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TITLE PAGE

THE ROLE OF TOTAL MANAGEMENT IN IMPROVING PRODUCT


ACCEPTABILITY OF CONSUMERS
(A Case Study of Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) Owerri Plant)
PRESENTED
BY
KANU AUGUSTINE OLUEBUBECHI
08068034345
SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PURCHASING AND SUPPLY
MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEKEDE, OWERRI, IMO
STATE
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT OF THE AWARD
OF HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA (HND) IN PURCHASING AND
SUPPLY MANAGEMENT
AUGUST, 2015

APPROVAL PAGE
This is to certify that this project has been read and approved by the
department of purchasing and supply, federal polytechnic Nekede, Owerri in
partial fulfillment for the requirements for the award of Higher National Diploma
(HND) in purchasing and supply.
---------------------------------MR. V.O. CHILAKA
`
(Project supervisor)

---------------DATE

----------------------------------MR. A.M. UZOR


(Head of Department)

---------------DATE

----------------------------------External Examiner

---------------DATE

ii

DEDICATION
This research work is dedicated to God Almighty who made it possible for me to
pass through a high institution.

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I sincerely express my gratitude to God Almighty for the life, good health, finance
and literary ability to carry out this research project.
I wish to convey my deep appreciation to the supervisor who despite his tight
schedule in the office made out time to read and correct this manuscript. His
contribution will always be an imprint in my mind.
And to all those who contributed to the success of this work, I thank you all.

iv

ABSTRACT
The researcher sees to this topic total quality management: A tool for
product satisfaction (A case study of Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) Owerri
Plant, so as to know what leads to this problem of lack of total quality service. The
problem of this study lies on diversification of product line.
This problem is handled by making investigation through research
question, and hypothesis. The researcher made its sample on population of 159
questionnaires, and sample size of 150. Out of 159 questionnaires, 150 was
completed and 9 was not completed. The researcher presented this work in table,
one of the questions ask in the table is what is the objective of the firms total
quality management? The problem of lack of quality control, substandard product,
lack of confidence towards customers, poor communication, management not
being supportive to its client. The researcher found out that if this problem written
above is properly handled by management, the company will do well, there will be
effective and efficient of communication towards the management and the
workers. The customers are likely to have confidence to their product. The
problem of poor management will be taken care of. There will be quality
checkmate.
Lastly substandard product will be eliminated and the company to liable to
profit maximization.

Title Page Approval page


Dedication Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of Content

TABLE OF CONTENT
-

CHAPTER ONE
1.0
Introduction 1.1
Background Of The Study
1.2
Statement Of The problem
1.3
Objectives Of The study
1.4
Research Questions 1.5
Statement of Hypothesis
1.6
Significance Of The Study
1.7
Scope Of The study 1.8
Limitation Of The Study
1.9
Definition Of The Study

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CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review 2.0
Introduction 2.1
Total Quality Overview
2.2
Steps That Is Following These Overview with
Explanation 2.3
Principle Of Total Quality Management 2.4
Uses Of Total Quality Management
2.5
Total Quality Management Process And Performance
Process
2.6
Benefit Of Total Quality Management 2.7
Graphically Scale 2.8
Product Satisfaction In Total Quality Management
2.9
Quality Assurance 2.10
Quality Management Control
2.11
Critical Incidence On Total Quality Management
2.12
Quality Control
2.13
Management by Objectives
2.14
Behaviour Of Customer 2.15
Problem Of The Study
2.16
Summary of Literature Review -

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CHAPTER THREE
Research Design And Methodology
3.0
Introduction 3.1
Background Of The Study 3.2
Research Design
3.3
Sources/ Method Of Data Collection
3.4
Population And Sample Size
3.5
Sample Technique 3.6
Validity And Reliability Of Measuring Instrument
3.7
Method Of Data Analysis -

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CHAPTER FOUR
Presentation And Analysis Of Data
4.0
Introduction 4.1
Background Of The Study 4.2
Presentation Of Data
4.3
Analysis Of Data 4.4
Test Of Hypothesis 4.5
Interpretation Of Result (s)
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CHAPTER FIVE
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
5.0
Introduction 5.1
Background Of The study 5.2
Summary
5.3
Conclusion 5.4
Recommendations Bibliography Appendix
Appendix II -

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vii

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
This chapter is consist of the background of the study, research questions,
statement of hypothesis, significance of the study, limitation of the study, scope of
the study, definition of terms. In the topic THE ROLE OF TOTAL
MANAGEMENT IN IMPROVING PRODUCT ACCEPTABILITY OF
CONSUMERS (A Case Study of Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) Owerri
Plant)
.
1.0

1.1
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
NBC operates Owerri Plant since 1982 and is located in the capital city of Owerri
in Imo State in South-East Nigeria. The Owerri Plant is responsible for the
production of Coca-Cola, Fanta, Sprite and Schweppes and distribution of all
product categories.
Coca-Cola first arrived in Nigeria in 1951. That same year, the Nigerian Bottling
Company Ltd (NBC) was incorporated to bottle and sell carbonated non-alcoholic
beverages. NBC has the sole franchise to bottle Coca-Cola products in Nigeria.
Coca-Cola was an instant hit with the Nigerian consumer and has remained so.
Over the next six decades, NBC has continued on its journey keeping its promise
of refreshing consumers, strengthening its communities, enriching the workplace
and preserving the environment while recording many memorable milestones
along the way. To mention a few:
1953
Production of Coca-Cola began at a bottling facility in Ebute-Metta, Lagos State.
The same year the company opened its first bottling plant in Apapa.
1960
The year Nigeria gained independence; NBC exceeded the one million cases a
year mark.
1961
Commissioned its second bottling facility at Ibadan, Oyo State and rapidly
expanded its operation over the next couple of years.
1972
Listed its shares on the Nigerian Stock Exchange and became a publicly quoted
company
1991
Acquired the Eva premium water and Schweppes brands.
2000
Became a member of the newly formed Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company
S.A. (an anchor bottling group with operations in 28 countries worldwide.)
2001
Commissioned the first ultra-modern fully automated NBC plant in Benin
2003
1

