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Archive Documentation

PIPE59
Immersed Pipe or Cable
MP ME ST <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> PP <> EME MFS
Product Restrictions

PIPE59 Element Description


Although this legacy element is available for use in your analysis, ANSYS
recommends using a current-technology element such as PIPE288. To apply
ocean loading using PIPE288, issue the SOCEAN and ocean commands
(OCxxxxxx) .
PIPE59 is a uniaxial element with tension-compression, torsion, and bending
capabilities, and with member forces simulating ocean waves and current. The element
has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions
and rotations about the nodal x, y, and z-axes. The element loads include the
hydrodynamic and buoyant effects of the water and the element mass includes the
added mass of the water and the pipe internals. A cable representation option is also
available with the element. The element has stress stiffening and large deflection
capabilities.

Figure 59.1 PIPE59 Geometry

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PIPE59 Input Data


The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown
in Figure 59.1. The element input data (see "PIPE59 Input Summary") includes two
nodes, the pipe outer diameter and wall thickness, certain loading and inertial
information (described in Table 59.1: PIPE59 Real Constants and Figure 59.2), and
the isotropic material properties. An external "insulation" may be defined to represent
ice loads or biofouling. The material VISC is used only to determine Reynolds number
of the fluid outside the pipe.
The element x-axis is oriented from node I toward node J. The element y-axis is
automatically calculated to be parallel to the global X-Y plane. Several orientations are
shown in Figure 59.1. For the case where the element is parallel to the global Z-axis (or
within a 0.01 percent slope of it), the element y-axis is oriented parallel to the global Yaxis (as shown). Input and output locations around the pipe circumference identified as
being at 0 are located along the element y-axis, and similarly 90 is along the element
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z-axis.

Figure 59.2 PIPE59 Geometry

KEYOPT(1) may be used to convert the element to the cable option by deleting the
bending stiffnesses. If the element is not "torque balanced", the twist-tension option
may be used (KEYOPT(1) = 2). This option accounts for the twisting induced when a
helically wound or armored structure is stretched. The KEYOPT(2) key allows a reduced
mass matrix and load vector formulation (with rotational degrees of freedom terms
deleted as described in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference). This formulation is
useful for suppressing large deflections and improving bending stresses in long, slender
members. It is also often used with the twist-tension pipe option for cable structures.
The description of the waves, the current, and the water density are input through the
water motion table. The water motion table is associated with a material number and is
explained in detail in Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table . If the water motion
table is not input, no water is assumed to surround the pipe. Note that even though
the word "water" is used to describe various input quantities, the quantities may
actually be characteristic of any fluid. Alternate drag coefficient and temperature data
may also be input through
this table.
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may also be input through this table.


A summary of the element input is given in "PIPE59 Input Summary". A general
description of element input is given in Element Input.

PIPE59 Input Summary


Nodes
I, J
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ if KEYOPT(1) 1, or
UX, UY, UZ if KEYOPT(1) = 1
Real Constants
DO, TWALL, CD, CM, DENSO, FSO,
CENMPL, CI, CB, CT, ISTR, DENSIN,
TKIN, TWISTTEN
See Table 59.1: PIPE59 Real Constants for details.
Material Properties
EX, ALPX (or CTEX or THSX), PRXY (or NUXY), DENS, GXY, BETD, ALPD, VISC
Surface Loads
Pressures -1-PINT, 2-PX, 3-PY, 4-PZ, 5-POUT
Body Loads
Temperatures -TOUT(I), TIN(I), TOUT(J), TIN(J) if KEYOPT(3) = 0
TAVG(I), T90(I), T180(I), TAVG(J), T90(J), T180(J) if KEYOPT(3) = 1
Special Features
Stress stiffening
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Large deflection
Birth and death
KEYOPT(1)
Element behavior:
0 -Pipe option
1 -Cable option
2 -Pipe with twist-tension option
KEYOPT(2)
Load vector and mass matrix:
0 -Consistent mass matrix and load vector
1 -Reduced mass matrix and load vector
KEYOPT(3)
Temperatures represent:
0 -The through-wall gradient
1 -The diametral gradient
KEYOPT(5)
Wave force modifications:
0 -Waves act on elements at their actual location
1 -Elements are assumed to be at wave peak
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Upward vertical wave velocity acts on element


