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for Students of English

Compiled by


UDK 802.0(075.8)

Mokymo priemon rekomenduota spausdinti VPU angl kalbos

didaktikos katedros posdyje 1997 m. rugpjio 27 d., posdio
Recenzavo: VPU angl filologijos katedros doc. dr. R. Jasudaviit

for Students of English
Compiled by Jonas Skarulis
Vilnius, 1998. - 84 p.

Mokymo priemon skiriama angl kalbos specialybs pirmo kurso

studentams angl kalbos ritmo ir intonacijos mokymuisi.

ISBN 9986-869-26-9

J. Skarulis


PREFACE ................................................................................. 5
Stress and Rhythm .................................................................... 7
The Anatomy of English Intonation ..................................... 16
Intonation Patterns and Their Attitudinal Meanings ...... 24
The Low Fall Pattern ......................................................................... 24
The High Fall Pattern ........................................................................ 31
The Rise-Fall Pattern ........................................................................ 36
The Low Rise Pattern ........................................................................ 39
The High Rise Pattern ....................................................................... 46
The Fall-Rise Pattern ........................................................................ 49

A Phonetic Reader ................................................................. 55
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................. 83

This teaching aid is designed for first year students majoring in
English. Itmay be used after the introductory course and in the second
The teaching aid aims at acquainting the students with different
stress patterns and the main intonation patterns of English.
Part One contains twenty two exercises on rhythm and stress from
Living English Speech by W. S. Allen.
Part Two and Part Three are excerpts from Intonation of Colloquial
English by J. D. OConnor and G. F. Arnold. Part Two acquaints the
students with the anatomy of English intonation, the constituent parts of
intonation patterns and the system of phonetic notation which is widely
used in teaching and learning practice. Part Three deals with six intonation
patterns (each of which is based on one of the six main nuclear tones)
and their attitudinal meanings. Each description of an intonation pattern
and its meanings is followed by a recorded exercise which should be
regarded as a lab assignment. The student is given an opportunity to master
the intonation patterns individually by going through the drills in each
Part Four is a Phonetic Reader. All the texts included in the Reader
are recorded by native speakers of English. They illustrate genuine English
usage of intonation and represent normative English pronunciation. The
texts can be used for reading practice, for listening comprehension, for
role playing. Besides students will have an opportunity to enrich their
active and passive vocabulary. The shorter poetry pieces should be learnt
by heart. They give good practice in rhythm, stress and intonation and
help consolidate the required pronunciation skills.

Part One

The following exercises are based on common patterns of stressed

and unstressed syllables. In accordance with the key pattern at the head
of the exercise, the teacher reads the first phrase and the students (or a
group of students) repeats it at least three times in succession. The teacher
immediately reads the second phrase and the student (or group) repeats
it three times. The whole exercise should be performed in a regular
unbroken rhythm as far as possible. In the key patterns a large X indicates
a fully stressed syllable and a small x an unstressed or only partially stressed
The patterns are arranged in such a way that they become increasingly
complex as the exercises proceed. Thus the key pattern in Exercise 13
xXxxxXxxx (I wanted you to write about it) is much more complex than
the pattern XxX (try again) in Exercise 2. It is obvious that the skills of
stress and rhythm cannot be dealt with in one or two lessons: the student
requires practice of this kind in every lesson.


Exercise 1.

come here / look out / where to? / inside / no more / speak up / sit down/
say yes / try hard / wash up / break down / ask John / go slow / not
now/ where from? / which one? / hold tight / in time / no use / please
do/ no, thanks / yes,please / no good / all right / run fast / work hard /
whos that / thats true / just then / write soon / read this.


Exercise 2.

try again / not enough / look inside / show me yours / do it now / not so
fast / lend the hand / cut the bread / make the tea / run away / go to sleep/
have adrink / break it up / what is that? / whats it for? / practice hard/
sing a song/ write it down / draw a line / thats a lie / take it home /
having lunch / who are you? / wheres he from? / hurry up / move along/
light the fire / cold as ice / change your shoes / wheres your hat / time
for bed / heres some tea / half an hour / long ago / cant be done / quite
unknown / just in front / ill in bed.

Exercise 3.

I think so / I thought so / Id like to / to please them / a handful / a pity/

ofcourse not / Id love to / he couldnt / as well as / for ever / they may
be / totryit / at breakfast / the paper / she had to / its early / shes ready/
with pleasure / Im sorry / just listen / but why not / Ive read it / a lot of/
withoutme/ in day time / the answer / Id rather / its broken / in winter.

Exercise 4.

Id like you to / to practice it / a bucketful / its possible / we oughtnt to/

hewanted it / he wants us to / to borrow it / a little one / a pocketful / a
lot of it/ theyve finished it / Ive heard of it / it used to be / they must
have been / get rid of it / we asked them to / he lent me one / hes used to
it / lets give her some / be nice to her / a friend of mine / its beautiful /
she polished them / she came with us / we spoke to them / I studied it /
there isnt one / Ive paid for it / a pair of them.

Exercise 5.

writing it now / send him away / reading aloud / terribly slow / give him
a book/ what is the time? / sing us a song / running away / top of the
class / hardly enough / throw it away / send me a card / give me a ring/

playing a game / meet me tonight / where have they gone? / where have
you been? / what have you done? / what is it for? / show me the way /
pouring with rain / gone for a walk/ come for a swim / heavy as lead /
killed in the war / give him some food / time and again / no-one is in /
cutting the grass / chopping some wood / leave it alone/ not before tea/
ready for lunch / when you have time / not before then/ wait till I
come/ falling asleep / what can you see? / just for a while / what did
you do? / get into bed / leave it behind / do it again / write it in ink /
see you tonight / lots to be done / now were alone / out of the way /
switch off the light.

Exercise 6.

Ive eaten them all / a beautiful one / I think it will be / I promised him
it / to satisfy them / I thought it had been / a tablespoonful / interrogate
them/ he wanted us to / a penny or two / in spite of it all / he ought to
have had / a long time ago / an exercise book / Ive written to them / we
know what it is / to polish it with / the middle of it / a quarter of them /
I gave it to her / its necessary / a party-member / we had to do it / the
railway station.

Exercise 7.

I want to know / to do it well / another time / its quite all right / she
tied it up / a piece of string / he had to go / its very good / its hard to
say / but hurry up / she took it off / they put them on / shes most
upset / another day / they mustnt know / he locked the door / its
much too big / a waste of time / theyve gone away / its all for you /
he wants to learn / Id love to help / a glass of wine / across the road/
its not for sale.

Exercise 8.

I wanted to know / I think that he might / Ill finish it now / a spoonful

of salt / she asked me to go / I think he has gone / we wanted to see /

awalk in the park / a plateful of soup / he told me he would / the best

in the class / Ill see to it now / its warmer indoors / he left it outside
/ it used to be mine / a hole in your sock / he borrowed a pound / he
cant pay it back/ shes gone to the shops / Ive finished my lunch / an
excellent meal / in spite of the rain / the house is for sale / it isnt
allowed / you promised to write / she wasnt gone long / it started to
rain / he drank it all up / the engine wont start / Im sorry I came /
Im glad you have come.

Exercise 9.

finishing today / doing it alone / carry it away / put it on the floor/

clean it with a brush / tell me all you know / follow my advice /
mind how you behave / try to do it now / half of them have left /
send them out to play/ just in time to see / up above in clouds /
sitting all alone / waiting for the train / hoping that hell come /
ask him what he wants / have another cake/ what about a drink?/
bring along your friend / come and have a meal / how is Uncle
George? / hang it up to dry / put it on the shelf / dont be such a

Exercise 10.

I think it will be fine / I wanted you to know / to finish with it

now / a bucketful of ice / there isnt any need / you ought to go to
bed / the hospital was bombed / he waited half an hour / you only
have to try / I never have a cold / it doesnt make much sense / the
middle of the road/ impossible to say / we thanked him very much
/ I didnt know the way / Ill show it to her then / we promise to be
good / Ill try to be in time / its difficult to learn / he doesnt go
to school / Ive heard of it before / theyve cleared it all away / hes
eaten all the cream / youre wanted on the phone/ Ill see him in a
week / I havent any ink/ its absolutely true/ so dont forget to
write / the children are in bed.


Exercise 11.

I think he wants to / I want to meet him / I like it better / another

spoonful/ I think he ought to / they want another / hes playing football/
you mustnt leave her / he left on Monday / she has to practice / Im not
offended / perhaps they did it / without your hat on / I couldnt help it /
we never noticed / you need a haircut / it doesnt matter / Ill have to
leave you / well have a party / its time for supper / a great occasion / a
pretty picture / I dont believe you / we leave tomorrow / she wrote a
letter / a glass of cider / another sandwich / suppose he saw me / a streak
of lighting / a clap of thunder / a piece of chocolate / a cup of cocoa /
shes gone out shopping.

Exercise 12.

he started to talk to me / I think that he wants us to / she wanted

to write to him / theyve practiced it perfectly / Ill borrow another
one / it wasnt appropriate / youll get it on Saturday / theyve all
gone on holiday / its very unfortunate / perhaps youll have heard
of it / its not the right attitude / I asked for it specially / a letter
from Germany / I dont want to frighten her / she wants a
thermometer / its not what I asked you for/ theyve bought a new
wireless set / a Beethoven symphony / we travelled by aeroplane /
he came on a bicycle / some carrots and cabbages / its just what I
thought it was / lets open the other one / Ill take it away again /
repeat it again for me / the soup isnt hot enough / the price has
gone up again / he hasnt yet paid for it.

Exercise 13.

I wanted you to write about it / they shouldnt need their mackintoshes/

its not the one I borrowed from you / its interesting to read about it /
she doesnt want to talk about him / remember what your teacher tells
you / you wont forget to thank him for it / he neednt be so rude about

us/ took it to a watch-repairer / the doctor didnt see the patient / she
bought some new pyjamas for him / but wheres the glass you are drinking
out of ? / this isnt quite the moment for it / perhaps you didnt realise
it/ Id like it with some soda water / I think he did it beautifully / a
teaspoonful of salad dressing.

Exercise 14.

show him to his room / throw it into the fire / walking along the road /
thats to be left alone / ready to go away / standing behind the door / why
did you run away ? / tell her not to be late / sew it on to my coat / ask
them where they have been / show me what you have done / sing me
another song / whats the name of the book ? / multiply it by three /
opposite the hotel / suffering from the cold / bury it in the ground /
polish it with a cloth / fill it up to the top / finish it if you can.

Exercise 15.

I think he wants to go / its not the one I want / it isnt quite the same/
I havent been before / I cant believe its true / the train is very late/
he hasnt got a chance / Im sorry I forgot / there isnt time to change/
I hope you understand / they played a game of bridge / the concert
starts at eight / he goes to work on foot / he travels home by train /
Im sure my husband knows / afraid my wife is ill / she has to stay in
bed / the fire is nearly out / its all the same to me / excuse my being
late / I didnt know the way / the roads are very dark / I couldnt see
the house / perhaps youd care to wait / Ill see them both at once / it
doesnt matter much / I cant afford a car / he practised every day / a
spoonful every hour.

Exercise 16.

I think that he wants us to go / it isnt the same as before / I didnt expect

to be asked / we shant be in time for the play / youd best be as quick you

can / it doesnt much matter to me / Ive written the letter in French /

shes gone for a walk in the park / its time we were having our lunch /
Ive taken my coat to be cleaned / the office is open at nine / this shop
doesnt sell what I want / Im looking for paper and string / this envelope
hasnt a stamp / we dont want to trouble you now / another affair for the
police / you shouldnt have left it to her / shell never remember a thing/
shes sure to forget what to do / perhaps you can ring her tonight / and
tell her to leave it alone / I wanted to meet her again / he practises once
in a while.

Exercise 17.

