they are generally found in the publications, since no
formal criteria exist (for example, GC/GC or FT-IR). Hyphenation marks were
not taken into account in the alphabetical arrangements.
NEW ENTRIES
Dotted line spaces are provided at the bottom of each page for the
insertion of new abbreviations and their meanings, if found else-where.

GUIDE TO THE USE OF ABBREVIATIONS

The critical point for any writer to remember is to spell out the complete
set of words and to place the abbreviation associated with the set of words
immediately following and then use it consistently.
If a document is long and the term does not recur until much later, the
term should be redefined as a courtesy to the reader.
Defining the abbreviations in footnotes or in a glossary of the publication may be helpful.
IUPAC strongly discourages the use of abbreviations in the titles and
abstracts of papers and urges editors and authors to reduce the number of
abbreviations in primary publications, textbooks to a minimum.
A particular effort should be made to avoid abbreviations that:
a) unnecessary duplicate the recommended abbreviations
(such as NMR, MS, IR etc.) or symbols
b) are ambiguous in their possible meanings
c) are based on incorrect use of language or grammar

DEFINITIONS
Abbreviation:
a shortended, condensed form of a word or group of words.
Some technical abbreviations have been so widely disseminated that they now
communicate successfully without further definition in analytical
instrumentation (for example the words GC, IR, LASER, MS, NMR, UV).
Acronym:
a pronounceable term from the initial letters of a compound
expression: MS from Mass Spectrometry and GC from Gas Chromatography.
Initial ism: a nonpronounceable term from the initial letters of a compound
expression: CDCCC from Centrifugal Droplet CounterCurrent Chromatography.

-3

AA
AA
AAM
AAS
ABI
ABMR
ACAR
ACEMS
ACIMS
ACP
ACV
AC-ZAA
ADAP
AE
AEAPS
AEM
AEM
AEMA
AEPS
AES
AES
AES-E
AES-I
AES-ICP
AES-P
AET
AETM
AEY
AF
AFF
AFM
AFS
AI
AIA
AIA-SEM
AIM
AIR
AIR-ICP
AIS

Activation Analysis
Atomic Absorption (spectroscopy)
Automated Auger Microprobe
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (or Spectrophotometry)
Automated Ball Identation
Atomic Beam Magnetic Resonance
Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation
Angular Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy
Active Chemical Ionization Mass Spectroscopy
Alternating Current Polarography
Alternating Current Voltammetry
Alternating magnetic Current-Zeeman Atomic Absorption
Angular Distribution of Annihilating Photons
Acoustic Emission
Auger Electron Appearance Potential Spectroscopy
Analytical Electron Microscopy
Auger Electron Microscopy
Auger Electron MicroAnalysis
Auger Electron Appearance Potential Spectroscopy
Atomic Emission Spectrometry (or Spectroscopy)
Auger Electron Spectroscopy (or Spectrometry)
Auger Electron Spectroscopy with Electron excitation
Auger Electron Spectroscopy with Ion excitation
Auger Electron Spectroscopy-Inductively Coupled Plasma
Auger Electron Spectroscopy with Photon excitation
Acoustic Emission Technique
Analytical Electron Transmission Microscopy
Auger Electron Yield
Atomic Fluorescence
Aberration Free Focus
Atomic Force Microscopy (or Microscope)
Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (or Spectrometry)
Atomic-Ionization
Automated Image Analysis
Automated Image Analysis-Scanning Electron Microscopy
Adsorption Isothermal Measurement
Aerosol Ionic Redistribution
Aerosol Ionic Redistribution-Inductively Coupled Plasma
Acoustic Imaging System

ALCHEMI
AMORS
AMS
ANDA
AO
AO
APECS
APES
APFIM
APFIM/AEM
API
APP
APPH
APS
APS
APS
APT
ARAS
ARE
ARIES
ARM
ARPEFS
ARPES
ARUPS
ARXPS
AS
ASAXS
ASLEEP
ASM
ASV
ASW
ATR
ATRS
AVEC-DIC
AVLIS
AXS

Atomic Location by CHanneling Enhanced Microanalysis


Atomic MagnetoOptic Resonance Spectroscopy
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
Active NonDestructive Analysis
Anodic Oxydation
Atomic Orbital
Auger PhotoElectron Coincidence Spectroscopy
Adiabatic Potential Energy Surface
Atom-Probe Field-Ion Microscopy (or Microscope)
Atom-Probe Field-Ion Microscopy/Auger ElectronMicroscopy
Atmospheric Pressure Ionization
Acoustic Phase Plate
Auger Peak to Peak Height
Appearance Potential Spectroscopy
Atom Probe Spectroscopy
Autocorrelation Photon Spectroscopy
Attached Proton Test
Atomic Resonance Absorption Spectroscopy
Activated Reactive Evaporation
Angle Resolved Ion Electron Spectroscopy
Atomic Resolution Microscope
Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure
Angle-Resolved PhotoElectron (or PhotoEmission)
Spectroscopy
Angle-Resolved Ultraviolet Photoelectron
(or Photoemission) Spectroscopy
Angle Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Absorption Spectroscopy
Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering
Automated Scanning Low Energy Electron Probe
Acoustic Surface Measurement
Anodic Stripping Voltammetry
Acoustic Surface-Wave
Attenuated Total Reflectance (or Reflection)
Attenuated Total Reflection Spectroscopy
Allen-Video-Enhanced Contrast-Differential Interference
Contrast (microscope)
Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation
Anomalous X-ray Scattering

6-

B
BAES
BBM
BFEM
BFS
BILE
BIS
BIXE
BLE
BLP
BPC
BS
BSE
BXE

Bremsstrahlung-induced AES
Beam Blanking Method
Bright Field Electron Microscopy
Beam Foil Spectroscopy
Beam Induced Light Emission
Bremsstrahlung-Isochromat(ic) Spectroscopy
Bombardment-Induced X-ray Emission
Bombardment-induced Light Emission
Bragg Line Profile
Bonded Phase Chromatography
(Rutherford) Backscattering Spectrometry
BackScattering Electrons
Bombardment-induced X-ray Emission

CA
CAA
CAC
CADI
CARS
CARRS
CAS
CAT
CAT
CAT
CB
CB
CBD
CBED
CC
CC/GC
CCC
CCD
CD
CD/CIDS

Collision Activation
Cyclic Activation Analysis
Continuous Annular Chromatograph
Computer Assisted Dispersive Infrared
Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (or Spectroscopy)
Coherent Anti-Stokes Resonance Raman Scattering
Calorimetric Absorption Spectroscopy
Computer Assisted Tomography
Computerized Axial Tomographic (imaging with X-rays)
Computer Averaged Transients
Chemical Bonding
Convergent Beam
Convergent Beam Diffraction
Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction
Chemical Composition
Capillary Column/Gas Chromatography
CounterCurrent Chromatography
CounterCurrent Distribution
Circular Dichroism
Circular Dichroism/Circular Intensity Differential
Scattering
Circular Differential (microscopy)

CD

-7 -

CDA
CDCCC
CDRE
CDF
CDV
CE/CI-MS
CEELS
CELS
CEM
CEM
CEMAS
CEMS
CESLS
CFPDMS
252CF-PDMS
CFS
CHERS
CI
CI-GC/MS
CID
CIDEP
CIDNP
2D-CIDNP
CIDS
CILS
CIMS
CIP
CIR
CIS
CL
CL
CLS
CLS
CLS
CMA
CMP
CNTD
COD
COL

Cylindrical Deflector Analyser


Centrifugal Droplet CounterCurrent Chromatography
Convolution Difference Resolution Enhancement (method)
Centered Dark Field
Capacitor Discharge Vaporization
Charge Exchange Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Core Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy
Characteristic Energy Loss Spectroscopy
Conventional Electron Microscope
Conversion Electron Moessbauer (spectra)
Complete Element Matrix Analysis from Scattering
Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy
Constant Energy Synchronous Luminescence Spectroscopy
Cf-252 Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry
252Cf-Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry
Coherent Forward Scattering
CHarge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy
Chemical Ionization
Chemical Ionization-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
Collision-Induced Dissociation (or Desorption)
Chemically Induced Dynamic Electron Polarization
(technique)
Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization
Two-Dimensional Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear
Polarization
Circular Intensity Differential Scattering
Core Ionization Loss Spectroscopy
Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Cold Isostatic Pressing
Cylindrical Internal Reflection
Characteristic Isochromat Spectroscopy
CathodoLuminescence (or Cathode-Luminescence)
ChemiLuminescence
CathodoLuminescence Spectroscopy
Characteristic Loss Spectroscopy
Core Level Spectroscopy
Cylindrical Mirror Analyser
Capacitively coupled Microwave Plasma
Chemical Nucleated Thermal Deposition
Continuous Optical Discharge
COLorimetry

-8

COLOC
COMARO
COSY
COSY-LR
CP
CP
CPAA
CPC
CPC
CPD
CPED
CP-ENDOR
CP-MAS
CRAMPS
2D-CRAMPS
CREMSEE
CS
CS
CS-AAS
CSI
CSN-ICP
CSV
CT
CTEM
CV-AAS
CVD
CVE
CW
CW-ENDOR

Correlation spectroscopy for LOng-range Couplings


Composite Magic-Angle Rotation
Correlation Spectroscopy
Correlation SpectroscopY with Long-Range coupling
interactions
Compton Profile
Cross Polarization
Charged Particle Activation Analysis
Centrifugal Partition Chromatography
Coil Planet Centrifuge
Contact Potential Difference
Convergent Probe Electron Diffraction
Circular Polarized Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance
Cross Polarization-Magic Angle Spinning
Combined Rotation And Multiple-Pulse Spectroscopy
Two-Dimensional Combined Rotation And Multiple-Pulse
Spectroscopy
Cyclotron REsonance from Microwave-induced Secondary
Electron Emissions
Compton Scattering
Crystal Structure
Continuous Source Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
Crystal Structure Imaging
Conductive Solids Nebul izer-Inductively Coupled Plasma
Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry
Computed Tomography (X-ray CT)
Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy
Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Critical Voltage Effect
Continuous Wave
Continuous Wave-Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance

D
DAC
DAD I
DAPS
DAS
DC

Diamond Anvil Cell


Direct Analysis of Daughter Ions
Dis- Appearence Potential Spectroscopy
Differential Anomalous X-ray Scattering (technique)
Diffraction Contrast

DC-ZAA
DCA
DCA-AES
DCAP
DCCC
DCD
DCEMS
DCEMS
DCI
DCI
DCIMS
DCLT
DCP
DCP
DCP-AES
DCP-OES
DDLTS
DEB
DEC
DEFT
DENS
DEP
DEPT-TECHN
DET
DETA
DF-PIMS
DF-RF
DFA
DF
DFA
DFHC
DFI
DFI/MS
DFTS
DFWM
DGC
DI-FTMS

Direct Current-Zeeman Atomic Absorption


Direct Current Arc
Direct Current Arc-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
Direct Current Argon Plasma (spectrometry)
Droplet Counter-Current Chromatography
Double-Crystal X-ray Diffractometry
(or X-ray Double Crystal Diffractometry)
Differential Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy
Depth-selective Conversion Electron Moessbauer
Spectroscopy
Desorption Chemical Ionization
Direct Chemical Ionization
Direct Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Differential Cathode Luminescence Topography
Direct Current Plasma (spectrometry)
Direct Current Polarography
Direct Current Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry
(or Spectroscopy)
Direct Current Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy
Double Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy
Discharge Electron Bremsstrahlung
Donnan Exclusion Chromatography
Direct Epifluorescent Filter Techniques
Diffuse-Elastic Neutron-scattering Spectroscopy
DiElectroPhorese
Distortionless Enhancement of Polarization Transfer
TECHNique (NMR)
Double Exposure Technique
DiElectric Thermal Analysis
Discharge Flow-Photolonization Mass Spectrometry
Discharge Flow-Resonance Fluorescence
Double Filter Analyzer
Dark Field
Double Filter Analyzer
Dark Field Hollow Cone (Image)
Direct Fluid Injection
Direct Fluid Injection/Mass Spectrometry
Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectrometry
Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing spectroscopy
Density Gradient Centrifugation
Desorption Ionization-Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

