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A published article regarding the precise formula for firing delay angle.

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JASE

Brief paper

An Accurate Formula For The Firing Angle Of The

Phase Angle Control In Terms Of The Duty Cycle Of

The Integral Cycle Control

S.Ali AL-Mawsawi

N. Allaith

H. Qassim

Journal of Automation

& Systems Engineering

S. Dhiya

Abstract- This paper presents development of a simple and accurate formula for evaluation of the

firing angle () of the phase angle control in terms of the duty cycle (K) of the integral cycle control

when the same average output power transfer is required. The accuracy of the formula developed is

verified by comparing the values obtain from the exact iterative solution. It has been shown that, the

maximum error over the whole range of the entire firing angle () computed for any value of the

exact value is found to be less than 2 degree. The formula presents a very simple way for the

evaluation of the comparison of the harmonics properties of the phase angle control and integral

cycle control for the same average power transfer. In addition, the developed formula reduces the

computational time and also reduces time for manual classroom calculation.

Keywords: Phase angle control, Integral cycle control, Duty cycle, firing angle.

1. INTRODUCTION

It is well established that for a signal phase A.C. voltage regulator with resistor load shown

in figure(1), there are two methods used normally for controlling the power transfer which

are (1-12):

1- ON-OFF control (Integral Cycle Control).

2- Phase-Angle Control.

In integral cycle control, thyristor switches (Triacs) connect the load to the ac source for

few cycles of input voltage and then disconnect it for another few cycles as shown in figure

2. While, in phase angle control, thyristor switches (Triacs) connect the load to the ac

source for a portion of each cycle of input voltage as shown in figure 3.

University of Bahrain, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

P.O. Box 32038, Kingdom of Bahrain

salmosawi@eng.uob.bh

Copyright JASE 2012 on-line: jase.esrgroups.org

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

4

x 10

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

In many power electronics books evaluation of each method performance has been well

published individually without comparing the power transfer of each method. Therefore, it

has been the objective of this paper to develop a simple and accurate formula for the

computation of the firing angle () in terms of the duty cycle (K) in case of same power

transfer.

2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE FORMULA

In case of the integral cycle control, the output voltage waveform is shown in figure (2). If

the input voltage [Vs=2sinwt] is connected to load for N cycles and is disconnected for M

cycles, then the rms output voltage can be found from:

Vo =

2

N

2

2

2Vs sin wt dt

2 ( N + M ) 0

Vo = Vs

N

N +M

Vo = V s K

(1)

(2)

(3)

Hence the output power (average power) can be found from:

Po =

Vo2

V2

=K s

R

R

(4)

31

S.Ali AL-Mawsawi et al.: An Accurate Formula for the Firing Angle of the Phase Angle Control In Terms

On the other hand, in case of phase angle control (the output voltage waveform is shown

in figure 3), if the delay angle (firing angle) is (0< <180), then the rms output

voltage can be found from:

Vo =

2

2

2

( 2Vs ) sin wtdwt

2

Vo = Vs

( +

(5)

sin 2

)

2

(6)

Vs2

sin 2

(7)

]

[ +

2

R

If it is required to produce same average output power from both methods, then from (4)

and (7) the following equation can be found:

Po =

1

1

(8)

[ + sin( 2 )]

2

As it can be seen from equation (8) that the relation between the duty cycle (K) and the

firing angle () is not linear. In case of if the firing angle () is given and it is required to

find the value of the duty cycle (K) for the same average output power, equation (8) can

be easily used. But in case of if it is required to find the firing angle () for a given duty

cycle (K), it needs time consuming iterative solution. This difficulty has been solved by

using the following new developed equation:

K=

(9)

To verify the validity of the above developed formula (equation (9)), the exact waveform

for the relation between the firing angle () and the duty cycle (K) has been obtained

from the equation (8) and compared with that obtained from the new developed formula.