I think it was an excellent affair / I wonder if hell ask me in advance / we

havent got an envelope to match / the office boy will show you where to
go / the factory is working day and night / the light should be in quite
another place / the bus is more convenient than the tram / the concerts
being broadcast after six / well switch it on as soon as weve had tea / Id
like a lump of sugar in my tea / I shouldnt be surprised if they forgot /
approximately ten of you can come / the others must wait here a little
while / well fetch you in a car in half an hour / he wanted me to listen to
his song / we finished it the day before he came / a basketful of apples
from the shop.

Exercise 18.

I think he wants to go there / we ought to give an answer / hes never

very punctual / she married Marys brother / I want a pound of sugar/
Id like to have another / shes cleaned the kitchen windows / my
husband wants his dinner / we had to go on business / Ive got to do
some shopping / you ought to buy a wireless / Ill show you where to
put it/ you mustnt waste a moment / youre looking smart this morning/
in case youre late for dinner / with no-one there to help her / its
time we went to dinner / a dance tomorrow evening / I didnt want to
listen / he doesnt speak much English / he studies every evening /
he always does his homework.


Exercise 19.

I think that he wants us to take him there / I told him to wait in

the corridor/ now what have I done with my handkerchief? /
remember to get me another one / its cheaper to go to the cinema/
I wonder if David has heard of it / the ambulance took him to
hospital/ apply for a post as a lecturer/ he played us a tune on the
gramophone/ he looked for a stick to defend himself / I ought to
have sent her a Christmas card / whenever you can you must visit
us / September is best for a holiday / you must have it ready by
Saturday / weve hundreds of places to take you to / I wanted to
finish my library book / a terrible cold in the head again / thats
nothing to do with argument / she promised to carry it carefully.

Exercise 20.

buy her a pretty new dress / honey and strawberry jam / when are
you going away? / what have you done with the ink / go to another
hotel / hurrying off to the train / working as hard as they can /
coming back home in a bus / take it away to be cleaned / that can
be seen at a glance/ wearing a funny old hat / giving him a cigarette/
why have they left you alone? / where have you hidden the key? /
nearly as far as the bridge.

Exercise 21.

I think he wants to go there too / you ought to know the way by now / he
did his best to save the child / the snow was falling thick and fast / I
know you didnt mean to hurt / thats not the way to fold a coat / I told
him not to go away / she looks a little pale to me / he has to go to work
at eight / I always like a cup of tea / its time the children went to bed /
they used to go to bed at six / a glass of beer is what I need / he left the
room without a word / he used to play it very well / I saw her standing all
alone / I cant forget the things he said / they said they had to leave at
once / youll have to do it all again.


Exercise 22.
KEY PATTERN: xXxxXxxXxxX... etc.

he says that he wants us to take it away / we ought to be grateful we

havent to pay / you know that we ought to discuss it today / a woman has
fallen and broken her leg / I never say no to a hot cup of tea / then turn
to the right at the end of the street / I shouldnt have thought he could get
here in time / he tied up the parcel and took it away / the gramophone
record has broken in two / it wont be the first time Ive gone without
lunch / excuse my disturbing you when youre so tired / the tram-stop is
just a bit father along / you couldnt have come at a more inconvenient/
its not what I wanted to ask you about / a friend of mines married a girl
from abroad/ the paper and ink have been put on your desk / I see hes
forgotten to leave his address / we havent got time to arrange for it
now/ an apple a day keeps the doctor away / the book youve just lent
me is better than many Ive read.


Part Two
In all languages there are variations of pitch. When we talk about English
intonation we mean the pitch patterns of spoken English, the speech tunes or
melodies, the musical features of English.
Utterances which are different only in respect to intonation may differ
from each other in meaning.
English speakers are able to make a good deal of allowance for imperfect
sound-making, but they are much less able to make the same allowance for
mistakenly used tones.


The tune contributes considerably to the total meaning of an utterance.
Yet pitch patterns do not, in English, alter the basic meanings of words.
Whatever tune is used with the word Yes it remains the same affirmative. The
contribution that intonation makes is to express, in addition to and beyond the
bare words and grammatical constructions used, the speakers attitude to
the situation in which he is placed.

We neither think nor speak in single words; we express our thoughts in
closely-knit groups of words which contribute to the situations in which we
are placed at a given moment. Such groups of words are called s e n s e
g r o u p s. They are usually separated from each other by pauses, which are
marked by means of vertical bars.


Good morning. | How are you? |

Im very well, | thank you. | And you? |
Fine. | The last time I saw you |you were just going to take your exams.|
Yes. | I failed, unfortunately.|
Oh, | bad luck.|

Sense groups consist of a single word or a number of words. In reading

aloud a piece of descriptive prose the sense groups will tend to be longer than
those found in impromptu conversation.


The same words in the same order will not have the same value in
different situation.
Consider the sentence It was an unusually dark night. At the
beginning of a story the last three words would all be particularly
important. Suppose that the first words were drowned by some outside
noise and the last three heard clearly, ...unusually dark night. Then
the listener would still get a picture of the storys setting. But in the
reverse case there would be virtually no information at all. If the same
sentence were used in response to the question What sort of night
wasit? there would be only two important words unusually dark
and they could be used alone as a complete answer to the question. In
reply to the question Was it dark last night? the single word unusually
would in this sense be more important than all the other. This prominence
is achieved by means of accent.


The term t u n e is used to denote the complete pitch treatment of a
sense group. Tunes, like sense groups, may be long or short, but we shall start
by dealing with the shortest possible tunes, those in sense groups consisting of
a single, monosyllabic word.
Below are six examples showing different tunes for the word Two
in different contexts. The changes of pitch are show graphically between
two horizontal lines representing the normal high and low limits of the

1. PETER: Would you like one packet, or two?

JOHN: Two.

2. PETER: How many shoes in a pair?

JOHN: Two.

3. PETER: Did you know Richard has two wives?

JOHN: Two.

4. PETER: How many cigarettes have you got?

JOHN: Two.

5. PETER: Ive only got two pounds.

JOHN: Two?

6. PETER: Youve got one brother, havent you?

JOHN: Two.

The six tunes are:

Low fall: the voice falls during the word from a medium to a very low pitch.
High fall: the voice falls during the word from a high to a very low pitch.
Rise-fall: the voice first rises from a fairly low to a high pitch and then
quickly falls to a very low pitch.
Low rise: the voice rises during the word from a low to a medium pitch or a
little above.
High rise: the voice rises during the word from a medium to a high pitch.
Fall-rise: the voice first falls from a fairly high to a rather low pitch, and
then, still within the word, rises to a medium pitch.


Now suppose that Johns response was not Two but Twenty. This is still
a sense group of a single prominent word, but there are two syllables instead of

one. The first of these syllables is stressed, i.e. said with a greater effort than
the second, which is unstressed. The six tunes will now be as follows and here
we use large dots to represent the stressed syllable and smaller dots to represent
the unstressed syllable.
Low fall: Twenty.

High fall: Twenty.

Rise-f all: Twenty.


Low rise: Twenty.

High rise: Twenty?

Fall-rise: Twenty.

The similarities with the treatment of Two are obvious, but there are
some differences which must be noticed. In the two rising tunes the stressed
syllable is level in pitch and there is no upward glide as there is with Two,
but rather a jump from the pitch of the stressed to that of the unstressed
syllable, in other words the rise is not complete before the end of the sense
group. In the same way the Fall-rise is spread over the two syllables and not
completed on the first.


All tunes must end in one of the six ways described above. No matter
how long or how short the sense group is, no matter how many or how few
prominent words it contains, the pattern of its tune from the stressed syllable
of the last prominent word onwards will correspond to one or other of the six
general patterns.
The stressed syllable of the last prominent word is a landmark of the
highest importance, and it is on this syllable that the whole tune centres. This

syllable is called the n u c l e u s of the tune, and all syllables following the
nucleus are called the t a i l .
The rises and falls which take place on the nucleus or start from it are
known as n u c l e a r t o n e s, of which there are six. By definition there can
be no prominent word in the tail, but the examples show that the tail may
contain stressed words; stress alone therefore, after the nucleus, does not imply
accent. The last prominent word is accented, that is, made to stand out, not by
stress alone, but a combination of stress and pitch features.
In order to give a fairly complete picture of the intonation of the
examples, we have used a graphic of large and small dots. It is more convenient
in practice to use a shorter method of marking the intonation. This consists of
placing a single symbol immediately before the nucleus to indicate the nuclear
tone; this symbol tells us, by its position and its shape, which syllable is the
nucleus of the tune and which of the six main endings is to be used.
Low fall: Two. Twenty.
High fall: Two. Twenty.
Rise-fall: Two. Twenty.
Low rise: Two. Twenty.
High rise: Two. Twenty.
Fall-rise: Two. Twenty.
Unstressed syllables in the tail have no separate symbol, but stressed
syllables are marked. The symbol [] is placed immediately before each stressed
syllable on, or beginning on, the lowest pitch level, and the symbol [] before
any stressed syllable which is higher that the lowest pitch.

Up to now we have considered only sense groups with a single prominent
word right at the beginning of the group. Now we must consider sense groups
containing words before the nucleus. The pre-nuclear pattern is divided into
two parts, the h e a d and the p r e - h e a d. The head begins with the stressed
syllable of the first prominent word and ends with the syllable immediately
preceding the nucleus; the pre-head consists of any syllables before the stressed
syllable of the first prominent word.
In the example below, prominent words are underlined.


want to be absolutely


about it.

The are three different types of head, the l o w h e a d, the s t e p p i n g
h e a d and the s l i d i n g h e a d.

The Low Head

In the usual form of the low head, all the syllables contained in it are
said on the same, rather low pitch. Before a low falling nucleus this pitch is a
little higher than the pitch of any tail.
E.g. Dont be impatient, then.

Before the low-rising nucleus the low head must be at the same pitch as
the beginning of the rise.
E.g. No-ones going to hurt you.

Before the high-falling nucleus, the low head most often starts on a low
pitch but rises gradually, syllable by syllable, to end just before the starting
pitch of the nucleus.
E.g. How did you manage to do that?

The low head is symbolised by placing the mark [] before the stressed
syllable of each prominent word. The examples above thus reads as follows:
Dont be so impatient, then.
No-ones going to hurt you.
How did you manage to do that?

The Stepping Head

In the stepping head, the stressed syllable of the first important word is
on a high, level pitch; that of the second important word is a step lower; that of
the third a step lower still, and so on until the nucleus is reached. Unstressed
syllables are said on the same pitch as the previous accented syllable.

E.g. Why did you tell me you couldnt come?

The stepping head is symbolised by placing the symbol [] immediately

before each accented syllable. Any syllable which is stressed but not accented
has the symbol [] placed before it.
E.g. Why did you tell me you couldnt come?
Are you coming back again on Sunday?
Come and see me tomorrow.

The Sliding Head

This is similar to the stepping head, as will be seen from the following
Everyones bound to see it sometime.

The pattern of the accented syllables is exactly that found in the

stepping head, the first high, the second lower, and so on, but the unaccented
syllables are treated differently: instead of being said on the same pitch as
the previous accented syllable they from a descending sequence, the first
lower than the accented syllable, the second lower still and so on. If the
structure of the sense group is such that there are no unaccented syllables
between successive accented ones, than the accented syllables themselves may
perform the downward slide, each successive slide beginning a step lower
than the preceding one.
E.g. You cant just leave it.

To symbolise the sliding head the mark [] is placed immediately

before each accented syllable. The examples quoted above are fully marked as
E. g. Everyones bound to see it sometime.
You cant just leave it.

The pre-head of a tune consists of the unaccented syllables before the
first accented one, whether the latter is the nucleus or the beginning of the
head. There are two types of pre-head, the l o w p r e - h e a d and the h i g h
p r e - h e a d.

The Low Pre-head

All the syllables in the low pre-head are said on the same rather
low pitch.
E.g. It was an unusually dark night.