3 -Downward vertical wave velocity acts on element
4 -Elements are assumed to be at wave trough
KEYOPT(6)
Member force and moment output:
0 -No printout of member forces or moments
2 -Print member forces and moments in the element coordinate system
KEYOPT(7)
Extra element output:
0 -Basic element printout
1 -Additional hydrodynamic integration point printout
KEYOPT(8)
End cap loads:
0 -Internal and external pressures cause loads on end caps
1 -Internal and external pressures do not cause loads on end caps
KEYOPT(9)
PX, PY, and PZ transverse pressures:
0 -Use only the normal component of pressure
1 -Use the full pressure (normal and shear components)
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Table 59.1 PIPE59 Real Constants


No.

Name

Description

DO

Outside diameter (D o)

TWALL

Wall thickness of the pipe (defaults to D o/2.0)

CD

Normal drag coefficient (C D). May be overridden by


Constants 43 through 54 of water motion table (see
Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table )

CM

Coefficient of inertia (CM)

DENSO

Internal fluid density (used for pressure effect only)


3

(Mass/Length )
6

FSO

Z coordinate location of the free surface of the fluid on the


inside of the pipe (used for pressure effect only)

CENMPL

Mass per unit length of the internal fluid and additional


hardware (used for mass matrix computation)

CI

Added-mass-used/added-mass for circular cross section (if


blank or 0, defaults to 1; if CI should be 0.0, enter negative
number)

CB

Buoyancy force ratio (Buoyancy-force based on outside


diameter and water density) (if blank or 0, defaults to 1; if CB
should be 0.0, enter negative number)

10

CT

Coefficient of tangential drag (CT). May be overridden by


Constants 55 through 66 of water motion table (See
Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table ).
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11

ISTR

Initial strain in axial direction.

12

DENSIN

Density of external insulation[1].

13

TKIN

Thickness of external insulation (ti).

14

TWISTTEN Twist tension constant (used if KEYOPT(1) = 2) (See


Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details).
1. Density of external insulation ( i).

PIPE59 Water Motion Information


The data listed in Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table is entered in the data table
with the TB commands. If the table is not input, no water is assumed to surround the
pipe. Constants not input are assumed to be zero. If the table is input, ACELZ must
also have a positive value and remain constant for all load steps. The constant table is
started by using the TB command (with Lab = WATER). Up to 196 constants may be
defined with the TBDATA commands. The constants (C1-C196) entered on the
TBDATA commands (6 per command) are:
where:
KWAVE = Wave selection key (see next section)
KCRC = Wave/current interaction key (see next section)
DEPTH = Depth of water to mud line (DEPTH > 0.0) (Length)
3

DENSW = Water density, w, (DENSW > 0.0) (Mass/Length )


w = Wave direction (see Figure 59.2)
Z(j) = Z coordinate of location j of drift current measurement (see Figure 59.2)
(location must be input starting at the ocean floor (Z(1) = -DEPTH) and ending at the
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water surface (Z(MAX) = 0.0). If the current does not change with height, only W(1)
needs to be defined.)
W(j) = Velocity of drift current at location j (Length/Time)
d(j) = Direction of drift current at location j (Degrees) (see Figure 59.2)
Re(k) = Twelve Reynolds number values (if used, all 12 must be input in ascending
order)
CD(k) = Twelve corresponding normal drag coefficients (if used, all 12 must be
input)
CT(k) = Twelve corresponding tangential drag coefficients (if used, all 12 must be
input)
T(j) = Temperature at Z(j) water depth (Degrees)
A(i) < DEPTH) (Length) (if KWAVE = 2, A
A(i) = Wave peak-to-trough height (0.0
(1) is entire wave height and A(2) through A(5) are not used)
(i) = Wave period ((i) > 0.0) (Time/Cycle)
(i) = Adjustment for phase shift (Degrees)
WL(i) = Wave length (0.0

WL(i) < 1000.0*DEPTH) (Length)

(default

Use 0.0 with Stokes theory (KWAVE = 2).