Launched the Five Alive juice brand


2004
Launched PET packaging for its Sparkling Soft Drinks category.
2006
Launched the energy drink, Burn.
2007
Launched on-the-go can packaging for core brands Coca-Cola, Fanta and Sprite in
2006.
2008
Introduced the more environmentally friendly Ultra glass packaging for its
Returnable Glass Bottle product segments.
2010
Today the operations stands at 13 facilities and 59 depots across the country.
2011
The company was recognized for its Corporate Social Responsibility activities as
the 'The Most Socially Responsible Company in Nigeria' and 'Most Environment
Friendly Company' at the Social Enterprise Reporting Awards.
The company obtained Nigeria's first Food Safety Systems Certification (FSSC)
22000.
Total quality management is managing the whole organization in an
efficient manner, to achieve excellence. Quality management is just to manage the
quality of the finished product or service i.e. the end result. Whereas total quality
management is managing quality through the whole process of production,
including management and all other departments.
According to European Construction Institute (1996:209) defined quality
management as the term quality although applicable to these does not
necessarily refer to prestigious product but merely to the fitness or the products to
the customers requirements.
According to Arora (2002:118) defined total quality management as quality
conformance to requirement or specification or standard.
Quality management is now a major management functions within
organization. Unless an organization can guarantee its clients a quality product it
can no longer compete effectively in the modern economy. The modern concepts
of quality are considered to have evolved through three major stages over many
years. These stages are described below.
1. QUALITY CONTROL AND INSPECTION
Inspection is the process of checking that what is produced is what is required.
Quality control introduced inspection to stages in the development of goods and
services to ensure that they are under taken to specified requirements. Usually
quality control is done on a sampling concert by making cubes in the most
common and best known example in organization.
2. QUALITY ASSURANCE

This is developed to ensure that specifications are consistently met. Fit for
purpose and right for time are the principle of quality assurance.
3. TOTAL MANAGEMENT
A total quality management approach is now seen as essential to long-term
survived in business, including production. A key factor is that everyone in the
company should be involved and committed from the top management to the
bottom of there organization.
1.2
1.
2.
3.
4.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


The problem encountered in this study is:
The management not having service that is efficient and effective to the
organization.
No unification or oneness of all the major function of the organization.
Products that are being manufactured in the organization not being checked
if it has the quality standard needed by the customers.
Lack of quality control and customers not having confidence on the
product.

1.3
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To ensure that complete work meets the specification
2. To ensure uniformity and oneness in the organization
3. To reduce customers or clients complaints
4. To increase customers or clients confidence
5. To make the managers feel the best among other managers.
1.4

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
It is against the back drop of the objectives identified earlier that the
questions below become imperative.
a. What is the most effective way to implement total quality management?
b. Does total quality management free in costs of quality service?
c. How do organizations measure quality?
d. Does total quality management effective on profitability and return on
investment?
e. Do you think that money spent on total quality management is necessary?
1.5

STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis were formulated and tested.
Ho1: Total quality management has no effect on implementing total quality
management.
HA 1: Total quality management has effect on implementing
total quality
management
H02:Total quality management is not free in achieving product satisfaction

HA2: Total quality management helps firms to make profit in achieving product
satisfaction.
1.6

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


On completion of this study, it will be of great benefit to a number of
persons, among them is the researcher. This study is a requirement for the award
of the higher National Diploma certificate (HND) in purchasing and supply, and
production management. Without the study; the researcher will not be awarded
this certificate. Again this study has served as a lunching pad for the acquisition
and development of the researchers talent and creative gift of writing as a student.
Also on completion of this research work, it serves as a data bank to other
students who may be faced with research of this nature in the future. They can
draw a lot of information from this study tends the management of Nigerian
Bottling Company (NBC) Owerri Plant on application of total quality management
which will help in product satisfaction.
It is also expected to create the organization contribution to their well
being. This will also enhance the understanding and tolerance among the
employees and employers in the Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) Owerri Plant
Imo State.
1.7

SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The study is limited to total quality management as a tool for product
satisfaction in Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) Owerri Plant Imo State.
The study would have covered all the related firm but the researcher after
due consideration of various variables decided to concentrate on total quality
management as a tool for product satisfaction in Nigerian Bottling Company
(NBC) Owerri Plant, in doing this, the researcher concentrated mostly on the
departments and unit that have one or other activities that relates with the subject
matter of the study.
1.8

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY


In carrying out this research work, the researcher encountered several
limitations. Its limitations are as follows;
1.
LIMITED TIME FACTOR
We are given short period of time to write and defend the research work
immediately after the examination. The researcher needs to attend classes,
preparing for the coming final examinations. One should forget that the researcher
will visit Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) Owerri Plant for this case study and
also other places within this limited time.
2.
FINANCE
This factor no doubt affects the quality of this study, as a student there are school
fees to be paid, books to be purchased, assignment to be typed, all these affected
the researcher financial position and thus affected her ability to visit areas where
4

more and better data would have been collected in order to ensure a qualitative
work.
3.
THE HUMAN FACTOR
This affected the quality of this work; it was not easy to establish contact in
Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) Owerri Plant for the case study as the
researcher was subjected to several interviewers, questioning before allowed
access into premises. Most important documents that would have helped in the
course of this study were classified secret and therefore were kept off from the
researcher.
4.
CONSTANT POWER FAILURE BY PHCN
Due to the unsteady light caused by (PHCN) frustrated the researcher to always
write her project at night where light will be steady but at times PHCN
disappoints by taking the light unexpectedly and thereby putting the researcher
into confusion.
1.9
DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
It is defined as a management approach that tries to achieve and sustain long-term
organizational success by encouraging employees feed back and participation,
satisfying customers needs and expectations, respecting societal values and
regulation.
2.
QUALITY SYSTEM
A quality system is a network of processes made up of elements. Elements
includes responsibilities, authorities, relationship functions, plans, policies e.t.c.
The purpose of a quality system is to satisfy quality management requirements and
to assure that customers receive quality products and services.
3.
QUALITY CONTROL
Quality control is defined as a set of activities or techniques whose purpose is to
ensure that all quality management are being met. In other to achieve this purpose,
processes are monitored and performance problems are solved.
4.
QUALITY MANAGEMENT
It relates to checking that the product is of correct quality. Managers perform these
activities to implement their quality policy. These includes, quality assurance,
quality improvement, quality planning and quality control
5.
QUALITY SURVEILLANCE
Quality surveillance is a set of activities whose purpose is to monitor an entity and
review its records to improve that quality requirements are being met.
6.
QUALITY RECORD
A quality record contains objective evidence that shows how well a quality
requirement is being met or how well a quality system element is performing.
7.
QUALITY POLICY
A quality policy statement defines the organizations commitment to quality.
8.
QUALITY PLANNING
5

