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Donald Trump

For other uses, see Donald Trump (disambiguation).

two years, before transferring to the Wharton School of

the University of Pennsylvania, because Wharton then
had one of the few real estate studies departments in US
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an Ameri[24]
He graduated in 1968, with a Bachelor of
can real estate magnate, television personality, politician, academia.
Science degree in economics.[25]
and author. He is the chairman and president of The
Trump Organization and the founder of Trump Enter- Trump came of age for the draft during the Vietnam War.
tainment Resorts.[1] Trumps branding eorts, business In an interview in 2011 on New York station WNYW,[26]
career, outspoken manner, media appearances, and books he stated, I actually got lucky because I had a very high
have made him a celebrity. He hosted The Apprentice,[2] draft number.[27] Selective Service records retrieved by
a U.S. television program on NBC.
The Smoking Gun from NARA records show that, alTrump is a son of Fred Trump, a New York City real though Trump did eventually receive a high selective serestate developer.[10] Donald Trump worked for his fa- vice lottery number, he was not drafted earlier because of
thers rm, Elizabeth Trump & Son, while attending the his student deferments (2-S) while attending college, and
later converted
Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, and, after receiving a medical deferment (1-Y, [28]
in 1968, ocially joined the company.
He was given
control of the company in 1971, renaming it The Trump
Organization.[12][13] Trump remains a major gure in the
real estate industry in the United States and a media

2 Business career

On June 16, 2015, Trump formally announced his candidacy for President of the United States in the 2016
election, seeking the nomination of the Republican
Party.[15][16] Trumps early campaigning has seen him
catapult to high levels of popular support to the consternation of the Republican party leadership.[17] Since late
July 2015, he has been at the top in the public opinion
polls for the Republican Party nomination.[18][19]

Trump began his career at his fathers real estate

company,[29] Elizabeth Trump and Son,[30] which focused on middle-class rental housing in the New York
City boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island.
One of Trumps rst projects, while he was still in college,
was the revitalization of the foreclosed Swifton Village
apartment complex in Cincinnati, Ohio, which his father
had purchased for $5.7 million in 1962. The Trumps became involved in the project and with a $500,000 investment, turned the 1,200-unit complex with a 66 percent
1 Early life and education
vacancy rate to 100 percent occupancy within two years.
In 1972, the Trump Organization sold Swifton Village for
Trump was born on June 14, 1946, in the borough of $6.75 million. Donalds involvement with the project was
Queens in New York City. He is one of ve children born to perform some landscaping and menial labor.[31]
to Mary Anne (ne MacLeod) and Fred Trump, who had
In 1971, Trump moved to Manhattan and became inmarried in 1936. His oldest brother, Fred Jr., died in volved in larger building projects and used attractive ar1981 at the age of 43.[20] Trumps mother was a Scottish chitectural design to win public recognition.[10] Trump
immigrant, born on the Isle of Lewis, o the west coast initially came to public attention in 1973, when he was acof Scotland,[21] and Trumps paternal grandparents were cused by the Justice Department of violations of the Fair
German immigrants.[22]
Housing Act in the operation of 39 buildings. Trump in
turn accused the Justice Department of targeting his company because it was a large one, and to force it to rent to
welfare recipients. Trump settled the charges in 1975,
saying he was satised that the agreement did not compel the Trump organization to accept persons on welfare
as tenants unless as qualied as any other tenant.[32]

While living in Jamaica Estates, Trump attended the

Kew-Forest School in Forest Hills, Queens, where Fred
Trump, Donalds father, was a member of the Board of
Trustees. Some of his siblings also attended Kew-Forest.
At age 13, after behavior problems led to his dismissal,
his parents sent him to the New York Military Academy
(NYMA), hoping to direct his energy and assertiveness
in a positive manner.[23]

Trump made plans to acquire and develop the old Penn

Central for $60 million with no money down.[33] Later,
Trump attended Fordham University in the Bronx for with the help of a 40-year tax abatement from the


New York City government, he turned the bankrupt ects his net worth as $8.7 billion. Of that amount, $3.3
Commodore Hotel into the Grand Hyatt[34] and created billion is represented by Real Estate Licensing Deals,
The Trump Organization.[35]
Brand and Branded Developments, described by Busithat Trump values
New York City had a plan to build the Javits Convention ness Insider as basically [implying]
2015, the Federal
Center on property for which Trump held a right-to-buy
of his wealth and
option. Trump estimated his company could have comnancial
pleted the project for $110 million but the city rejected
his oer and Trump received a brokers fee on the sale of
the property instead. Repairs on The Wollman Rink in
Central Park (built in 1955) were started in 1980 with an
expected 2-year construction schedule but was nowhere 3 Business ventures and
near completion by 1986. Trump took over the managements
ment of the project, at no cost to the city, and completed
it in three months for $1.95 million, which was $750,000
Main article: The Trump Organization
less than the initial budget.[37]