Table 59.2 PIPE59 Water Motion Table


Constant

Meaning

1-5

KWAVE

KCRC

DEPTH DENSW w

7-12

Z(1)

W(1)

d(1)

Z(2)

W(2)

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d (2)

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13-18

Z(3)

W(3)

d(3)

Z(4)

W(4)

d (4)

19-24

Z(5)

W(5)

d(5)

Z(6)

W(6)

d (6)

25-30

Z(7)

W(7)

d(7)

Z(8)

W(8)

d (8)

31-36

Re(1)

Re(2)

Re(3)

Re(4)

Re(5)

Re(6)

37-42

Re(7)

Re(8)

Re(9)

Re(10)

Re(11)

Re(12)

43-48

CD(1)

CD(2)

CD(3)

CD(4)

CD(5)

CD(6)

49-54

CD(7)

CD(8)

CD(9)

CD(10)

CD(11)

CD(12)

55-60

CT(1)

CT(2)

CT(3)

CT(4)

CT(5)

CT(6)

61-66

CT(7)

CT(8)

CT(9)

CT(10)

CT(11)

CT(12)

67-72

T(1)

T(2)

T(3)

T(4)

T(5)

T(6)

73-74

T(7)

T(8)

79-82

A(1)

(1)

(1)

WL(1)

85-88

A(2)

(2)

(2)

WL(2)

For KWAVE = 0, 1, or 2
For KWAVE = 2, use only A
(1), (1), (1)

etc.

etc.

193-196

A(20)

(20)

(20)

WL(20)

79-81

X(1)/
(H*T*G)

Not
Used

(1)

For KWAVE = 3 (See Dean for


definitions other than (1))

85-86

X(2)/
(H*T*G)

DPT/LO

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91-92

X(3)/
(H*T*G)

L/LO

97-98

X(4)/
(H*T*G)

H/DPT

103-104

X(5)/
(H*T*G)

/
(G*H*T)

109

X(6)/
(H*T*G)

etc.
193

etc.
X(20)/
(H*T*G)

The distributed load applied to the pipe by the hydrodynamic effects is computed from
a generalized Morison's equation. This equation includes the coefficient of normal drag
(CD) (perpendicular to the element axis) and the coefficient of tangential drag (C T),
both of which are a functions of Reynolds numbers (Re). These values are input as
shown in Table 59.1: PIPE59 Real Constants and Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion
Table.
The Reynolds numbers are determined from the normal and tangential relative particle
velocities, the pipe geometry, the water density, and the viscosity (input as VISC).
The relative particle velocities include the effects of water motion due to waves and
current, as well as motion of the pipe itself. If both Re(1) and CD(1) are positive, the
value of CD from the real constant table (Table 59.1: PIPE59 Real Constants) is
ignored and a log-log table based on Constants 31 through 54 of the water motion
table (Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table ) is used to determine C D. If this
capability is to be used, the viscosity, Re, and C D constants must be input and none
may be less than or equal to zero.

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Similarly, if both Re(1) and CT(1) are positive, the value of C T from the real constant
table (Table 59.1: PIPE59 Real Constants) is ignored, and a log-log table based on
Constants 31 through 42 and 55 through 66 of the water motion table
(Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table ) is used to determine C T. If this capability is
to be used, the viscosity, Re, and C T constants must be input and none may be less
than or equal to zero.
Various wave theories may be selected with the KWAVE constant of the water motion
table (Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table ). These are:
Small Amplitude Wave Theory with empirical modification of depth decay
function (KWAVE = 0)
Small Amplitude Airy Wave Theory without modifications (KWAVE = 1)
Stokes Fifth Order Wave Theory (KWAVE = 2)
Stream Function Wave Theory (KWAVE = 3).
The wave loadings can be altered (KEYOPT(5)) so that horizontal position has no effect
on the wave-induced forces.
Wave loading depends on the acceleration due to gravity (ACELZ), and it may not
change between substeps or load steps. Therefore, when performing an analysis using
load steps with multiple substeps, the gravity may only be "stepped on" [ KBC,1] and
not ramped.
With the stream function wave theory (KWAVE = 3), the wave is described by alternate
Constants 79 through 193 as shown in Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table . The
definitions of the constants correspond exactly to those given in the tables in Dean
for the forty cases of ratio of wave height and water depth to the deep water wave
length. The other wave-related constants that the user inputs directly are the water
density (DENSW), water depth (DEPTH), wave direction (), and acceleration due to
gravity (ACELZ). The wave height, length, and period are inferred from the tables. The
user should verify the input by comparing the interpreted results (the columns headed
DIMENSIONLESS under the STREAM FUNCTION INPUT VALUES printout) with the data
presented in the Dean Contains
tables.
Note that this wave theory uses the current value
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presented in the Dean tables. Note that this wave theory uses the current value
defined for time [TIME] (which defaults to 1.0 for the first load step).
Several adjustments to the current profile are available with the KCRC constant of the
water motion table as shown in Figure 59.3. The adjustments are usually used only
when the wave amplitude is large relative to the water depth, such that there is
significant wave/current interaction. Options include
1. use the current profile (as input) for wave locations below the mean water level
and the top current profile value for wave locations above the mean water level
(KCRC = 0)
2. "stretch" (or compress) the current profile to the top of the wave (KCRC = 1)
3. same as (2) but also adjust the current profile horizontally such that total flow
continuity is maintained with the input profile (KCRC = 2) (all current directions
((j)) must be the same for this option).