It is a set of activities whose purpose is to define quality system, policies,


objectives and requirements, and to explain how these policies will be applied,
how these objectives will be achieved and how these requirements will be met.
9.
QUALITY MANUAL
A quality manual is a document that states the quality policy and describes the
quality system of an organization or a process. It describes the roles, relationships,
functions, processes, procedures system and resources that affect quality. It can be
paper manual or an electronic manual.
10.
QUALITY AUDITS
This examines the elements of a quality system in order to evaluate how well these
elements comply with quality, system, requirements. Elements include
responsibilities, authorities, relationship, function, procedure, processes and
resources.
11.
QUALITY
An entity has characterized some of these characteristics as driven from stated or
implied needs.
12.
PREVENTIVE ACTION
Preventive actions are steps that are taken to remove the causes of potential nonconformities or to make quality improvements.
13.
DESIGN VERIFICATION
Is a process whose purpose is to examine design outputs and to use objective
evidence to confirm that output meet input requirement.
14.
DESIGN REVIEW
A design is a set of activities whose purpose is to evaluate how well a potential
product meets all quality requirements.
15.
CONFORMITY
Meeting the requirements of a quality system.
16.
QUALITY DIMENSION
Product or service attributes.
17.
FINANCIAL CONTROL
Finance control is provided by a system of budgetary control and costing.
18.
PROGRESS CONTROL
At the latter end of the planning stage for a project, it will be possible to produce a
detailed net-work diagram incorporating much of the information collected and
decisions made during the planning phase.
19.
MANAGEMENT
It is a function that is concerned with the planning, directing, organizing,
coordinating and communication so as to attain the goal of an organization.
20.
PURCHASING RESEARCH
This is the systematic collection, classification, and analyzing of data about
problems relating to the marketing of goods and services.
21.
SERVICE LEVEL

This term is used to describe the dividend or the level of service the tax payers
derive from the service provided by the government or its agencies.
22.
ANALYSIS
It means to get meaning out of the data.
23.
PURCHASING DEPARTMENT
Is the department that has authority to deal directly with suppliers.
24.
SPECIFICATION
It is the description of any object, material process in sufficient detail to enable its
manufacture and further identical reproduction.
25.
SYSTEMATIC
It is a step by step method of finding solution to a problem.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0

INTRODUCTION
This chapter is consist of total quality overview, steps that is following
these overview with explanation, principle of total quality management, uses of
total quality management, total quality management process and performance
process, benefit of total quality management, graphical scale, product satisfaction
in total quality management, quality assurance, quality management control,
critical incidence on total quality management, quality control, management by
objective, behaviors of customer, problem of the study and summary of literature
review.
2.1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


Total quality management is service that is rendered to customers either in
production or clients handling or the raw material to be used by customers.
Where quality service that is rendered to the customers attracts more
customers to the organizational product. Also, the organization will be highly rated
with high value organization. They will make high profit note, that it attract
market share, they are likely to make investment turn-over where there is quality
assurance.
2.2

TOTAL QUALITY OVERVIEW


According to Harris (1996:58) defined total quality management as a key
strategic and operational issue for most firm as their customers continue to have
higher expectation for product and service quality.
Total quality management has effective way on implementation. The
effective target areas for quality improvement provides, a common objectives, data
base for the firm to develop its strategy on quality improvement.
According to Harris (1997:241) defined the effective way as follows:
1. Develop strategy on quality improvement
2. conduct employee communication and training system
3. Establish quality teams
4. Create a measurement system and set goals
5. Revise compensation appraisal and recognition system
2.3

STEPS THAT IS FOLLOWING THESE


OVERVIEW WITH EXPLANATION
According to Gordon (2002:202) effective way to implement total quality
management is as follow:
STEP I
a.
Develop strategy on quality improvement; initial plan should be limited and
specific, have the potential of yielding high measurable benefits.

b.
Conduct employees communication and training programme service as
commitment to total quality and provide employees with the necessary skills to
achieve total quality.
c.
Establish quality team; a cross functional quality team includes members
from a variety of employee and management team.
STEP II
According to Arora (2006:156) define measurement of quality as
A. Product and service is as
I. Product and service
II. Competitive
III. Defect error and rejection rates
IV. Guarantee provisions and warranty provisions
V. Logistic indicators
VI. Number and handling of complaints
VII. Product life cycle
VIII. Time to market
Quality can also be measured through:
B. Sales and after sales support
I. .Demand for training
II. Responses rate
C. Loyalty
I. Customers share
II. Duration of relationship
III. Effective recommendations
IV. Frequency, value of orders
V. Life time value
VI. Repeat business
VII. New or lost business
STEP III
Organization measure quality
I. It is by product and service
II. It is by sales and after sales support
III. It is by customer being loyal to our product that we measure quality
STEP IV
Management effective on profitability and return on investment. It is only with
quality products can a firm be a cost leader. Continuous improvement in quality of
products and services and in processes should be a fundamental strategic
objectives and a major item in the balance score card of every firm and
organization.
2.4

PRINCIPLES OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT


According to Arora (2002:38) defined the principles of total quality
management as believe that good house keeping and workplace organization are
9

likely to achieve a quality product. If production control maintenance, quality


assurance or layout are not properly done for example then the problems will
easily appear as bad house keeping and a disorganized workplace. On the other
hand, good house keeping and workplace re-organization will resolution better
compliance to machine break downs, lower defeats rates and prompt exposure of
problem areas.
Only when these practices are coordinated can a first class manufacturing
operations be achieved, these principle is as:
I. Creating a neat and clean workplace
II. Systematize day-to-day activities
III. Standardize work practice
IV. Improve work discipline
2.5

USES OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT


According to Arora (2002:50) defined application of quality concept as
I. Product design, development and research
II. Manufacturing engineering process
III. Inspection and measurement testing
IV. Sale and marketing
V. Personal life
VI. Maintenance
VII. Handling, storage, packaging and delivery product design, development and
researchs, here you want to make use of total quality management. Firstly
plan towards putting the product the way is to be, then try to find another
means of using this product by making look in a model way, go for research
to see if the customers will really want that product.
VIII. Manufacturing & Engineering process: in manufacturing a quality product,
they have to use a model way of production to make the product look
superior. The management should adapt to the environment changes like
technology.
IX. Inspection and measurement testing: organization making use of total
quality management system the manager should see that after production,
inspection should be made; this is to ensure that production is up to
standard.
X. Service sector: The environment where the service is rendered should be
clean, comfortable for quality service; clients of the organization should be
people of unique quality.
2.6
TOTAL
QUALITY
MANAGEMENT
PROCESS
AND
PERFORMANCE PROCESS
The following four stages are common to the development and
implementation of any quality assurance according to Harris (1997) says that these
stages must be applied:
1. Development quality manual
10