The pitch is not so low as that of a final fall, but it must never be higher
than the starting pitch of the first accented syllable.

The High Pre-head

In the high pre-head all the syllables are said on the same relatively
high pitch.
E.g. But you cant do that.

The high pre-head is very much less common than the low pre-

The symbol [] is used to denote the high pre-head and it is placed

before the first word of the sense group. All syllables following this symbol
and preceding the next tone mark are taken to belong to the high prehead.
E.g. But you cant do that.


A simple tune may have a low pre-head, a high pre-head or no
pre-head at all; it may have one of the three different kinds of head or no
head at all but it will have one of the six nuclear tones (with or without
the appropriate tail).
As it is meaning which is a really important factor, we can usefully
group together any tunes which mean substantially the same. These groups
of tunes all conveying the same attitude on the part of the speaker are
called T o n e G r o u p s. Thus the tunes belonging to the same tone
group can be regarded as the variants of the same intonation pattern. They
have the same nuclear tone and express the same attitudinal meaning(s).
They differ in pre-nuclear patterns and in the presence or absence of the

Part Three


Tone Group 1
All statements associated with tone groups containing falling nuclear
tone sound definite and complete in the sense that the speaker wishes them
to be regarded as separate items of interest. In addition Tone Group 1 is
characteristically used to convey a cool, calm, phlegmatic, reserved,
dispassionate, detached, dull possibly grim or surly attitude on the part of
the speaker.
E.g. Whats your name?

Im a shop assistant.

This tone group is often used to denote the final item in a list, the other
items having rising tones.
E.g. You can have tea or |coffee or milk.

With special questions the tone is detached and reserved, they sound
rather flat and unsympathetic, quite often even hostile, and are consequently
less commonly heard than such questions with other tone groups.
With general questions Tone group 1 is used
(I) To put the question forward as a suggestion or a subject for discussion

rather than a request for immediate information. Again the general attitude is
detached, phlegmatic, reserved.
E.g. The knifes too blunt.
Ive got so many things to do.

Is this one any better?

Can I help at all.

When the fall is on the special finite verb the speaker is querying an
assumption on the part of the listener.
E.g. If we can afford, well go there. But can we afford it?

What is in appearance a negative question of this kind may in effect be

an exclamation.
E.g. Look at this gorgeous material.

Isnt it lovely!

(II) In a series of short questions where there is only a small change in

the form of the question each time.
E.g. Is it red? Is it blue? Is it black?

(III) Perhaps the most important use of Tone Group 1 with disjunctive
questions is for question tags when they follow statements containing the lowfalling nuclear tone. In such cases the speaker expects his statement to be
confirmed by the listener.
E.g. What a beautiful day, isnt it?

This type of phrases is also used as a comment upon a statement made

by someone else. When the Low Fall is used the comment is apt to convey a
total lack of interest, or else a mood is of hostility.
E.g. Ive just come from Paris.
John borrowed your car today.

Have you?
Did he?

(IV) This tone group is used in alternative questions to mark the last of
E.g. Would you like tea | or coffee?

Tone Group 1 is used for unemotional, calm, controlled, often cold

E.g. Dont. Take it.

Interjections with Tone Group 1 sound calm, unsurprised, selfpossessed, reserved. They are generally only short phrases.
E.g. Good. Right. Good morning.

Notice in particular T h a n k y o u , and T h a n k s , to express


genuine though unexcited gratitude.

PRACTICE. Listen to the following recorded stimuli (verbal contexts). Each

stimulus is followed by a response. Write down the responses. Supply stress-tone
notation for them. The nuclear tone in the responses is the Low Fall. Learn to
pronounce both the stimulus and the response.


Can you come tomorrow?
Whose book is this?
You must ask for them now.
He simply must go.
Ill send it to him.
What do you advise me to do?
Hes just arrived.
Heres your sweater.
Whats your name?
Whos running the music club this year?
Someones bound to have one.
He says hes coming.
Hes forgotten to shut the gate.
What a very nice house.
I rather like Mary.
What shall I do with this rubbish?
Watch me juggle with these plates.
Would you like an apple?
Whats your job?
Where did you go to school?
Someonell have to do it.
Ive said Ill meet you.
Ive got so many things to do.

Thank you for your offer.

May I borrow this pen?
I cant tell you now.
Did you lock the back door?
Im afraid Ive got a cold.
What would you like for dinner?
Whats that tray made of?
Which road shall we take?
Im afraid Ive lost your pen.
I dont feel like drinking beer.
I dont know what to tell Jean.
Thank you so much.
It was very kind of you.
Im very pleased with Sue.

Tone Group 2
Tone Group 2 is used to give a categoric, considered, weighty,
judicial, dispassionate character to statements. Such pronoucements are
more emphatic and more ponderous-sounding than with Tone Group 1.
E.g. Are you sure?
What shall I do?

Absolutely certain.
I simply cant imagine.

The dispassionateness often shades into withdrawal and impatience.

E.g. Why did he do it?
What shall I do?

I havent the slightest idea.

You must make up your own mind.

On the other hand, this tone group adds weight to expressions of

enthusiasm as well as of disapproval and is very commonly used in such
sentences as:
It was perfectly wonderful.
It was simply terrible.

Tone Group 2 makes special questions searching, serious, intense,

responsible and are often used to suggest impatience or irritability, though
not necessarily.

E.g. Why not come and have dinner with us?

Why did you do such a stupid thing?

Extra emphasis can be given to these questions by making the special

finite prominent.
E.g. What are you doing?
How could you be so stupid?

Tone Group 2 puts forward a general question as suggestion or as a

subject for discussion and makes it more insistent and more ponderous that
when said with Tone Group 1.
E.g. Well couldnt we borrow some money?
But can I believe you when you say that?

Questions with W i l l y o u . . . are in reality imperatives when

said with Tone Group 2.
E.g. Will you be quiet?

The negative form of general question is used to turn what seems to be

a question into an exclamation.
E.g. Isnt it wonderful!
Havent they made a mess of it!

With alternative questions this tone group is used to show the final
alternative of two or more.
E.g. Would you like coffee | or would you prefer tea?

Commands with Tone Group 2 are firm, serious, considered,

weighty, pressing, dispassionate. Often, though not always, they have a ring
of impatience.
E.g. Come and have dinner with us.
Try the other key.

This tone group is particularly common with commands containing

the emphatic words d o or p l e a s e .
E.g. Do stop tickling.
Please be quiet.

This tone group is very common with interjections and gives weight
and emphasis to them.
E.g. Oh good! How ridiculous!

Greetings with this tone group are very intense, particularly if the first
word is accented.

E.g. Good morning.

PRACTICE. Listen to the following recorded stimuli (verbal contexts). Each

stimulus is followed by a response. Write down the responses. Supply stress-tone
notation for them. Learn to pronounce both the stimulus and the response.


Isnt she very bright?
Is it easy?
Im afraid I cant do it.
Whats he saying?
Itll be very exciting.
Hes two hours late again.
What do you think you are doing?
What do you want me to do?
Here I am at last.
Isnt it mild today?
Why did he run away?
Wheres that book of mine?
Will you help?
Oh for a bit of quiet.
Its quite an interesting idea.
Weve both got the same answer.
Do you remember our walk in Epping Forest?
Well be there in no time.
Its not much of a risk.
How shall I make my peace?
Heres the pen you lost.
I havent seen you for ages.
Ill fetch you in the car.

You wont do it that way.

What did you say the address was?
Well he says he needs it.
We cant leave yet. Its raining.
I dont want your help.
He just shouted me down.
Hullo, Jack.



Tone Group 3
Statements with this group are just as definite and complete as those
with Tone Group 1 and 2, but they lack the detachment and
dispassionateness of the latter, expressing rather a personal concern or
involvement in the situation; they sound more lively and interested,
sometimes surprised, always more airy and lighter in mood than with
Tone Groups 1 or 2. Because of this Tone Group 3 (and Tone Group 4)
are particularly common in conversation, where it is so often necessary
to show active interest in what is going on.
E.g. Have you met my brother?

No, | I havent.

Special questions with this tone express a lively and interested

reaction to the situation.
E.g. I saw the Queen yesterday.


When the interrogative word precedes the nucleus such questions

express a reaction to something very unexpected and, for that reason perhaps,
not immediately pleasing to the questioner.
E.g. Why did you do that? | It wasnt necessary.

In comments (i.e. general questions), where the High Fall is on the

special finite, the reaction is one of mild surprise but acceptance of the
listeners premises. It is more or less equivalent to a surprised repetition of
the listeners statement.
E.g. I like it here.
Shes thirty-five.

Do you? (I thought youd hate it.)

Is she? (I didnt know that.)

With a dissenting word the question demands special scrutiny of an

assumed fact.
E.g. Im glad the cars all right

But is it. (Thats the whole point.)

Question tags have the High Fall on the special finite when the previous
statement has a High Fall in it, or when the preceding statement ends in a rise.
It expresses the speakers expectation of nothing but a confirmatory answer.

E.g. Its absolutely ridiculous, | isnt it?

Its all right, | isnt it?

When the nucleus follows the special finite, the question is offered as a
subject for discussion rather than a request for information.
E.g. Nobody seems anxious to do it.

Can I have a try?

Commands with Tone Group 3 show more warmth than with the
previous tone groups, connoting a critical surprise that such an obvious
course should not have occurred to the listener.
E.g. Watch me jump off this wall.

Dont. (Youll hurt yourself.)

Interjections with Tone Group 3 are more emotional, but also less
portentous, less weighty than those with Tone Group 2
E.g. Good morning, Jack.

Good morning, Fred. (I didnt

expect to see you here.)

PRACTICE. Listen to the following recorded stimuli (verbal contexts). Each

stimulus is followed by a response. Write down the responses. Supply stress-tone
notation for them. The nuclear tone in the responses is the High Fall. Learn to
pronounce both the stimulus and the response.


Do you know Basil Fish?
Why didnt you buy the picture?
I saw the Queen yesterday.
Lets paint one of the walls pink.
Youre too late.
Johns generosity is amazing.
They cant go after all.
May I borrow you pen?
I love salted almonds.
The papers too big for envelope.
Will you have a drink?
Have you taken over your new house?
What did you think of the show?
You cant eat all that.

You must do it.

I know all about it.
They both passed the exam.
Well never be ready by Monday.
Pats being very obstinate.
May I your phone?
I owe you an apology.
Peter came early.
Why didnt you say youd won?
I told him he was a fool.
Im going to emigrate.
I doubt whether David will subscribe.
Youre not very good at it, are you?
He paid five thousand for that house.
I dont want to go alone.
Ive lost my invitation.
Look. It works.
Youre a bit grumpy today.

Tone Group 4
With statements this tone group retains the lightness, the airness and
the effect of personal participation, characteristic of the High Fall nuclear
E.g. What time is it?

Its half past twelve. I didnt

realise how late it was.

It is very often used to express warmth, a desire not to appear cool to

the listener.
E.g. Can you come and see me?

Im afraid I cant. Ive got to

catch a train.

Special questions with this tone convey a perfectly brisk and

business-like attitude and are a very common way of asking these questions.

E.g. Whats the time?

When did you arrive?

General questions have very much the same effect as those with Tone
Group 3 except that the impatience or querulousness is absent. The speaker
puts forward his question for discussion, or as the key question in the discussion.
E.g. Shall we take Frank into our confidence? Dare we risk it?

Suggestions are made with this tone group.

E.g. Would you prefer this chair?
Can I help you at all?

Commands seem to suggest a course of action to the listener, without

the surprise of Tone Group 3 and without the calm demand for action of Tone
Group 2.
E.g. This teas too hot.

Put some more milk in it.

With interjections Tone Group 4 expresses mild surprise without the

affront of Tone Group 3 and without the massive impact of Tone Group2.
E.g. I must stay and do some work.