In 1988, Trump acquired the Taj Mahal Casino in a transaction with Merv Grin and Resorts International.[38]
This expansion, both personal and business, led to mounting debt.[39]
By 1989, poor business decisions left Trump unable to
meet loan payments. Trump nanced the construction
of his third casino, the $1 billion Taj Mahal, primarily
with high-interest junk bonds. Although he shored up
his businesses with additional loans and postponed interest payments, by 1991, increasing debt brought Trump
to business bankruptcy[39] and to the brink of personal
bankruptcy. Banks and bond holders had lost hundreds
of millions of dollars, but opted to restructure his debt
to avoid the risk of losing more money in court. The
Taj Mahal emerged from bankruptcy on October 5, 1991,
with Trump ceding 50 percent ownership in the casino to
the original bondholders in exchange for lowered interest
rates on the debt and more time to pay it o.[40]
The late 1990s saw a resurgence in his nancial situation. In 2001, he completed Trump World Tower, a 72story residential tower across from the United Nations
Headquarters.[41] Also, he began construction on Trump
Place, a multi-building development along the Hudson
River. Trump owns commercial space in Trump International Hotel and Tower, a 44-story mixed-use (hotel
and condominium) tower on Columbus Circle. Trump The Trump Organization owns, operates, develops and invests in
owns several million square feet of prime Manhattan real real estate around the world such as Trump International Hotel
and Tower in Chicago.
Trump has developed many real estate projects, such as
Trump International Hotel and Tower Honolulu, Trump
International Hotel and Tower Chicago, Trump International Hotel and Tower Toronto, and Trump Tower
Tampa. In Fort Lauderdale, Florida, one of Trumps
construction projects was put on hold in favor of another (Trump International Hotel and Tower Fort Lauderdale). Meanwhile, Trump Towers Atlanta One was developed in a housing market having the nations secondhighest inventory of unsold homes.[43]

3.1 Trump branding and licensing

Beyond his traditional ventures in the real estate, hospitality, and entertainment industries, Trump has established the Trump name and brand in other industries and
products. Trump has succeeded in marketing the Trump
name on a large number of products, including Trump
Financial (a mortgage rm), Trump Sales and Leasing
In 2015, Forbes estimated his net worth at $4.1 billion.[2] (residential sales), Trump Restaurants (located in Trump
In June 2015, Business Insider published a June 30, 2014, Tower and consisting of Trump Buet, Trump Catering,
nancial statement supplied by Trump. The statement re- Trump Ice Cream Parlor, and Trump Bar), GoTrump


Trump branding and licensing

(an online travel website),[45] Donald J. Trump Signature

Collection (a line of menswear, mens accessories, and
watches), Donald Trump The Fragrance (2004), Trump
magazine, Trump Golf, Trump Chocolate, Trump home
(home furnishings), Trump Productions (a television production company), Trump Institute, Trump The Game
(1989 board game), Donald Trumps Real Estate Tycoon (a business simulation game), Trump Books, Trump
Model Management, Trump Shuttle, Trump Ice, Trump
Mortgage, Trump Vodka, and Trump Steaks. In addition,
Trump reportedly receives $1.5 million for each one-hour
presentation he does for The Learning Annex.[46]
In 2011, Forbes nancial experts estimated the value
of the Trump brand at $200 million. Trump disputes
this valuation, saying that his brand is worth about $3
billion.[47] Many developers pay Trump to market their
properties and to be the public face for their projects.[48]
For that reason, Trump does not own many of the buildings that display his name.[48] According to Forbes, this
portion of Trumps empire, actually run by his children, is
by far his most valuable, having a $562 million valuation.
According to Forbes, there are 33 licensing projects under
development including seven condo hotels (the seven
Trump International Hotel and Tower developments).
Trump Tower, at 725 Fifth Avenue, Manhattan