This comparison is shown in figure 4.

k vs alpha

180

160

140

alpha(degree)

120

exact solution

100

80

60

developed solution

40

20

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

k

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Figure 4: The comparison between the exact formula and developed formula.

Examination of the above figure clearly indicates that the developed formula gives

reasonable accuracy results. The overall error over the entire firing angle () range

computed for any value of the exact value was found to be less than 2 degree as shown in

figure 5.

32

error(deg)

-2

-4

-6

20

40

60

80

100

alpha a(deg)

120

140

160

Figure 5: The overall error over the entire firing angle () range.

3. APPLICATION OF THE FORMULA

The main advantages of the developed formula are to facilitate the computation of the firing

angle () for a given value of the duty cycle (K) for the classroom use and provide easy

solution in computer aided or manual problems. In addition, one of the applications where

this developed formula can be used is that, for comparing the harmonics properties of the

integral cycle control and phase angle control for the same average output power. Theses

comparisons are illustrated in figures 6 and 7.

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x 10

(a)

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0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

(b)

integral cycle N/T=1/8

0.25

load voltage (per unit)

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

1

(c)

Figure 6: a) Output voltage waveform in case of integral cycle control (K=0.125)

b) Output voltage waveform in case of phase angle control (= 130)

c) Comparing the harmonics properties of the integral cycle control and phase angle control

for the same average output power

33

S.Ali AL-Mawsawi et al.: An Accurate Formula for the Firing Angle of the Phase Angle Control In Terms

1

0.8

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0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

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4.5

4

x 10

(a)

1

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0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

(b)

integral cycle N/T=5/8

phase

angle alpha=80.36 (deg)

0.7

load voltage( per unit)

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

per-unit frequency

(c)

Figure 7: a) Output voltage waveform in case of integral cycle control (K=0.625).

b) Output voltage waveform in case of phase angle control ( = 80).

c) Comparing the harmonics properties of the integral cycle control and phase angle control

for the same average output power.

4. CONCLUSIONS

A simple and accurate formula has been developed for evaluation of the firing angle () of

the phase angle control in terms of the duty cycle (K) of the integral cycle control when the

same average output power transfer is required. The accuracy of the formula developed

verified by comparing the values obtain from the exact iterative solution. The maximum

error over the whole range of the entire firing angle () computed for any value of the exact

value was found to be less than 2 degree. The formula presents a very simple way for the

evaluation of the comparison of the harmonics properties of the phase angle control and

integral cycle control for the same average power transfer. In addition, the developed

formula reduces the computational time and also reduces time for manual classroom

calculation.

34

REFERENCES

1- Rashid M.H. , Power Electronics: Circuit, Devices, and Applications, Third edition,

Pearson Prentice Hall, USA, 2004.

2- Hart D. W., Introduction to Power Electronics, Prentice Hall, USA, 1997.

3- Bird B.M. and King K.G., An Introduction to Power Electronics, John Wiley & Sons

Ltd, January 1988.

4- Mohan N., Undeland T., and Robbins W., Power Electronics: Converters,

Applications, and Design, Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons, USA, 2003.

5- Ahmed A., Power Electronics for Technology, Prentice Hall, USA, 1999.

6- Sen P.C., Power Electronics, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New

Delhi, 1990.

7- Kassakian J., Schlecht M., and Verghese G., Principles of Power Electronics,

Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, New York, 1991.

8- Lander C.W., Power Electronics, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company,

U.K., 1987.

9- Straughen D., Power Semiconductor Circuits, Wiley-Interscience Publication, John

Wiley & Sons, New York, 1975.

10- Fisher M.J., Power Electronics, Thomson Information / Publishing group, PWSKENT Publishing Company, Boston, 1991.

11- Datta S.K., Power Electronics & Controls, Prentice-Hall Company, Reston,

Virginia, 1985.

12- Shephered W. and Hulley L.N., Power Electronics and Motor Control, Cambridge

University Press, U.K., 1982.

35

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