Figure 59.3 PIPE59 Velocity Profiles for Wave-current Interactions

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Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Pressures may be input as surface loads
on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Figure 59.1. Internal
pressure (PINT) and external pressure (POUT) are input as positive values. These
pressures are in addition to the linearly varying pressure of the fluids on the inside and
outside of the pipe. In handling the pressures, each element is assumed to be capped
(that is, have closed ends). The internal and external pressure loads are designed for
closed-loop static pressure environments and therefore include pressure loads on
fictitious "end caps" so that the pressure loads induce an axial stress and/or reaction in
the pipe system. If a dynamic situation needs to be represented, such as a pipe venting
to a lower pressure area or the internal flow is past a constriction in the pipe, these end
cap loads may need to be modified by applying a nodal force normal to the crosssection of the pipe with the magnitude representing the change in pressure.
Alternatively, the precomputed end cap loads can be removed using KEYOPT(8) = 1
and the appropriate end cap loads added by the user. The transverse pressures (PX,
PY, and PZ) may represent wind or drag loads (per unit length of the pipe) and are
defined in the global Cartesian directions. Positive transverse pressures act in the
positive coordinate directions. The normal component or the projected full pressure
may be used (KEYOPT(9)). See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more
details.
Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Temperatures may
have wall gradients or diametral gradients (KEYOPT(3)). Diametral gradients are not
valid for the cable option. The average wall temperature at = 0 is computed as 2 *
TAVG - T(180) and the average wall temperature at = -90 is computed as 2 * TAVG
- T(90). The element temperatures are assumed to be linear along the length. The first
temperature at node I (TOUT(I) or TAVG(I)) defaults to TUNIF. If all temperatures after
the first are unspecified, they default to the first. If all temperatures at node I are input,
and all temperatures at node J are unspecified, the node J temperatures default to the
corresponding node I temperatures. For any other pattern of input temperatures,
unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.
Eight temperatures (T(j)) are read as Constants 67-74 corresponding to the eight
water depths (Z(j)) input as Constants 7-30. These temperatures override any other
temperature input (except TREF) unless the element is entirely out of the water or if all
eight temperatures areContains
inputproprietary
as zero.
The thermal load vector from these temperatures
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eight temperatures are input as zero. The thermal load vector from these temperatures
may not be scaled in a superelement use pass if an expansion pass is to follow.
Constants 31 through 66 may have zero values if desired. The temperatures input as
Constants 67-74 are used to compute a temperature-dependent viscosity based on
linear interpolation (if previous constants are not all zero). In the case of a solid cross
section (inside diameter = 0.0), they are also used to compute the material properties
of the element.
For the mass matrix, the mass per unit length used for axial motion is the mass of the
pipe wall (DENS), the external insulation (DENSIN), and the internal fluid together with
the added mass of any additional hardware (CENMPL). The mass per unit length used
for motion normal to the pipe is all of the above plus the added mass of the external
fluid (DENSW).
CI should be 1.0 for a circular cross section. Values for other cross sections may be
found in McCormick. The user should remember, however, that other properties of
PIPE59 are based on a circular cross section.