Net worth

Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It was developed

In April 2011, amidst speculation whether Trump would by Trump and the Equitable Life Assurance Company.
run as a candidate in the US presidential election of 2012, It is now just developed/owned by Donald Trump, and
Politico quoted unnamed sources close to him stating that, designed by Der Scutt of Swanke, Hayden Connell.
if Trump should decide to run for president, he would
le nancial disclosure statements that [would] show his
3.1.3 Stock market investments
net worth [was] in excess of $7 billion with more than
$250 million of cash, and very little debt.[49] (PresidenIn 2011, Trump made a rare foray into the stock martial candidates are required to disclose their nances after
ket after being disappointed with the depressed Ameriannouncing their intentions to run.) Although Trump did
can real estate market and facing poor returns on bank denot run as a candidate in the 2012 elections, his profesposits. He stated that he wasn't a stock market person, but
sionally prepared 2012 nancial disclosure was published
he also stated that prime real estate at good prices is hard
in his book stating a $7 billion net worth.[50] Estimates
to get. Among the stocks Trump purchased, he stated he
of Trumps net worth have uctuated along with real esbought stock in Bank of America, Citigroup, Caterpillar
tate valuations: In 2015, Forbes listed it as $4.1 billion.[5]
Inc., Intel, Johnson & Johnson, Procter & Gamble.[52]
On June 16, 2015, just prior announcing his candidacy
and Facebook.[53] On selling stock picks in 2014, Trump
for President of the United States, Trump released proearned a $27 million prot, with 40 of the 45 stocks he
fessionally prepared nancial disclosure statements to the
purchased generating a prot in 2014.[54]
media stating a net worth of almost $9 billion.[51] In July
2015, the Federal election regulators released new details
of his wealth and nancial holdings when he became a 3.1.4 Sports
Republican presidential candidate, reporting that his assets are worth above $1.4 billion, which includes at least In 1983, Trump purchased the New Jersey Generals for
$70 million in stocks, and he carries a debt of at least the inaugural season of the United States Football League
$265 million.[3][4]
(USFL). The Generals hired former New York Jets head
coach Walt Michaels. Prior to the inaugural season,
Trump sold the franchise to Oklahoma oil magnate J.
3.1.2 Trump Tower
Walter Duncan. Prior to the 1984 season, Duncan sold
the team back to Trump.[55]
Main article: Trump Tower (New York City)
Trump Tower is a 58-story mixed-use skyscraper at The USFL planned to play its 1986 schedule in the fall,
725 Fifth Avenue, at the corner of East 56th Street in directly opposite the NFL, thanks mostly to Trumps


strong advocacy of direct competition with the older, es- 3.2 Beauty pageants
tablished league. Two years earlier, Trump sold most
of his fellow owners on a move to the fall by arguing Further information: Miss USA and Miss Universe
that it would eventually force a merger with the NFL
in which the owners of any USFL teams included in a
Trump has owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA
merger would see their investment more than double.
beauty pageants since 1996. Among the most recognized
The Generals merged with the Houston Gamblers during beauty pageants in the world, the pageant was founded in
the extended oseason, adding such stars as quarterback 1952 by the California clothing company Pacic Mills.
Jim Kelly and wide receiver Ricky Sanders. Michaels was
red, replaced with former Gamblers coach Jack Pardee, In 2015, NBC and Univision both ended their business
who planned to bring the Gamblers high-powered run relationships with the Miss Universe Organization after
and shoot oense with him. However, the USFLs Trumps presidential campaign kicko speech on June
Dream Team never took the eld. The 1986 season 16, in which he stated:
was cancelled after the USFL won a minimal verdict in an
antitrust lawsuit against the NFL; the league folded soon
The U.S. has become a dumping ground
for everybody elses problems. Thank you.
Trump at one time acted as a nancial advisor for Mike
Its true, and these are the best and the
Tyson,[56] hosting Tysons ght against Michael Spinks in
nest. When Mexico sends its people, theyre
Atlantic City.[57]
not sending their best. Theyre not sending you. Theyre not sending you. Theyre
sending people that have lots of problems,
and theyre bringing those problems with us.
3.1.5 Golf
Theyre bringing drugs. Theyre bringing
crime. Theyre rapists. And some, I assume,
are good people.[65]

Trump subsequently led a $500 million lawsuit against

Univision alleging a breach of contract and defamation.
Cable network Reelz then acquired the rights to exclusively telecast the Miss USA pageant.[66][67]

4 Entertainment media

Turnberry Hotel, Ayrshire, Scotland

The Trump Organization operates many golf courses and

resorts in the United States and around the world.[58] On
February 11, 2014, it was announced that Trump had
purchased Doonbeg Golf Club in the Republic of Ireland. It was conrmed that Doonbeg Golf Club would
be renamed Trump International Golf Links, Ireland.[59]
In 2006, Trump bought the Menie estate in Balmedie,
Aberdeenshire, Scotland creating a highly contentious
golf resort.[60][61] In April 2014, Trump purchased the
Turnberry hotel and golf resort in Ayrshire, Scotland,
which is a regular xture in the Open Championship
rota.[62][63] In June 2015, Trumps appeal objecting to
an oshore windfarm (Aberdeen Bay Wind Farm) within
sight of the golf links was denied.[64]

In the media, Trump is a two-time Emmy Award

nominated personality, has made appearances as a caricatured version of himself in television series and lms
(e.g. Home Alone 2: Lost in New York, The Nanny,
The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, Days of Our Lives, Wall
Street: Money Never Sleeps.[68] ), and as a character (The
Little Rascals). He has been the subject of comedians, Flash cartoon artists, and online caricature artists.
Trump also had his own daily talk radio program called
In March 2011, Trump was the subject of a Comedy
Central Roast. The special was hosted by Seth MacFarlane, and roasters included Larry King, Snoop Dogg,
and Anthony Jeselnik among regular roast participants.
Trumps daughter Ivanka was seen in the audience. In
April 2011, Trump attended the White House Correspondents Dinner, featuring comedian Seth Meyers. President Obama used the occasion to present several prepared
jokes mocking Trump.[74]