10

DIAL
DIC
DICD
DIET
DIN
DINS
DIP
DISEM
DLNS
DLOS
DLS
DLTMA
DLTS
DME
DMR
DMS
DMT
DMTA
DNMR
DNP
DOA
DODS
DOS
DOSS
DPA
DPASV
DPC
DPC
DPCSV
DPH
DPIV
DPP
DPSC
DPV
DQENMR
DQF-COSY
DR
DRED
DRIFT

Differential Absorption Lidar


Differential Interference Contrast
Dispersion-Induced Circular Dichroism
Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions
Direct Injection Nebulizer
Diffuse Inelastic Neutron-scattering Spectroscopy
Direct Insert Probe
Diffracted beams from secondary electrons in Scanning
Electron Microscopy
Deep Level Nonstationary Spectroscopy
Deep Level Optical Spectroscopy
Dynamic Light Scattering
Dynamic Load ThermoMechanical Analysis
Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy
Dropping Mercury Electrode
Deuteron Magnetic Resonance
Dynamic Mass Spectrometer
Dynamic Mechanical Testing
Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyzer
Dynamic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Dynamic Nuclear Polarization
Differential Optical Absorption
Differential Orbitals or Different Spins
Density Of States
Dual Optic Simultaneous Spectrometry
Dual Photon Absorptiometry
Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry
Differential Phase Contrast
Differential Photo-Calorimetry
Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry
Diamond Pyramid Hardness
Differential Pulse Inverse Voltammetry
Differential Pulse Polarography
Differential Power Scanning Calorimeter
Differential Pulse Voltammetry
Deuterium Quadrupole Echo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Double Quantum Filtered-COrrelation Spectroscopy
Diffuse Reflectance
Double Rocking Electron Diffraction
Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform
spectroscopy

-11 -

DRIFTS
DRIS
DRS
DRS
DSC
DSCEMS
DSC/XRD
DSHO
DSIMS
DSLFS
DSM
DSMS
DTA
DTA-TGA
DTG
DTSC
DUVAS
DXS

E-AES
EA-MS
EAPFS
EARISS
EARTOF
EASE
EA-MS
EBIC
EBICON
EBS
EBSP
EC
ECD
ECD

Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform


Spectroscopy
Double Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy
Diffuse Rayleigh Spectrum
Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (or Spectrometry)
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Depth Selective Conversion Electron Moessbauer
Spectroscopy
Differential Scanning Calor^metry/X-Ray Diffraction
Derivative Spectrometry Higher Order
Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass ~jectrometry
Doppler-Shift Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Dynamic light Scattering Mode
Depth-Selective Moessbauer Spectroscopy
Differential Thermal Analysis
Differential Thermal Analysis/ThermoGravimetric Analysis
Differential ThermoGravimetry
Differential Temperature Scanning Calorimeter
Derivative Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrometer
Diffuse X-ray Scattering

Electron induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy


(or Spectrometry)
Electron Attachment Mass Spectrometry
Extended Appearance Potential Fine Structure
Energy and Angle Resolved Ion Scattering Spectroscopy
Energy and Angle Refocusing Time-Of-Flight mass
spectrometry
Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy Experiments
Electron Attachment Mass Spectrometry
Electron Beam Induced Current (studies)
Electron Bombardment Induced CONductivity
Electron (or Elastic) BackScattering
Electron BackScattering Pattern
Electron Capture
Electron Capture Detection (or Determination)
Electron Capture (gas chromatographic) Detector

-12-

ECF
ECOSY
ECP
ECP
ECSXRF
ED
EDA
EDAX
EDS
EDTGA
EDX
EDXA
EDXD
EDXRA
EDXRD
EDXRF
EDXRF
EDXS
EELS
EELS-XPS
EEM
EFG
EGA
EGP
EGS
EHD
EHDIS
EHMO
EHMS
EI
EIC
EID
EIF
EIMS
EIS
EI-GC/MS
EL
ELAS
ELCD
ELDOR

Electric Crystal Field


Exclusive Correlated Spectroscopy
Electrochemical Potential (measurements)
Electron Channeling Pattern
ElectroChemiSorption X-Ray Fluorescence
Electron Diffraction
Energy Dispersive Analyzer
Energy Dispersive Analysis with X-rays
Energy-Dispersive (X-ray) Spectroscopy (or System)
ElectroDynamic ThermoGravimetric Analyzer
Energy-Dispersive X-ray (spectroscopy)
Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis
Energy-Dispersive X-ray Diffraction
Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis
Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction
Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
Electron Diffraction X-Ray Fluorescence
Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy
Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (or Scattering)
Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy X-ray induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Excitation-Emission Matrix
Electric Field Gradient
Evolved Gas Analysis
Evolved Gas Profile
ElectroGaS dynamics
ElectroHydroDynamical (ion source)
ElectroHydroDynamical Ion Source
Extended Hiickel (or Hueckel) Molecular Orbital
ElectroHydrodynamic Mass Spectrometry
Electron Impact (ionization)
Electrostatic Interaction Chromatography
Electron Impact (or Induced) Desorption
Electron Impact Fluorescence
Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry
Electron Impact Spectroscopy
Electron Impact-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
Electro-Luminescence
ELectro Acoustic Spectrometry
ELectroChemical Detection
ELectron-electron DOuble Resonance

13

ELEED
ELL
ELNES
ELS
EM
EMA
EMI
EMIRS
EMM
EMMA
EMMA
EMP
EMPA
EMS
EMS
EMUS
ENAA
ENDOR
ENDORIESR
EOLM
EOS
EP
EPD
EPM
EPMA
EPR
EPR
EPS
EPXMA
EQE
ER
ER
ERD
ERDA
ERS
ES
ESA
ESA

Elastic Low Energy Electron Diffraction


ELLipsometry
Electron-energy-Loss Near-Edge fine Structure
v
Electron Loss Spectroscopy
Electron Microscopy
Electron Microprobe Analysis
ElectroMagnetic Interference
Electrochemically Modulated InfraRed Spectroscopy
Electron Mirror Microscopy
Electron Microscopy and MicroAnalysis
Electron Microscope Micro-Analyzer
Electron MicroProbe (analysis)
Electron MicroProbe (or Micro Probe) Analysis
(see also EPMA)
ElectroMagnetic Susceptibility
Emission Moessbauer Spectra
ElectroMagnetic Ultrasonic Testing
Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (Reactor ENAA)
Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance
Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance Induced Electron Spin
Resonance
Electro-Optical Light Modulation
Equation Of State
Electrophosphorescence
Etch-Pit-Density profile
Electron Probe Microscopy
Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (or Micro-Analyzer)
(see also EMPA)
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (spectroscopy)
Electrochemical Potentiometric Reactivation (methods)
Electron induced Photo-electron Spectroscopy
Electron Probe X-ray Micro Analysis
Equivalent Quantum Efficiency
ElectroReflectance (spectroscopy)
ElectroRefining
Elastic Recoil Detection
Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis
External Reflection Spectroscopy
Emission Spectrometry (or Spectroscopy)
Electron Stimulated Adsorption
Electrostatic Sector Analysis

-14-

ESCA
ESD
ESD
ESDI
ESDIAD
ESDN
ESE
ESEEM
ESEM
ESEM
ESI
ESID
ESIE
ESPI
ESR
ESR/HPLC
ES-ICP
ETA
ETA
ETA
ETAA
ETAAS
ETA-AAS
ETV
EUV
EVA
EXAFS
EXAS
EXELFS
EXSY

Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis


Electro-Spark Deposition
Electron Stimulated Desorption (technique)
Electron Stimulated Desorption of Ions
Electron Stimulated Desorption Ion Angular Distribution
Electron Stimulated Desorption of Neutrals
Electron Spin-Echo (studies)
Electron Spin-Echo Envelope Modulation
Electron Spin-Echo Modulation
Energy Selecting Electron Microscopy
ElectroSpray Ionization
Electron Stimulated Ion Desorption
Electron Stimulated Ion Emission
Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry
Electron Spin Resonance (spectroscopy)
Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy/High Pressure
Liquid Chromatography
Emission Spectroscopy-Inductively Coupled Plasma
ElectroThermal Analysis
ElectroThermal Atomic analysis (or Atomization)
Emanation Thermal Analysis
ElectroThermal Atomic Absorption
ElectroThermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
ElectroThermal Atomization-Atomic Absorption
Spectrophotometry
ElectroThermal Vaporization
Extreme Ultraviolet
Electrothermal Vaporization Analysis
Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure
Extended X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy
Extended Electron (Energy) Loss Fine Structure
Exchange Spectroscopy

15-

FAA
FAAS
FAB
FABIM
FAB-MAS
FAB-MS
FACS
FAES
FAFS
FANES
FANES
FAR-IR
FAS
FAST
FBE
FBEM
FC
FD
FD
FDCD
FDM
FDMR
FDMR-EPR
FDMS
FDR
FDS
FDS
FDSEXAFS
FEE
FEED
FEEM
FEES
FEG
FEGSTEM
FEM

Furnace Atomic Absorption spectroscopy


Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
(or Spectrophotometry or Spectroscopy)
Fast Atom Bombardment
Fast Atom Beam in Ion Microscopy
Fast Atom Bombardment-Magic Angle Spinning
Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry
Fluorescence Atom-Coincidence Spectroscopy
Flame Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
-<
Flame Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Furnace Atomisation Non-thermal Excitation Spectrometer
Furnace Atomization Non-thermal Emission Spectrometry
FAR Infrared (spectroscopy) (see also FIR)
Flame Absorption Spectroscopy
Forward Alpha Scattering Technique
Flat Bed Electrophoresis
Fixed Beam Electron Microscope
Flash Chromatography
Field Desorption
Flash Desorption
Fluorescence Detected Circular Dichroism
Field Desorption Microscopy
Fluorescence Detected Magnetic Resonance
Fluorescence Detected Magnetic Resonance Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (spectroscopy)
Field Desorption Mass Spectrometry
Frequency Domain Reflectometry
Filter Difference Spectrometer
Filter Desorption Spectroscopy
Fluorescence Detected Surface Extended X-ray Absorption
Fine Structure (spectroscopy)
Field Electron Energy (spectroscopy)
Field Emission Energy Distribution
Field Electron Emission Microscope (or Microscopy)
Field Electron Energy Spectroscopy
Field Emission Gun
Field Emission Gun Scanning Transmission Electron
Microscopy
Field Emission Microscope

16-

FEM
FERP
FES
FFC-NMR
FFS
FFT
FGEPR
FGSE
FI
FIA
FIA
FIA
FIA
FIA-AA
FIA-FAA

Field Electron Microscopy


Field Emission Retarding Potential method
Field Emission Spectroscopy
Fast Field-Cycling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Flame Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Fast Fourier Transformation
Field-Gradient Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
Field-Gradient Spin-Echo
Field Ionization
Fluorescence Immuno Assay
Flow Injection Analysis
FluoroImmunoAssay
Fluorescence Indicator Analysis
Flow Injection Analysis-Atomic Absorption spectroscopy
Flow Injection Analysis-Furnace Atomic Absorption
spectroscopy
FIA-ICP
Flow Injection Analysis-Inductively Coupled Plasma
FIA-ICP-AES Flow Injection Analysis-Inductively Coupled PlasmaAtomic Emission Spectrometry
FIBLAS
Fast-Ion Beam LAser Spectroscopy
FID
Flame Ionization Detection (or Detector)
FID
Flame Ionization Determination
FIM
Field Identation Microprobe
FIM
Field Ion Microscopy
FIM-AP
Field Ion Microscopy-Atom Probe
FIMAPS
Field Ion Microscopy with Atom Probe Spectroscopy
FIMS
Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry
FIM/IAP
Field Ion Microscope/Imaging Atom Probe
FIR
Far InfraRed (spectroscopy) (see also FAR-IR)
FIRE
Flame InfraRed Emission spectroscopy
FIR-LMR
Far InfraRed-Laser Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy
FIRFT
Fast Inversion-Recovery Fourier Transform
FIS
Field Ion Spectroscopy
FLA
Filter Lens Analyzer
FLNS
Fluorescence Line Narrowing Spectrometry
FMAR
FerroMagnetic Anti-Resonance
FMR
FerroMagnetic Resonance
FNAA
Fast Neutron Activation Analysis
FNMRI
Flow Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging
FOCSY
FoldOver-Corrected Spectroscopy
FO-ESR
Flow Orientation-Electron Spin Resonance

