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KonkanRailway
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheKonkanRailway(RailwaySymbol:KR)is
arailwaylinewhichrunsalongtheKonkan
coastofIndiabetweenMumbaiand
Mangaluru.Itwasconstructedandisoperated
bytheKonkanRailwayCorporation.Itruns
fromRohainMaharashtratillThokurin
Karnatakaforatotaldistanceof741km
(460mi),alongthewestcoastofIndiaand
WesternGhats.

KonkanRailway

Overview

Contents
1History
1.1Background
1.2Challenges
1.3Controversy
1.4Completion
2Organisation
3Route
4Operations
4.1Passenger
4.2Freight
5Difficulties
6IntheMedia
7Seealso
8References
9Externallinks

Type

Regionalrail

Status

Operational

Locale

Konkan,India

Termini

Roha,Maharashtra
Thokur,Karnataka

Stations

123

Website

www.konkanrailway.com
(http://www.konkanrailway.com)
Operation

Opening

January26,1998

Owner

MinistryofRailways,IndianRailways

Operator(s)

KonkanRailwayCorporation

Depot(s)

Verna
Technical

History

Linelength

736km(457.33mi)

Background

Trackgauge

No.oftracks 1
1,676mm(5ft6in)

Electrification None

UntiltheKonkanRailwaystartedits
operations,thetwoimportantportcities
MangaloreandMumbaiwerenotdirectly
connectedbytherailwaynetwork.People
wouldtravelbytrainsrunningthroughinland
IndiaviaBangaloreBelgaumPuneroute.In
midtwentiethcentury,peopletravellingto
MumbaifromMangaloreandadjoiningareas
wouldgotoKadurorBirurbybusandthen
catchatraintoMumbai(Bombaythen).Inthe
1970sNationalHighway17(NH17)wasbuilt
toconnectthesecitiesbyroad.Directbus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konkan_Railway

Operating
speed

120km/h(75mph)

Routemap
Legend
Kms

toPanvel(CSTM)
0 Roha(RN)
13 Kolad
24 Indapur
30 Mangaon
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servicesstartedbetweenthesetwocitiesafter
theconstructionofNH17.Eventhough
economicreasonsprovidedastrongneedto
connectthesetwocities,theregionthrough
whichtherailwaytrackpassedwas
geographicallyverytoughandwouldbean
engineeringchallenge.Duetotheuneven
terrainoftheregion,railwaylineswerenotlaid
formanyyears.
Althoughthebrainchildofveteran
parliamentarianfromRatnagiri,NathPaiM.P.,
nationalleaderssuchasMadhuDandavateand
GeorgeFernandes,whohailedfromthe
Konkanplayedamajorroleintheconception
ofKonkanRailway.In1966,alinewas
constructedbetweenDivainMumbaiand
PanvelinRaigaddistrict.Duringthetenureof
MadhuDandavate,thiswasextendedupto
Rohain1986,mainlytoservetheindustries
locatedinthearea.Atthesametime,workson
MangaloreThokurlinetookimpetus.
However,themissinglinkfromRohato
Mangalorestillremained.InOctober1984,the
MinistryofRailwaysdecidedtotakeafinal
locationengineeringcumtrafficsurveyforthe
westcoastalportionfromSurathkalto
Madgaonatotaldistanceof525km.InMarch
1985,therailwaysdecidedtoextendthescope
oftheirsurveytoincludetheomittedlengthof
thewestcoastlineextendingfromMadgaonto
Roha.TheSouthernRailwaywasentrusted
withthisfinallocationsurvey.Theysubmitted
theprojectreportforthisroutetotheRailway
Ministryin1988andnameditastheKonkan
Railwayafterthecoastlinealongwhichitruns.
TheprojectgainedimpetusafterGeorge
FernandesbecametheRailwayMinisterin
1989.Itwasdecidedtoconstituteaseparately
incorporatedrailwaycompanyforthe
constructionandoperationoftheline.Thus,on
July19,1990,theKonkanRailway
CorporationLimited(KRCL)wasincorporated
asapubliclimitedcompanyunderthe
CompaniesAct,1956,withitsheadquartersat
CBDBelapurinNaviMumbaiandE.
Sreedharan,aseniorrailwayofficial,asitsfirst
ChairmanandManagingDirector.The
companysetitselfachallengingtargetoffive
yearstocompletetheworksomethingthat
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konkan_Railway