World Wrestling Entertainment

another season because of the possibility of a presidential
run.[78] Despite this, on March 18, NBC announced they
were going ahead with production.[79] On June 29, after widespread negative reaction stemming from Trumps
campaign announcement speech, NBC released a statement saying, Due to the recent derogatory statements by
Donald Trump regarding immigrants, NBCUniversal is
ending its business relationship with Mr. Trump, apparently ending Trumps role in The Apprentice.[80]

4.2 World Wrestling Entertainment

Trump is a known World Wrestling Entertainment fan
and friend of WWE owner Vince McMahon. He has
hosted two WrestleMania events in the Trump Plaza and
has been an active participant in several of the shows.[81]
Trumps Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City was host
to the 1991 WBF Championship (which was owned by
WWE, known at the time as the World Wrestling Federation). Trump was interviewed by Jesse Ventura ringside at WrestleMania XX.[82]
He also appeared at WrestleMania 23 in a match called
The Battle of the Billionaires.[81] Trump was in the
Trump with Dennis Rodman during the latters participation on
corner of Bobby Lashley, while Vince McMahon was in
The Apprentice
the corner of Lashleys opponent Umaga with Stone Cold
Steve Austin as the special guest referee.[81] The stipulation of the match was hair versus hair, which means that
4.1 The Apprentice
either Trump or McMahon would have their head shaved
if their competitor lost.[81] Lashley won the match, and
In 2003, Trump became the executive producer and host he and Trump shaved McMahon bald.[81]
of the NBC reality show, The Apprentice, in which a
group of competitors battled for a high-level management On June 15, 2009, as part of a storyline, McMahon anjob in one of Trumps commercial enterprises. Contes- nounced on Monday Night Raw that he had sold the
tants were successively red and eliminated from the show to Trump. Appearing on screen, Trump declared
game. In 2004, Donald Trump led a trademark applica- he would be at the following commercial-free episode in
person and would give a full refund to the people who
tion for the catchphrase "You're red.
purchased tickets to the arena for that nights show.[81]
For the rst year of the show, Trump was paid $50,000 McMahon bought back Raw the following week for
per episode (roughly $700,000 for the rst season), but twice the price.[81] His entrance theme Money, Money
following the shows initial success, he is currently paid was written by Jim Johnston.
a reported $3 million per episode, making him one of
the highest paid TV personalities. In July 2015, Trump Trump was inducted into the celebrity wing of the WWE
reported in his personal nancial disclosure statement Hall of Fame in 2013 at Madison Square Garden for
with the Federal Election Commission that NBCUniver- his contributions to the promotion. He made his fth
sal had paid him $213,606,575 for his 14 seasons of host- WrestleMania appearance the next night.
ing the show.[75] In 2007, Trump received a star on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contribution to television (The Apprentice).[76]

5 Politics

Along with British TV producer Mark Burnett, Trump

also put together The Celebrity Apprentice, in which wellknown stars compete to win money for their charities.
While Trump and Burnett co-produced the show, Trump
stayed in the forefront, deciding winners and ring

A 2011 report by the Center for Responsive Politics

showed that over two decades of US elections, Donald
Trump made contributions to campaigns of both Republican Party and Democratic Party candidates.[84] In
February 2012, Trump endorsed Mitt Romney for presOn February 16, 2015, NBC announced that they would ident of the United States.[85] Trump was an early supbe renewing The Apprentice for a 15th season.[77] 11 days porter of Ronald Reagan for president of the United
later, Trump stated that he was not ready to sign on for States.[86]

he was still actively considering a run.[109][110] His moves
were interpreted by some media as possible promotional
tools for his reality show The Apprentice.[111][112][113] On
May 16, 2011, Trump announced he would not run for
president.[111] Public Policy Polling described the events
of May 2011 as one of the quickest rises and falls in the
history of presidential politics.[114] In December 2011,
Donald Trump was named among the top six of the ten
most admired men and women living, according to a USA
Today/Gallup poll.[115]

Donald Trump speaking at the 2015 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in National Harbor, Maryland on
February 27, 2015

In April 2011, he questioned President Barack Obama's

proof of citizenship.[87] Trump also questioned whether
Obama had good enough grades to warrant entry to Harvard Law School.[88] On April 25, 2011, Trump called for
Obama to end the citizenship issue by releasing the longform of his birth certicate.[89][90] Two days later, Obama
made a formal statement in eorts by the White House
to put the matter to rest with the release of the long-form
of Obamas birth certicate.[91] Trump expressed pride
at his role in the release of the long-form certicate in a
press conference follow-up.[92]