2. Introduce the system


3. System Evaluation
4. Establish Awareness
A. THE QUALITY MANUAL
Is the basis of any quality assurance system a quality manual usually contains
the following:
- Company Profile: The company profile should contain information above
the company including the following
- Data of Establishment
- Nature of business
- Annual turnover
- Scope of trade
B. INTRODUCE THE SYSTEM
The clients in the organization should know everything about the job. How the
work system is organized, how they are making use of there work, how product is
packaged etc.
C. SYSTEM EVALUATION
The management should see to the way of the work, if it is really what the
client is doing, check the product value if it is up to standard. By doing this means
that the management is really going through total quality management.
D. ESTABLISH AWARENESS
To introduce a quality assurance system its necessary to have understanding
and commitment of top management, often quality assurance is initiated by top
management as they realize that it is necessary for the organization to be aware of
quality assurance and may have prejudice, for or against its implementation. It is
therefore necessary to gain wide spread support, for quality assurance by
explaining the potential, benefit as it is necessary to attain the support and
understanding of quality assurance approach. This is best achieved by means of a
short quality assurance training course.
2.7

BENEFIT OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENTS


According to William (1996:91) see to be as follows:
1. Employee satisfaction
2. Customers satisfaction: number of customers increases
3. Improved profitability
4. Quality Award
5. Attraction to market share
6. Higher return on investment
7. Enjoy higher productivity
8. Better control on processes
9. Improved cost effectives
According to Arora (2002)
1. Re-engineered processes
11

2. Improved quality, continuous improvement is an important thing in total


quality management
3. Better relations, Employees job satisfaction, inspire statue re-organization
4. Lead time reduction, helps the company to make a lot of sales, which lead
to high rate of return thereby increase production.

12

2.8

GRAPHICALLY SCALE

According to Arora (2002)


A model for total quality
Total quality
Total customer
Diligent and excitement
Meeting exciding customers
Values expectation

Outstanding
Leadership

product
service

system

people

procedure

Process

power

Continuous systematic improvement


Bench making
Brain storming
This diagram shows total quality system, here an organization practice
quality system. where the organization is experiencing total customers or
customers having delight and excitement for service received by their producers
are also the product. The diagram emphasizes on the outcome of total quality
effectiveness and efficiency on organization. Any organization practicing this is
likely to be outstanding in the society. The product will be known by customers
and it will also attract a high market share if the product is properly managed the
system will also be a continuous one.

13

2.9

PRODUCT SATISFACTION IN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT


Organization will experience product satisfaction by practicing total quality
management. Organization will add to the life of customer by assuring them of
total quality and it will add more customers to the organization. Also it will make
the organization to be outstanding in competition because the company will be
highly recommended with a good name and it will yield to productivity of the
organization due to high attraction of market share, customers delighted and
excited on production, and customers are being retained totality of customers
satisfaction.
2.10

QUALITY ASSURANCE
According to Kreinter (2002:51-52) creating an organizational culture
committed to the continuous improvement of skills, team work, work process
product and service quality and customer satisfaction.
This is where organization sees to satisfaction of there customers, value and
excitement. There the customer has confidence in them, that they can render
service with value and quality product. This is what is called quality assurance. No
confidence no quality assurance. The customers believe in the product as the
product among other products. According to my understanding, total assurance
system is express in this form in tabular way below:
PHASE
QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTION
Market
Customers need identification
Planning Research & Design
Quality target validation and design
Test for reliability and easy maintenance
Reproduction test
Quality in use after sale.
Customer
2.11

QUALITY MANAGEMENT CONTROL


According to Richard Burma (1995:79) quality control is a tool of
technique used to check out a design from a quality point of view, and it is of the
functions of quality control department to ensure that these techniques are used by
the designers and to assist where necessary.
THE TOOLS CONCERNED ARE
1.
Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA)
2.
Critical Parameter Management (CPM)
3.
Quality function Deployment (QFD)
Total quality control is a model of Excellency which involves total
employees involvement, total waste elimination exposes problems and total
quality control solves the problems. Total quality control is a continuous process
for improvement where standards present opportunity for achievement of new
impact and higher standard.
14

Any organization that want to be excellence in there product, that means


they must monitor how, when, and where these products are and what efficiency,
effective has it offer to customers.
Organization set a plan for the goods put in a basic principle so as to guide
its product, facilitate concepts like quality control as facilitator, small cost size,
house keeping less than full capacity scheduling, daily machine checking,
technique they are to use, all these should be checked to make sure that the
organization is at the right quality needed or sampled.
2.12

CRITICAL INCIDENCE ON TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT


The disapproval I have to make on this topic is on customer, cost, waste
product rejection and client unexcertment. Here in total quality management,
product will be produce in a high quality product. It might not be the exert
measure the customer want. Therefore these are causing managers to make
decisions not only on want but also what will be beneficiary to the organization.
Come to clients unexcertment of product measure.
Here, workers will be given sample to produce on the type of quality
product needed. The worker will not get the exert product needed sometime it is
because of cost. Whereby we are producing quality product customers running
away from our product because of its price of the product will become a waste and
also if it is not sold when it is suppose to be sold. I strongly disapprove this total
quality management because of the waste, and also customers running away from
quality.
2.13

QUALITY CONTROL
According to Kreitner (1995:55) total quality management is as creating
organizational culture committed to the continuous improvement of skills, team
work, and processes product and service quality and customer satisfaction.
Quality control is checking if manufactured product is up to the standard
stated by the organization. There are things to be done while maintaining quality in
an organization.
These are as follows:
1.
Auditing the product that is produce in an organization. This is done to see
if the product has any mistake on it.
2.
Checkmate of product: After Auditing, see if it is the real product needed by
the organization to avoid producing wrongly.
3.
Remove unwanted product or service in order to avoid waste of resource in
organization, those error made during production need to be corrected or removed
to avoid waste.
4.
Keep to specification: check if the product is really what the organization
wants to produce, i.e. the standard needed.
If all these are done in an organization it leads to quality production.