17

FOLZ
FPD
FPIA
FPLC
FPR
FPT
FP-LA
FP-LIF
FP-RF
FP-ST
FR
FRAM
FRAM
FRAP
FREDOF
FRES
FS
FSCGC
FT
FT-ICR
FT-ESE
FT-ESR
FT-IMS
FT-IR
FT-IR/PAS
FT-IRRS
FT-MS
FT-NMR
FT-NQR
FTS
FWHH
FWHM
FWTM
FXD
FXR
FYNES
FZP

First Order Laue Zone


Flame Photometry Detection
Fluorescence Polarization Immuno Assay
Fast Protein, peptide and polynucleotide Liquid
Chromatography
Fluorescence Photobleaching Recovery
Fundamental Parameters Technique
Flash Photolysis-Laser Absorption (method)
Flash Photolysis-Laser Induced Fluorescence
Flash Photolysis-Resonance Fluorescence
Flash Photolysis-Shock Tube (technique)
Forbidden Reflection
Focused-beam Reflection Acoustic Microscope
Focused Reflectivity Acoustic Microscopy
Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching
FREquency-DOmain Fluorometry
Forward REcoil Spectrometry
Fermi Surface
Fused Silica Capillary Gas Chromatography
Fourier Transform
Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance
Fourier Transform Electron Spin Echo (spectroscopy)
Fourier Transform Electron Spin Resonance
Fourier Transform Ion Mobility Spectrometry
Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy
Fourier Transform InfraRed/PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy
Fourier Transform InfraRed Reflection Spectroscopy
Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry
Fourier Transform Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
(spectroscopy)
Fourier Transform Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance
Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Full Width at Half-Height
Full Width at Half-Maximum
Full Width at Tenth-Maximum
Flash X-ray Diffraction
Flash X-ray Radiography
Fluorescence Yield Near Edge Spectroscopy
Fresnel Zone Plate

-18

G
GAA
GAC
GASPE
GC
GC2
GC-AA
GC/ECD
GC/EIMS
GC/FTIR
GC/GC
GC/GC/MS
GC/HRMS
GC-IR
GC-MI-FT-IR
GC/MI-IR
GC/MS
GC/MS/MS
GC/NICIMS
GC-PID
GDC
GDL
GDMS
GDNS
GDOS
GFAA
GF-AAS
GFC
GIR
GIR
GLC
GLCCC
GPC
GPMAS
GPT
GRALE
GRASER

Gamma-Activation Analysis
Gas Absorption Chromatography
GAted SPin-Echo
Gas Chromatography
Glas Capillary/Gas Chromatography
Gas Chromatography-Atomic Absorption spectroscopy
Gas Chromatography/Electron Capture Detection
Gas Chromatography/Electron Impact Mass Spectroscopy
Gas Chromatography/Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy
Glas Capillary/Gas Chromatography
Glas Capillary/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Gas Chromatography-InfraRed spectroscopy (coupling)
Gas Chromatography-Matrix Isolation-Fourier TransformInfraRed spectroscopy
Gas Chromatography/Matrix Isolation-InfraRed spectroscopy
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (coupling)
Gas Chromatography/tandem Mass Spectrometry
Gas Chromatography/Negative Ion Chemical Ionization
Mass Spectrometry
Gas Chromatography-Photolonization Detection
Glow Discharge Cleaning
Glow Discharge Lamp
Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry
Glow Discharge Neutral Spectroscopy
Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy
Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (spectrophotometry)
Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Gel Filtration Chromatography
Glancing Incidence Reflection
Grazing Incidence Reflection
Gas-Liquid Chromatography
Gyration Locular CounterCurrent Chromatography
Gel Permeation Chromatography
Gas Phase Molecular Absorption Spectroscopy
Gas Phase Titration
Gamma-Ray Analysis of Light Elements
Gamma-Ray Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation

19

GSAM
GSC
GSCL
GSID
GTA
GTC
GXR

Generalized Standard Addition Method


Gas Sol id Chromatography
Gas Sol id ChemoLuminescence
Gamma-Spectrometric Isotope Dilution
Graphite Tube Atomizer
Gaseous ThermoChromatography
Glancing (or Grazing) X-ray Reflection

H
HAD
2D-HAHA
H-COSY
H-C COSY
HCD
HCL
HDC
HDS
HEED
HEHIXE
HEIS
HEMS
HERD
HETCOR
HETEROCOR
HF
HFS
HFT
HFTCPC
HG
HGA
HGAA
HIBS
HIC
HIIDMS
HIP
HIPD
HIRBS
HIXSE
HNDT

Hollow Anode Discharge


Two-Dimensional HArtmann-HAhn spectroscopy
Proton-COrrelation Spectroscopy
lH- 13 C shift Correlation SpectroscopY (in NMR)
Hollow Cathode Discharge
Hollow Cathode Lamp
HydroDynamic Chromatography
Helium Desorption Spectrometry
High Energy Electron Diffraction
High Energy Heavy Ions X-ray Emission
High Energy Ion(s) (back) Scattering spectroscopy
High Energy Mass Spectrometry
High Energy X-ray Diffraction
HETeronuclear (chemical shift) CORrelation spectroscopy
HETEROnuclear CORrelation spectroscopy
Hartree-Fock
HyperFine Structure
Hypercomplex Fourier Transformation
Horizontal Flow-Through Coil Planet Centrifuge
Hydride Generation
Heated Graphite Atomization
Hydride Generation followed by Atomic Absorption
Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry
Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography
Heavy Ion InDuced Mass Spectrometry
Hot Isostatic Press (or Pressing)
High-Intensity Powder Diffractometer
Heavy Ion Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry
Heavy Ion X-ray Satellite Emission
Holographic NonDestructive Testing

20

HNOE
HOBF
HODS
HOESY
HOHAHA
HOL
HOLZ
HOMCOR
HOMO
HORSES
HPDC
HPIC
HPIEC
HPLAC
HPLC
HPLC
HPLC-AA
HPLC-DINICP-AES

HeteroNuclear Overhauser Effect


Higher Order Bright Field
Higher Order Derivation Spectroscopy
Heteronuclear Overhauser Enhancement Spectroscopy
HOmonuclear HArtmann-HAhn spectroscopy
HOLography
Higher Order Laue Zones
HOMonuclear CORrelation
Highest Occupied Molecule Orbital
Higher Order Raman Spectral Excitation Studies
High-Performance Duennschicht Chromatography(ie)
High-Performance Ion Chromatography
High-Performance Ion Exchange Chromatography
High-Performance Liquid Affinity Chromatography
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Atomic Absorption
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Direct Injection
Nebulizer-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission
Spectrometry
HPLC-EC
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Electrochemical
Detection
HPLC-ETA
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroThermal
Atomization
HPLC-FTIR
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform
InfraRed spectroscopy
HPLC-ICP
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled
Plasma
HPLC/MS/MS High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/tandem Mass
Spectrometry
HPLC-UV
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-UltraViolet (detection)
HPPLC
High-Performance Preparative Liquid Chromatography
HPPLC
High-Performance Planar Liquid Chromatography
HPPLC
High Pressure Planar Liquid Chromatography
HPSEC
High-Performance Size-Exclusion liquid Chromatography
HPT
High-Performance Titrimetry
HPTLC
High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography
HPXRD
High Pressure X-Ray Diffraction
HRAES
High Resolution Auger Electron Spectroscopy
HRC
High Resolution Chromatography
HRE
Hyper Raman Effect

21 -

HRED
HREELS
HRELS
HREM
HRGC
HRGC/HRMS

HRXRS
HSESEM
HSGC
HSS
HT-IR
HTS
HT-EPXMA
HVCTM
HVEM
HVHREM
HVSTEM
HXE
HZQC

High Resolution Electron Diffraction


High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy
High Resolution Electron Loss Spectroscopy
High Resolution Electron Microscopy
High Resolution Gas Chromatography
High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass
Spectrometry
High Resolution Infrared Radiometry
High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
High Resolution Powder Diffractometer
High Resolution Plasma Spectrometry
High-Rate Reactive Sputtering
High Resolution Substraction Gas Chromatography
High Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy
High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy
High Resolution Ultraviolet/X-ray Photoelectron
Spectroscopy
High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy
HotState Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope
HeadSpace Gas Chromatography
Homogeneity Spoil Spectroscopy
Hadamard Transform-InfraRed spectroscopy
Hadamard-Transform Spectroscopy (or Spectrometry)
High-Temperature Electron Probe X-ray Micro Analysis
High Voltage Conventional Transmission electron Microscopy
High Voltage Electron Microscopy (or Microscope)
High Voltage High Resolution Electron Microscopy
High Voltage Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy
High X-ray Energy
Homonuclear proton Zero-Quantum Coherence (NMR)

IA
IAC
IAD
IAES
IAP
I AT
IBA

Image Analysis
Ion-Assisted Coating
Ion-Assisted Deposition
Ion (induced or excited) Auger Electron Spectroscopy
Imaging Atom Probe
Image Analysis Technique
Inverse Borne Approximation

HRIR
HRMS
HRPD
HRPS
HRRS
HRSGC
HRSTEM
HRTEM
HRUPS/XPS

22-

IBS
IBSCA
IC
ICAP
ICAP-AES
ICAP-OES
ICB
ICISS
ICP
ICP-AAS
ICP-AES
ICP-ES
ICP-FT
ICP-FTS
ICP-MS
ICP-OES
ICP-PES
ICR
IDA
IDAS
IDGS
IDL
IDLS
IDMS
IDS
IDSRS
ID-GC/MS
I EC
IEE
IEMM
IERS
IETS
IEX
IIAES
IID
IID
IIR
IIRS

Ion-Beam Sputtering
Ion Beam SpectroChemical Analysis
Ion Chromatography
Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma
Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Atomic Emission
Spectrometry
Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Optical Emission
Spectroscopy
Ionized Cluster-Beam (deposition technique)
Impact Collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy
Inductively Coupled Plasma
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Emission Spectrometry
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Fourier Transform (spectrometer)
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Fourier Transform Spectrometry
(or Spectrometer)
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy
Inductively Coupled Plasma-PhotoEmission Spectroscopy
Ion Cyclotron Resonance (spectroscopy)
Isotope Dilution Analysis
Isotope Dilution Alpha Spectrometry
Isotope Dilution Gamma-ray Spectroscopy
Instrument Detection Limit
Intracavity Dye Laser Spectroscopy
Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry
Ion Desorption Spectrometry
Ionization-Detected Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy
Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
Ion Exchange Chromatography
Induced Electron Emission
Incidence Energy Modulation Method
Interference-Enhanced Raman Scattering (method)
Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy
Ion Excited X-ray (fluorescence or spectroscopy)
Ion Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy
Ion Impact Desorption
Ion Induced Desorption
Ion Induced Radiation
Ion Induced Radiation Spectroscopy

-23

IIXE
IIXS
IKES
ILEED
ILS
IM
IMA
IMFP
IMMA
IMMA
IMS
IMXA
INA
INAA
INDOR
INEPT
INMR
INMS
INS
INS
IPAA
IPC
IPC
IPES
IPP
IR
IRAS
IRCD
IR-COSY
IRFT
IRIS
IRMA
IRMPD
IRP
IRRAS
IRRS
IRS
IRS
IRS
IR-RAS