PIPE59 Output Data


The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
Additional element output as shown in Table 59.3: PIPE59 Element Output
Definitions
Several items are illustrated in Figure 59.4. Note that the output is simplified and
reduced if the cable option, KEYOPT(1) = 1, is used.
The principal stresses are computed at the two points around the circumference where
the bending stresses are at a maximum. The principal stresses and the stress intensity
include the shear force stress component. The principal stresses and the stress intensity
are based on the stresses at two extreme points on opposite sides of the neutral axis.
If KEYOPT(6) = 2, the 12-member forces and moments (6 at each end) are also
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If KEYOPT(6) = 2, the 12-member forces and moments (6 at each end) are also
printed (in the element coordinate system).
The axial force (FX) excludes the hydrostatic force component, as does the MFORX
member force (printed if KEYOPT(6) = 2). If KWAVE = 2 or 3 (Stokes or Stream
Function theory), additional wave information is also printed. If KEYOPT(7) = 1,
detailed hydrodynamic information is printed at the immersed integration points.
Angles listed in the output are measured () as shown in Figure 59.4. A general
description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the Basic Analysis
Guide for ways to view results.

Figure 59.4 PIPE59 Stress Output

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:


A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the
Component Name method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of
the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items
in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a number
refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and indicates that the item is not available.

Table 59.3 PIPE59 Element Output Definitions


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Name

Definition

O R

EL

Element number

Y Y

NODES

Nodes - I, J

Y Y

MAT

Material number

Y Y

VOLU:

Volume

- Y

XC, YC, ZC

Location where results are reported

LEN

Length

Y -

PRES

Pressures PINTE (average effective internal pressure), PX, Y Y


PY, PZ, POUTE (average effective external pressure)

STH

Stress due to maximum thermal gradient through the wall Y Y


thickness

SPR2

Hoop pressure stress for code calculations

- 1

SMI, SMJ

Moment stress at nodes I and J for code calculations

- 1

SDIR

Direct (axial) stress

- 1

SBEND

Maximum bending stress at outer surface

- 1

ST

Shear stress at outer surface due to torsion

- 1

SSF

Shear stress due to shear force

- 1

S(1MX, 3MN, Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress,


INTMX,
maximum stress intensity, maximum equivalent stress
EQVMX)
(over eight points on the outside surface at both ends of
the element)

1 1

TEMP

Temperatures TOUT(I), TIN(I), TOUT(J), TIN(J)

2 2

TEMP

Temperatures TAVG(I), T90(I), T180(I), TAVG(J), T90(J),


T180(J)

3 3

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S(1, 3, INT,
EQV)

Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress, stress 4 4


intensity, equivalent stress

S(AXL, RAD,
H, XH)

Axial, radial, hoop, and shear stresses

4 4

EPEL(AXL,
RAD, H, XH)

Axial, radial, hoop, and shear strains

4 4

EPTH(AXL,
RAD, H)

Axial, radial, and hoop thermal strain

4 4

MFOR(X, Y,
Z)

Member forces for nodes I and J (in the element


coordinate system)

7 7

MMOM(X, Y,
Z)

Member moments for nodes I and J (in the element


coordinate system)

5 5

NODE

Node I or J

6 6

FAXL

Axial force (excludes the hydrostatic force)

6 6

SAXL

Axial stress (includes the hydrostatic stress)

6 6

SRAD

Radial stress

6 6

SH

Hoop stress

6 6

SINT

Stress intensity

6 6

SEQV

Equivalent stress (SAXL minus the hydrostatic stress)

6 6

EPEL(AXL,
RAD, H)

Axial, radial, and hoop elastic strains (excludes the thermal 6 6


strain)

TEMP

TOUT(I), TOUT(J)

6 6

EPTHAXL

Axial thermal strains at nodes I and J

6 6

VR, VZ

Radial and vertical fluid particle velocities (VR is always >

8 8

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0)
AR, AZ

Radial and vertical fluid particle accelerations

8 8

PHDYN

Dynamic fluid pressure head

8 8

ETA

Wave amplitude over integration point

8 8

TFLUID

Fluid temperature (printed if VISC is nonzero)

8 8

VISC

Viscosity

8 8

REN, RET

Normal and tangential Reynolds numbers (if VISC is


nonzero)