15

2.14

MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES
According to dictionary of management defined management by objective
as a term proposed by the American management.
Drunker (1950:77) defined management to emphasize the important of
setting objectives for and by each individual member of an organization.
Drunker also emphasizes on the element of self control and taking
responsibility for ones own work as an objective and a quantifiable measure of
performance. This senior management through its application in practices has
often been more formalized than Drunker has intended. This is a theory that talk
much on all hand should be on the desk.
Therefore every worker must contribute individually to see to the
successful of this total management quality. It will help in achieving an aim in an
organization.
2.15

BEHAVIOUR OF CUSTOMER
According to Arora (2002:42) customers behaviour towards there products.
Such as quality of shipment, product installation, product operation, product
functional design, service ability, no two customers behaves alike each is unique in
his or her own way so their attitude towards your product or services will be
different. Therefore, profitability and customer satisfaction will depend on how
you customize your products.
2.16

PROBLEM OF THE STUDY


The problems are
1.
The amount it will cost in getting the quality resources.
2.
The way of getting information on how to deal with error in any
product that is not produced at its specification.
3.
The problem of the organization not being adaptive to the needed
machine for total quality specification. The problem of money limitation for not
being able to get the required machine needed for the quality specified.
4.
Problem of constructing the fault tree qualitatively. The
management finding it difficult to know how to solve the problem of low service
standard.
5.
Problem of connecting individual event with impossible cause, the
management not been able to carry everybody along is a big problem.
6.
Devising ways to avoid the origin of causes of failure.
Management following another way in trying to solve the problem instead of
making corrections on the origin of failure is another limitation.
2.17

SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW


To my own understanding, quality management is a service that has quality
assurance. Where customers have confidence on the organization they buy from.
For organization to be able to reach the taste of customers they must produce high
16

quality product. In doing this, they will reach to the expectation of customers, and
by reaching the customers expectation; it will yield to the profitability of the
organization. Therefore, if quality standard is maintained in any organization it is
certain that the organization is likely to grow to there expectation or stated target.
It is not only that, many members of customers are likely to be maintained by the
organization. It is good for managers to adopt management of total quality.
The success of an organization rests on its ability to manage projects
effectively and efficiently. In doing this (effectively & efficiently) the organization
will grow more than they should grow and the organization will be known by
many people also the manager will be known with good name.

17

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.0
INTRODUCTION
This chapter is consist of the research design, sources/Methods of data
collection, population and sample size, sample technique, validity and reliability of
measuring instrument, method of data analysis.
3.1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


The method and procedures used in carrying out this study are stated in this
chapter, the descriptive type of the design is adopted in the study, it involves the
collection of both primary and secondary data, which the researcher analyzed,
interpreted and summarized with the view of making explicit the factor that
surround the problem and suggesting solution.
3.2

RESEARCH DESIGN
The study area is on the design of experiments to become one of the most
popular and efficient tools to explore various operation condition of a process with
goal of reducing cost and improving quality with particular interest in Nigerian
Bottling Company (NBC) Owerri Plant. It is believed that the selected company
will not validate the outcome of the study in any way; rather the facts revealed will
be used in making a good generalization.
3.3

SOURCES/ METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


In this study both the primary and secondary data were used.
1. THE PRIMARY DATA: This term is used to describe data originally collected
for the specific purpose of solving the present problem. It is data collected and
used for the solving of the problem for which it was collected. Primary data is a
first hand data. The instrument used in collection the primary data includes:
a. QUESTIONNAIRE: The data collection instrument was structured and
contained relevant question, ask to elicit response from the respondents, it was
administered by hand.
b. INTERVIEW: the researcher also interviewed some workers of the company
and data collected were also used in addressing the problem of the study.
2. THE SECONDARY DATA: This includes all the book data used in the study.
They are textbooks, research work done by others material from the library, news
paper journal, past statistical record of Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) journal
association (the case study) and lecture.
3.4

POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE


The population of this study is made up of the staff and management of
Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) Owerri Plant, Imo State. Form the available
records, the total number of workers in the company is 159 and questionnaire
where distributed to this number of persons which 150 was returned.
18

Realizing the difficulty inherent in studying the entire population, the


researcher used descriptive method of sampling to enable her carryout a proper
and sizable summary
This statistic was gotten in this form below
s/no Distributed to Number
Number
No
not %
of %
not
Staffs/dept
distributed
of return returned
returned
returned
1
Purchasing
45
45
0
30
0
2
Production
43
40
3
26.7
33.3
3
Stores
40
35
5
23.3
55.5
4
marketing
31
30
1
20
11.1
Total
159
150
9
100%
99.9
Sample size = 150
3.5

SAMPLE TECHNIQUE
For the purpose of this study, the researcher uses systematic random
sampling techniques. This technique allow9oed the researcher to select the
respondents out of the total population of respondents questioned with space given
in the questionnaire to fill in necessary information response to the question asked
in the questionnaire.
Other method the researcher used in getting data through this technique was
the face to face interview with some of the staff of the company as well as
observation used by the researcher to get factual information related to the study.
3.6

VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF MEASURING INSTRUMENT


Here there are two kinds of validation namely;
i.
Face Validity
ii.
Content validity
FACE VALIDITY: This ensures not only informal consistency, but also ensures
that the question test what it is supposed to test. In order to achieve face validation
the researcher must give herself structural questionnaire to a panel of experts who
are suppose to buy in elements of clarity.
CONTENT VALIDITY: after face validation, the questionnaire should be
subjected to content validation. This involves administering the questionnaire to a
random sample to the proposed research subject.
3.7

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS


The data collected were analyzed using tables and simple percentages. The
researcher used chi-square in testing the hypothesis.
The chi-square is a non-parametric tool suitable for testing sample statistics.

19

X2 = (oij eij) 2
i
eij
Where oij = observed frequency
Eij = Expected frequency
= summation sign
X2 = chi- square
Decision Rule
If x2 cal > x2 tab: Reject H0 but if x 2 cal < x2 tab: accept H0 Degree of freedom =
(r 1) (c 1)
Level of significance = 5%

20

CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.0
INTRODUCTION
This chapter consists of presentation of data, analysis of data, testing of
hypothesis, and interpretation of results.
4.1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


This data collected for the purpose of this study where presented and
analyzed using tables and percentages in this chapter. The hypothesis formulated
in the chapter one is tested using chi-square (x2)
The table below summarized the numbers of questionnaire distributed,
completed and used in the analysis.
Questionnaires property
Numbers
Percentage
Questionnaires
property 150
94.9%
completed
Questionnaires not property 9
5.1%
completed
Total
159
100%
From the table above, it can be seen that out of 159 Questionnaires distributed and
returned, 150 were properly completed while only 9 where not properly
completed.
4.2

PRESENTATION OF DATA
The researcher distributed a total number of 159 questionnaires to a
population of 159 workers, but out of the number distributed to the workers, only
150 questionnaires was properly completed by the workers of Nigerian Bottling
Company (NBC) Owerri Plant, Imo State.
4.3

ANALYSIS OF DATA
In this section, attempts are made to analysis the data collected during the
research. The analysis is based on the response from the completed questionnaires.
In the hypothesis, mathematical and statistical techniques will be effective. The
statistical technique used in testing to the chi-square.
Questions that have categorical response are tabulated and analyzed; while
those with full response will not be tabulated rather general observations are made
based on such responses.
Question 1:
Does the company involve in total quality management?
Table 4.1.1
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Yes
150
100%
No
0
0
Total
150
100%
21