Ion Induced X-ray Emission


Ion Induced X-ray Spectroscopy
Ion Kinetic Energy Spectroscopy
Inelastic Low Energy Electron Diffraction
Ionization Loss Spectroscopy
Image Matching
Ion probe MicroAnalysis
Inelastic Mean Free Paths
Ion Microprobe Mass Analyzer (or Analysis)
Ion Microprobe MAss (spectrometry)
Ion Mobility Spectrometry
Ion Microprobe X-ray Analysis
Instrumental Neutron Activation
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
InterNuclear DOuble Resonance (NMR)
Insensitive Nuclei Enhancement (or Enhanced) by
Polarization Transfer
Inverse Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Ionized Neutral Mass Spectrometry
Ion Neutron Scattering
Ion Neutralization Spectroscopy
Instrumental Photon Activation Analysis
Indirect Photometric Chromatography
Ion Pair Chromatography
Inverse PhotoEmission Spectroscopy
Ion Pair Partition
InfraRed (spectroscopy)
Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy
InfraRed Circular Dichroism
Inversion Recovery-COrrelation Spectroscopy
Inversion-Recovery Fourier Transform
InfraRed Interferometer Spectrometer
Immuno RadioMetrical Assay
InfraRed Multiple-Photon Decomposition
InfraRed Pyrometry
InfraRed Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy
InfraRed Reflection Spectroscopy
InfraRed Spectroscopy
Internal Reflection (or Reflectance) Spectroscopy
Inverse Raman Spectroscopy
InfraRed Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy

24

IS
ISC
ISC
ISCA
ISD
ISDA
ISE
ISF
ISS
ISSAXS
ISTEM
ITMS
ITP
ITS
IVR

Ionization Spectroscopy
InterSystem Crossing (NMR)
Inverse Shift Correlation
Ionization Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis
Ion Stimulated Desorption
Ion Sputtered Deposit Analysis (technique)
Ion-Selective Electrodes
Interrupted Static Fatigue (method)
Ion Scattering Spectroscopy
In-Situ Small-Angle X-ray Scattering
Internal Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy
Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (Spectrometer)
Iso-Tacho-Phorese
Inelastic Tunneling Spectroscopy
Intramolecular Vibrational-energy Redistribution

JCP
J-mod SE
J-RESIDE

J Cross-Polarization
J-modulated Spin-Echo (technique)
J-REsolved spectroscopy with Simulation DEcoupling

K
KKR
KRIPES

Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (method)
K-Resolved Inverse PhotoEmission Spectroscopy

LAC
LACBED
LAF
LAFS
LALLS
LALS
LAMES
LAMMA
LAMMA

Liquid Adsorption Chromatography


Large Angle Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction
Laser Atomic Fluorescence spectroscopy
Laser Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Low-Angle Laser Light Scattering
Low-Angle Laser light Scattering
LAser Micro Emission Spectroscopy
Laser Activated Micro Mass Analysis
LAser Microprobe Mass Analyser

25

LAMMS
LAMOFS-ETE
LAMS
LARIS
LAS
LASER
LC
LCAO
LCCC
LCEC
LCECD
LC-FAB-MS
LC-IR
LCMO
LC-MS
LC-ORD
LC/MS/MS
LCUV
LCVD
LD
LDA
LDC
LDLC
LOME
LDS
LDV
LEAC
LEAFS
LEC
LEED
LEEIXS
LEELS
LEEM
LEERM
LEES
LEF
LEI
LEIS

LAser Micro Mass Spectrometry


LAser excited MOlecular Fluorescence Spectroscopy
with ElectroThermal Evaporation
LAser Mass Spectrometry
Laser Ablation and Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy
Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (or Spectrometer)
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
Liquid Chromatography
Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals
Locular Counter Current Chromatography
Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical detection
Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection
Liquid Chromatography-Fast Atom Bombardment-Mass
Spectrometry
Liquid Chromatography-InfraRed spectroscopy
Linear Combination of Molecular Orbitals
Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (coupling)
Liquid Chromatography-Optical Rotation Dispersion
(or Detection)
Liquid Chromatography/tandem Mass Spectrometry
Liquid Chromatography with UV detection
Laser (induced) Chemical Vapor Deposition
Laser Desorption (mass spectrometry)
Laser Doppler Anemometry
Liquid Dynamic Compaction
Low Dispersion Liquid Chromatography
Laser Doppler MicroElectrophoresis
Linear Dichroism Spectrometry
Laser Doppler Velocimetry
Linear Elution Adsorption Chromatography
Laser Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry
Liquid-Encapsulated Czochralski (method)
Low Energy Electron Diffraction
Low Energy Electron Induced X-ray Spectroscopy
Low Energy Electron Loss Spectroscopy
Low Energy Electron Microscopy
Low Energy Electron Reflection Microscope
Low Energy Electron Spectrometry
Laser Excited Fluorescence
Laser-Enhanced Ionization (spectrometry or spectroscopy)
Laser-Enhanced Ionization Spectrometry (or Spectroscopy)

26

LEIS
LEIS
LEM
LEMBS
LENRS
LENS
LEPD
LEPS
LERD
LESS
LEX
LFS
LHASA
LIA
LIBP
LIBS
LIDAR
LIF
LIFLN
LIFS
LIMA
LIMA
LIMFS
LIMS
LIPAS
LIS
LITRS
LLC
LLE
LLES
LLP
LLPC
LM
LMIS
LMMA
LMMS
LMR
LMS
LM-TEM
LOA
LOD

Low Energy Ionization Spectroscopy


Low Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy
Lorentz Electron Microscopy
Low Energy Molecular Beam Scattering
Low Energy Negative Recoil Spectroscopy
Low Energy Neutral Scattering
Low Energy Positron Diffraction
Low Energy Photon Spectrometry (or Spectroscopy)
Low Energy X-Ray Diffraction
Laser Excited Shpol'skii Spectrometry
Low Energy X-ray (spectral analysis)
Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Logic and Heuristics Applied to Synthetic Analysis
Luminescence Immuno Assay
Laser-Ion Beam Photodissociation (studies)
Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Light Detecting And Ranging
Laser-Induced Fluorescence (spectroscopy)
Laser Induced Fluorescence Line Narrowing
Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Laser Ionization Mass Analysis
Laser-Induced Mass Analysis
Laser Induced Molecular Fluorescence Spectrometry
Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Laser-Induced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy
Laser Isotope Separation
Laser-Induced Time-Resolved Spectrofluorometry
Liquid Liquid Chromatography
Liquid Liquid Extraction
Laser-Localized Emission Spectroscopy
Liquid Liquid Partition (chromatography)
Liquid Liquid Partition Chromatography
Light Microscopy
Liquid Metal Ion Source
Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis (or Analyzer)
Laser Microprobe Mass Spectrometry
Laser Magnetic Resonance (spectroscopy)
Laser Mass Spectrometry
Laser Microprobe-Transmission Electron Microscopy
Laser Opto-Acoustic
Limit Of Detection

-27

LODESR
LOES
LOG
LPA
LPAS
LPC
LPC
LPCVD
LP-CI
LP-FTIR
LQD
LR-HETCOR
LRMS
LRO
LROCSCM
LRS
LS
LS
LSAAS
LSC
LSF
LSIMS
LSRA
LTA
LTE
LTEM
LTF
LUMO
LV-EI-MS

Longitudinal Detection of Electron Spin Resonance


Laser Optical Emission Spectroscopy
Laser OptoGalvanic (measurements)
Long Path Absorption (spectroscopy)
Laser (induced) PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy
Low Performance Chromatography
Liquid Phase Catalysis
Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition
Low Pressure Chemical Ionization
Long-Path Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy
Low-Q Diffractometer
Long-Range HETeronuclear shift CORrelation
Low Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Long Range Order
Long-Range Optimized heteronuclear Chemical Shift
Correlation Method
Laser Raman Spectroscopy
Laser Schlieren
Light Scattering
Line-Source Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Liquid Solid Chromatography
Laser-Saturated Fluorescence
Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy
Least-Squares Regression Analysis
Low Temperature Ashing
Local Thermal Equilibrium
Low Temperature fluorescence/phosphorescence Electron
Microscopy
Low Temperature Fluorescence
Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital
Low Voltage Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry

M
MAED
MAES
MAF
MAGIC-LC/MS
MAH

Micro-Area Electron Diffraction


Multi Element Atomic Emission Spectrometry
Magic Angle Flipping
Monodispersive Aerosol Generation Interface Combining
Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry
Magic Angle Hopping

-28-

MAIA
MAL
MAR
MAS
MAS
MASER

Magnetic Antibody Immuno Assay


Molecular Absorption Spectrometry with Line source
Magic Angle Rotation
Magic Angle Spinning
Molecular Absorption Spectrometry
Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation
MAS-ETE
Molecular Absorption Spectrometry with ElectroThermal
Evaporation
MASS
Magic Angle Sample Spinning
MASS-DIF
Magic Angle Sample Spinning-DIFference spectroscopy
MASSNMR
Magic Angle Sample Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
MAS-NMR
Magic Angle Spinning-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
spectroscopy
2D-MAS-NMR Two-Dimensional Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic
Resonance spectroscopy
MATR
Multiple Attenuated Total Reflectance (IR-spectroscopy)
MBE
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (technique)
MBLER
Molecular Beam Laser Electric Resonance
MBRS
Molecular-Beam Reactive Scattering
MBRS
Molecular-Beam Relaxation Spectroscopy
MBSS
Molecular-Beam Surface Scattering
MB/MS
Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry
MB/MS
Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry
MCA
Multi-Channel Analyzer
MCA
Multi Component Analysis
MCAC
Metal Chelate Affinity Chromatography
MCD
Magnetic Circular Dichroism
MCM
Modulation Contrast Microscopy
MCS
Multichannel Spectrometer
MDA
Magnetic Deflection Analyzer
MDCG
Multi Dimensional Gas Chromatography
MDM
Minimum Detectable Mass
MDN
Minimum Detectable Number
MDS
Metastable Deexcitation Spectroscopy
MEA
Moisture Evolution Analysis
MECA
Molecular Emission (by) Cavity Analysis
MECC
Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography
MEED
Medium Energy Electron Diffraction
MEFSD
Maximum Entropy Fourier Spectral Deconvolution
MEIS
Medium Energy Ion Scattering spectroscopy

29

MEM
MERS
MES
MES
MES
MET
MFIRFT
MFS
MI
MID
MID
MIESR
MIFS
MIKE
MIKES
MIONP
MIP
MIP
MIR
MIR
MIRS
MI-PA
MLA
MLC
MLCPC
MLL
MLR
MM
MMA
MMD
MMF
MMS
MO
MOCVD
MOKE
MOLE
MONES-ETE

Maximum Entropy Method


Multiple Electron Resonance Spectroscopy
Moessbauer-Effect Spectroscopy (see also MOSS)
Molecule Emission Spectrometry
Mossbauer-Effect Spectroscopy
METallography (optical MET)
Modified Fast Inversion-Recovery Fourier Transform
Molecular Fluorescence Spectrometry
Matrix Isolation
Multiphoton Ionization Dissociation (spectroscopy)
Multiple Ion Detection
Matrix-Isolation Electron Spin Resonance (technique)
Matrix-Isolation Fluorescence Spectrometry (or MatrixIsolation laser excited Fluorescence Spectrometry)
Mass-analyzed Ion Kinetic Energy (or Mass selection
followed by Ion Kinetic Energy analysis)
Mass-analyzed Ion Kinetic Energy Spectrometry
(or Spectroscopy)
Microwave Induced Optical Nuclear Polarization (technique)
Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry
Microwave-Induced Plasma
Mid InfraRed
Multiple Internal Reflection
Multiple Internal Reflection Spectroscopy
Matrix-Isolation PhotoAcoustic spectroscopy
Moellenstedt (or Mollenstedt) Lens Analyzer
Molecular Luminescence spectrometry with Continuum source
MultiLayer Coil Planet Centrifuge
Molecular Luminescence spectrometry with Line source
Multiple Linear Regression
Molecule Microscopy
Minimum Mass Analysed
Minimum Mass Detectable
Minimum Mass Fraction
Multiphoton Mass Spectrometry
Molecular Orbital
Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition
Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect (instrument)
Molecular Optic(al) Laser Examiner (Raman microscopy)
MOlecule-Nonthermal Emission Spectrometry-ElectroThermal
Evaporation

30

MOR
MORD
MOSS
MPA
MPD
MPE
MP I
MPI
MPIC
MPI/MS
MPLC
MPM
MPM
MPRI
MQC
MQF-COSY
MQ-NMR
MQS
MOT
MR I
MROA
MRS
MS
MS
MS
MS2
msd
MSID
MSRTP
MS/MS
MTES
MTS
MW
MWFT
MWS
fiSR
fiSR

/z-AES

Magneto-Optical Rotation spectroscopy.