In January 2013, Trump (who is a notably popular gure in Israel,[116] where his name is attached to products
sometimes without his permission)[117] released a video
endorsing Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
during the 2013 Israeli elections, stating that A strong
prime minister is a strong Israel.[118][119] In 2015, Trump
was awarded the 'Liberty Award' at the 'Algemeiner Jewish 100 Gala' in honor of his positive contributions to
USIsrael relations.[120] Trump stated: I have so many
friends in Israel.[121]
In 2013, Trump was a featured speaker at the
Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC).[122]
The speech was not well-attended.[123] He spent over $1
million to research a possible run for president of the
United States.[124] In October 2013, New York Republicans had circulated a memo suggesting Trump should run
for governor of the state in 2014 against Andrew Cuomo.
Trump said that while New York had problems and taxes
were too high, running for governor was not of great interest to him.[125] In February 2015, Trump opted not to
renew his television contract for The Apprentice, generating speculation that he might run for President of the
United States in 2016.[126]

Donald Trump has spoken before Tea Party

supporters.[93][94][95] In December 2008, Trump
emerged as an early supporter of the 2009 government
backed rescue plan for the US auto industry which
by 2012 was supported by 56% of Americans (63%
support in Michigan), according a Pew Research Center
poll.[96][97] Statements of Trumps hinting that vaccination would cause autism were subject to criticism in 5.1 Presidential campaign, 2016
various media by the scientic community.[98][99] He
has also been criticized for climate change-denying Main article: Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
statements, because they are discordant with the opinion
of the scientic community.[100]
Trump formally announced his candidacy for president
Trump oated the idea of running for president in 1988, of the United States in the 2016 elections on June 16,
2004, and 2012, and for governor of New York in 2006 2015, from his headquarters in Trump Tower in New
and 2014, but did not enter those races.[101][102] He ran for York City.[15][16] Trump launched his campaign declarthe presidential nomination of the Reform Party in 2000, ing the ocial slogan, We are going to make our counwinning the partys California primary.[103][104][105][106] try great again with a commitment to become the greatAs Trump publicly speculated about seeking the 2012 est jobs president that God ever created.[16][127] A surRepublican presidential nomination, a Wall Street Jour- vey conducted by The Economist/YouGov released July
nal/NBC News poll released in March 2011 found Trump 9, 2015 became signicant as the rst major nationwide
leading among potential contenders, one point ahead poll to show Trump as the 2016 Republican presidential
of former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney.[107] frontrunner.[128] A Suolk/USA Today poll released on
A Newsweek poll conducted in February 2011 showed July 14, 2015 showed a 17% support for Trump among
Trump within a few points of Barack Obama, with many Republican voters, with runner-up Jeb Bush picking up
voters undecided in the November 2012 general election 14%.[129] A Washington Post-ABC News poll taken on
for president of the United States.[108] A poll released in July 1619 showed Trump had 24% Republican support,
April 2011 by Public Policy Polling showed Trump hav- over Scott Walker at 13%.[130] A CNN/ORC poll showed
ing a nine-point lead in a potential contest for the Repub- Trump in the lead at 18% support among Republican
lican nomination for President of the United States while voters, over Jeb Bush at 15%.[131][132] In CBS news poll

Donald Trump
Donald Trump campaigning at the Laconia Rally, Laconia, New

from August 4, Trump was again rst with 24% of support, Bush was second at 13% and Walker was third at

Personal life

Trump is popularly known as The Donald, a nickname

perpetuated by the media after his rst wife Ivana Trump
referred to him as such in an interview.[134]
Trumps mother, Mary Anne, was born in 1912 at Tong,
Stornoway on the Isle of Lewis, o the coast of Scotland.
In 1930, aged 18, on a holiday in New York, she met Fred
Trump and stayed in New York. Born in Queens, New
York,[135] Trump has four siblings: two brothers, Fred,
Jr. (who is deceased) and Robert S. Trump; and two sisters, Maryanne and Elizabeth. His older sister, Maryanne
Trump Barry, is a federal appeals court judge.
In 1977, Trump married Ivana Zelnkov, a native of the
Czech Republic, and together they have three children:
Donald, Jr. (born December 31, 1977), Ivanka (born
October 30, 1981), and Eric (born January 6, 1984).
They were divorced in 1992. In 1993, he married Marla Melania Knauss-Trump
Maples and together they had one child, Tiany (born
October 13, 1993). They divorced on June 8, 1999.
In a February 2008 interview on ABCs news program Nightline, Trump commented on his ex-wives by saying,


