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# 1. Use this principle to determine the blanks in the following diagram.

Knowing that
the potential energy at the top of the tall platform is 50 J, what is the potential
energy at the other positions shown on the stair steps and the incline?

A: PE = 40 J (since the same mass is elevated to 4/5-ths height of the top stair)
B: PE = 30 J (since the same mass is elevated to 3/5-ths height of the top stair)
C: PE = 20 J (since the same mass is elevated to 2/5-ths height of the top stair)
D: PE = 10 J (since the same mass is elevated to 1/5-ths height of the top stair)
E and F: PE = 0 J (since the same mass is at the same zero height position as shown
for the bottom stair)

2. A cart is loaded with a brick and pulled at constant speed along an inclined plane
to the height of a seat-top. If the mass of the loaded cart is 3.0 kg and the height of
the seat top is 0.45 meters, then what is the potential energy of the loaded cart at

## the height of the seat-top?

PE = m*g*h
PE = (3 kg ) * (9.8 m/s/s) * (0.45 m)

PE = 13.2 J
1. A plane flies northwest out of O'Hare Airport in Chicago at a speed of 400 km/hr
in a direction of 150 degrees (i.e., 30 degrees north of west). The Canadian border is
located a distance of 1500 km due north of Chicago. The plane will cross into
Ans:

The plane has both a northward and a westward motion. The northward motion
towards the Canadian border is dependent upon the component of velocity in the
northern direction. To solve this problem, the northern component of the plane's
velocity must first be determined.
vNorth = 400 sine (150 degrees) = 200 km/hr
Once determined, the d = v t equation can be used to determine the time that it
takes the plane to reach the Canadian border.
dNorth = vNorth t t = dNorth / vNorth = (1500 km) / (200 km/hr) = 7.5 hr

2. Suppose that a person starts at position A and walks to position E and then to
position G. Fill in the table below to indicate the east-west and the north-south
components of the individual legs of the walk and the components of the resulting
displacement. Make the measurements off the grid. Finally, use the Pythagorean
theorem and SOH CAH TOA to determine the magnitude and the direction of the
resulting displacement.
ANS:

The person walks from position A and walks to position E and then to position
G as shown below.

The walk from A to E is 12 squares to the right (East). Since each square is
20 meters wide, this would be 240 meters. There is no north-south
component to this leg of the two-leg walk.
The walk from E to G is 6 squares to the right (East) and 2 squares up
(North). This is equivalent to 120 meters, East and 40 meters, North.
The results are organized in the table below.
Vector
A to E
E to G
Resultant
A to G

East-West Component
240 m, East
120 m, East

North-South Component
0m
40 m, North

360 m, East

40 m, North

## The resultant has components of 360 m, East and 40 m, North. The

Pythagorean theorem can be used to determine the magnitude of the
resultant. The work is shown below.

## R2 = (360 m)2 + (40 m)2 = 131200 m

R = SQRT(131200 m 2)
R = 362 m

The tangent function can be used to determine the angle that the resultant
makes with due east.
tangent() = (40.0 m)/(360.0 m) = 0.1111
= tan-1 (0.1111 ) = 6.34019
= ~6.3
So the direction of the vector is 6.3 CCW.