How very noble of you.

PRACTICE. Listen to the following recorded stimuli (verbal contexts). Write

down the responses. Supply stress-tone notation for them. The nuclear tone in
the responses is the High Fall. Learn to pronounce the stimulus and the response.


Whats the time, please?
Here. Use my pen.
Ive just seen that new musical.
Underneath the Arches.
What was that you said?
John says he has an alibi.
I cant help being right, can I?
Its not so bright now, is it?
I cant think what to say.
What shall I do with this?
Well go there on Friday.
I was sorry to have to vote against you.


What was the party like?
He said he knew nothing about it.
Oh I know he couldnt help it.
I found your book in the greenhouse.
I bumped into Alice yesterday.
Thats not very convincing.
Have you heard about Alex?
Of course hell agree.
Hes an absolute swindler.
Heres a cheque for you.
Was it easy?
Its no use asking Philip.
Well it looks like mine.
Shall I ask to tea?
Looking for me, Terry?



Tone Group 5
This tone group implies all the definiteness, finality, etc. associated
with the other falling groups. It particularly shows that the speaker is greatly
impressed, perhaps awed.
E.g. Have you heard about Pat?

Yes! (Isnt it scandalous.)

This tone is often used in echoing an immediately prior remark, in

order to show how impressed the speaker is, whether favourably or not.
E.g. I got two hundred pounds for it. Two hundred.

The speaker often sounds complacent, self-satisfied, even smug.

E.g. Are you sure?


Tone Group 5 lends itself especially well to the expression of a

challenging or censorious attitude.
This tone group has an intensifying function very similar to the use of
the word even.
E.g. Do you weigh as much as
twelve stone?

More (=even more.)

Tone Group 5 gives to special questions a note of challenge and

antagonism, which is often equivalent to the word but placed before the
question or the word though after it.
E.g. You could surely find some
money somewhere.
I know it for a fact.

(But) where?

How do you know (though)?

As with statements, there is often a disclaiming of responsibility for the

E.g. Ive had this pain for days.

Why dont you do something

about it?

Tone Group 5 with general questions is very often found with comments
of the type below, when it shows that the speaker accepts what has been
said and is impressed by it, either favourably or unfavourably.
E.g. He shot an elephant.


Did he?

Negative question forms used exclamatorily again show that the

speaker is vastly impressed, favourably or otherwise.
E.g. What do you think of my roses? Arent they lovely!

This tone group is used with question tags when the preceding sense
group also has the Rise-Fall as its nuclear tone and the speaker wishes to
compel agreement.
E.g. Its terrible, | isnt it?

With fuller questions Tone Group 5 puts the matter forward for
discussion, with the same challenging, rather antagonistic note as with
special questions.
E.g. Can we afford to buy it?

Can we afford not to?

The main contribution of Tone Group 5 with commands is again a

matter of shrugging off responsibility, or refusing to be embroiled.
E.g. My doctors useless.

Try a different one.

When the speaker uses Tone Group 5 with interjections he sounds

impressed by something not entirely expected.
E.g. Sallys just had triplets.

My goodness.

PRACTICE. Listen to the following recorded stimuli (verbal contexts). Each

stimulus is followed by a response. Write down the responses. Supply stress-tone
notation for them. The nuclear tone in the responses is the Rise-Fall. Learn to
pronounce both the stimulus and the response.

Can you see?
Is he as tall as his father?
I was very cross with him.
Surely one of these screws will fit.
I finished well before time.
I hate it, but what can I do?
Did you finish that job?
Did you see any lions?

Is it cheaper by coach?
You pay for it.
Well borrow a ruler.
May I take this newspaper?
Johns got it now.
Can you manage alone?
I thought you didnt like spinach.
Why should you do the donkey work?
Ill make it soon, I promise.
You ought to apologise.
Everythings so dear.
Nobody seems at all keen.
Is he getting fatter?
Did you save time?
I dont like the man.
Which one shall I choose?
Would Max have a game?
Ive had this pain for days.
Can we afford to buy it?
Which one shall I buy?
Its not much of a cut.
Thank you so much.



Tone Group 6
Statements with Tone Group 6 invite a further contribution to the
conversation from the listener.

E.g. Good morning, Mr Thompson. (Good morning.) Its a nice

Have you heard about Max?

Usually the speaker gives that impression that he is reserving judgment

until he has heard more from the listener.
E.g. Do you go to the theatre?


Going on from this guarded attitude, Tone Group 6 is often used to

express reproving criticism of the listeners attitude or the general situation.
E.g. I shall have to sack him.

You cant do that. (He is too

Very common is the use of this tone group in resentful contradictions.

E.g. You havent written that letter.

(Yes,) | I have. | (I wrote it in

the morning.)

Notice that the implied criticism of the listener may be because he is

blaming himself too much, or praising the speaker too much, when the statement
sounds deprecatory.
E.g. I feel terrible about it.

Youve nothing to reproach

yourself with. It wasnt your

This tone group is also used for continutive purposes, to show that
there is more to be said, as, for example, in enumerations.
E.g. One, | two, | three, | four, | five,

If the enumeration is completed the last item has a falling tone:

You can have coffee, | or tea, | or cocoa.

When with special questions the nucleus is in the interrogative word

the effect may be eigther of repeating the listeners question or of asking for
information to be repeated. In both cases the questioners tone is wondering.

E.g. The meetings at five.

When? (I thought it was at six.)

With general questions disapproval or scepticism is almost invariably

E.g. You mean to say youre getting

Is it so very surprising?

Questions tags with Tone Group 6 leave the listener free to answer
either Yes or No, although it will be clear that the speaker inclines to one view
rather than the other.
E.g. Its about ten oclock, | isnt it?

Notice that when the speaker says:

Shes a nice girl, | isnt she?

he has certainly met the girl and formed an opinion about her niceness,
which he expects the listener to confirm; whereas when he says:
Shes a nice girl, | isnt she?

he has probably not met the girl concerned and is genuinely concerned
to have the listeners view.
The question tags will you?, wont you?, would you? are used after
imperative forms in order to make it plain that the command is in fact a form
of invitation.
E.g. Come and sit down, | wont you?

Direct question tags, i.e. those which are in the negative when the
preceding statement is in the negative, or in the affirmative when the statement
is in the affirmative, always bear Tone Group 6. Such utterances are used
to acknowledge something which has previously been stated, to refer back
to something already established and accepted by both parties.
E.g. What a lovely dress.

You like it, | do you?

When used independently, as a comment in response to a statement,

the disapproving or sceptical tone is again in evidence.
E.g. I saw you on Wednesday.

Did you? (I thought it was


Tone Group 6 is not widely used with commands except those beginning
with Dont, when the effect is exactly the same as with statements. It is commonly
with a few short commands, when they constitute a rather calm warning or

E.g. Im afraid Ive broken it.

Dont worry about that.

Careful. Steady. Watch.

Some short interjections quite commonly have this tone group; seem to
imply reserved judgment and to require more explanation from the hearer.
E.g. Its half past ten.

Well. (Were not in a hurry.)

Others imply calm, casual acknowledgement of a not unexpected matter.

E.g. The cars here.

Good. (Were just about ready).

PRACTICE. Listen to the following recorded stimuli (verbal contexts). Each

stimulus is followed by a response. Write down the responses. Supply stress-tone
notation for them. The nuclear tone in the responses is the Low Rise. Learn to
pronounce both stimulus and the response.


Did you catch the last train?
What does a haberdasher sell?
Whens the meeting due to take place?
The meetings at five.
But how you do it?
Its half past ten.
Do you ever go to the club?
Tonys always late.
How old are you?
I thought she was pretty.
Your change, sir.
Have you been there?
I wonder if they sell socks.
I went with Mr. Spang.
Theres someone to see you.
Oh good! Breakfast in bed!

I cant find my key anywhere.

Thank you.
Is that really yours?
Let me get you some tea.
How much did you win?
What will they think of me?
I dont agree.
Shut the door, for heavens sake.
Lets use it now.
He says hell never speak to me again.
I dont think I can dive from that height.
Im sorry.
Im terribly sorry.
I cant help you.

Tone Group 7
Statements with this tone tend to sound soothing, reassuring. No criticism
is implied such as found with Tone Group 6, but there is a hint of great selfconfidence or self-reliance on the speaker.
E. g. Are you ready to go?

I shant be a moment.

In echoed statements, those which repeat more or less what has just
been said by the other persons, this group turns the statement into surprised
and disbelieving question.
E.g. Hes broken his leg.

Broken his leg?

The same attitude is present in other statements which are not obviously
E.g. I won the first prize.

And you didnt tell us?

This group is frequently used with unfinished groups, i.e. when the
speaker is leading up to something more; it is regarded by the speaker as being
important only as a preparation for what follows. Compare
I went up to him | and shook his hand.
I went up to him | and shook his hand.


In the first example there is only one episode with two phases, but in the
second there are separate episodes.
E.g. When I arrived | there was nobody at home.
I opened the door quietly | and looked in.

The effect of the group in these circumstances is to tensify expectancy

regarding what is to follow and it is perhaps most commonly used in narration.
By using Tone Group 7 with special questions the speaker seeks to
establish a bond with the listener, to show interest not only in receiving the
information asked for but also in the listener himself.
E.g. (Hullo, darling.) What have you got there?

Note that when the nucleus is the interrogative word, the effect of
repetition and the puzzlement of Tone Group 6 returns.
E.g. I saw him at Wembly.

You saw him where?

In echoed questions this tone group shows disapproval of the question

being asked.
E.g. When are you going home?

When am I going home?

(How dare you!)

This tone group is by far the most common way of asking general
questions. It should be regarded as the normal way, and any other groups
should be in the special circumstances outlined in the appropriate place.
E.g. Are you coming with us?
Did you enjoy the play last night?

Commands with Tone Group 7 have the soothing effect of statements.

The speaker sounds encouraging and perhaps calmly patronising. For
these reasons these commands are frequently used to children, but less
often to adults, who may find the soothing effect irritating.
E.g. Come to Daddy. Blow your nose, dear. Dont worry.

This tone group is rather commonly used with a with a few

interjections. The effect is rather brighter than with Tone Group 6, not
so reserved, but still quite airy and casual and with the encouraging
effect mentioned above.
E.g. Ill see you tomorrow.
Its my exam tomorrow.

Right you are.

Good luck.

Greetings very frequently employ this tone group, when they sound
bright ant friendly. If the syllable before the nuclear syllable is stressed the

effect is rather ponderous, so most often it is unstressed though high in pitch,

a High Pre-Head being used.
E.g. Good morning. Hullo, there.

Leave-takings are almost invariably in this form since Tone Group 6

sounds too reserved. Tone Group 7, however, sounds bright and friendly.

PRACTICE. Listen to the following recorded stimuli (verbal contexts). Each

stimulus is followed by a response. Write down the responses. Supply stress-tone
notation for them. The nuclear tone in the responses is the Low Rise. Learn to
pronounce both the stimulus and the response.


I have climbing ladders.
I must pay what I owe you.
Tell me, doctor. Is he badly hurt?
Ive decided to reject his application.
I leave tomorrow morning.
Stevens is going to retire.
Hes sitting on the carver.
Im going to do some shopping.
Id love you to come.
I suppose Ill have to.
Theyve sent us four.
What time will you call round?
I just cant quite manage it.
Im just going.
I really must be off.
Ill back later.
Youve got the wrong number.
Do hurry up.
But I may spill some.
Any time to spare on Sunday?

I said nothing of the kind.

He was treated by an osteopath.
When can I call for it?
We had a splendid game.
Why have you taken that one?
Whatever shall we do?
Goodbye for now.
Im leaving now. Goodbye.
Youre an old fool.