I just know its very hard for them [Ivana and Marla] to lion personal debt by 1994[154] and reduced signicantly
compete because I do love what I do. I really love it.
his nearly $3.5 billion in business debt. While he relinOn April 26, 2004, he proposed to Melania Knauss, a na- quished the Trump Princess yacht and the Trump Shuttive of Slovenia. Trump and Knauss married on January tle (which he had bought in 1989), he managed to re22, 2005, at Bethesda by the Sea Episcopal Church, on tain Trump Tower in New York City and control of his
the island of Palm Beach, Florida, followed by a reception three casinos in Atlantic City. Trump sold his ownerat Trumps Mar-A-Lago estate.[136] Melania gave birth to ship of West Side Yards to Asian developers as a result
a boy named Barron William Trump, Trumps fth child, of his negotiations with Chase Manhattan Bank. Trump
was reportedly paid a premium for placing his well known
on March 20, 2006.[137][138]
moniker on the buildings that eventually arose. In 1995,
Trump has seven grandchildren: ve from his son Don- he combined his casino holdings into the publicly held
ald Jr. (Kai Madison,[139] Donald John III,[140] Tris- Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts. The real estate astan Milos,[141] Spencer Frederick and Chloe Sophia) and sets became a source of wealth even when prots had
two from his daughter Ivanka (Arabella Rose and Joseph struggled.[155]
Frederick[142][143] ).
The third corporate bankruptcy was on October 21, 2004,
Trump is a Presbyterian.[9] In an April 2011 interview, on when Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts announced a rethe 700 Club, Trump said, I'm a Protestant, I'm a Pres- structuring of its debt.[156] The plan called for Trumps
byterian. And you know I've had a good relationship with individual ownership to be reduced from 56 percent to 27
the church over the years. I think religion is a wonderful percent, with bondholders receiving stock in exchange for
thing. I think my religion is a wonderful religion.[144][145] surrendering part of the debt. Trump Hotels was forced
Of his daughter Ivankas conversion to Judaism he said: to seek voluntary bankruptcy protection to stay aoat.
Not only do I have Jewish grandchildren, I have a Jewish After the company applied for Chapter 11 Protection in
November 2004, Trump opted to relinquish his CEO podaughter and I am very honored by that.[146]
sition but retained a role as Chairman of the board. In
May 2005[157] the company emerged from bankruptcy as
Trump Entertainment Resorts Holdings.[158]

Legal aairs

The most recent corporate bankruptcy occurred in 2009.

On February 13, Trump announced that he would resign from the board of Trump Entertainment Resorts
and four days later the company led for Chapter 11
bankruptcy.[159] At that time, Trump Entertainment Resorts had three properties in Atlantic City: Trump Taj
Mahal, Trump Plaza, and Trump Marina (sold in 2011).
In early August 2014, Donald Trump led a lawsuit requesting his name be removed from the Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino and the Taj Mahal facilities since he no
longer runs or controls the company.[160] Trump Entertainment Resorts led again for bankruptcy in 2014.[161]

Four of Trumps businesses have declared Chapter

11 bankruptcy.[147] According to a 2011 report by
Forbes, these were due to over-leveraged hotel and
casino businesses in Atlantic City: Trumps Taj Mahal
(1991), Trump Plaza Hotel (1992), Trump Hotels and
Casino Resorts (2004), and Trump Entertainment Resorts (2009).[148][149] Trump said I've used the laws of
this country to pare debt. We'll have the company.
We'll throw it into a chapter. We'll negotiate with the
banks. We'll make a fantastic deal. You know, its like on
'The Apprentice'. Its not personal. Its just business.[150]
He indicated that other great entrepreneurs do the In 1973, the Justice Department unsuccessfully sued
Trump Management Corporation for alleged racial dissame.[148]
crimination, at which time Trump was the companys
Trumps rst corporate bankruptcy was in 1991 when
president.[162] The federal government led the lawsuit
Trump Taj Mahal was unable to pay its obligations.[150]
against his New York City real estate company for alForbes indicated that his rst bankruptcy was the only
legedly discriminating against potential black renters,
one where his personal wealth was involved. Time, howwhich Trump never admitted. The case was settled out
ever, maintains that also in the later 2004 bankruptcy $72
of court in 1975.[163]
million of his personal money was involved.[151]
In March 1990, after an analyst at Janney Montgomery
On November 2, 1992, the Trump Plaza Hotel led a
Scott said that Trumps Taj Mahal project would initially
prepackaged Chapter 11 protection plan. Under the plan,
break records but would fail before the end of that
Trump agreed to give up a 49 percent stake in the luxyear, Trump threatened to sue the rm unless the anury hotel to Citibank and ve other lenders.[152] In return
alyst recanted or was red. The analyst refused to reTrump would receive more favorable terms on the retract the statements, and was red by his rm.[164] Taj
maining $550+ million owed to the lenders, and retain his
Mahal declared bankruptcy for the rst time in Novemposition as chief executive, though he would not be paid
ber 1990.[165] A defamation lawsuit by the analyst against
and would not have a role in day-to-day operations.[153]
Trump for $2 million was settled out of court.[166] The
In the subsequent restructuring of these two events, analysts statements regarding the Taj Mahals prospects
Trump had eliminated a large portion of his $900 mil-