8 8

CT, CD, CM

Input coefficients evaluated at Reynolds numbers

8 8

CTW, CDW

CT*DENSW*DO/2, CD*DENSW*DO/2

8 8

CMW

CM*DENSW*PI*DO**2/4

8 8

URT, URN

Tangential (parallel to element axis) and normal relative


velocity

8 8

ABURN

Vector sum of normal (URN) velocities

8 8

AN

Accelerations normal to the element

8 8

FX, FY, FZ

Hydrodynamic forces tangential and normal to element


axis

8 8

ARGU

Effective position of integration point (radians)

8 8

1.
2.
3.
4.

Output only for the pipe option (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2)


If KEYOPT(3) = 0 or if KEYOPT(1) = 1
If KEYOPT(3) = 1
Output only for the pipe option and the item repeats at 0, 45, 90, 135, 180,
225, 270, 315 at node I, then at node J (all at the outer surface)
5. Output only for the pipe option (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2) and if KEYOPT(6) = 2
6. Output only for the cable option (KEYOPT(1) = 1)
7. Output only if KEYOPT(6) = 2
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7. Output only if KEYOPT(6) = 2


8. Hydrodynamic solution (if KEYOPT(7) = 1 for immersed elements at
integration points)
9. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
Table 59.4: PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I) lists output available
through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General
Postprocessor (POST1) in Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number
Table of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in
Table 59.4: PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I) :
Name
output quantity as defined in the Table 59.3: PIPE59 Element Output Definitions
Item
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
E
sequence number for single-valued or constant element data
I,J
sequence number for data at nodes I and J

Table 59.4 PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I)


Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input


Item

Circumferential Location

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315

SAXL

LS

13

17

21

25

29

SRAD

LS

10

14

18

22

26

30

SH

LS

11

15

19

23

27

31

SXH

LS

12

16

20

24

28

32

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EPELAXL

LEPEL

13

17

21

25

29

EPELRAD

LEPEL

10

14

18

22

26

30

EPELH

LEPEL

11

15

19

23

27

31

EPELXH

LEPEL

12

16

20

24

28

32

EPTHAXL

LEPTH

13

17

21

25

29

EPTHRAD

LEPTH

10

14

18

22

26

30

EPTHH

LEPTH

11

15

19

23

27

31

MFORX

SMISC 1

MFORY

SMISC 2

MFORZ

SMISC 3

MMOMX

SMISC 4

MMOMY

SMISC 5

MMOMZ

SMISC 6

SDIR

SMISC 13

ST

SMISC 14

S1

NMISC

11

16

21

26

31

36

S3

NMISC

13

18

23

28

33

38

SINT

NMISC

14

19

24

29

34

39

SEQV

NMISC

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

SBEND

NMISC 88

SSF

NMISC 89

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TOUT

LBFE

TIN

LBFE

Table 59.5 PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node J)


Output
Quantity
Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input


Item

Circumferential Location

0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315

SAXL

LS

33 37

41

45

49

53

57

61

SRAD

LS

34 38

42

46

50

54

58

62

SH

LS

35 39

43

47

51

55

59

63

SXH

LS

36 40

44

48

52

56

60

64

EPELAXL

LEPEL

33 37

41

45

49

53

57

61

EPELRAD

LEPEL

34 38

42

46

50

54

58

62

EPELH

LEPEL

35 39

43

47

51

55

59

63

EPELXH

LEPEL

36 40

44

48

52

56

60

64

EPTHAXL

LEPTH

33 37

41

45

49

53

57

61

EPTHRAD

LEPTH

34 38

42

46

50

54

58

62

EPTHH

LEPTH

35 39

43

47

51

55

59

63

MFORX

SMISC 7

MFORY

SMISC 8

MFORZ

SMISC 9

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MMOMX

SMISC 10

MMOMY

SMISC 11

MMOMZ

SMISC 12

SDIR

SMISC 15

ST

SMISC 16

S1

NMISC

41 46

51

56

61

66

71

76

S3

NMISC

43 48

53

58

63

68

73

78

SINT

NMISC

44 49

54

59

64

69

74

79

SEQV

NMISC

45 50

55

60

65

70

75

80

SBEND

NMISC 90

SSF

NMISC 91

TOUT

LBFE

12

10

11

TIN

LBFE

16

13

14

15

Table 59.6 PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Pipe Options)