Tone Group 8
Complete statements with Tone Group 8 have the effect of questions.
E.g. You like him? is equivalent to Do you like him?
Hes definitely going? is equivalent to Is he definitely going?

Very often this tone group is to elicit a repetition by the listener

or something he has said, as if the speaker were saying D i d y o u s a y . . . ?
or D i d y o u m e a n ? . The difference between this and Tone Group
6 or Tone Group 7 is that there is no suggestion of disapproval or
E.g. There were fourteen names on the list.


Tone Group 8 is also used to lead to a following group, when it sounds

rather more tentative than Tone Group 6 or 7 in similar circumstances.
E.g. I like the colour, | the shape, | and the pattern.
You can stay here |or come with us.

When the nuclear tune is on the interrogative word, Tone Group 8 calls
for the repetition of information already given, as does Group 6, but the
wondering, puzzled flavour of Tone Group 6 is absent.
E.g. What was his name again? (Ive forgotten.)
Hes coming for how long?

When the nuclear tone is not on the interrogative word, the speaker is
often echoing listeners question in order to get it clear in his mind before
giving an answer; again there is no criticism implied as there is with Tone
Group 7.
E.g. Whens he arriving?

Whens he arriving? (Is that

what you asked?)

Tone Group 8 is also used with straightforward special questions, i.e.

not echoes or requests for repetition, and such question sound rather like
those with Tone Group 7, but very much more tentative, as if avoid any
appearance of prying.
E.g. Who were talking to? (Anyone I know?)


General questions with Tone Group 8 may be echoed questions (as

with special questions above) or not. The following are echoes.
E.g. Is it raining?
Would you like one?

Is it raining, did you say?

Would I like one? (Id love

Straightforward questions may, however, be asked with this tone group,

when they sound lighter, more casual than with Tone Group 6 or 7.
E.g. Put your mac on.

Is it raining?

This tone group is particularly common with short comments of the

type below, the effect being of a minimum response designed to keep the
conversation going.
E.g. Ive just seen John.
He said he was tired.

Have you?
Did he?

Tone Group 8 is used with commands and interjections almost

exclusively to question a part or all of utterance of the listener and elucidate
meaning, with no particular critical intention.
E.g. Take it home.

What a shame.

Take it home? (Is that what

you said?)
What a shame? (Why?)

The interjections Or and Really are often heard with this tone group,
when they are equivalent to the minimum comments, mentioned under General
Questions above.
E.g. Ive just seen John.
He said he was tired.


PRACTICE. Listen to the following recorded stimuli (verbal contexts). Each

stimulus is followed by a response. Write down the responses. Supply stress-tone
notation for them. The nuclear tone in the responses is the High Rise. Learn to
pronounce both the stimulus and the response.


Its snowing.
Ive just seen the Edwards girl.
Can I borrow some matches?
Ive got to go to Leeds.

Whos Archibald Simpson?

How did he find out?
Can you make me one?
Wasnt it stupid!
What lovely cherries!
I like Barbara.
Telephone me, then.
Pass me the paper.
Has Michael arrived yet?
He really insulted me.
Id like to hear one of your records.
Its four hundred feet tall.
Would you like one?
My knifes broken.
How do you like my song?
Take them away.
Why not ask Jenny?
It isnt fair.
Id like two dozen.
How many children has he?
Which would you recommend?
He speaks Hindustani.
I waited there two solid hours.
Wont your be rather cross?
Could I talk you sometime?
Tell me the time, please.
Leave the key with Mr. Atkins.
The silly young fool.



Tone Group 9
The simplest case is that of incomplete groups, where the Fall-Rise
draws particular attention to one element for the purpose of contrast, and at
the same time shows an intention to continue the utterance.
E.g. On weekdays | I work, | but on Saturdays | I dont.
If the weathers good | its pleasant, | but if it isnt, | its

In complete groups this contrasting of one thing with another is used

for the purpose of selecting one aspect of the whole subject and deliberately
leaving the remainder unmentioned. This limiting of the speakers comment
implies a contrary opinion on what has not been mentioned.
E.g. Did you play cricket at
the week-end?

I did on Saturday.

From the whole subject the week-end the speaker chooses

one part Saturday and comments on that. He makes no mention of
the remainder Sunday and it is clear without any more being said
that he did not play cricket then. Quite often this contrary opinion is
actually stated, as, for example, in
I did on Saturday | but not on Sunday,

but this merely puts into words what the intonation has already
said. In the examples below possible extensions of the short answer are
added in brackets.
I didnt know you drank coffee.

Is it going to keep fine?

I do sometimes, (but not very

I think so, (but Im not

This distinguishing of two conflicting factors within the immediate

situation is used widely in field of concession.
Two cases may be noticed:
1. The speaker makes an explicit concession on the part of the subject
but implies agreement on the remainder.

2. The speaker explicitly requires a concession from the listener on

part of the subject but implies agreement on the remainder.
Consider this example: She has a lovely voice. This may occur in two
different types of context:

What a lovely voice.

Yes, she has a lovely voice, (but

thats about all that can be said for her).

This is the case mentioned in 1 above; the speaker concedes the listeners
point about the voice whilst implying reservations on other matters.

I dont think much of

her as an actress.

She has a lovely voice, (even if

her other talents are not remarkable).

This is the case mentioned in 2 above; the speaker asks the listener to
admit that the voice is good whilst leaving the way open for agreement on the
mediocrity of remainder. We might call the situation in 1 grudging admission,
and that in 2 reluctant or defensive dissent.

Grudging admission
Id like it as soon as possible.
Can I take this one?

You could have it by dinner time, |

(but no earlier.)
You can if you like, | (but the other
ones better.)

Reluctant or defensive dissent

Id like it by tomorrow.
Everyones gone home.

I doubt whether I can do it by then,

|(but it wont be much later.)
Not everyone. | (Most have, but
Johns still here.)

From this point it is only a short step to the expression of direct

contradictions and corrections.
E.g. It didnt take you long.
Your birthdays on the
fourth, isnt it?

It did. | (I took ages.)

The fifth.

The result is often concerned, reproachful or hurt. Compare the following

reactions to the statement: I can do it on Monday.
1. You cant; (Ive just explained that you cant.)
2. You cant; (as you ought to know perfectly well.)
3. You cant; (and Im sorry that you should think you can.)

John wont be here today.
Youre not trying.

I think he will.
I most certainly am.

That shouldnt take long.
Did you say seventeen?

Itll take at least a week.


This concern or reproach is carried on into other utterances which

cannot be regarded as contradictions.
E.g. Ive been sacked.
I went to London today.

Youre not serious!

I wish youd told me.

This same attitude of concern or reproach is apparent in warnings.

E.g. Youll fall.
Youll miss your train.

In apologies, where the concern might seem to be appropriate, this tone

group tends to suggest reservations on the part of the speaker.
E.g. Im sorry, | (but Im afraid its impossible.)
I beg your pardon, | (but Im afraid I must contradict you.)

Sorry, by itself, is an apology, but rather a perfunctory one.

Tone Group 9 is often used in tentative suggestions , where the
speaker wants to help but not to commit himself too deeply to the course
E.g. We need another player.
When can we meet?

You could ask John.

Wednesday, might be a

Tone Group 9 is heard as an intensified variant of Tone Group 6 in

certain questions.
E.g. Its your turn.
John liked it.

Is it?
Did he?

In echoed questions the effect is of astonishment, as if the speaker can

hardly believe his ears.
E.g. Are you going to the wedding?

Am I going? | (Well of course

I am.)


Tone Group 9 is also used to make corrections to questions, as to

E.g. How will Henry get home?

How will Jane get home?

(Henrys is a simple journey.)

Commands with this tone have a warning note, but more urgency than
with Tone Group 6 or 7, since the reproach or concern mentioned in relation
to statements is also present here.
E.g. Mind. | (Theres a step here.)
Careful with that glass. | (Youll drop it.)

A few interjections of scorn take Tone Group 9.

E.g. Did you lend him any money?

Not I.

As with other sentence types, corrections may also be made to

interjections by this means.
E.g. What a lovely swimsuit!

What a lovely handkerchief.

PRACTICE. Listen to the following recorded stimuli (verbal contexts). Each

stimulus is followed by a response. Write down the responses. Supply stress-tone
notation for them. The nuclear tone in the responses is the Fall-Rise. Learn to
pronounce both the stimulus and the response.


I thought they all took one.
Are things getting dearer?
I like oysters.
His names Harry.
How do you go to the office.
They swear they gave us eight pounds.
Sometimes that train stops at Amersham.
Ill dump the suitcases here.
Ive found a four leafed clover.
Have you finished?
Its a good plan, isnt it?
Could we borrow a typewriter?

What a dull book!

Arent these apples sour!
Hes an old fool.
Sorry I startled you.
Its none of my business.
He speaks French and Italian fluently.
I feel as if could scream.
I hope I dont break anything.
You wont tell him, will you?
Was it twins or triplets?
You werent there, were you?
My watch is terrible.
I dont thinks I can do it.
Can I give a hand?
Is it going to keep fine?
I say the schemes much too ambitious.
But you never lose your temper.
Nothing went at all right.
It didnt take long.
I play golf rather well.
What can I do to mend matters?
We simply must convince him.
Must you go?
What do you people think of it?
So you think theyll help us.
He came home last February.
May I hold it for a minute?
Dyou smoke?

What a nasty cold day!

Would he lend me his gramophone?
What a poky little house!
Can I take this one?
You will play, wont you?
Can I borrow your penknife?
Let me know tomorrow.
Youre not trying.
We got here about midnight.
Alans forgotten his umbrella.
Oh dry up, you idiot!
One more game?
Im thinking of having central heating.
Let me have them by tonight.
Whats worrying you, Peter?
Whats happened to your car?
What did you think of the lecture?
Shes an absolute failure.
I think its going to rain.
Ill have this one. No, this.
Im sorry.


Part Four


Once upon a time a Sheep and a Goat set out on a journey together.
Maa, said the Sheep. Two heads are better than one.
The Goat looked at the Sheep and said: Im not so sure about that.
However, they went in walking side by side and at last the Sheep said:
Lets talk.
What about? said the Goat.
Maa, said the Sheep, let me think... er. Lets talk about things
beginning with W.
So they went on talking about such things as work, and wool, and water,
and wives, and wolves. And at last they came to a wood.
Do you think we should go through this wood? said the Sheep.
If we keep together, said the Goat, we can go where we like. But we
must keep our eyes open.
Four eyes are better than two, said the Sheep.
Perhaps you are right, said the Goat, even though two of them are
only sheeps eyes.
Well they went into the wood and between the two of them they saw a
Wolf before the Wolf saw them.
Maa, now what shall we do? said the Sheep.
We must be ready to use our legs, said the Goat.
Eight legs are better than four, said The Sheep.
The Goat looked very doubtful indeed. Perhaps, perhaps, he said at
last, even though four of them are only sheeps legs.

The Goat looked about him quickly. He saw two bushes close together.
Ah, the very thing, he said. Now Sheep, you stand between these two bushes
facing that way and Ill stand behind you, facing this other way. When Mr. Wolf
comes along, you talk to him and dont forget to tell him that you have two
heads, four eyes and eight legs. Youll do the talking in front, you see, and Ill
do the back chat from behind. Ah, here he comes. You are ready?
Maa, said the Sheep.
Good day, Sheep, said the Wolf. Im delighted to meet you.
You are very polite for a wolf, said the Sheep.
Im always polite to my dinner. I always think it goes down better if
you have been polite to it. I was just wondering where I should find my dinner
and your four legs have brought it to me.
Well the Sheep didnt like all this talk about the Wolfs dinner and said:
Youre wrong. I have eight legs.
At that the Goat began to shout: Of course I have eight legs and only
four of them are sheeps legs.
Whos that? asked the Wolf.
That is my other head, said the Sheep.
Let me get at that Wolf, shouted the Goat.
There, said the Sheep, my two heads are quite different. This head
Im talking with is very quiet and eats grass, but my other head is loud and
fierce and eats nothing but wolves.
The Wolf began to feel frightened. Does your heard, your other head
really eat wolves? he asked.
Yes, but not more than one a day.
And its not enough, shouted the Goat. Im always hungry. I could
eat a hundred wolves.
The Sheep turned her head: You can have this one standing in front
here, but that is all you can have today.
No, no - no. shouted the Wolf. Down went his tail and he ran for his
life. The Sheep ran after him and the Goat ran backwards after the Sheep
shouting: Wolf for dinner, Wolf for dinner.
But the Wolf never looked back. Helter-skelter he went to his den. Into
it he rushed and stopped there in the dark for days and days.
And then Sheep and Goat went quietly on their way talking about
things that began with W-things like w i n d s and w i n t e r and w i t c h e s .
I said two heads were better than one, said the Sheep.
And the Goat looked at her doubtfully and thought his own thoughts.