were later called stunningly accurate.[167]
In January 2002, the Securities and Exchange Commission brought a nancial-reporting case against Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts Inc., alleging that it had committed several misleading statements in the companys
third-quarter 1999 earnings release. The matter was settled with the defendant neither admitting nor denying the
During the 2008 nancial crisis, Trump International Hotel and Tower in Chicago was unable to sell sucient
units. Lender Deutsche Bank refused to let Trump lower
the prices on the units to spur sales. Arguing that the
nancial crisis and resulting drop in the real estate market is due to circumstances beyond his control, Trump
invoked a clause in the contract to not pay the loan.[169]
Trump then initiated a suit asserting that his image had
been damaged. Both parties agreed to drop their suits,
and sale of the units went on.[170]
In September 2011, an appellate court upheld a New
Jersey judges decision dismissing Trumps $5 billion
defamation lawsuit against author Timothy L. O'Brien,
who had reported in his 2006 book, TrumpNation: The
Art of Being The Donald, that Trumps true net worth
was in fact between $150 and $250 million, not the billions Trump had told the author and publicly stated in
2005.[171] Trump complained that the authors alleged underestimation of his net worth was motivated by malice and had cost him business deals and reputational
damage.[172] The appellate court, however, noted the consistency of O'Briens three condential sources.[173]

ment against her, having been sued by Trump after alleging that Miss USA 2012 pageant results were rigged.
Monnin wrote on her Facebook page that another contestant told her during a rehearsal she had seen a list
of the top ve nalists, and when those names were
called in their precise order, Monnin realized the pageant
election process was suspect, compelling Monnin to resign her Miss Pennsylvania title. Trumps lawyer said
that Monnins allegations had cost the pageant a lucrative British Petroleum sponsorship deal and threatened to
discourage women from entering Miss USA contests in
the future.[181] According to Monnin, testimony from the
Miss Universe Organization and Ernst & Young revealed
that the top 15 nalists were selected by pageant directors regardless of preliminary judges scores.[182] As part
of the settlement, Monnin was not required to retract her
original statements.[181] Standing on truth has cost me
much, Monnin said.[183]
In late October 2014, model Alexia Palmer led a civil
suit against Trump Model Management for promising
a $75,000 annual salary but paying only $3,380.75 for
three years work. Palmer claims to be owed more than
$200,000. Palmer charged that Trump Model Management, charged, in addition to a management fee, obscure expenses from postage to limousine rides that consumed the remainder of her compensation. Trump attorney Alan Garten claims the lawsuit is bogus and completely frivolous.[184][185]
In 2015, Trump initiated a $100 million lawsuit against
Palm Beach County claiming that ocials, in a deliberate and malicious act, pressured the FAA to direct air
trac to the Palm Beach International Airport over his
Mar-A-Lago estate.[186] The air trac is allegedly damaging the construction of the building and disrupting its
ambience. Trump had previously sued twice over airport

After producing his birth certicate, Trump sued comedian Bill Maher for $5 million in 2013 after remarks
made on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. Trump
claimed Mahers $5 million reward, payable to a charity, if he proved he wasn't the son of an orangutan, was a
serious oer. That wasn't a joke, Trump said. Trump
In 2015, Trump initiated a $10 million lawsuit against
withdrew his lawsuit after eight weeks.[174]
Jos Andrs claiming that he backed out of a deal to
On August 24, 2013, a lawsuit led by New York Attor- open the agship restaurant at Trump International Honey General Eric Schneiderman, whose claims were dis- tel Washington, D.C..[187]
missed by the Manhattan Superior Court, had accused
Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist David Cay Johnston
Trump of defrauding more than 5,000 people of $40
million for the opportunity to learn Trumps real estate as well as investigative journalist Wayne Barrett, who
wrote an unauthorized 1992 Trump biography, have alinvestment techniques in a for-prot training program,
On January 30, 2014, the leged that Trump and his companies did business with
Trump University.
families linked to the ItalianNew York court dismissed all of the Attorney Generals New York and Philadelphia
purchased the future
fraud claims against Trump, allowing only the licenssite
for twice its maring aspect of the case to proceed.[178] In October 2014,
family member
the New York court found Trump only liable for not
of New Jersey
obtaining a license to operate the for-prot investment
on organized
school, Trump Entrepreneur Initiative, formerly known
as Trump University.[179] In a separate class action civil
suit in mid-February 2014, a San Diego federal judge alTrump
investigalowed claimants in California, Florida, and New York to
tion, and later questioned in a 1981 racketeering probe,
neither investigation resulted in criminal charges.[189]
In August 2014, former 2012 Miss Pennsylvania Sheena Trump omitted mention of the federal bribery investiMonnin ultimately settled a $5 million arbitration judg-