Magneto-Optical Rotatory Dispersion
MOeSsbauer Spectroscopy (see also MES or MS)
Multi-Photon Absorption
Multi-Photon Dissociation
Multi-Photon Excitation
Multi-Photon (or Multiple Photon) Ionization (spectroscopy)
Multiple Peak Ionization
Mobile Phase Ion Chromatography
Multi-Photon Ionization/Mass Spectrometry
Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Mechanical Properties Microprobe
Multiple Peak Monitoring
Multi-Photon Resonance Ionization
Multiple-Quantum Coherence
Multiple-Quantum-Filtered Correlated Spectroscopy
Multiple-Quantum-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Metastable Quenching Spectroscopy
Multiple-Quantum Transition (method)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Magnetic Raman Optical Activity
Micro Raman Spectroscopy
Magnetic Saturation
Mass Spectrometry
Moessbauer Spectroscopy (see also MES or MOSS)
Mass Spectrometry coupled Mass Spectrometry
(see also MS/MS)
mean square displacement
Mass-Spectrometric Isotope Dilution (see also IDA)
Micelle-Stabilized Room Temperature Phosphorescence
Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry
(or tandem Mass Spectrometry)
Metastable Transfer Emission Spectrometry (Spectroscopy)
Molecular Transmission Spectrometry
MicroWave
MicroWave Fourier Transform (spectroscopy)
MicroWave Spectroscopy
Muon Spin Rotation (Relaxation)
Muon Spin Rotation (spectrosocopy)
Microprobe Auger Electron Spectroscopy

31 -

N
NA
NAA
NCI
NCI-GC/MS
ND
NDA
NDE
NDIR
NDP
NDS
NDT
NEI
NET
NEXAFS
NF-AAS
NIAR
NIDAS
NIIA
NIR
NIR
NIRA
NIRA
NIRMS
NIRS
NIRS
NIRS
NIS
NIS
NLLSQ
NMA
NMR
1D-NMR
2D-NMR
3D-NMR
3D J-NMR
13C-NMR
NMRD

Numerical Aperture
Neutron Activation Analysis
Negative ion(s) (with) Chemical Ionization
Negative ion Chemical Ionization Gas Chromatography/
Mass Spectrometry
Neutron Diffraction
NonDestructive Assay
NonDestructive Evaluation (or Examination)
NonDispersive InfraRed (analysis)
Neutron Depth Profiling
Neutron Dispersive System
NonDestructive Testing
Negative ions with Electron impact Ionization
Negative Entropy Trap
Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure
Non Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Neutron Induced AutoRadiography
Non Isotopic Diluent in Alpha Spectrometry
Non Isotopic Immuno Assay
Near InfraRed (analysis)
Neutral Impact Radiation
Near InfraRed Analysis
Near Infrared Reflectance Analysis
Noble gas Ion Reflection Mass Spectroscopy
Near InfraRed Spectroscopy
Near Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy
Neutral Impact Radiation Spectroscopy
Negative Ion Spectroscopy
Neutron Inelastic Scattering
Non-Linear Least-SQuares (calculations)
Nuclear Microprobe Analysis
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (spectroscopy)
One-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy
Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy
Three-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy
Three-Dimensional J resolved Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
spectroscopy
Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy
Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion

-32

NMRI
13C-NMRI
NMRON
NNMR
NOA
NODUS
NOE
1D-N0E
2D-NOE
NOE-DIFF
NOESY
NOVEL
NPD
NQR
NRA
NRB
NRS
NRS
NRS
NRS
NS
NSE
NSE
NSES
NSO
NSR
NTI
NTTS
NURS

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance on Oriented Nuclei
Nutation Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Natural Optic Activity
NOnDestructive and Ultrasensitive single atomic layer
surface spectroscopy
Nuclear Overhauser Effect (or Enhancement)
One-Dimensional Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (or Effect)
Two-Dimensional Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement"(or Effect)
Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (or Effect) DIFFerence
spectroscopy
Nuclear Overhauser Enhanced (or Effect) Spectroscopy
Nuclear spin Orientation via Electron spin Locking
Neutron Powder Diffractometer
Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (spectroscopy)
Nuclear Reaction Analysis
Nuclear Resonance Broadening (method)
Normal Raman Spectrometry
Nuclear Reaction Spectroscopy
Nuclear Resonance Scattering
Nuclear Resonance Spectroscopy
Neutron Scattering
Neutron Spin-Echo
Nuclear Solid Effect
Neutron Spin Echo Spectroscopy
Natural Spin Orbital
Nuclear Spin Relaxation
Negative Thermionic mass spectrometry
Near Threshold Translational Spectrometry
Normal Unenhanced Raman Spectra

-33

o
OA
OAD
OAS
ODMR
ODPAS
OE
OES
OLCCC
OMA
OODR
OPEPR
OPLC
OPTLC
ORD
ORD
OSEE
OSMA
OTC
OTCE
OTC-SFC
JTDR
OTGC
OTLC

Optical Absorption
One Atom Detection
Opto-Acoustic Spectroscopy (or Spectrophotometry)
Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (spectroscopy)
Optically Detected PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy
Optical Emission
Optical Emission Spectroscopy (see also AES)
Oscillation Locular CounterCurrent Chromatography
Optical Multichannel Analyzer (or Analysis)
Optical Optical Double Resonance spectroscopy
Optical Pertubation Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
Over-Pressure Layer Chromatography
Over-Pressure Thin Layer Chromatography
Optical Rotation Detection
Optical Rotatory Dispersion
Optically Stimulated Exoelectron Emission
Optical Spectrometric Multichannel Analyzer
Open Tubular Column
Open Tubular Capillary Electrophoresis
Open Tubular Column-Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry
Open Tubular Gas Chromatography
Open Tubular Liquid Chromatography

PA
PAA
PAC
PACIA
PACVD
PAES
PAFTIR
PAGE
PAGIF
PAIFT
PAM
PARS

Positron Annihilation
Photon Activation Analysis
Perturbed Angular Correlation (spectroscopy)
Particle Agglutination Counter Immuno Assay
Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition
Photon (induced or excited) Auger Electron Spectroscopy
Photo-Acoustic Fourier Transform InfraRed (spectroscopy)
PolyAcrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
Polyacrylamide Gel Iso Focussing
Photo-Acoustic Infrared Fourier Transform (spectroscopy)
Photo-Acoustic Microscopy
Photo-Acoustic (or Photoacoustic) Raman Spectroscopy

34

PAS
PAS
PASCA
PASD
PASEM
PBP
PB-LC-MS
PC
PCEM
PCI
PCI
PCLC
PCM
PCOM
PCR
PCR
PCR
PCRS
PCS
PCS
PCVD
PD
PDA
PDF
PDMS
PDMS
PDS
PDS
PDSC
PEARLS
PE-COSY
PECVD
PED
PEEE
PEEM
PEEM
PEM
PEM
P-ENDOR
PENIS

Photo-Acoustic (or Photoacoustic) Spectroscopy


Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy
Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis
Positron Annihilation Surface Detection
Particle Analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy
Proton Blocking Pattern
Particle Beam Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
Paper Chromatography
Phase-Contrast Electron Microscope
Positive Chemical Ionization
PostCollision Interaction
Preparative Column Liquid Chromatography
Pulse Counting Method
Phase-Contrast Optical Microscope
PhotoConductive Resonance
Post Column Reaction
Principal Component(s) Regression
Post Column Reaction System
Photon Correlation Spectroscopy
Point Contact Spectroscopy
Plasma Channel Vapor Deposition
Photo Desorption
Pulse hight Distribution Analysis
Powder Diffraction File
heavy Particle-induced Desorption Mass Spectrometry
(252-Cf PDMS)
Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry
Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy
PhotoDischarge Spectroscopy
Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Photon-Electron Alpha Rejecting Liquid Scintillation
Primitive Exclusive correlation Spectroscopy
Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition
PhotoElectron Diffraction
Photostimulated Exo-Electron Emission
Phosphorescence Emission Excitation Matrix
PhotoEmission Electron Microscopy (Microscope)
Piezoelastic Modulation
Photo Electron Microscopy
Pulsed Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance
Proton-Enhanced Nuclear Induction Spectroscopy

-35

PES
PES
PESA
PESIS
PESM
PESOS
PET
PETS
PEXAFS
PFE
PFG
PFG-NMR
PFIMS
PFLOHS
PFM
PFSEPR
PFT
PGA
PGAA
PGC
PGNAA
PGSE
PIC
PICLS
PICS
PIDFTMS
PIE
PIGE
PIGE
PIM
PIMS
PIR
PIRRS
PIS
PIXE
PIXE
PIXE/PIGE
PIXE/RBS

PhotoElectron Spectroscopy
PhotoEmission Spectroscopy
Particle Elastic Scattering Analysis
PhotoElectron Spectroscopy of Inner Shell(s) electrons
PhotoElectron Spectral Microscopy
PhotoElectron Spectroscopy of Outer Shell(s)
Positron Emission Tomography
Proximity Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy
Photoemission Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure
PhotoFerroelectric Effect
Pulsed Field Gel (electrophoresis)
Pulsed Field Gradient-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Pyrolysis Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Phase Fluctuation Optical Heterodyne Spectroscopy
Pulse Frequence Modulation
Pulse Field Sweep Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
Pulse Fourier Transformation (or Transform)
Prompt Gamma-ray Analysis
Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis
Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography
Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis
Pulsed-Gradient Spin-Echo (technique)
Paired Ion Chromatography
Photolonization Controlled-Loss Spectroscopy
Positive Ion Crystallography of Surfaces
Particle Induced Desorption Fourier Transform Mass
Spectrometry
Post Irradiation Examination
Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (spectroscopy)
Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission (spectroscopy)
Peak Integration Method
Pulse Ion Mobility Spectrometry
Photon Induced X-Ray
Polarized InfraRed Reflection Spectroscopy
Penning Ionization Spectroscopy
Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (spectroscopy)
Proton-Induced X-ray Emission
Particle-Induced X-rayEmission/Particle-Induced
Gamma-ray Emission
Particle Induced X-ray Emission/Rutherford
Backscattering Spectroscopy

-36-

PIXES
PIXGE
PL
PLAP
PLC
PLC
PLC
PLEED
PLM
PLOT
PLS
PMA
PMA
PMFG
PMIRS
PMR
PNMR
PNR
POCL
PPES
PPINICI
PPS
PRFS
PRA
PROD
PROGRESS
PRS
PSC
PSCE
PSD
PSEE
PSID
PSTM
PTC
PTR
PTSE
PVD
PVT
PXA
PY-GC-MS
PY-MS

Particle Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy


Proton-Induced X- and Gamma-ray Emission
PhotoLuminescence
Pulsed Laser AtomProbe (technique)
PLasma Chromatography
Preparative Layer Chromatography
Process Liquid Chromatography
Polarized Low Energy Electron Diffraction
Polarized Light Microscopy
Porous Layer Open Tubular column
Partial Least Squares
Photonic Multichannel Analyzer
Plane Mirror Analyzer
Pulse(d) Magnetic Field Gradient
Polarization Modulated InfraRed Spectrometer (technique)
Proton Magnetic Resonance
Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Prompt Nuclear Reactions
PhotoOxygenation ChemiLuminescence
PhotoPyroElectric Spectroscopy
Pulsed Positive Ion Negative Ion Chemical Ionization
Photophoretic Spectroscopy (broadband PPS)
Phase-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Prompt Radiation Analysis
Paramagnetic Resonance by Optical Detection
Point-Resolved Rotating GRadiEnt Surface-coil Spectroscopy
Phase-Resolved Spectroscopy
Programmable Sample Changer
Partially Spin Coupled Echo
Photon-Stimulated Desorption (technique)
Photon-Stimulated Exoelectron Emission
Photon-Stimulated Ion Desorption
Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope (or Microscopy)
Phase Transfer Catalysis
PhotoThermal Radiometry
PhotoThermoStimulated Exoelectron emission
Physical Vapor Deposition
Pulsed Video Thermography
Primary X-ray Analysis
PYrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
PYrolysis Mass Spectrometry (Curie-Point PY-MS)