41 GoregaonRoad
47 Veer
55 Sapewamane
63 Karanjadi
71 Vinhere

NatuwadiTunnel(4km)
81 DiwanKhavati
98 Khed
112 Anjani
128 Chiplun
ChiplunTunnel(2km)
138 Kamathe
SavardeTunnel(3km)
147 Savarda
ShastriBridge
ParchuriTunnel(3km)
150 AravaliRoad
GadBridge
171 SangameshwarRoad
184 Ukshi
KarbudeTunnel(6km)
197 Bhoke
203 Ratnagiri
PanvalNadiViaduct
TikeTunnel(4km)
219 Nivasar
235 Adavali
BerdewadiTunnel(4km)
250 Vilawade
267 RajapurRoad
284 VaibhavwadiRoad
299 NandgaonRoad
314 Kankavli
333 Sindhudurg
343 Kudal
353 Zarap
364 SawantwadiRoad
371 Madure
Maharashtrastate/RNlimits
Goastate/KAWRlimits
PernemTunnel(1km)

382 Pernem
393 Thivim

MandoviBridge
411 Karmali
ZuariBridge
427 Verna
432 Majorda
435 Suravali
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hadneverbeenachievedinIndiabeforefora
projectofthismagnitude.Thefoundationstone
fortheprojectwaslaidatRohaonSeptember
15,1990,andtheCorporationhaditstaskcut
out.

Challenges
Drawinguptheirplansinanoffice,Mr.
Sreedharan'steamhadyettorealisewhatkind
ofterraintheywouldhavetobattle,andthough
somesurveyshadbeenconducted,therewasno
datafortheentirestretchinMaharashtraa
routewhichinvolvedhalfthelengthoftheline.
Besides,thetaskwasformidable.Withatotal
numberofover2,000bridgesand91tunnelsto
bebuiltthroughthismountainousterrain
containingmanyrivers,theprojectwasthe
biggestandperhapsmostdifficultrailway
undertakingduringthiscentury,atleastinthis
partoftheworld.[2]Amajorchallengeinthe
areawaslandacquisitionascirca43000
landownershadtobenegotiatedwith.But
thoughlandrelatedlawsuitsarecommoninthe
Konkan,whenKRCLbeganpersuadingpeople
togiveuppropertythathadbelongedtotheir
familiesforgenerations,manygaveitup
voluntarily,convincedoftheimportanceofthe
project.Thisenabledtheentireprocesstobe
completedinjustayear.[3]

438 Madgaon
456 Balli

BarcemTunnel(3km)
472 Canacona
Goastate
Karnatakastate

492 Asnoti

KalinadiBridge
500 Karwar
KarwarTunnel(3km)
513 Harwada
528 Ankola
526 GokarnaRoad
555 Kumta
568 Honnavar
SharavatiBridge
586 Manki
595 Murudeshwara
603 Chitrapur
609 Bhatkal
617 Shiroor
625 ByndoorMookambikaRoad
631 Bijoor
644 Senapura
658 Kundapura
674 Barkur
690 Udupi
700 Innanje
706 Padubidri
715 Nandikoor
723 Mulki
732 Surathkal
736 Thokur(KAWR)
GurupuraRiver
toHassanJunction(MYS)
toMangaloreJunction(PGT)