gation from his New Jersey casino license application

and persuaded state ocials to limit his background
investigation.[188] In addition, Trump Tower and other
New York City properties were constructed with concrete
from a rm owned by Anthony Fat Tony Salerno, head
of the Genovese crime family, and Big Paul Castellano,
head of the Gambino crime family.[188] Trump walked
out of a BBC Panorama interview after being asked why
he continued to do business for a year with Felix Sater,
an ex-convict who identied himself a senior advisor
to Donald Trump (a claim disputed by Trumps representatives), after Saters maa and Russian criminal ties,
as well as a 1998 racketeering conviction, were publicly

Awards and honors


Trump: The Art of the Comeback (1997), co-written

with Kate Bohner.
Trump: How to Get Rich (2004)
The Way to the Top: The Best Business Advice I Ever
Received (2004)
Trump: Think Like a Billionaire: Everything You
Need to Know About Success, Real Estate, and Life
Trump: The Best Golf Advice I Ever Received (2005)
Why We Want You to be Rich: Two Men One Message (2006), co-written with Robert Kiyosaki.
Think Big and Kick Ass in Business and Life (2007),
co-written with Bill Zanker. (ISBN 978-0-06154783-6)
The America We Deserve (2000) (with Dave Shiett,
ISBN 1-58063-131-2)
Trump: The Best Real Estate Advice I Ever Received:
100 Top Experts Share Their Strategies (2007)
Trump 101: The Way to Success (2007)
Trump Never Give Up: How I Turned My Biggest
Challenges into Success (2008)
Think Like A Champion: An Informal Education in
Business and Life (2009)

Trumps star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame

Gaming Hall of Fame (class of 1995)[192]

NY Ride of Fame (class of 2010)[193]
Honorary Doctor of Business Administration (Hon.
D.B.A.), 2010, Robert Gordon University[194]
Honorary Doctor of Business (Hon. D.B.), 2012,
Liberty University[195]
WWE Hall of Fame (class of 2013)

Midas Touch: Why Some Entrepreneurs Get RichAnd Why Most Don't (2011), co-written with Robert
Kiyosaki. (ISBN 1-61268-095-X)
Time to Get Tough: Making America No. 1 Again.
Regnery Publishing. December 5, 2011. p. 256.
ISBN 978-1-59698-773-9.

10 See also
List of American restaurateurs
You've Been Trumped, movie

Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame

11 References


Trump has written many books, including:

Trump: The Art of the Deal (1987)
Trump: Surviving at the Top (1990)
Trump: The Art of Survival (1991)

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[171] Goodman, Peter S. (July 15, 2009). Trump Suit Claiming Defamation Is Dismissed. The New York Times. Re[189] Frates, Chris (July 31, 2015). Donald Trump and the
trieved August 4, 2015.
mob. CNN. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
[172] Cohan, William D. (March 20, 2013). The Lawsuits of
Donald Trump. The Atlantic. Retrieved August 4, 2015. [190] Sweeney, John (July 8, 2013). Donald Trump walks out
over questions about his maa connections during BBC
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Loses Libel Suit Over Being Called A 'Millionaire'". The
5, 2015.
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[191] Bagli, Charles V. (December 17, 2007). Real Estate Ex[174] Ax, Joseph (April 3, 2013).
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[175] Trump wins partial victory against AG in real estate school [192] The Gaming Hall of Fame. University of Nevada Las
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suit. New York Real Estate News, February 1, 2014.
[176] Lawsuit Alleges Trump Defrauded 'Students In Semi- [193] Donald Trump Honored In Gray Line New Yorks Ride
nars Meant To Teach Investing Wisdom. Forbes.
Of Fame Campaign Forbes. June 8, 2010.
[177] Donald Trump accused of stalling on $40M fraud case [194] Pauline Smith and Andrew Youngson. (September 16,
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2010). Donald Trump Honoured by Robert Gordon University. Robert Gordon University.
[178] NY AGs 'Trump U' Fraud Claims Left Intact By NYC
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[195] Mitzi Bible (September 24, 2012).Donald Trump addresses largest Convocation crowd, praises Libertys
growth. Liberty University News Service, September .
Liberty University News Service.




Further reading

Blair, Gwenda (2000). The Trumps. Simon &

Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80849-8.
Trump column archives at The Hungton Post


External links

Ocial campaign website

Trump biography The Trump Organization
Donald Trump collected news and commentary at
The Wall Street Journal
Donald Trump collected news and commentary at
The Guardian
Appearances on C-SPAN
Donald Trump at DMOZ




Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


Donald Trump Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Trump?oldid=675934515 Contributors: Eloquence, Devotchka,

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