Question 2:
If yes, how often does the firm practice total quality?
Table 4.1.2
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Monthly
0
0
Every 2 months
25
16.7
Quarterly
42
28.0
Semi- annually
3
57.3
Total
150
100%
The table shows that no respondent agreed that the firm practice total quality
monthly, 16.7% said it practice total quality every 2months, 28% said its rendered
quality service quarterly, 57.3% of the respondents agreed that it rendered quality
service semi- annual.
Question 3:
Does seasonal variation affect the firms business?
Table 4.1.3
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Yes
10
6.7%
No
140
93.3%
Total
150
100%
93.3% of the respondents said the company is not affected by seasonal variation.
While 6.7% said seasonal variation affects the companys business.
Question 4:
Is it possible to measure quality?
Table 4.1.4
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Yes
120
80%
No
30
20
Total
150
100%
80% of the respondents said the organization measure quality while 20% said the
organization did not measure quality in the organization.
Question 5:
If yes, when does the company measure quality?
Table 4.1.5
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Before season
3
2.0
During season
5
3.3
After season
2
1.4
None of the above
140
94.3
Total
150
100
22

2.0% of the respondents said that the company measure quality before season,
3.3% said it is during season, 1.4% said it is after season while 94.3 said none of
the above.
Question 6:
What are the objectives of the firms quality management?
Table 4.1.6
Responses
No of respondents
Retaining of customers
30
Image building
33
Attraction of market share
3
To improve quality service
8
All of the above
76
Total
150

Percentage
20.0
22.0
2
5.3
50.7
100%

20% of the total respondents agreed that retaining of customer is the objective of
the firms rendering of total quality service, 22% said it is for image building of
the organization, 2% said is attraction of market share, 5.3 said the objective is to
improve quality service, while 50.7% said all of the above.
Question 7:
Does total quality management has effect on profitability?
Table 4.1.7
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Yes
100
80%
No
50
20
Total
150
100%
The table shows that 80% of the respondents said that total quality management
has effect on profitability of the organization, while 20% has it has no effect on
profitability of the organization.
Question 8:
Do you think total quality management is cost free?
Table 4.1.8
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Yes
80
53.3
No
70
46.7
Total
150
100%
53.3% of the respondents agree that total quality management helps the
organization to reduce cost, while 46.7% said it does not help the organization to
reduce cost.
Question 9:
23

Do you think that total quality management attract customers?


Table 4.1.9
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Yes
150
100%
No
0
0
Total
150
100%
The table shows that all the respondents said that total quality management attracts
customers.
Question 10:
What influence does the firms quality service have on customers?
Table 4.1.10
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Instigate desire
45
30
Initiate action
25
16.7
Both
80
53.3
Total
150
100%
30% of the respondents said that total quality service instigate customer desire,
16.7% said it makes customers to initiate action, while 53.3% agreed that it does
both.
Question 11:
Do you think total quality management enhances profitability and growth of the
business?
Table 4.1.11
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Yes
110
74%
No
40
26
Total
150
100%
74% of the respondents agreed that total quality management enhance growth and
profitability of the business, while 26% said no.
Question 12:
If yes, how does organization determine its total quality management
Table 4.1.12
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Past sales percentage
10
16.7
Affordable method
0
0
Competitive analysis
20
28.0
Objective and task
120
2.0
Total
150
100%
16.7% agreed that the firm determine its total quality management by past sales
percentage, no respondent agreed that the organization determine its total quality
24

management in affordable method, 28% said it determine its total quality through
competitive analysis, while 2.0% said it is through objective and task.
Question 13:
Do you think money spent on total quality management is necessary?
Table 4.1.13
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Yes
80
53.3
No
70
46.7
Total
150
100%
53.3% of the respondent said money spent on total quality service is necessary,
while 46.7% said it is not necessary.
Question 14:
How would you rate the organizational total quality management?
Table 4.1.14
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Informative
65
43.3
Persuasive

35

23.3

Retentive
All of the above
Total

37
13
150

24.7
8.7
100%

43.3% of the respondents said organizations total quality service is informative,


23.3 said is persuasive, 24.7 said is retentive, while 8.7 agreed on all of the above.
Question 15:
Which way does your organization use to convey total quality management event?
Table 4.1.15
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Advertising
70
46.7
Television
35
23.3
Market research
15
10
Market survey
30
20
Total
150
100%
46.7% of the respondents said that the organization convey its total quality service
through advertising, 23.3 said it is through television, 10% said their total quality
service is conveyed through market research, while 20% said it is done through
market survey.
Question 16:
Do you think total market research affects the effectiveness of total quality
service?
Table 4.1.16
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
25

Yes
90
60
No
60
40
Total
150
100%
60% of the respondents agreed that market research affects the effectiveness of
total quality service, while 40% said it does not
Question 17:
How would you rate the past sale of total quality management currently?
Table 4.1.17
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Effective
80
53.3
Fairly effective
55
36.7
Not effective
15
10
Total
150
100%
53.3%of the respondents agreed that total quality management which is currently
rate in use is effective, 36.7% said it is fairly effective, while 10% said it is not
effective.
Question 18:
Which way do you consider most appropriate for the organization total quality
management? A). Quality control B). Quality assurance C). Quality service D).
Standardization
Table 4.1.8
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Quality control
70
46.7
Quality Assurance
35
23.3
Quality service
15
10
Standardization
30
20
Total
150
100%
From the table 46.7% respondents said quality control is the most appropriate
medium for the quality service. 23.3% said it is quality assurance, quality service
was suggested by 10% and 20% recommended standardization.
Question 19:
Do the organization practice total quality management before implementing it?
Table 4.1.19
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Yes
60
40%
No
90
60
Total
150
100%
40% of the respondents said the organization practice total quality before
implementing it, while 60% said No.
Question 20:

26

Do you think total quality management helps in building image of the


organization?
Table 4.1.20
Responses
No of respondents
Percentage
Yes
80
53.3%
No
70
46.7
Total
150
100%
53.3% of the respondents agreed that total quality management helps in building
image of the company, while 46.7% said No.
4.4 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis is tested using chi-square as a non-parametric tool at 5% level of
significance
X2 = (oij eij) 2
Eij
HYPOTHESIS ONE
HO: There is no effect on implementing total quality management
Hi: There is effect on implementing total quality management
Question 11: Do you think total quality management enhances profitability and
the growth of the business?
Responses
Managers
Supervisor
Other staff
Total
Yes