Therewerechallengesposedbytheterrainand
theelements.Flashfloods,landslidesand
tunnelcollapsesaffectedworkatmanyplaces
ontheproject.Theregionwasalsothickly
forested,andconstructionsiteswereoften
plaguedbywildanimals.Despitethese
problems,workontheprojectcontinued,and
aneffectivesystemofdecentralisationenabled
betterefficiency.Theentirestretchof740kilometres(460mi)wasdividedintosevensectorsMahad,
Ratnagiri,Kudal,Panaji,Karwar,Udupiofapproximately100kmeach,headedbyaChiefEngineer.[4]
Contractsfortheprojectwereawardedtosomeofthebiggestandmostreputedconstructionfirmsin
India,includingLarsenandToubro,GammonIndiaandAFCONS.Toenablequickerconstruction,
severalinnovativepracticeswereadopted.Piersformajorbridgeswerecastontheriverbanksitselfand
launchedusingcranesmountedonpontoons.[1]Thetechniqueofincrementallaunchingofbridge
spanswasusedforthefirsttimeinIndia.[5]Sinceitwouldtaketoolongtocompletetheprojectusing
locallyavailabletunnellingtechnology,ninehydraulictunnellingmachineswereimportedfromSweden
[2]inordertoborethroughthehardrockoftheSahayadris.Thebiggestchallenge,however,camefrom
theninetunnelsthathadtobeboredthroughsoftsoil.Notechnologyexistedanywhereintheworldfor
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thispurposeandtheworkhadtobecarriedoutthroughapainstakinglyslowmanualprocess.
Excavationwasalmostimpossibleduetotheclayeysoilthatwassaturatedwithwaterowingtoahigh
watertableintheregion.Severaltimestunnelscollapsedimmediatelyaftertheyhadbeendug,
necessitatingworktoberedone.[6]Nineteenlivesandfouryearswerelostwhileconstructingthesoft
soiltunnelsalone.[2][6]Inall,seventyfourpeopleperishedduringtheconstructionoftheline.

Controversy
LikemostothermajorprojectsinIndia,theKonkanRailwaywasnotwithoutitsshareofcontroversies.
ThebiggestonearoseinthestateofGoa,comprising105kilometres(65mi)oftheroute,whereserious
concernswereraisedabouttheenvironmentalandeconomicimpactofthelineonthestate.The
opponentstotheprojectstatedthattheproposedalignment,
passingthroughthecoastalregionsofthestate,wouldcause
destructionofecology,damagetohistoricalsitesanddistruptthe
lifestylesofpeopleinthedenselypopulatedcoastalregionofthe
state.In1991,theycametogetherunderanumbrellaorganisation
calledtheKonkanRailwayReAlignmentCommittee(KRRAC)
andorganisedprotestsagainsttheproposedalignmentofthe
railwayline.[7]
ThemainpointsraisedbytheKRRACwerethattheexisting
alignmentwouldcausefloodingincoastalregions,destroythe
fertilekhazanlands,harmthemonumentsofOldGoa,cause
irreparabledamagetothemarshesandmangroveswampsalong
thecoastlineandestuariesoftheMandoviandZuaririvers,and
resultinthelargescaledisplacementofneighbourhoodsalong
thecoastalbeltthroughwhichitpassed.TheKRRACproposed
analternativealignmentfortheline,knownasthehinterland
alignment,tooffsettheseproblems.Thehinterlandalignment,
passingthroughtherelativelyunpopulatedhinterlandofthestate,
wastobelongerbyabout25kilometres(16mi),butaccordingto
theKRRAC,wouldsignificantlyminimisethedamagecausedto
theenvironment.[8]

17KonkanRailways

ThehinterlandalignmentwasrejectedbytheKonkanRailway
Corporationonthegroundsthatitwouldinvolvesubstantial
diversionoftheline,denyrailaccesstothemajortownsofthe
Anexpresstrainpassingthrough
state,andresultinseveredelaysandescalationofcostsof
Konkan
construction.Bythen,theKRRAChadgrownintoapolitical
movement,backedbythepowerfulChurchandcertainpolitical
parties.InMarch1992,itfiledapublicinterestlitigationintheBombayHighCourt,seekingan
injunctionontheconstructionworkandadiversionofthelinethroughthehinterlandalignment.Inthe
plaint,itraisedalltheissuesthathadbeenbroughtupearlier.TheHighCourtdismissedtheplaintin
April1992,observingthat

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Atrainnegotiatingalongbridge
betweentwohills