-37

Q
QCM
QCW-SRGS
QDE
QE
QED
QENS
QF
QHE
QHMV
QM
QMAS
QMS
QSRR
2Q-END0R
QTOF

Quartz Crystal Microbalance (technique)


Quasi-Continous-Wave Stimulated Raman Gain Spectroscopy
Quantum Detection Efficiency
Quadrupole-Echo (spectroscopy)
Quantum ElectroDynamics
Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering
Quadrupole-electric Field gradient
Quantum Hall Effect
sQuare-wave Hydrodynamically Modulated Voltammetry
Quantitative Microscopy
Quadrupole Mass Analyzer for Solids
Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer
Quantitative Structure Retention Relationship
Double Quantum transition in Electron Nuclear DOuble
Resonance
Quadrupole Time-Of-Flight

R
RAA
RAIRS
RAIRS
RAMA
RAMP
RAS
RBS
RBS-PIXE
RCLIF
RC-LIFS
RC-LIF/GC
R-COSY
RCT
REC

RadioActivation Analysis
RAman-InfraRed Spectroscopy
Reflection-Absorption InfraRed Spectroscopy
RAman MicroAnalysis
RAman MicroProbe
Reflection Absorption Spectrometry
Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (or Spectrometry)
Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy-Proton Induced
X-ray Emission
Rotationally Cooled-Laser Induced Fluorescence
Rotationally Cooled-Laser Induced Fluorescence
Spectrometry
Rotationally Cooled-Laser Induced Fluorescence/Gas
Chromatography
Relayed Coherence transfer Spectroscopy
Relayed Coherence Transfer
Radiative Electron Capture

38-

RECI
RED
RED
REELS
REM
REM
REMPI
REMPI-PES
REMS
RESRS
RFA
RFC
RFF
RFS
RGA
RGC
RGS
RGS
RGSI-MS
RHEED
RI
RIA
RIBS
RIDES
RIE
RIKE
RIKES
RIM
RIM
RIMS
RIPES
RIS
RIS
RJCP
RL
RLCC
RMA
RMAED
rms
RNAA

Resonantly Enhanced Collisional Ionization


Radiat ion-Enhanced Diffusion
Reflection Electron Diffraction
Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy
Reflection Electron Microscopy
Replica Electron Microscopy
Resonance Enhanced MultiPhoton Ionization
Resonance Enhanced MultiPhoton Ionization-PhotoElectron
Spectroscopy
Resonance-Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy
Resonance Enhanced Stimulated Raman Scattering
X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis
Reversed Flash Chromatography
Remote Fiber Fluorimetry (Fluorescence)
Remote Fiber Spectroscopy
Residual Gas Analyzer (Analysis)
Radio Gas Chromatography
Rare-GaS-matrix
Reflection Grating Spectrometer
Rare-GaS-matrix Isolated-Moessbauer Spectroscopy
Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction
Refractive Index
Radio Immuno Assay
Rutherford Ion Backscattering Spectroscopy
Raman-Induced DEflection Spectroscopy
Reactive Ion Etching
Raman-Induced Kerr Effect
Raman-Induced Kerr Effect Spectroscopy
Radio Induction Method
Reactant Ion Monitoring
Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Resonant Ionization Photo-Electron Spectroscopy
Radiation-Induced Segregation
Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy
Refocused J Cross-Polarization
Radio Luminescence
Rotation Locular Counter current Chromatography
Roentgen MicroAnalysis
Rocking Micro-Area Electron Diffraction
root mean square
Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis

-39-

RO
ROA
ROESY
RPA
RPC
RPED
RPL
RPLC
RPT
RPTLC
RR
RRA
RRE
RRS
RRWA
rsd
RSI
RSMR
RTA
RTE
RTF
RTM
RTP
RTPL
RTS
RXFA
RXT

Reverse Osmosis
Raman Optical Activity
Rotating-frame Overhauser Enhancement Spectroscopy
Retarding Potential Analyzer
Reverse(d) Phase Chromatography
Rocking Probe Electron Diffraction
Radio PhotoLuminescence
Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography
Reverse Polarization Transfer (method)
Reversed Phase Thin Layer Chromatography
Resonance Raman (effect)
Resonant Raman Auger (effect)
Resonance Raman Effect
Resonance Raman Scattering (Spectrometry)
Resonant Rotating Wave Approximation
relative standard deviation
Refractively Scanned Interferometer
Rayleigh Scattering of Moessbauer Scattering
Rapid Thermal Annealing
Resonance Transfer and Excitation
Room-Temperature Fluorescence
Raster Tunnel Microscopy (see also STM)
Room Temperature Phosphorescence (spectroscopy)
Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Liquid chromatography
Raman Tunneling Spectroscopy (see also STS)
Radionuclide X-ray Fluorescence Analysis
Reflection X-ray Topography

SA
SAD
SAD
SAED
SAES
SAM
SAM
SAM
SANFS
SANS

Surface Analysis
Selective Area Diffraction
Single Atom Detection
Selective (Selected) Area Electron Diffraction
Shielded Auger Electron Spectrometer
Scanning Acoustic Microscopy
Scanning Auger Microprobe
Scanning Auger (electron) Microscopy (or Microscope)
Small-Angle Near-Forward Scattering
Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

40-

SARIMS
SARISA
SAW
SAX
SAXS
SA/RIMS
SBS
SCAD
SCANIIR
SCD
SCDF
SCE
SCIC
SCIM
SCLC
S-COSY
SCRS
SO
SD
SDA
SDDS
SDE
SDLIF
SDLTS
SDMM
SDR
SDW
SE
SE
SE
SEA
SEC
SEC
SEC
SECOSS
SECS
SECSY
SEC-IR

Sputter Atomization Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry


Surface Analysis by Resonance Ionization of Sputtered
Atoms
Surface-Acoustic-Wave (attenuation)
Selected Area X-ray (photoelectron spectroscopy)
Small-Angle X-ray Scattering
Sputter Atomization/Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
Surface Characterization and Depth profiling
Surface Composition by Analysis of Neutral and*
Ion Impact Radiation
Single-Crystal Diffractometer
Scanning electron DiFfraction
Saturated Calomel Electrode
Single Column Ion Chromatography
SCanned transmission electron Image Microscopy
(see also STEM)
Sequence Centrifugal Layer Chromatography
Scaled Correlation Spectroscopy
Stokes Coherent Raman Spectroscopy
Spectral Diffusion
Standard Deviation
Spherical Deflector Analyser
Spin Decoupling Difference Spectroscopy (NMR)
Simultaneous Distillation Extraction
Synchronous Detection of Laser-Induced Fluorescence
Scanning Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy
Scanning Desorption Molecule Microscopy
Spin-Dependent Resonance
Spin Density Wave
Size Exclusion
Spin-Echo (NMR)
Secondary Electron (emission)
Sound Emission Analysis
Size Exclusion Chromatography
Spectro Electrochemistry
Steric Exclusion Chromatography
Spin Echo Correlation with Shift Scaling (NMR)
Selective Electron Capture Sensitization
Spin Echo Corrrelated Spectroscopy (NMR)
Size Exclusion Chromatography-InfraRed spectroscopy

41

SEC-TLC
SEC/LALLS
SEE
SEFT
SELEX
SEM
SEM-AIA
SEM-EBIC
SEM-EDAX
SEM-EDS
SEM-EDX
SEM-EMP
SEMP
SEMPA
SEM/XRMA
SEP
SEPES
SEPIL
SERRS
SERS
SESD
SESET
SET
SEW
SEWS
SEXAFS
SF
SFC
SFC-FTIR
SFC-IR
SFC-MS
SFFF
SFORD
SGM
SGRPA
SGSE
S-H

Size Exclusion Chromatography - Thin:Layer Chromatography


Size Exclusion Chromatography/Low-Angle Laser Light
Scattering
Secondary Electron Emission
Spin Echo Fourier Transform (NMR)
SELective spin-EXchange (NMR)
Scanning Electron Microscopy (or Microscope)
Scanning Electron Microscopy-Automated Image Analysis
Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Beam Induced Current
Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy-Dispersive Analysis
with X-ray
Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy-Dispersive
Spectroscopy
Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy-Dispersive X-ray
Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron MicroProbe
Shielded Electron MicroProbe
Scanning Electron Microscopy with Polarization Analysis
Scanning Electron Microscopy/X-Ray MicroAnalysis
Stimulated Emission Pumping
Synchroton radiation Excited PhotoElectron Spectroscopy
Selectively Exciting Probe Ion Luminescence
Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Spectroscopy
Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (or Scattering)
Scanning Electron Stimulated Desorption
SEmi-Selective Excitation Technique
Single Exposure Technique
Surface Electromagnetic Waves (spectroscopy)
Surface Electromagnetic Wave(s) Spectroscopy
Surface Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure
Spontaneous Fission
Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-Fourier Transform
InfraRed spectroscopy
Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-InfraRed spectroscopy
Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation
Single Frequency Off Resonance Decoupling
Spherical Grating Monqchromator
Spherical Grid Retarding Potential Analyser
Steady-Gradient Spin Echo (NMR)
Smith-Hieftje (background correction)

-42-

SHEED
SHEED
SHG
SI
SI'CP
SID
SID
SID
SIDA
SIE
SIEE
SIEM
SUMS
SIM
SIM
SIMA
SIMA
SIMAAC
SIMS
SIMS-IDP
SIMS/ISS
SIPS
SIRIS
SIRS
SIRS
SIT
SKEWSY
SL
SLAM
SLEEP
SLGC
SLLS
SLR
SMGE
SMIM
SMR
SNIF-NMR
SNMS

Scanning High Energy Electron Diffraction


Secondary High Energy Electron Diffraction
Second-Harmonic Generation
Surface Ionization
Shielded Inductively Coupled Plasma
Single Ion Detection
Selected Ion Detection
Surface Induced Dissociation
Stable Isotope Dilution Analysis
Secondary Ion Emission
Surface Ion-Electron Emission
Shadow Image Electron Microscopy
Secondary Ion Imaging Mass Spectrometry
Scanning Ion Microscopy
Selective (or Selected) Ion Monitoring
Secondary Ion MicroAnalysis
Shielded Ion Microprobe Analyzer
Simultaneous Multielement Atomic Absorption using
(or with) a Continuum source
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (or Spectroscopy)
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry-Image Depth Profiling
Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy/Ion Scattering
Spectroscopy
Sputter Induced Photon Spectroscopy
Sputter Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy
Surface Induced Resonant Spectroscopy
Satellite InfraRed Spectrometer
Self Induced Transparency
SKEWed exchange Spectroscopy
Synchronous Luminescence (spectroscopy)
Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope
Scanning Low Energy Electron Probe
SplitLess Gas Chromatographic technique
Surface Laser Light Scattering
Super Lattice Reflection
Selective Multisolvent Gradient Elution
Selective Metastable Ion Monitoring
Sectional Magnetic Resonance
Site-specific Natural Isotope Fractionation Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry

43-

SNMS
SODAR
SOM
SONRES
SPC
SPE
SPE
SPECT
SPEELS
SPEM
SPEXAFS
SPI
SPIPES
SPIXE
SPLEED
SPM
SPMDS
SPP
SPPS
SPT
SPV
SQUID
SR
SR
SREM
SRET
SRFT
SRGS
SRIXE
SRPS
SRRS
SRS
SRS
SRS
SRS
SRS
SRWS
SRXRF
SSB
SSBSC

