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[1.

02] ACTION POTENTIALS


June 17, 2015

TRANSCRIBED BY:LONTOC|GERVACIO| DELGADO

Membrane Potential
another way of how cells communicate is by electric
current
difference of electric potential between the inferior and
the exterior part of the cell
excess positive charges outside the cell
excess negative charges inside the cell

.
a)
b)
c)
d)
-

cations and anions tend to partner with each other


resulting to neutral substances
excess negative and positive ions will line up on the
surface of the cell
membrane prevents the positive and negative ions
from uniting
It is something that has all possibilities to happen but cannot
happen because something is preventing them from
happening (Razon, 2015)
Relationship between force quantity and force distance

Membrane potential caused by diffusion


Diffusion potential depends on:
1. Polarity of electrical charge of each ion
2. Permeability of membrane to each ion
3. Concentrations of respective ions on the ECF and
ICF
-caused by ion concentration difference on the 2 sides of a
membrane
-concentration difference of ions across a selectively
permeable membrane can create a membrane potential

Membrane is permeable only to K+


K+ will start to move to compartment A
Compartment A becomes electropositive
K+ will start to go back to compartment B to maintain
equilibrium

Nernst Potential
Relation of diffusion potential to concentration
difference
Diffusion potential level across a membrane that
exactly opposes the net diffusion of a particular ion
through a membrane
Force applied that will stop the movement of K+
Graded Potential
-unsucessful depolarization of cells
a. EPSP
- Excitatory post synaptic potential
-depolarizing
-decreases the resting membrane potential but doesnt
reach the threshold
b. IPSP
-Inhibitory post synaptic potential
-Hyperpolarizing
-Makes potential more negative, away from threshold
potential
Threshold Potential
Depolarization should reach the threshold potential so
that it can trigger an action potential or nerve impulse
CHANGES IN MEMBRANE POTENTIAL

Na, K, Cl most important ions involved in development of


membrane potential in nerve and muscle fibers
Resting Potential
- membrane potential of a cell is not active/ at rest
- function of the potassium equilibrium potential
- potassium is permeable thus, it determines how much
positive charges are left

Transcribed By: LONTOC|GERVACIO|DELGADO

1.
2.

Title: ACTION POTENTIALS

Depolarizing potential rising rapidly in the positive


direction
- start to turn +
Overshoot- very +, totally reversed

Date: June 17, 2015

[1.02] ACTION POTENTIALS


June 17, 2015

TRANSCRIBED BY:LONTOC|GERVACIO|
3.
4.

Repolarizing- goes back to normal polarity(-),


losing +
Hyperpolarizing- very

3.

Repolarization stage Na channels beging to


close and K channels open, rapid diffusion of
K ions to the exterior re-establishes normal
negative resting membrane potential

ACTION POTENTIAL
successful depolarization
travel of electric current is concentric
message transfer is achieved if it is strong
enough to travel into the next plasma
membrane of adjacent cell
a rapid, all or none change in the membrane
potential followed by a return to the resting
membrane potential
produced by temporal summation or spatial
summation
A. Temporal Summation
increasing the frequency of stimulus
B. Spatial Summation
-adding of another stimulus from a different source
Absolute Refractory Period
no amount of stimulation can open the sodium
channel/ can create an action potential
inactivation gate is active
unidirectional travel of information
Relative Refractory Period
Stronger than normal stimuli can excite the
fiber and an action potential can be initiated
Follows the absolute refractory period

Sodium Channel
Two ways to open/close sodium channel:
a. closing of normal/voltage gates
b. inactivation of inactivation gate
Three states:
a. Deactivated: Closed (Normal channel)
b. Activated: Open
c. Closed (Inactivation): Ligand gate open,
inactivation gate closed
Activation of the inactivation gate produces the
inactivated state
Once the sodium channel is opened, the
inactivation gate immediately becomes
activated and it closes the channel preventing
further sodium form entering the cell
Voltage sensor (+), where the inactivation
gate attaches
STAGES OF ACTION POTENTIAL
1. Resting stage resting membrane potential
before action potential occurs
2. Depolarization stage membrane becomes
permeable to Na+, allowing tremendous
amounts of Na+ to flow to the interior of the
cell, potential rises rapidly to the positive
direction
Transcribed By: LONTOC|GERVACIO|DELGADO

Threshold Potential

15 mV less than resting membrane potential.


The membrane potential at which net
movement of ions through the ion channels
first changes from outward to inward
If this is not reached no action potential will be
fired
Subthreshold

Title: ACTION POTENTIALS

Date: June 17, 2015

[1.02] ACTION POTENTIALS


June 17, 2015

TRANSCRIBED BY:LONTOC|GERVACIO|

Suprathreshold
All-or-none

Synaptic Transmission

Snare Complex attracts the vesicles to


release impulse

1.) Synaptic transmission is initiated by the arrival of the


action potential at the presynaptic terminal.
2.) The action potential depolarizes the terminal which
causes Ca++ channels to open
3.) The subsequent rise in Ca++ within the terminal
triggers
the
fusion
of
vesicles
containing
neurotransmitter with the plasma membrane.
4.) The transmitter is then expelled into the synaptic
cleft, diffuses across it, and binds to specific receptors
on the post synaptic membrane.
5.) Binding of transmitter causes the opening (or
closing) of ion channels in the post synaptic membrane,
which results in changes in its potential that alters the
excitability of the cell.
Excitatory and Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential
-

Transcribed By: LONTOC|GERVACIO|DELGADO

EPSPs - Excitatory Post Synaptic


-increased cell excitability
IPSPs - Inhibitory Post Synaptic
Potential.
-decreased cell excitability

Title: ACTION POTENTIALS

Date: June 17, 2015

Potential.

[1.02] ACTION POTENTIALS


June 17, 2015

TRANSCRIBED BY:LONTOC|GERVACIO|

Convergence and Divergence


-

Convergence several neuron


input
onto single neuron
Divergence output of a single
neuron onto many others

Transcribed By: LONTOC|GERVACIO|DELGADO

Title: ACTION POTENTIALS

Date: June 17, 2015