...theclaimofthepetitionersthatthealignment
wouldhavedevastatingandirreversibleimpact
uponthekhazanlandsiswithoutanyfoundation,
andevenotherwise,theextentofdamageis
extremelynegligibleandapublicprojectofsuch
amagnitudewhichisundertakenformeetingthe
aspirationsofthepeopleonthewestcoastcannot
bedefeatedonsuchconsiderations.Itisnotopen
tofrustratetheprojectofpublicimportanceto
safeguardtheinterestoffewpersons.Itcannotbe
overlookedthatwhileexaminingthegrievance
aboutadverseimpactuponasmallareaof30
hectaresofKhazanlands,thebenefitwhichwill
bederivedbylargenumberofpeopleby
constructionofraillinecannotbebrushedaside.
TheCourtsareboundtotakeintoconsideration
thecomparativehardshipwhichthepeopleinthe
regionwillsufferbystallingtheprojectofgreat
publicutility.Thecostoftheprojectescalates
fromdaytodayand,aspointedoutbythe
Corporation,theextentoftheinterestandeast
whichwillbesufferedbytheCorporationevery
dayistothetuneofRs.45lakhs.No
developmentispossiblewithoutsomeadverse
effectontheecologyandenvironment...[9]

Completion

AtrainenteringChiplunRailway
Tunnel

The1,319m(4,327ft)long[1]
KonkanRailwaybridgeacrossthe
ZuaririverinGoa.

Amidallthecontroversiesandproblemsdoggingtheproject,workcontinuedtoprogress.InMarch
1993,thesouthernmostsectionof47kilometres(29mi)betweenThokurandUdupiinKarnatakawas
inaugurated,followedbythenorthernmostsectionof47kilometres(29mi)betweenRohaandVeerin
MaharashtrainJune1993.ThefirstpassengertrainontheroutewasrunbetweenMangaloreandUdupi
on20March1993.Theservicewasextendedby51kilometres(32mi)fromVeertoKhedinMarch
1995,andbyafurther265kilometres(165mi)fromKhedtoSawantwadiRoadinDecember1996.
Servicesonthesouthernendwereextendedby32kilometres(20mi)fromUdupitoKundapurain
January1995,andbyafurther275kilometres(171mi)tillPerneminGoainAugust1997.[10]However,
throughservicesbetweenMumbaiandMangalorecontinuedtoremainonholdduetoaproblematic
tunnelatPernem,whichwasfacingrepeatedcaveinsandflooding.[11]Thetunnelwasfinallycompleted
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inJanuary1998,sixyearsafteritsconstructionhadcommenced.[12][13]Throughservicesontheline
commencedafteraformalinaugurationoftheentirestretchof740kilometres(460mi)fromRohato
MangaloreonJanuary26,1998.[14]Trainscarryingpassengersstartedrunningalongthefullroute
betweenMumbaiandMangalorefromMay1998.[15]InOctober1997,Mr.Sreedharanwasaskedto
takeuptheresponsibilityofconstructionoftheDelhiMetroProject.

Organisation
KRdoesnothavedivisionsliketheotherIndianRailways
however,ithastworegionswithheadquartersatRatnagiriin
MaharashtraandKarwarinKarnataka.TheRatnagiriregion
extendsover480kilometres(300mi)fromRohatoSawantwadi
inMaharashtra,whiletheKarwarregionextendsover660
kilometres(410mi)fromPerneminGoatoSurathkalin
Karnataka.

Route
KarwarRailwaystation

Therouteisasinglelinetrack,andisnotelectrified.Thetotal
lengthofthelineisabout738kilometres(459mi).Althoughit
hasbeendesignedforhighspeedtrafficof160kilometresper
hour(99mph),thefastesttrainontheroute,theTrivandrum
RajdhaniExpress,atpresentrunsatamaximumspeedof110
kilometresperhour(68mph).Therouteisopentobothfreight
andpassengertraffic.Theline,whichrunsparalleltotheArabian
Seacoastline,offerssomeofthemostspectacularviewsofany
Indianrailjourney.TheKonkanrailwayrouteintersectsnational
highwayNH17atmanyplaces.
BarkurRailwaystation
Therearefiftysixstationsontheentireline.Althoughtheroute
iscurrentlyasingleline,KRandSouthWesternRailwaylines
runparallelfromMajordatoMargaoinGoa,makingthatsectionadoubleline.