15

30

65

110

To some extent

33

35

No
Total

0
15

3
35

2
100

5
150

Computation of expected values


Eij = TRij X TCij
GT
R1C1= 110 X 15
150
= 11
R1C2 = 110 X 35
150
=25.7
R1C3 = 110 X 100
150
= 73.7
R2C1 = 35 X 15
150
R2C2 = 35 X 35
150

= 3.5
= 8.2
27

R2C3 = 35X 100


150
R3C1 = 5X 15
150
R3C2 = 5 X 35
150
R3C3 = 5 X 100
150

= 23.3
= 0.5
= 1.2
= 3.3

Contingency Table
Responses
Managers
Yes
15 (11)
To some extent
0 (3.5)
No
0 (0.5)
Total
15
Computation of x2 calculated
Oij
Eij
15
11
30
25.7
65
73.3
0
3.5
2
8.2
33
23.3
0
0.5
3
1.2
2
3.3

Supervisor
30 (25.7)
2 (8.2)
3 (1.2)
35
(Oij Eij)
4
4.3
- 8.3
-3.5
-6.2
9.7
-0.5
1.8
-1.3

Other staff
65 (73.3)
33 (23.3)
2 (3.3)
100

(Oij Eij)2
16.00
18.49
68.89
12.25
38.44
94.09
0.25
3.24
1.69

Total
110
35
5
150

(Oij Eij)2/ Eij


1.45
0.72
0.94
3.50
4.69
4.03
0.50
2.70
0.51
19.04

Level of significance = 0.05


Degree of freedom = (r 1) (c -1)
= (3 1) (3 -1)
= (2) (2)
=4
2
2
X tab = x 0.95 = 9.48
Decision rule:
If X2 cal > X2tab, reject HO
If X2 cal < X2tab, accept HO
Decision: since X2 cal (19.04) > X2tab (9.49), reject HO and conclude that there is
no significant different between the growth of organization that render total quality
management and that which use total quality service.
HYPOTHESIS TWO
28

HO2: Total quality management is not free in rendering of quality service.


HA2: Total quality management helps firm to make profit in rendering of quality
service.
Question 7: Does total quality management has effect on profitability?
Responses
Managers
Supervisor
Other staff
Total
Yes
15
22
43
80
No
0
13
57
70
Total
15
35
100
150
Computation of expected values
Eij = TRij X TCij
GT
R1C1 = 80 X 15
150
=8
R1C2 = 80 X 35
150
=18.7
R1C3 = 80 X 100
150
= 53.3
R2C1 = 70 X 15
150
=7
R2C2 = 70X 35
150
= 16.3
R2C3 = 70X 100
150
= 46.7
Contingency Table
Responses
Managers
Supervisor
Other staff
Total
Yes
15 (8)
30 (18.7)
65 (53.3)
80
No
0 (7)
3 (16.3)
2 (46.7)
70
Total
15
35
100
150
2
Computation of x calculated
Oij
Eij
(Oij Eij)
(Oij Eij)2
(Oij Eij)2/ Eij
15
8
7
49
6.13
22
18.7
3.3
10.89
0.58
43
53.3
- 20.3
112..09
1.99
0
7
-7
49
7.00
13
16.3
-3.3
10.89
0.67
57
46.7
10.3
10.09
2.27
18.64
Level of significance = 0.05
Degree of freedom = (r 1) (c -1)
= (2 1) (3 -1)
29

= (1) (2)
=2
X2 tab = x2 0.952 = 5.99
Decision rule:
If X2 cal > X2tab, reject HO
If X2 cal < X2tab, accept HO
Decision: since X2 cal (18.64) > X2tab (5.99), we reject HO and conclude that total
quality management help organization in increasing there profitability.
4.5

INTERPRETATION OF RESULT (S)


In the course of this research, the researcher find out that the manager
should make sure that their products meet up to specification.
Secondly, the management should make sure they reduce complaint of there
customers or even the workers complaint. In doing this, the necessary correction
needed will be made in term of production.
Thirdly, the organization should make sure that they create assurance that
there customers are liable (loyal) to there product. The researcher found out that if
management is liable to do these, customers are likely to have confidence on there
product. It will also make managers of that organization feel the best among other
organization.
Finally, the researcher also found out that quality control is necessary; in
doing all these organization is likely to maximize profit.

30

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0
INTRODUCTION
This chapter is consisting of summary, conclusion, recommendations,
references and appendix.
5.1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


The rationales behind this chapter is to present the summary of the finding
in a clear sequence, make appropriate recommendations that will be of immense
benefits to manufacturing companies in general and Nigerian Bottling Company
(NBC) Owerri Plant association.
5.3

SUMMARY
The researcher in a bid to investigate the application of quality product
rendering quality services to successful positioning in organization embarked on a
field work to sample the opinion of workers of Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC)
which served as the case study.
The data gotten was many, but the following are the summaries of the
findings. It was observed that Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) sustains long
term survival through quality service. The study review that the objective of
quality service includes quality assurance, quality control consumer tastes,
changing technologies. The analysis further indicated that company render quality
service, but within clients and customers.
This fact stresses the importance of quality assurance of manufacturing
goods. It is obvious from findings that total quality management facilitate the
realization of organization over all objectives. Respondents agreed that total
quality management influence the attitude of customers towards particular
product. In this way, the organization through quality service encourages managers
to plan towards their products rendering of service, attract customer and preferring
the quality assurance of products. The study also revealed that the management
plans for quality assurance as readily as it planned for other important activities in
their business.
The analysis revealed that the management determine how much to spend
in rendering of goods and services. This goes to confirm the opinion of Aroras
(2002:43) when they put quality assurance as most progressive and realistic
method of setting total quality plans to provide that quality service forecast is
correct.
It was also observed that the copy or message of total quality management
is relevant and should be creatively written to appeal to the customers satisfaction
get the desired results. The findings also showed that through quality control there
is effectiveness and efficiency in customers satisfaction. Also it was observed that
standardization of product is adopted as a channel of transmission.
5.4
CONCLUSION
31

1.
From the findings of the study, the researcher concluded that total quality is
essential for a product to be successfully positioned in the mind of the customers,
relative to competing products of other companies.
2.
The researcher concluded that total quality management is mostly necessary
in emphasizing the differential advantage of organization rendering of services to
those of its competitors without contradicting issues.
3.
Successful positioning of products in the minds of customer could lead to
more patronage and retained customers.
4.
The researcher concluded there is a great difference in growth of
organization that adopts total quality service as a communication tools and those
that does not effectively utilize it.
5.
In the analysis of the data of question 11, the researcher concluded that
market research affects the effectiveness of total quality management because 60%
of the respondents agreed on that while 40% does not agree.
6.
The researcher concluded on the question 13 that money spent on total
quality management is necessary because 53.3% of the respondents agreed on that
while 46.7% does not agree.
7.
In conclusion, the researcher concluded that quality control is considered
most appropriate way for the organization total quality management because to
which 46.7% because is the highest number of the respondent while 35 said
quality assurance which is 23.3%, quality service was suggested by 15
respondents which is 10% and 30 respondents recommended standardization
which is 20%.
8.
The research concludes that total quality management helps in building the
image of the company because 53.3% of the respondents agreed on that while 46.7
do not agree.
9.
The research concludes on table 8 that total quality management is cost free
because 80 respondents which represents 53.3% agreed on that while 70 which
represents 46.7% does not.
10.
The researcher concluded that the effectiveness of quality assurance is
seriously affected by the way of the message and information system through
which it was conveyed.
5.5