Sputtered Neutral Mass Spectrometry


SOnic (or SOund) Detection And Ranging
Scanning Optical Microscopy
Saturated Optical NonResonant Emission Spectroscopy
Surface Photoconductivity
Solid Phase Extraction
Serum Protein Electrophoresis
Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography
Spin-Polarized Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy
Scanning PhotoElectron Microscope
Spin Polarized Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure
(spectroscopy)
Selective Population Inversion (NMR)
Spin-Polarized Inverse PhotoEmission Spectroscopy
Scanning Proton Induced X-ray Emission
Spin-Polarized Low Energy Electron Diffraction
Scanning Proton Microprobe
Spin-Polarized Metastable Deexcitation Spectroscopy
Spin-Polarized Photoemission
Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis
Selective Population Transfer (NMR)
Surface PhotoVoltage (spectroscopy)
Superconducting QUantum Interference Device
Spin-Rotation (interaction)
Synchrotron Radiation
Scanning Reflection Electron Microscopy
Scanning Reference Electrochemical Technique
Saturation-Recovery Fourier Transform
Stimulated Raman Gain Spectroscopy
Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission (fluorescence)
Synchrotron Radiation Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering
Shock-induced Reaction Synthesis
Specular Reflection Spectrometry
Spontaneous Raman Scattering
Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy
Surface Reflectance Spectroscopy
Standard Reference Water Sample
Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence
Spinning Side Band (NMR)
Single SideBand Suppressed Carrier interferometer

-44

SSEM
SSERS
SSIMS
SSLC
SSM
SSMS
SS-NMR
SSNOEDS
SSP
SSS
ST-AA
STEBIC
STEM
STEM/EDS
STESR
STIM
STM
STNMR
STS
STS
STTR-CIDNP
STXM
SUFIR
SWIFT
SWV
SXA
SXAPS
SXE
SXES
SXPES
SXPM
SXR
SXRA
SXRD
SXRF
SXRF
SXS

Shielded Scanning Electron Microscope


Surface-Surpressed Electron Resonance Spectroscopy
Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
Super Speed Liquid Chromatography
Stage Scanning Microscope
Spark Source Mass Spectrometry
Solid State-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Steady-State Nuclear Overhauser Effect Difference
Spectroscopy
Suspended Solid Phase (separation)
Sequential Slow Scanning
Shock Tube-Atomic Absorption (spectroscopy)
Scanning Transmission Electron Beam Induced Current
Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (Microscope)
Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy/
Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy
Saturation-Transport-Electron Spin Resonance
Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (or Microscope)
Stochastic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (spectroscopy)
Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy
Stimulated Thermal Scattering
STochastic Time-Resolved Chemically Induced Dynamic
Nuclear Polarization
Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope
SUperFast Inversion Recovery (NMR)
Stored Waveform Inverse Fourier Transform (excitation)
Square-Wave Voltammetry
Soft X-ray Absorption
Soft X-ray Appearance-Potential Spectroscopy
Soft X-ray Emission (spectroscopy)
Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy
Soft X-ray Photo Electron Spectroscopy
Scanning X-ray Photoelectron Microscopy
Scanning X-ray Radiography
Synchrotron X-Ray fluorescence Analysis
Shielded X-Ray Diffractometer
Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence
Synchroton X-Ray Fractography
Soft X-ray Spectroscopy

-45-

TA
TALMS
TAMS
TA/MS
TBC
TCA
TCCC
TCD
TCS
TCS
TDLAS
TDMES
TDMS
TDMS
TDPAC
TDPAD
TDS
TDS
TDS
TEA
TED
TEELS
TELS
TELSCA
TEM
TEM/APFIM
TEM/FIM
TEM/SIMS
TEM/STEM
TEM/TED
TEY
TFA
TG

Thermal Analysis
Tunable Atomic Line Molecular Spectroscopy
Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
Thermal Analysis/Mass Spectrometer
Thermal Barrier Coating
ThermoCentrifugometric Analysis
True CounterCurrent Chromatography
Triple-Crystal Diffractometry
Thermally Current Spectroscopy
Transient Current Spectroscopy
Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer
Time-Differential Moessbauer Emission Spectroscopy
TanDem (Quadrupole) Mass Spectrometry
Thermal Desorption Mass Spectrometry
Time-Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation
Time-Differential Perturbed Angular Distribution
Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy
Thermal Diffuse Scattering
Total Dissolved Solids
Thermal Energy Analyzer
Transmission Electron Diffraction
Transmission Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy
Transmission Energy Loss Spectroscopy
Transmission Energy Loss Spectroscopy for Chemical
Analysis
Transmission Electron Microscopy (or Microscope)
Transmission Electron Microscope/Atom Probe Field
Ion Microscope
Transmission Electron Microscope/Field-Ion Microscope
Transmission Electron Microscopy/Secondary Ion Mass
Spectrometry
Transmission Electron Microscopy/Scanning Transmission
Electron Microscopy
Transmission Electron Microscopy/Transmission Electron
Diffraction
Total Electron Yield
Thin Film Analysis
ThermoGravimetry

46-

TGA
TG/DSC
TG/DTA
TG/MS
THDS
THEED
TIC
TIC
TICP
TID
TIMS
TIR
TIRES
TIS
TL
TL
TLA
TLC
2DTLC
TLCF
TLGPC
TLM
TLS
TMA
TMA
TMR
TMS
TNAA
TOCSY
TOE
TOF
TOFA
TOFA
TOFD
TOFI
TOF/MS
TOF/SIMS
TOLZ
TPA
TPC
TPCS

ThermoGravimetric Analysis
ThermoGravimetry/Differential Scanning Calorimetry
ThermoGravimetry/Differential Thermal Analyis
ThermoGravimetry/Mass Spectrometry
Thermal Helium Desorption Spectrometry
Transmission High Energy scanning Electron Diffraction
Total Ion Chromatography
Total Ion Current
Total Ion Current Profile
Thermal Ionization Detector
Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (or Spectroscopy)
Total Internal Reflection
Transient InfraRed Emission Spectroscopy
Total Integrated Scatter
Thermal Lensing
ThermoLuminescence
Thin-Layer Activation
Thin-Layer Chromatography
Two-Dimensional Thin Layer Chromatography (DTLC)
Thin Layer Chromatography combined with Fluorimetry
Thin Layer Gel Permeation Chromatography
Transmission Light Microscope
Thermal Lens(ing) Spectrometry (or Spectrophotometry)
ThermoMagnetic Analysis
Thermo Mechanical Analysis
Topical Magnetic Resonance
Thermoionic Mass Spectrometry
Thermal Neutron Atomic Absorption
TOtal Correlated Spectroscopy
Truncated driven nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (method)
Time-Of-Flight
Time-Of-Flight Analysis
Time-Of-Flight Anemometer
Time-Of-Flight Diffraction
Time-Of-Flight Isochronous spectrometer
Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
Third Order Laue Zone
Two-Photon Absorption
Three Phases Catalysis
Time Projection Compton Spectrometer

-47

TPD
TPD
TPDE
TPE
TPEF
TPF
TPGC
TPM
TPR
TPR
TQF-COSY
TQMS
TREELS
TRELIBS
TRFIA
TRIX
TRR
TRRFA
TRRR
TRRRS
TRRS
TRS
TSA
TSC
TSCTES
TSD
TSDC
TSED
TSEE
TSEM
TSE
TSL
TSQ
TUV
TVD
TXFA
TXRF

Temperature-Programmed Desorption
Transverse Photothermal Deflection
Temperature-Programmed DEcomposition
Two-Photon Excitation
Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence
Two-Photon Fluorescence
Temperature-Programmed Gas Chromatography
Total Particulate Matter
Temperature-Programmed Reaction
Temperature-Programmed Reduction
Triple-Quantum Filtered-COrrelation SpectroscopY
Triple-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry
Time-Resolved Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy
Time-REsolved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immuno Assay
Total Rate Imaging of X-rays
Time-Resolved Reflectivity
Time-Resolved X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis
Time-Resolved Resonance Raman (spectroscopy)
Time-Resolved Resonance Raman Spectroscopy
Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy
Time-Resolved Spectroscopy
Total Surface Area
Thermally Stimulated Conductivity
Total Spin Coherence Transfer Echo Spectroscopy
Thermally Stimulated Depolarization
Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current (technique)
Transmission Scanning Electron Diffraction
Thermally Stimulated (or ThermoStimulated) Exoelectron
Emission
Transmission Scanning Electron Microscopy
Thermally Stimulated (or ThermoStimulated) Exoemission
Thermally Stimulated (or ThermoStimulated) Luminescence
Triple Stage Quadrupole mass spectrometry
Thermal Ultraviolet
Thermal Voltaic Detection
Totally reflecting sampling carrier X-ray Fluorescence
Analysis
Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (analysis)

48-

u
UHRNMR
UHV
UHVEM
UHV-ESR
UPS
UPS
UPS
USM
USX
USXRS
UT
UV
UVS
UV/VIS

Ultra-High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance


Ultra High (or UltraHigh) Vacuum
Ultra High Voltage Electron Microscopy (Microscope)
Ultra High Vacuum-Electron Spin Resonance (spectroscopy)
Ultraviolet-induced Photoelectron emission Spectroscopy
Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy
UltraSound Microscopy
UltraSoft X-ray
UltraSoft X-ray Spectroscopy
Ultrasonic Testing
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
UltaViolet/VISible light spectroscopy

V
VAD
VADS
VASS
VASSNMR
VCD
VFTCPC
VIS
VISAR
VLS
VOSY
VPIE
VSAXS
VT-CPMAS
VUV
VUV-CD
VUVS

Vapor Axial Deposition


Velocity-Aligned Doppler Spectroscopy
Variable Angle Sample Spinning
Variable Angle Sample Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Vibrational Circular Dichroism
Vertical Flow-Through Coil Planet Centrifuge
Visible light Spectroscopy
Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector
Valence Level Spectroscopy
VOlume-selective Spectroscopy
Vapor Pressure Isotope Effects
Very Small Angle X-ray Scattering
Variable Temperature-Cross Polarization Magic Angle
Spinning
Vacuum Ultraviolet
Vacuum UltraViolet-Circular Dichroism
Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

-49

w
WACBDP
WAMI
WAND
WAXS
WBDF
WCA
WD
WDS
WDX
WD/XRF
WEDX
WM-AAS
WM-AES
WRS

Wide-Angle Convergent Beam Diffraction Pattern


Wide-Angle Michel son Interferometer
Wide-Angle Neutron Diffraction
Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering
Weak-Beam Dark-Field (technique)
Wet Chemical Analysis
Wavelength Dispersion
Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry (or Spectroscopy)
Wavelength Dispersive X-ray (analysis or spectrometry)
Wavelength Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence (spectrometry)
Windowless Energy-Dispersive X-ray (spectroscopy)
Wavelength-Modulated Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Wavelength-Modulated Atomic Emission Spectrometry
Waveguide Raman Spectroscopy

X
XAES
X-ray (induced or excited) Auger Electron Spectroscopy
XANES
X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (spectra)
XANES/EXAFS X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure/Extended X-ray
Absorption Fine Structure (spectroscopy)
XAS
X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy
XDC
X-ray Double Crystal (diffraction)
XEAPS
X-ray (induced) Electron Appearance Potential Spectroscopy
XED
X-ray Energy Dispersive (diffractometer)
XEDS
X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy
XEM
X-ray Exoelectron Microscopy
XES
X-ray Electron Spectroscopy
XFA
X-ray Fluorescence Analysis
XHRTEM
Cross-sectional High-Resolution Transmission Electron
Microscopy
XIN
X-ray INterferometer
XMA
X-ray MicroAnalysis
XMPA
X-ray electron MicroProbe Analysis
XPDFT
X-ray Powder DiFfracTometry
XPED
X-ray PhotoElectron Diffraction