Once upon a time there was a little boy and his name was Billy Bobtail.
One day he made up his mind to go and seek his fortune. So he put on his
thickest pair of shoes because he might have to walk a long way and his warmest
coat in case the weather got cold and his green cap. And all the other things he
wanted to take with him he put in a very big red handkerchief and tied them up
into a bundle and put a stick through the knot and lifted it up onto his right
shoulder and set off along the road.
Good morning, Billy Bobtail.
Good morning, Pig.
Where are you going, Billy Bobtail?
Im going to seek my fortune.
May I come with you, Billy Bobtail?
Yes, certainly.
Good morning, Billy Bobtail.
Good morning, Cow.
Where are you going, Billy Bobtail?
Im going to seek my fortune.
May I come with you, Billy Bobtail?
Yes, certainly. Just walk along behind me.
Good morning, Billy Bobtail.
Good morning, Dog.
Where are you going, Billy Bobtail?
Im going to seek my fortune.
May I come with you, Billy Bobtail?
Yes, certainly. Just walk along behind me.
Good morning, Billy Bobtail.
Good morning, Cat.
Where are you going, Billy Bobtail?
Im going to seek my fortune.
May I come with you, Billy Bobtail?
Yes, certainly. Just walk along behind me.
Good morning, Billy Bobtail.
Good morning, Donkey.
Where are you going, Billy Bobtail?
Im going to seek my fortune.

May I come with you, Billy Bobtail?

Yes, certainly. Just walk along behind me.
Good morning, Billy Bobtail.
Good morning, Cock-a-doodle-doo.
Where are you going, Billy Bobtail?
Im going to seek my fortune.
May I come with you, Billy Bobtail?
Yes, certainly. Just walk along behind me.
Well Billy Bobtail met no more animals after the Cock. They walked
on all day till at last towards evening they came to a big thick wood. So they
stopped and looked into it.
I dont like the look of that wood.
Neither do I. Neither do I.
Never mind. If anything comes to hurt us, I can shout and throw
And I can grunt and squeal.
And I can bellow and toss with my horns.
I can bark and bite.
I can miaow and scratch.
I can bray and kick.
I can crow and flap my wings.
All right. Now we need not be afraid. Lets go into the wood. Keep
close together.
So Billy Bobtail and the animals started to walk through the dark
wood. Suddenly Billy Bobtail and the animals heard a most terrible noise. And
at once Billy Bobtail began to shout and throw stones, the Cow began to
bellow and toss her horns, the Donkey began to bray and kick, the Dog began
to bark and bite, the cat began to miaow and scratch, the Cock began to crow
and flap his wings and the pig began to grunt and squeal. They made a terrific
Stop. Listen. I think its gone away. Lets go on.
So they went on through the wood but soon they heard the terrible noise
Stop. Stop. I think its gone away. Lets go on.
And this time the animal or whatever it was did really go away. And
Billy Bobtail and his friends went on walking till they came to a grassy place.
And right in the middle of this grassy place was the nicest little house you can

Perhaps theres someone in the house. Keep very still and listen. I
cant hear anything, can you?
I wish I could see better. But its getting so dark.
I can see in the dark, Billy Bobtail, and no one can hear me when I
walk. Shall I go and look into the little house, Billy Bobtail, and come back
and tell you what I see?
Yes, please, Cat. Do go.
So the Cat went off to look at the house and presently came back again.
Its a lovely empty little house, Billy Bobtail. I think we could spend
the night there quite safely.
So Billy Bobtail and all the animals went into the little house.
What a lovely little house. I shall sleep in this room.
I shall lie down at the door.
I shall sleep beside you.
I shall roost on the fence outside and wake you when the sun rises.
I shall lie down under this bush outside the door.
Its such a fine night. Ill go out and stay outside.
I think so too. Ill go with you, Cow.
Well good night, animals.
Good night.
And when the Cock crew, Billy Bobtail and all the other animals woke
up and had a really good look round the house now that it was light.
Well I think this little house is my fortune. Shall we stay here, Cow?
Yes, and I can give milk and butter.
You can ride on my back to town to sell the butter.
There are plenty of acorns for me in the wood. I shall be very happy
living here.
I think this is a good place. There are plenty of rats and mice.
Im going to catch a rabbit for dinner now.
And youll need me to wake you up in the morning, wont you, Billy
Yes, we shall. Im glad Ive found my fortune.
So Billy Bobtail and the animals lived happily in the middle of the
wood ever after.



Once upon a time a man was driving a cart along the road. It was full of
great big brown round jars. Suddenly one of them fell out into the road. Bump.
And the man drove on, for he didnt know hed lost it. Presently Buzzer the Fly
flew by and asked herself: I wonder whose little home is that. Who lives in
that little house? Ill just fly in and find out.
So she flew into the jar and as she found nobody in it she began to make
her home there. And soon after that Droner the Gnat flew by and asked:
Whose little home is that? Who lives in that little house?
I Buzzer the Fly. And who are you?
Droner the Gnat.
Come then and live with me.
So the two of them made their home together. Soon Nibbler the Mouse
came running by and asked: Whose little home is that? Who lives in that little
I Buzzer the Fly.
I Droner the Gnat. And who are you?
Nibbler the Mouse.
Come and live with us.
So the three of them made a home together. Then Croaker the Frog
came hopping along and asked: Whose little home is that? Who lives in that
little house?
I Buzzer the Fly.
I Droner the Gnat.
I Nibbler the Mouse. And who are you?
Croaker the Frog.
Come and live with us.
So the four of them made a home together. After a time a little hare
came running by and asked: Whose little home is that? Who lives in that little
I Buzzer the Fly.
I Droner the Gnat.
I Nibbler the Mouse.
I Croaker the Frog. And who are you?
Bandy-legs the Hare.
Come and live with us.

So the five of them made a home together. Then a fox came running
along and asked: Whose little home is that? Who lives in that little house?
I Buzzer the Fly.
I Droner the Gnat.
I Nibbler the Mouse.
I Croaker the Frog.
I Bandy-legs the Hare. And who are you?
Renard the Fox.
Come and live with us.
So the six of them made a home together.
Suddenly a wolf ran up: Whose little home is that? Who lives in that
little house?
I Buzzer the Fly.
I Droner the Gnat.
I Nibbler the Mouse.
I Croaker the Frog.
I Bandy-legs the Hare.
I Renard the Fox. And who are you?
Prowler The Wolf.
Come and live with us.
So the seven of them made a home together.
And then at last a bear came up and knocked: Whose little home is
that? Who lives in that little house?
I Buzzer the Fly.
I Droner the Gnat.
I Nibbler the Mouse.
I Croaker the Frog.
I Bandy-legs the Hare.
I Renard the Fox.
Prowler The Wolf. And who are you?
Im the Crusher of you all.
And the bear sat down on the little house and crushed it to smithereens.
And Buzzer and Droner and Nibbler and Croaker and Bandy-legs and Renard
and Prowler all ran away because they were so frightened and they couldnt
live in the little house.
What a pity Old Crusher the Bear came along.


Mrs Tabbywhite and her kitten Sarah lived in little thatched cottage in
a corner of a big field. There was a wooden fence round the back garden to
keep out the rabbits who lived in the field beyond and who simply loved Mrs
Tabbywhites juicy green lettuces. Now Mrs Tabbywhite was worried, because
Sarah, her kitten, who should have been white all over would not wash herself.
She just said, Whats the use of washing? I shall only get dirty all over again.
One day, when Sarah was playing with a piece of straw in the vegetable
garden, she suddenly saw a brown rabbit scampering off though a hole in the
fence with one or Mrs Tabbywhites young lettuces in his mouth. Sarah rushed
across the garden but hed gone. And then, just as she was going to run off and
tell her mother that impudent rabbit came back and said, Very good lettuces.
Thats my third this morning. So long, and he vanished again. Sarah raced
into the cottage, crying, Quick. Theres a funny brown rabbit stealing our
But how did he get in?
Through a hole in the fence. Quick. We must stop it up with a piece of
wood or hell be back for another.
Mrs Tabbywhite hurried out into the garden and nailed a piece of wood
over the hole.
How I hate these rabbits. Theyre so rude. I am glad I am not a brown
And the grubby little kitten tossed her head in the air and felt quite
proud of her dirty little self. Now when Mrs Tabbywhite heard Sarah say that
she looked thoughtful. I believe Ive thought of something to cure Sarah at
last, she said to herself and she purred because she was so pleased.
That afternoon Mrs Tabbywhite went down alone to the village. She
called at the bakers, the grocers the butchers and the fishmongers and she
said to each one of them, When my dirty little kitten comes in tomorrow to
do the shopping, please say to her, We dont serve brown rabbits here. Then
Mrs Tabbywhite went off home looking very pleased with herself.
Next day she asked Sarah to do the shopping for her. She gave her a
shopping basket and a list of these things to buy: a loaf of bread, a tin of
sardines, two lambchops and two pounds of fresh haddock and so off went
When she got to the village she looked at the shopping list and went first
to buy a loaf of bread.

Miaow... Good morning, Mr Baker, a loaf or bread, please.

But the baker, instead of smiling at her and tickling her under the chin
as he usually did, looked very cross and shouted, We dont serve brown rabbits
here. Out you go.
But I am not a brown rabbit. I am Sarah, Mrs Tabbywhites kitten.
Ha, ha, ha! Thats a good joke. You a white kitten? Come on, outside
you go.
Before she knew what was happening Sarah found herself in the street
Whats the matter with the baker? Never mind, Ill go on to the grocers.
Miaow... Good morning Mr Grocer. a tin of sardines, please.
The grocer took one look at her, picked her up by the scruff of her neck
and put her outside; then he poked his head out of the door and said, We
dont serve
brown rabbits here and you are not getting any sardines from
me. And he put his head in and slammed the door.
The grocer doesnt know me either. Fancy mistaking me for a brown
rabbit. And Sarah put her tail in the air and set off again to buy the chops at
the butchers.
Miaow... Good morning, Mr Butcher. Two lambchops, please.
But the butcher said very sternly, We dont serve brown rabbits here.
But Im Sarah, the white kitten.
You a white kitten ? Well, if you are a white kitten I must be a sweep.
Be off now.
So Sarah made her way sadly to the last shop of all.
Miaow... Good morning, Mr Fishmonger. Two pounds of fresh
haddock, please.
But the fishmonger only scowled at her and he said, We dont serve
brown rabbits here. And what do you think Ive put that notice up for?
Poor Sarah turned round and there hanging in the window was a big
notice which said, No Brown Rabbits Served Here. Well Sarah couldnt go
on shopping any more. She turned and ran all the way hone with her empty
Why, whats the matter? asked Mrs Tabbywhite when Sarah
came in.
They all think I am a brown rabbit. Oh... Whatever shall I do?
Well, thats very plain. Peopleve mistaken you for a brown rabbit
because you are so dirty. Now if you were to wash yourself, no one could
possibly think you are anything but a white kitten.