RECOMMENDATIONS
Having x-rayed the fact collected, presented and analyzed, the researcher
considering the objectives of the study and other relevant factors made the
following recommendations.
1.
The organization should continue to reduce customers or clients
complaints; This plays essential role in the achievement of the firms set
objectives.
2.
Organization should make sure that they increase customers or clients
confidence. The management of Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC), should be

32

more proactive rather than being reactive they should be forward looking identify
opportunities in the market place and move them with the organizational strength.
3.
The firm should improve on the real of products or work produced.
4.
The management should make sure that they prevent poor service rendering
of services, the services should be up to standard that the company has stated.
5.
To ensure that completed work meets the specification.
6.
It was recommended that it will reduce production cost because as the
organization is producing, customers are buying thereby attracting market share
which will yield the company more profit.
7.
And also recommended that it will make the managers feels the best among
other managers not only that the name of the company will be known by the
customers.

33

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Arora C.A (20060. total quality management (3rd edition): India. Educational
printing publishing.
Adin Bit (1980). Quality control in manufacturing companies (2nd edition): grower
press great British.
Computer H.K (1979). Suppliers and material management (2nd edition)
macdonald and even limited Great Britain.
Edward, K.G (2005). Cost management and strategic for Emphasis. United state:
M.C. Graw Hill publishing
Hilton, M.S (2002). Cost management and strategic for Business, united state:
MC. Graw Hill publishing.
Nwachukwu V.O (2005). Principle of statistical inference Peace publishers
Owerri.
Nwachukwu V.O (2005). Introduction to statistics (5th Edition): centre for research
and manpower development publisher Owerri.
Oxford (2006). Dictionary of management, India Education Printing publishing.
Richard B. (1995). Manufacturer, management, united State: Mc. Graw Hill
printing publishing.
Ronald, M.F (1997). Construction management, United State: meastown printing
publishing.
Uduma, o.K (20080. materials management and stores Administration, Imo state:
MC. Uratta printing publishing.

34

APPENDIX 1
Department of business admin & mgt.,
Federal polytechnic Nekede,
P.M.B. 1036,
Owerri, Imo state.
Dear Respondent,
REQUEST TO COMPLETE QUESTIONNAIRE
I am a final year student of the school mentioned above, and I am presently
carrying out a research on THE ROLE OF TOTAL MANAGEMENT IN
IMPROVING PRODUCT ACCEPTABILITY OF CONSUMERS (A Case Study
of Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) Owerri Plant). And your organization has
been selected as a case-in-point. Please be assured that it is purely for academic
purpose alone.
Therefore your contribution via the completion of the attached
questionnaire will assist me in completing this academic exercise.
I guarantee that all information supplied will be treated with utmost
confidentiality.
Yours faithfully
KANU AUGUSTINE O

35

APPENDIX II
TOPIC: total quality management: A tool for product satisfaction
INSTRUCTION: please tick () in the box produced against each question for
the appropriate answer.
SECTION A: PERSONAL DATA
1. Sex
{
}
a. Male
{
}
b. Female
{
}
2. Age
{
}
a. Under 25 years
{
}
b. 26years 35 years
{
}
3. Marital Status
{
}
a. Single
b. Married
{
}
4. Qualification
{
}
a. O Level
{
}
b. ND/ NCE
{
}
c. HND/ BSC
{
}
5. Position
{
}
a. Manager
{
}
b. Supervisor
{
}
c. Other staff
{
}
SECTION B: GENERAL QUESTIONS
1. Does the company involve in total quality management?
a. Yes
{
}
b. No
{
}
2. If yes, how often does the firm practice total quality management?
a. Monthly
{
}
b. Every 2 months
{
}
c. Quarterly
{
}
d. Semi-annually
{
}
3. Does seasonal variation affect the firms business?
a. Yes
{
}
b. No
{
}
4. Is it possible to measure quality?
a. Yes
{
}
b. No
{
}
5. If yes, when does the company measure quality?
a. Before season
{
}
b. During season
{
}
c. After season
{
}
d. None of the above
{
}
36

6. What is the objective of its firms quality management?


a. Retaining of customers
{
}
b. Image building
{
}
c. Attraction of market share {
}
d. To improve quality service{
}
7. Does total quality management have effect on profitability?
a. Yes
{
}
b. No
{
}
8. Do you think total quality management is cost free?
a. Yes
{
}
b. No
{
}
9. Do you think that total quality management attracts customers?
a. Yes
{
}
b. No
{
}
10. What influence does the firms quality service have on customers?
a. instigated desire
{
}
b. initiate action
{
}
c. Both
11. Do you think total quality management enhances profitability and growth
of a business?
a. Yes
{
}
b. No
{
}
c. To some extent
{
}
12. If yes, how does organization determine its management?
a. Past sales percentage
{
}
b. Affordable method
{
}
c. Competitive analysis
{
}
d. Objective
{
}
13. Do you think that money spent on total quality management is necessary?
a. Yes
{
}
b. No
{
}
14. How would you rate the organizational total quality management?
a. Informative
{
}
b. Persuasive
{
}
c. Retentive
{
}
d. All of the above
{
}
15. Which way do your organizations use to convey total quality management?
a. Advertising
{
}
b. Television
{
}
c. Market research
{
}
d. Market survey
{
}
16. Do you think market research affects the effectiveness to total quality
service?
37

a. Yes
{
}
b. No
{
}
17. How would you rate the past sales of total quality management currently?
a. Effective
{
}
b. Fairly effective
{
}
c. Not effective
{
}
18. Which way do you consider most appropriate for the organization total
quality management?
{
}
a. Quality control
{
}
b. Quality management
{
}
c. Quality service
{
}
d. Standardization
{
}
19. Do the organization pretest its total quality implementing it?
a. Yes
{
}
b. No
{
}
20. Do you think total quality management helps in building the image of
organization?
a. Yes
{
}
b. No
{
}

38