AccordingtoastudyconductedbyKonkanRailway,doublingthetrackispossibleonabout300kmthat
runsontheplains.Thereareseveralpatchesalongthe738kilometres(459mi)linethatcanbe
convertedtodoubletrack.Forexample,the47kmfromthestartingpointatRohatoVeer.The60km
stretchbetweenUdupiandMangaloreisanotherstretch[16]

Operations
Passenger
Theroutebecamequitepopularwithpassengersfromthedayitwasopened,duetotheconnectivityit
providedtoregionshithertoinaccessiblebyrail,aswellasthesubstantialsavingsintimeforcommuters
betweenwesternandsouthernIndia.Severaltrains,whichearliertookcircuitousrouteswerediverted
viatheKonkanRailway,leadingtoareductioninrunningtime.ThefirstofthesewastheMumbai
MangaloreNetravatiExpresslaterextendedtoTrivandrum,whichwasdivertedviatheKonkanRailway
fromMarch1,1998,followedbytheTrivandrumRajdhanifromApril1,1998.[17]TheMatsyaganda
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ExpressrunningfromLokmanyaTilakTerminustoMangalorewasflaggedoffonMay1,1998.[15]The
HazratNizamuddinMangaloreMangalaLakshadweepExpresswasdivertedontheroutefromAugust
1,1998andextendedtoErnakulamJunction.[18]ThePuneErnakulamJunctionExpresswasintroduced
onFebruary25,1999.[19]AnothertraincalledMarusagarExpress,whichrunsbetweenJaipurand
ErnakulamJunction(NowextendedtillAjmer)viatheKonkanRailwaybeganitsserviceonOctober12,
2001.[20]TheJanShatabdiExpresswasflaggedoffbetweenMumbaiandMadgaon(longestrunningJan
Shatabdi)onApril16,2002,tocommemorate150yearsoftheexistenceofIndianRailways.[21][22]On
February1,2008,aGaribRathbetweenKochuvelisatellitestationofThiruvananthapuramand
LokmanyaTilakTerminuswasflaggedoff.[23]OthertrainslikeTrivandrumCentralVeraval,
GandhidhamTrivandrumNagercoil,BikanerKochuveli,NewDelhiKochuveli,MangaloreVerna
Passenger,KonkanKanyaExpressandMandoviExpressfromGoatoMumbai,KeralaSamparkKranti
ExpressfromChandigarhtoKochuveli,AmritsarKochuveliSuperfastExpress,HappaTirunelveli
SuperfastExpressandKochuveliDehradunSuperfastExpressalsopassthroughKonkan.
In2009MumbaiKarwartriweeklySuperFastexpresswasintroduced.Butwithinayearitwas
extendedtoMangaloreJunctionrailwaystationandnowitrunsdaily.Inyear2011PuneErnakulam
SuperFastexpressviaPanvelwasintroducedonbiweeklybasis.In2012,atrainfromSawantwadiTo
Dadarwaslaunched,namedasRajyaRaniExpress.
ThelatesttrainsarePorbanderKochuveli,BhavnagarKochuveliandBikanerCoimbatoreSuperfast
ACexpressviaKonkanandtheextensionoftheYeshvantpurMangaloretriweeklyExpresstoKarwar.
Mostrecently,fromOctober2012theYeshwantpurMangaloreKarwarOvernightExpressisnow
bifurcatedatMangaloreCentralandthemainportionnowrunstoKarwarfulfilingalongstanding
demandoftheCoastalKarnatakapopulaceandfulfilingaKarnatakaHighCourtOrderconsideringa
PIL(PublicInterestLitigation)foranighttrainservicebetweenKarwarandBengaluru.Currentlythe
fastesttrainonthislineistheLokmanyaTilakTerminustoErnakulamBiweeklyDurontoExpress
whichrunsnonstopviatheKonkanRailway.In2014railwayministryhasdecidedtorunanACdouble
deckertrainbetweenLokmanyaTilakTerminus(Kurla)andMadgaoninGoa.Thetrainwastomakeits
inauguralrunduringGaneshChaturthibuthasextendedtheinaugurationdateinlateOctober.On
February2015apassengertrainwasintroducedfromByndoor(Karnataka)toKasaragod(Kerala)
runningdaily.