So Sarah began to lick her fur, and Mrs Tabbywhite began licking her
too. She washed and washed Sarahs head until it was as white as milk. But
Sarah didnt see the twinkle in her mothers eye and she didnt hear Mrs
Tabbywhite laughing next day when she thanked the baker, the grocer, the
butcher and the fishmonger for helping her to cure Sarah. And Sarah never
forgot the day she was taken by everybody for a brown rabbit.
And after that she always washed herself twice a day, just in case it
happened again.


Thomas Rabbit was pottering round his garden looking at his vegetables.
He smacked his lips at the thought of the feasts he would have with Maria, his
wife, and with his little son, Tim. He bent down to have a closer look at his
lettuces. But - oh dear. What did he see?
Ah, slugs again. Maria, Maria, the slugs are eating our lettuces now.
Yes, there were the slugs - babies, mothers and grandmothers besides
enormous fat great grandmother slugs - all eating away at the juicy green leaves.
Maria Rabbit came running up the long passage from their underground
house wiping the soap suds from her paws.
Oh, Thomas, you must set some traps - some slug traps and catch them
So the big rabbits twisted fine grasses, wove them into boxes rather like
mouse traps and put juicy radishes inside. Mr Rabbit put the traps down on the
ground all round the garden and especially of course near the lettuces. Did
those slugs walk into these traps? No, not one. They just laughed their slimy
laugh and went eating the juicy lettuces.
Poor Maria Rabbit. She hopped back slowly and sadly to the house
with Thomas dejectedly following her.
Oh dear me. What shall we do? There will be no lettuce left when little
Tim comes home.
I know. Ive got a good idea. Ill shoot these vermins. I will - Ill shoot
them. Wheres my pop gun? Oh, here it is. Get my bag of peas, Maria, while I
pull on my shooting boots.
Here are the peas, Thomas.
Thank you, Maria. Right. Im off. Goodbye.

You are only going into the garden, arent you, Thomas?
Yes, but its dangerous work shooting slugs. So give me a kiss.
Goodbye, Thomas. Be careful.
I will. Goodbye, Maria, goodbye.
Thomas crept very carefully up to a big fat lettuce and fired his little
gun. But did the slugs mind? No, not they. They laughed more then ever in
their slimy way. And they ate up all the peas and then turned about and went on
eating the lettuces.
Maria peered cautiously round the corner and whispered:
Thomas, how are you getting on?
They didnt mind the pop gun at all.
Oh dear. We shant have any lettuces left when little Tim comes home.
Poor Thomas and Maria Rabbit. They hopped sadly down the long
passage into the kitchen of their house. And then Maria had an idea.
I know we must frighten them away. Well play on squeaker grasses
and terrify those slugs.
Thomas and Maria ran out into the meadow and picked long broad
grasses. They each held one grass tightly across their front teeth and blew hard.
And then they crept very close to the lettuces and stooped down low and blew
long squeaking noises on their squeaker grasses. The greedy slugs raised their
heads. They waved their fat bodies joyously and laughed their slimy laugh:
Very sweet music at our feast. Very sweet music while we eat. And then they
laughed again happily in their slimy way and went on eating lettuce leaves.
Poor Thomas and Maria crept away to a corner of the garden quite out
of breath and sat down. Every now and then a slug would stop eating and say:
Very sweet music at our feast. Very sweet music while we eat.
Thomas and Maria sat for a long time listening to the nibble - nibble of
the slugs eating the lettuce leaves.
Oh, it isnt any use, Maria. We shant have a single lettuce left when
little Tim comes home.
Thomas, shall we try to poison them?
Thats a very good idea, Maria.
Then lets go to the kitchen at once and make a poison cake. it must
look and smell very nice and well put a tiny bit of poison in at the very end.
Maria made a very delicious cake with icing on top. But just before she
popped it in the oven she dropped in some dreadful poison from her poppyseed box. When it was baked, Thomas put it down on the ground close to the
lettuce bed. Then he and Maria hid so they could see what happened. Well, the

slugs began to smell the cake, then they swarmed round, laughed their slimy
laugh and said: Jolly good cake, jolly good brown cake, jolly good sugary
brown cake. and smacked their mouths and turned back to the lettuce bed
and went on eagerly eating the lettuce leaves.
Its no good. My poison cake hasnt killed the slugs.
Lets drown them.
Yes. We could fill our lily-leaf buckets with water and drown them that
way, couldnt we?
So the two rabbits carried water from the pond and poured it right over
the slugs. But the slugs just enjoyed the water.
Nice cold drink. Nice cool shower. Nice cold bath.
They drank the water and washed in the water and they even had a little
swim in the water. Then they laughed again in their slimy way and went back
hungrier than even to the lettuce bed.
Oh, there wont be even a nibble of lettuce left when our little Tim
comes home.
Suddenly a voice called out and up rushed Tim hopping and skipping
and turning somersaults as he came towards his father and mother.
Hullo, hullo. Ive brought a friend to supper. Oh, but whats the matter?
Why are your ears drooping with sorrow? Whats wrong?
The slugs are eating all the lettuce, Tim.
We tried to shoot them and to frighten them with squeaker grasses.
And to poison them and drown them but they just go on eating the
Oh, is that all? My friend Thrush has just been wondering if youd have
meat for supper and I said we only had lettuces, didnt I, Thrush?
Yes, Tim . I think I can help you, help you if youll allow me, sir, allow
me, sir. Just watch me.
He hopped to the lettuce bed and began to work. He gobbled up the
slugs faster than you could count baby slugs, mother slugs, grandmother and
great grandmother slugs before they had time to take to their slimy heels.
Maria and Thomas stood and watched in wonder at his hug appetite.
Come and have supper with us whenever you like, Mr Thrush.
Youll always be welcome, Mr Thrush.
Yes, indeed. And now lets pick up our lettuces. Come on, Tim. Alls
well that ends well.



The great ship, Titanic, sailed for New York from Southampton on
April 10th, 1912. She was carrying 1316 passengers and a crew of 891. Even
by modern standards, the 46,000 ton Titanic was a colossal ship. At that time,
however, she was not only the largest ship that had even been built, but was
regarded as unsinkable, for she had sixteen watertight compartments. Even if
two of these were flooded, she would still be able to float. The tragic sinking of
this great liner will always be remembered, for she went down on her first
voyage with heavy loss of life.
Four days after setting out, while the Titanic was sailing across the icy
waters of the North Atlantic, a huge iceberg was suddenly spotted by a lookout. After the alarm had been given, the great ship turned sharply to avoid a
direct collision. The Titanic turned just in time, narrowly missing the immense
wall of ice which rose over 100 feet out of the water beside her. Suddenly, there
was a slight trembling sound from below, and the captain went down to see
what had happened. The noise had been so faint that no one thought that the
ship had been damaged. Below, the captain realised to his horror that the
Titanic was sinking rapidly, for five of her sixteen watertight compartments
had already been flooded. The order to abandon ship was given and hundreds
of people plunged into the icy water. As there were not enough life-boats for
everybody, 1500 lives were lost.
This is an interview with an author who has written a book about the Titanic.

The Titanic was on her maiden voyage. She was just the most
luxurious ship that had ever been built.
INTERVIEWER: More like a floating first-class than a ship, wasnt she?
Yes, exactly.
INTERVIEWER: When she went down, she was carrying some of the richest
people in Europe and America, wasnt she?
Yes, uh, huh ... people ... like John Jacob Astor and ... uh ...
Benjamin Guggenheim.
INTERVIEWER: How many lives were actually lost?
About ... 1,500 people.






Including the millionaires?

Oh yes. They went down with the ship, too.
Now ... how could such a disaster happen? What caused it?
Well ... perhaps Id better describe the whole thing ... you see ...
erm ... on the 14th April, 1912 ... just before midnight in fact,
the Titanic was ... well... almost in the middle of the Atlantic ...
and she was going very fast, too ... a dangerous thing to do ...
Icebergs ... because of icebergs ... there are lots of them in that
particular part of the Atlantic at that time of year. There was
also a slight mist and ...
Only a slight mist ... not a thick one?
Yes, but it was getting thicker ... and it was very dark that night.
Suddenly an iceberg was seen almost directly in front of the
ship. As I said, she was going very fast. She was trying to turn
when she struck the iceberg.
There was another ship that was passing nearby, wasnt there?
Yes, the SS Californian.
Why didnt the Californian try to help the Titanic ... try to take
some passengers off?
Ah, thats the big mystery.
I mean, didnt the Californian see that the Titanic was in trouble?
Well, as I said ... theres a mystery here. You see, among other
thing, eight white rockets were fired from the Titanic.
An SOS signal.
Yes, exactly ... Now an officer and another sailor on the
Californian saw the rockets. They thought, so it seems, at least,
that perhaps someone was having a party on board the Titanic
and were just firing the rockets in fun. Anyway, they did wake
the captain ... he was sleeping in his cabin at the time ...
And what happened then?
Nothing. It seems he was too sleepy to understand.

INTERVIEWER: And so the Californian just went on ... just went on ...
Just went on sailing away, in another direction ...
INTERVIEWER: But what about the life-boats? Why didnt the passengers use
the life-boats on the Titanic ?
Some did, but there werent enough life-boats ... you see,
everybody said the Titanic couldnt be sunk ... so it seems
nobody thought the life-boats would ever be necessary.
INTERVIEWER: And so ... 1,500 people were drowned.
Yes ... with a dance band playing, by the way.
INTERVIEWER: A dance band was playing music?
Yes, when the Titanic finally went down, a dance band was still
playing music up on the deck ... until the last few seconds ... you
see, they were trying to keep the passengers calm.

For the five last years Colin Harrison has been leading a life which was
described in court yesterday as a hellish nightmare of his own making.
Harrison, who is 34, met his first wife, Eileen, eight years ago. They soon had
two children and Harrison seemed to settle down in a Bristol suburb to a
solid, respectable life as a devoted husband and father. His only apparent
problem was his job as a long-distance lorry driver. This took him away for
almost half of every month on long drives up to the northeast of England,
particularly around Newcastle area.
However, as the court learned, after three years of marriage, Harrison
met another woman and fell in love with her. She was a pretty young widow,
Mrs Claudia Paisley, whose husband had died in a tragic motor car accident
two years earlier. Harrison married her as well, and began to lead a double
The first was in his home in Bristol, and the second was in the village of
Ormley, near Newcastle, with his second wife. Neither of the two women
knew of each others existence. Harrison had two more children in his first
marriage, the last of which, a boy, was born nine month ago. His second wife,
Claudia, bore him a daughter around the same time. She already had two

children from her earlier marriage.

In order to support his families, Harrison had to work almost every
hour of the day and night. In addition to his main job he took on a number of
part-time jobs in both Bristol and Ormley. It became so bad that several months
ago he suffered a complete physical and mental collapse. One of his doctors,
to whom Harrison confessed everything, advised him to give himself up and
then try to make a completely fresh start in life. Harrison took the advise.
Yesterday, after pleading guily to bigamy, he was given a two-year jail sentence,
suspended for four years. The court heard that his first wife is now seeking a


I grew up in a small town in the West of England. I cannot tell you very
much about my father. He was a journalist and was hardly ever at home and
then when I was eleven, went to fight in the First World War. But he must have
been a pleasant man, with an enormous sense of humour, and my mother must
have loved him enormously. I can remember hearing them laughing a lot
when I was in bed. I remember the years of the war very well. I had just started
going to grammar school when it began. All the teachers were very old. The
young ones were in the army. We were often hungry, particularly towards the
end of the war, but our old teachers never seemed to notice. We had to translate
meaningless verses from the Latin and Greek classics. I remember doing
translation from Homer. The teachers seemed closer to the Trojan War than to
the one going in France a few hundred miles away. It seemed stupid to me,
even then. My father was killed in Belgium, at Passchendale, in 1918.
Passchendale, as you perhaps know was one of the worst and bloodiest battles
of the whole horrible war. A lot of soldiers on both sides drowned in the mud
and rain, or died of illness. But we still had to translate Greek and Latin at
school. I have hated those languages and the idea of war ever since. My mother
died in 1919, a year after the war ended. She died in the great influenza epidemic
that killed so many people all over Europe in that year. I was raised by a
religious aunt. She went to church every morning, always talked how God
loved us all. She never seemed to show me any love herself, and I never showed
her any.