-50-

XPS
XPS-AES
XRA
XRD
XRF
XRFA
XRFS
XRMA
XRMF
XRS
XSAD
XSQR
XTEM
XTM
XUV

X-ray (induced) PhotoeTectron (emission) Spectroscopy


X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy-Auger Electron
Spectroscopy
X-Ray preferential Absorption (Analysis)
X-Ray Diffraction
X-Ray (analysis induced by photons-X-ray) Fluorescence
X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis
X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
X-Ray MicroAnalysis
X-Ray MicroFluorescence (spectroscopy)
X-ray Spectroscopy
X-ray Small Angle Diffraction
X-SQuaR (PIXE induced XRF technique or use of particle
induced X-rays to excite X-ray fluorescence)
Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy
X-ray Tomographic Microscopy
extreme Ultraviolet

ZAA
ZAAS
ZAP
ZECSY
ZF-NQR
ZIA
ZLS
ZQC
ZQS

Zeeman Atomic Absorption


Zeeman Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
(or Spectrophotometry)
Zone Axis Pattern
ZEro-quantum-coherence Correlation Spectroscopy
Zero-Field-Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance
Zone Immuno Assay
Zeeman Laser Scattering (technique)
Zero-Quantum Coherence
Zero-Quantum Spectroscopy

-51 -

DETECTORS & ELECTRONICS


A/D
ADC
ADP
AGC
AM
A/0
APD
BSD
CCD
CLD
CPS
CPSD
CRD
CRO
CRT
D/A
DAC
DAD
DQE
DTGS
DTS
ELD
E/O
FOCS
GSGG
I/O
IP
IPSD
ISFET
ITD
LED
MCT
MFD
MIPD
MPD
MWPC
PD

analog-to-digital
analog-to-digital converter
ammonium dihydrogen phosphate
automatic gain control
amplitude modulation
acousto-optic
avalanche photodiode
backscattered (electron) detector
charged coupled device
cathode luminescence detector
counts per second
(photo) counting position sensitive detector
cathode ray tube display
cathode ray oscilloscope
cathode ray tube
digital-to-analog
digital-to-analog converter
(photo) diode array detector
detector quantum efficiency
deuterated triglycine sulphate (or sulfate)
deuterated triglycine sulphate (or sulfate)
electroluminescent diode
electro-optic
fiber optics chemical sensors
gadolinium scandium gallium garnet
input-output
indium-phosphide
integrating position-sensitive detector
ion sensitive field effect transistor
ion trap detector
light emitting diode
mercury cadmium telluride
multiple function detector
microwave-induced plasma detector
microwave-induced plasma detector
multi-wire proportional counter
pulse delay

-53

PDA
PEM
PFA
PID
PLZT
PM
PMT
PW
PZT
QPD
RF
SBD
SBR
SCE
SED
SEM
S/N
SNR
TCD
TGS
TID
XAL
YAG
ZIP

photodiode array
photoelastic modulator
pulse fl ip angle
photo ion (or photo ionization) detector
lead lanthanum-modified zirconium titanate
phase modulation
photomultiplier tube
pulse width
piezoelectric transducer
quadrature phase detection
radio frequency
Schottky barrier diode
signal-to-background ratio
saturated calomel electrode
secondary electron detector
secondary electron multiplier
signal-to-noise ratio
singal-to-noise ratio
thermal conductivity detector
tryglycine sulfate (detector).
thermal ionization detector
xenon arc (continuum) lamp
yttrium aluminium garnet
zinc impurity photodetector

-54-

Tips for information retrieval in scientific databases'


a ) Umlaute: (a,6,ii)
Since entries in databases are generally in 7-bit ASCII (American Standard
Code for Information Interchange), names containing "Umlaute" such as a,6,u
have been transformed to ae,oe,ue and 8 to ss.
ex.: MoGbauer
Mollenstedt

search for

Moessbauer (sometimes Mossbauer)


Moellenstedt (sometimes Mollenstedt)

b ) Names of Methods o r Instruments:


If you are not sure that all authors have used the right spelling, use the
right hand truncation, internal character masking or simply write the
different spellings. You can also choose the exact terms by means of the
expand command. This command is used to examine the contents of the
inverted index alphabetically adjacent (left or right) to a requested term.
examples for right hand truncation:
-

for microscopy or microscope write:


for pulse or pulsed write:
for reverse or reversed write:
for analysis or analyzer
CAS standard abbreviation for analysis:
for thermogravimetry or thermogravimetric
for spectrometry, spectrometer or
spectroscopy write:
- if spectrophotometry, spectroscopical or
spectrochemical should be included write:

microscop#
pulse#
reverse*
analy### not analyt?
anal.
thermogravimetr##
spectro#####
spectro?

examples for internal character masking:


- for fluorimetry or fluorometry write:
other examples with different spellings:
- ultra high or ultrahigh
- thermally stimulated or thermostimulated

Host:
Databases:

Retrieval Language:

STN International
CA (Chemical Abstracts Service)
ENERGY (US Department of Energy OSTI)
PHYS (FIZ Karlsruhe)
Messenger

-55

fluorlmetry

c) Search strategies
Abbreviations should be considered as complementary terms in a search
strategy. Always use the full spelling of a method (perhaps with some
truncations or proximity operators).
Difficulties can arise when there are different spellings of a method or if
these abbreviations are used for other methods or names, such as the
following example.
EMPA
EPMA
EPXMA
XMA
XMPA

Electron Microprobe Analysis


Electron Probe Microanalysis
Electron Probe X-ray Micro Analysis
X-ray Microanalysis
X-ray Electron Microprobe Analysis

Frequency of the different spellings and


databases:(Search 20/21 Dec. 1990; Host: STN)

abbreviations

CA
(1967-90)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Electron Microprobe Analysis


EMPA
^
Electron Probe Microanalysis
Electron Probe Micro Analysis
EPMA

BI

3949

6. Electron Probe X-ray Micro Analysis


7.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

EPXMA

Electron Probe Analysis


X-ray Microanalysis
XMA
^
X-ray Electron Microprobe Analysis
XMPA

1794

7
7
0

155

2,5,7,10,12
1-12
right hand truncation:

9
975
24
135
0
4
241

5612

BI/AB
7682

57

3197

64
576
3
12
586

3851

42
15
1

682

13907

in a few

ENERGY
(1976-90)

PHYS
(1979-90)

2001

2202
35
484
36
330
3
6
39
601
23
2
0

328

394
3096

59
390
33
229
7
13
46
763
30
1
0

2931

anal####

Note:
In the databases ENERGY and PHYS the titles and abstracts are contained in
the Basic Index and no specific search code is required. In the database CA
however the Basic Index contains only single words from titles and indexing
fields. To include also the abstracts in your search strategy you have to
specify the search code "/IA" which combines the Basic Index and the
Abstracts.

-56

REFERENCES
Borsdorf R., Fresenius W., Gunzler H., Huber W., Kelker K.,
Liiderwald I., Tolg G., Wisser H.
Analytiker Taschenbuch Bd.8 (1989) p.297-305
ISBN 3-540-50149-5 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York
ISBN 0-387-50149-5 Springer-Verlag New York Berlin Heidelberg
Delay L., Arkens 0.
The acronyms used in the world of spectroscopy, microscopy and
diffractometry - I. Compilation and classification
Spectrochimica Acta 36B, (1981) 351-360
(Departement Metaalkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven,
de Croylaan 2, B-3030 Heverlee, Belgium)
Delay L., Arkens 0.
The acronyms used in the world of spectroscopy, microscopy and
diffractometry - II. Glossary of abbreviations
Spectrochimica Acta 36B, (1981) 361-372
(Departement Metaalkunde, Kathol ieke Universiteit Leuven,
de Croylaan 2, B-3030 Heverlee, Belgium)
Fresenius W., Gunzler H., Huber W., Liiderwald I., Tolg G., Wisser H.
Analytiker Taschenbuch, Bd. 5 (1985) p.304-310
ISBN 3-540-13770-X Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo
ISBN 0-387-13770-X Springer-Verlag New York Heidelberg Berlin Tokyo
Lide D.R. Jr.
Use of abbreviations in the chemical literature. (Recommandations 1979)
IUPAC Interdivisional Committee on Nomenclature and Symbols
Pure Appl. Chem., 52 (1980) p.2229-32
Reuter U.
Abkiirzungen und Akronyme in der Chemie
ISBN 3-921956-73-0 GIT Verlag (1988)
Spectroscopy International Vol.1 (1989) No.5
Glossary of Abbreviations and Acronyms

p.40-41

Wendisch D.A.W.
Acronyms and Abbreviations in Molecular Spectroscopy
ISBN 3-540-51348-5 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York (1990)
ISBN 0-387-51348-5 Springer-Verlag New York Berlin Heidelberg
(Central Research Services, Bayer AG, D-5090 Leverkusen-Bayerwerk)
Whan R.E.
Directory of Analytical Methods
SAND85-2800 (3rd edition; January 1986)
(Report published by the Materials Characterization Department 1820
of the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185, USA)

-57

Miscellaneous publications on abbreviations:


Aoyama H.
Dictionary of Acronyms in New Technology (in Japanese)
Kogyo Chosakai Publishing Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan, 240 pp. (1985)
Bowden D.D.
Abregrams or deleweds: A forty-year view of acronyms. (Abbreviations)
UCRL--96697 (1987) 14p.
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers,. Professional
Communication Society conference, Winnipeg, Canada, 14 Oct. 1987
(Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA , USA)
Chang S.
Abbreviations used in scientific and technical reports
Juel-Spez--354 (1986) 144p.
(Report published by the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H,
F.R. of Germany)
Ishii H., Hirose S.
Dictionary of abbreviations and acronyms in organic chemistry and
biochemistry (in Japanese)
Chisjin Shokan Co., Ltd, Tokyo, 298 pp. (1989)
Lau F.-S.
Dictionary of nuclear power and waste management with abbreviations
and acronyms
ISBN: 0471-91517-3 John Wiley & Sons Inc., N.Y. (1987) 396p.
ISBN: 086380-051-3 Research Studies Press Ltd., Letchworth, England
(1987) 396p.
List of abbreviations used in nuclear waste management
CUED/D-Soils/TR-167 (1986) 75p.
(Report form the Cambridge Univ. (UK) Dept. of Engineering)
Laurin T.C.
The Photonics Dictionary (Book 3, 33rd Ed., 1987) p.A4-A8
Laurin Publishing Company, Inc., Berkshire Common, P.O. Box 1146,
Pittsfield, Mass. 01202
NUREG
A Handbook of Acronyms and
NUREG--0544-Rev.2 (January
(Published by the Division
- Office of Administration
Washington, D.C. 20555

Initial ism
1985)
of Technical Information and Document Control
- U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Quillmann H.
Nuclear energy abbreviations and acronyms
Verlag fur Wirtschaftsinformation. ATW-Broschure 192p.
Yamasaki A.
Dictionary of Acronyms in Science and Technology (in Japanese)
Maruzen Co., Ltd, Japan 793 pp. (1987)

58

Acknowledgement
Thanks are due to Dr. H. Kutter of the Institute for Transuranium Elements
and Dr. A. Spiegl from the Library of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe
for providing lists with abbreviations they discovered when reviewing the
chemical literature and also for their encouragement to pursue and finish
this work. I am also grateful to Dr. J. Babelot and Dr. H.-E. Schmidt for
their valuable comments.

-59

European CommunitiesCommission
EUR 13571 Acronyms and initialisms in analytical methods and
instrumentation
J. Richter
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
1991 V, 59 pp. 21.0 x 29.7 cm
ISBN 92-826-2772-1
Catalogue number: CD-NA-13571-EN-C
Price (excluding VAT) in Luxembourg: ECU 6.25

This document records, in alphabetic order, abbreviations (acronyms,


initialisms, and other condensed forms) of analytical methods and instrumentation. Furthermore, a list of abbreviations of detectors and electronics
has been included at the end. It is intended to help scientists and the
growing number of on-line searchers to retrieve information, especially in
the area of analytical chemistry. A few tips concerning on-line searches in
the databases are given in annex. Some of the basic recommendations of
IUPAC have been included in the explanatory notes as well as definitions
of the different abbreviation forms.

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