Freight
FreightresponsetotheKonkanRailwaywaslukewarm,
promptingtheworriedcorporationtoconsidercuttingrates.[24]
Withanoutstandingdebtof 3,375crore,KRCLwasbanking
onfreighttraffictobailitout.[25]Inanefforttoattractfreight
traffic,thecorporationbegancreatingawarenessamonglocal
industriesontheroute.[26]In1999,thecorporationintroduced
theRollon/rolloff(RORO)service,auniqueroadrailsynergy
system,onthesectionbetweenKoladinMaharashtraandVerna
inGoa,[27]whichwasextendeduptoSurathkalinKarnatakain
AROROtrainseenatSawantwadi
[28][29]
Roadstation.
2004.
TheROROservice,thefirstofitskindinIndia,
allowedtruckstobetransportedonflatcars.Itwashighly
popular,[30]carryingabout1.6lakhtrucksandbringinginover 120croreworthofearningstothe
corporationtill2009.[31]

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Difficulties
ThehostileterrainanddifficultweatherconditionsoftheKonkanregionresultedinproblemscontinuing
todogthelineevenafteritsinauguration.Thefirstproblems
surfacedduringthemonsoonof1998,whentorrentialrainfall
causedlandslidesatmanyplaces,washedawaytracksand
disruptedservices.[32]Despitethecorporation'seffortsat
addressingtheproblemsthroughengineeringmeasuressuchas
protectivenettingalongcuttingstopreventbouldersfromrolling
ontothetracks,theproblemscontinuedtorecureachyear.[33][34]
ThefirstmajoraccidentonthelineoccurredonthenightofJune
22,2003,whenalandslidecausedanexpresstraintravelling
Approachingendsoftunnelsare
fromKarwartoMumbaitoderailattheentrancetoatunnel.
chainlockedtopreventlandsliding
Fiftyonepeoplediedasaresultoftheaccident,andseveral
andshootingstones
otherswereinjured.Asaresultoftheaccident,thecorporation
cameunderheavycriticismforfailingtoadheretoadequate
safetymeasuresinthelandslideproneregion.[35]Aninquiryrevealedthecauseoftheaccidenttobea
failureofacuttingduetoabsenceofmonsoonpatrolling.[36]Thefindingsweredisputedbythe
corporation,whichinsistedthatthelackofmonsoonpatrollingdidnotleadtotheaccidentwhichwas
entirelyaresultoftheforcesofnature.[36]Shortlyaftertheaccident,thecorporationannouncedthatit
wouldenhancesafetymeasuresontheroute.[37][38]
Barelyayearlater,thesemeasureswerefoundtobeinadequatewhenasecondmajoraccidentoccurred
onthelineonJune16,2004.TheMatsyagandaExpressboundtoMumbaifromMangalorederailedand
felloffabridgeaftercollidingwithbouldersonthetracks,killing20people.[39][40]Again,the
corporationinsistedthatthemishapwasaresultofnature'sfury.[41][42]Aftertheaccident,questions
wereraisedaboutthesafetyandcredibilityoftheKonkanRailway,[43][44]promptingtheresignationof
itsdirectorRajaramBojjionAugust31,2004.AnenquirybytheCommissionerofRailwaySafety
revealedthecauseoftheaccidenttobedueto"fallingofbouldersandearth"onthetracks.[45]Afterthe
report,thecorporationswungintoaction,implementingallitsrecommendations,includinglimitingthe
speedoftrainsduringthemonsoonto75km/h(47mph)asopposedtotheregularspeedlimitof
120km/h(75mph),aswellasundertakingseveralgeotechnicalengineeringworks,includingboulder
netting,shotcreting,rockbolting,micropilingandvetiverplantationsalongthelinetoincreasesafety.[46]
[47]

InAugust2014afreighttrainderailedinatunnelnearKaranjadirailwaystationcausingdisruptionof
servicesonthelineforaweek.