Output Quantity Name

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input


Item

STH

SMISC

17

PINTE

SMISC

18

PX

SMISC

19

PY

SMISC

20

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PZ

SMISC

21

POUTE

SMISC

22

SPR2

NMISC

81

SMI

NMISC

82

SMJ

NMISC

83

S1MX

NMISC

84

S3MN

NMISC

85

SINTMX

NMISC

86

SEQVMX

NMISC

87

Table 59.7 PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Cable Option)


ETABLE and ESOL Command Input

Output Quantity Name

Item

Node I

Node J

SAXL

LS

SRAD

LS

SH

LS

EPELAXL

LEPEL

EPELRAD

LEPEL

EPELH

LEPEL

EPTHAXL

LEPTH

TOUT

LBFE

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TIN

LBFE

13

SINT

NMISC

SEQV

NMISC

10

FAXL

SMISC

STH

SMISC

13

PINTE

SMISC

14

PX

SMISC

15

PY

SMISC

16

PZ

SMISC

17

POUTE

SMISC

18

Table 59.8: PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Additional Output) lists additional
print and post data file output available through the ETABLE command if KEYOPT(7)
= 1.

Table 59.8 PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Additional Output)


ETABLE and ESOL Command Input

Output Quantity
Name

Item

GLOBAL COORD

NMISC N + 1, N + 2, N + 3

N + 31, N + 32, N + 33

VR

NMISC N + 4

N + 34

VZ

NMISC N + 5

N + 35

AR

NMISC N + 6

N + 36

E- First Integration
Point

E- Second
Integration Point

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AZ

NMISC N + 7

N + 37

PHDY

NMISC N + 8

N + 38

ETA

NMISC N + 9

N + 39

TFLUID

NMISC N + 10

N + 40

VISC

NMISC N + 11

N + 41

REN

NMISC N + 12

N + 42

RET

NMISC N + 13

N + 43

CT

NMISC N + 14

N + 44

CTW

NMISC N + 15

N + 45

URT

NMISC N + 16

N + 46

FX

NMISC N + 17

N + 47

CD

NMISC N + 18

N + 48

CDW

NMISC N + 19

N + 49

URN

NMISC N + 20, N + 21

N + 50, N + 51

ABURN

NMISC N + 22

N + 52

FY

NMISC N + 23

N + 53

CM

NMISC N + 24

N + 54

CMW

NMISC N + 25

N + 55

AN

NMISC N + 26, N + 27

N + 56, N + 57

FZ

NMISC N + 28

N + 58

ARGU

NMISC N + 29

N + 59

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Note: For the pipe option (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2): N = 99. For the cable
option (KEYOPT(1) = 1): N = 10.

Material Properties -- WATER Specifications


TB,WATER (water motion table data for PIPE59)
NTEMP:
Not used.
NPTS:
Not used.
TBOPT:
Not used.

PIPE59 Assumptions and Restrictions


The pipe must not have a zero length. In addition, the O.D. must not be less
than or equal to zero and the I.D. must not be less than zero.
Elements input at or near the water surface should be small in length relative
to the wave length.
Neither end of the element may be input below the mud line (ocean floor).
Integration points that move below the mud line are presumed to have no
hydrodynamic forces acting on them.
If the element is used out of water, the water motion table
(Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table ) need not be included.
The element should also be used with caution in the reduced transient dynamic
analysis since this analysis type ignores the element load vector. Fluid
damping, if any, should be handled via the hydrodynamic load vector rather
than (mass matrix) damping.
When performing a transient analysis, the solution may be unstable with small
time steps due to the nature of Morrison's equation.
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The applied thermal gradient is assumed to vary linearly along the length of
the element.
The same water motion table (Table 59.2: PIPE59 Water Motion Table )
should not be used for different wave theories in the same problem.
The lumped mass matrix formulation [LUMPM,ON] is not allowed for PIPE59
when using "added mass" on the outside of the pipe (CI
0.0).

PIPE59 Product Restrictions


There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.
Release 14.0 - 2011 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved.

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