By the time the Second Word War began, I had already travelled
abroad a great deal. I had studied for two years at a German university and
later had worked as a journalist in the Far East, particularly in Japan. I had
made a great many friends in those places. Suddenly, many of them became
the enemy. It was as if a black curtain had been drawn between them and
One night in 1994, around Christmas time, I was with an anti aircraft crew near the mouth of the Thames. I was writing a newspaper article
about our air defences. Further up the river a town was being bombed. We
could see the flames. Even the bombs could be heard. They sounded like
huge kettle drums that were being tuned for a concert. Then we were warned
that some of the bombers were coming our way. Shortly afterwards we heard
their engines. Two powerful searchlights criss-crossed on one of them just
above us. Our guns began firing. They were so loud in my ears that I felt as
though I were actually inside one of those drums. Suddenly I saw a flicker of
flame inside the aircraft. It looked almost as if someone had lit a match up
there. The flame suddenly spread. The anti-aircraft began to cheer. I almost
did so myself. It was rather like watching a film. Nothing seemed real. The
bomber looked like a fly in a spiders net.
But then I realised that the men up in that bomber were human beings.
They had flesh that could burn, voices that could scream and bodies that
could be smashed and broken. I suddenly wondered if some of them were
the brothers or sons of friends of mine, or even my friends themselves. It is
not easy to hate people whose names you know, whose language you speak
and with whom you have laughed and drunk. They had been dropping bombs
on us a moment ago. But they could hardly have known just what they were
doing. Later, other friends of mine in different bombers would die in the
same way over Germany and Japan. They would kill innocent people just as
the men up in that blazing bomber had done. It was as though we were all
puppets in a mad play. So much was wasted. So much life was lost that could
never be replaced. And so I did not could not cheer as I watched that bomber
crash. There were no parachutes. All the bomber crew must have died.



I live in fear of boredom. That is, I live in fear of boring others. Formal
speeches can so easily bore, particularly if they are long. Mine will be very
short and I hope simple.
In my novels I have always tried to use simple language to describe
some of the reality I have seen. For many years I was a journalist and I happened
to see at first hand many of the terrible events that have dominated our century.
And in the novels I tried to convey something of the experience simple people
had of those events. I keep saying simple. There is of course nothing simple
about being an innocent civilian terrified out of your wits as bombers fly above
trying to kill you and destroy your home. There is nothing simple about being
a solder equally terrified that you will be killed in a battle. It is not simple to go
years without work or proper food. It is not simple to starve.
But I have still tried to use simple words because I know how much
easier it is to lie with more complicated ones. As George Orwell pointed out,
if I say something like My government has determined on the undertaking of
a low-risk operation in order to pacify several areas of disorder in a remote
part of an undeveloped and hostile country it sounds much better that saying
We are going to kill some of the villagers and other peasants. They probably
cant defend themselves anyway. This will teach them not to cause us any
Using simple language is not the same as making things more simple
than they really are. Reality is never simple. But it is better to try to describe it
fully and simply. Perhaps that way we can get at the truth. But we should never
be satisfied that we know the truth. Another writer a German his name
was Lessing pointed out that it was not the possession of the truth that made
us truly human. We might become arrogant, proud and lazy if we thought we
really knew the truth. What makes us human, then, is not the truth but the
sincere and honest search for it, and the knowledge that we never really know
the complete and whole truth about anything. Only fanatics think they can do
that. All I have tried in my books is to get at the truth behind some of the things
I have seen, and to describe it as fully and as simply as I can. And always I have
known that truth itself is a terribly complex and many-sided thing. And now I
wish only to express my deep gratitude for the great honour you have shown
me in the form of this prize. Those are simple but I assure you deeply-felt
words. Thank you.

Christina Rossetti
What is pink? A rose is pink
By the fountains brink.
What is red? A poppys red
In its barley bed.
What is blue? The sky is blue
Where the clouds float thro.
What is white? A swan is white
Sailing in the light.
What is yellow? A pear is yellow,
Rich and ripe and mellow.
What is green? The grass is green
With small flowers between.
What is violet? Clouds are violet
In the summer twilight.
What is orange? Why, an orange,
Just an orange!

Robert Louis Stevenson

I saw you toss the kites on high,
And blow the birds about the sky;
And all around I heard you pass,
Like ladies skirts across the grass
O wind, a-blowing all day long,
O wind, that sings so loud a song!
I saw the different things you did,
But always you yourself you hid.
I felt you push, I heard you call,
I could not see yourself at all

O wind, a-blowing all day long,

O wind, that sings so loud a song!
O you that are so strong and cold,
O blower, are you young or old?
Are you a beast of field and tree,
Or just a stronger child than me?
O wind, a-blowing all day long,
O wind, that sings so loud a song!

Lewis Carroll
The sun was shining on the sea,
Shining with all his might:
He did his very best to make
The billows smooth and bright
And this was odd, because it was
The middle of the night.
The moon was shining sulkily,
Because she thought the sun
Had got no business to be there
After the day was done
Its very rude of him, she said,
To come and spoil the fun.
The sea was wet as wet could be,
The sands were dry as dry.
You could not see a cloud, because
No cloud was in the sky:
No birds were flying overhead
There were no birds to fly.

The Walrus and the Carpenter

Were walking close at hand:
They wept like anything to see
Such quantities of sand:
If this were only cleared away,
They said, it would be grand!
If seven maids with seven mops
Swept it for half a year,
Do you suppose, the Walrus said,
That they could get it clear?
I doubt it, said the Carpenter,
And shed a bitter tear.
O Oysters, come and walk with us!
The Walrus did beseech.
A pleasant walk, a pleasant talk,
Along the briny beach:
We cannot do with more than four,
To give a hand to each.
The eldest Oyster looked at him,
But never a word he said:
The eldest Oyster winked his eye,
And shook his heavy head
Meaning to say he did not choose
To leave the oyster-bed.
But young Oysters hurried up,
All eager for the treat:
Their coats were brushed, their faces washed,
Their shoes were clean and neat
And this was odd, because, you know,
They hadnt any feet.

Four other Oysters followed them,

And yet another four;
And thick and fast they came at last,
And more, and more, and more
All hopping through the frothy waves,
And scrambling to the shore.
The Walrus and the Carpenter
Walked on a mile or so,
And then they rested on a rock
Conveniently low:
And all the little Oysters stood
And waited in a row.
The time has come, the Walrus said,
To talk of many things:
Of shoes and ships and sealing-wax
Of cabbages and kings
And why the sea is boiling hot
And whether pigs have wings.
But wait a bit, the Oysters cried,
Before we have a chat;
For some of us are out of breath,
And all of us are fat!
No hurry! said the Carpenter.
They thanked him much for that.
A loaf of bread, the Walrus said,
Is what we chiefly need:
Pepper and vinegar besides
Are very good indeed
Now, if youre ready, Oysters dear,
We can begin to feed.


But not on us! the Oysters cried,

Turning a little blue.
After such kindness, that would be
A dismal thing to do!
The night is fine, the Walrus said.
Do you admire the view?
It was so kind of you to come
And you are very nice!
The Carpenter said nothing but
Cut us another slice.
I wish you were not quite so deaf
Ive had to ask you twice!
It seems a shame, the Walrus said,
To play them such a trick.
After weve brought them out so far,
And made them trot so quick!
The Carpenter said nothing but
The butters spread too thick!
I weep for you, the Walrus said:
I deeply sympathise.
With sobs and tears he sorted out
Those of the largest size,
Holding his pocket-handkerchief
Before his streaming eyes.
O Oysters, said the Carpenter,
Youve had a pleasant run!
Shall we be trotting home again!
But answer came there none
And this was scarcely odd, because
Theyd eaten every one.


Lewis Carroll
Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.
Beware the Jabberwock, my son!
The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!
Betware the Jubjub bird and shun
The frumious Bandersnatch!
He took his vorpal sword in hand:
Long time the manxome foe he sought
So rested he by the Tumtum tree,
And stood awhile in thought.
And as in uffish thought he stood,
The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,
Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,
And burbled as it came!
One, two! One, two! And through and through
The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!
He left it dead, and with its head
He went galumphing back.
And hast thou slain the Jabberwock!
Come to my arms, my beamish boy!
O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!
He chortled in his joy.
Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did grye and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.

William Shakespeare
Shall I compare thee to a summers day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summers lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmd;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance or natures changing course untrimmd;
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;
Nor shall death brag thou wanderst in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou growest:
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

My mistress eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red than her lips red;
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
I have seen roses damaskd, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
And in some perfumes is there more delight
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
That music hath a far more pleasing sound:

I grant I never saw a goddess go,

My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground.
And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
As any she belied with false compare.


from Julius Caesar by W. Shakespeare
Act III, Scene II
Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;
I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.
The evil that men do lives after them;
The good is oft interred with their bones;
So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus
Hath told Caesar was ambitious.
If it were so, it was a grievous fault,
And grievously hath Caesar answerd it.
Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest,
For Brutus is an honourable man;
So are they all, all honourable men,
Come I to speak in Caesars funeral.
He was my friend faithful and just to me:
But Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
He hath brought many captives home to Rome,
Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill
Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?
When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept:
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff:
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
You all did see that on the Lupercal
I thrice presented him a kingly crown,
Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition?

Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;

And, sure, he is an honourable man.
I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke,
But here I am to speak what I do know.
You all did love him once, not without cause:
What cause withholds you, then to mourn for him?
O judgement! Thou art fled to brutish beasts,
And men have lost their reason. Bear with me;
My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar,
And I must pause till it come back to me.

from As You Like It by W.Shakespeare
Act II, Scene VII
All the worlds a stage,
And all the men and women merely players:
They have their exits and their entrances;
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages. At first the infant,
Mewling and puking in the nurses arms.
And then the wining school-boy, with his satchel,
And shining morning face, creeping like snail
Unwillingly to school. And then the lover,
Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad
Made to his mistress eyebrow. Then a soldier,
Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the pard,
Jealous in honour, sudden and quick in quarrel,
Seeking the bubble reputation
Even in the cannons mouth. And then the justice,
In fair round belly with good capon lind
With eyes severe, and beard of formal cut,
Full of wise saws and modern instances;

And so he plays his part. The sixth age shifts

Into the lean and slipperd pantaloon,
With spectacles on nose and pouch on side,
His youthful hose, well savd, a world too wide
For his shrunk shank; and his big manly voice,
Turning again toward childish treble, pipes
And whistles in his sound. Last scene of all,
That ends his strange eventful history,
Is second childishness and mere oblivion,
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.


Allen, W. S. Living English Speech. London, 1958.
Alexander, L. G. Developing Skills. Longman, 1995.
OConnor, J. D. and Arnold, G. F. Intonation of Colloquial English.
London, 1961.
ONeill, R. Interaction.
ONeill, R. Kernel Lessons Plus. Longman, 1972.
Aprijaskyt R., Pasis L. Angl kalbos tarties mokymo vadovas.
Kaunas, 1983.


ISBN 9986-869-26-9

For Students of English
Compiled by Jonas Skarulis

SL 605. Tir. 200 egz. Sp. l. 5,25. Usak. Nr. 40

Maketavo G. Purtulyt.
Ileido VPU leidykla.
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T. evenkos 31, 2009 Vilnius.
Kaina sutartin.