IntheMedia
TheKonkanRailwayhasfeaturedinarecentepisodeofChannel5Television'sseriesChrisTarrant's
ExtremeRailways.

Seealso
IndianRailways
KonkanRailwayCorporation
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References
1. "RailwayBridgesAcrossZuariandMandoviRivers,Goa"(http://www.afconsindia.com/Mandovi.pdf)(PDF).
OfficialwebpageofAFCONS.Retrieved20081204.
2. KarlisGoppers."SwedishContributiontotheKonkanRailwayConstructionProjectinIndia"
(http://www.sida.se/sida/jsp/sida.jsp?d=118&a=2339&language=en_US).OfficialwebpageofSIDA.Retrieved
20081204.
3. "LANDACQUISITION"(http://www.konkanrailway.com/website/ehtm/intro3.pdf)(PDF).Officialwebpage
oftheKonkanRailwayCorporation.Retrieved20081204.
4. "Construction"(http://www.konkanrailway.com/website/ehtm/constr.pdf)(PDF).Officialwebpageofthe
KonkanRailwayCorporation.Retrieved20081204.
5. "Bridges:PanvalNadiViaduct"(http://www.spacpl.com/bridges/panval.htm).OfficialwebpageofSPA
Consultants.Retrieved20081204.
6. "TRIBUNE:ITANewsletter,datedJune2008"(http://www.ita
aites.org/cms/fileadmin/filemounts/Tribunes_Pdf/T32India_.pdf)(PDF).OfficialwebpageofITAAITES.
Retrieved20080412.
7. G.Raghuram."KonkanRailwayCorporation:ChoiceofAlignmentinGoa"
(http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/~graghu/Vikalpa/Kongan_Goa_1995_july_sep_53_70.pdf)(PDF).Vikalpa.
Retrieved20081204.
8. IndranilBanerjie."ONTHEWRONGTRACK"(http://59.92.116.99/eldoc1/e21_/E21_B1003.pdf)(PDF).
OnlineeditionofSundaymagazine,March29April4,1992.Retrieved20090423.
9. TheGoaFoundationv.KonkanRailwayCorporation,AIR1992Bom.571.
10. "Paswanforqualitycoaches"(http://www.indianexpress.com/res/web/pIe/ie/daily/19970826/23850403.html).
OnlineeditionoftheIndianExpress,dated19970826.Retrieved20081204.
11. G.R.Singbal."JinxedGoansectorderailsKonkandream"
(http://www.indianexpress.com/res/web/pIe/ie/daily/19970731/21250153.html).OnlineeditionoftheIndian
Express,dated19970731.Retrieved20081204.
12. IanJ.Kerr."EnginesofChange"(http://books.google.co.in/books?
id=1F9QtYSSa0gC&printsec=frontcover#PPA62,M1).GoogleBooksPreview.Retrieved20081204.
13. "KonkanRailwayreadytoroll,atlast"
(http://www.indianexpress.com/res/web/pIe/ie/daily/19980116/01650794.html).OnlineeditionoftheIndian
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Externallinks
Officialwebsite(http://www.konkanrailway.com)
WikimediaCommonshas
konkanrailway.com
mediarelatedtoKonkan
(http://www.konkanrailway.com/website/ehtm/intro2.pdf)
Railway.
(PDF)
KonkanRailwayPlansSecondline(http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/reportdnaexclusive
konkanrailwayplanssecondlineinplains1977181)
KonkanRailwayTimeTable(http://www.amazingmaharashtra.com/2012/09/konkanrailway
timetable.html)
MumbaitoRatnagiriTrainsTimeTable
(http://www.touristattractionsindia.com/2014/08/ratnagirispecialtrainskonkanrailway.html)
KonkanRailwayPhotosfromHimanshuSarpotdar
(http://www.flickr.com/photos/himanshu_sarpotdar/sets/72157600137580107)
KonkanRailwayTheNetResourceCentre(http://www.geocities.ws/konkanrailfan)A
HistoricalandArchiveStorefortheRailEnthusiast
IndianRailwaywebsite(http://www.indianrail.gov.in)
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