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Medicine-Emergency-Research-Oceanography

International

MEDICINE
MEDICAL ASSISTANCE
EMERGENCYRESEARCH
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS

Skype: merointernational
merointernational@web.de
merointernational@yahoo.com

2000-2015
2

Spiritual Attributions
To
Alicia Nicole and Andy Nicholas
Each time I fathom my thoughts to you both, I feel enlightenment in my
core.

To
Reinaldo Cruz Gomez
To all the children that you feed knowingly or unknowingly, I embrace
your goodwill, social awareness and contributions to humanity. I will
feel unsatisfied if I didnt also mention your mother, wife, sisters and
children.
May you all, always be a part of my deepest thoughts.

To
Daniel Sanchez
For your help, when times were down, and your understanding towards
human sustainability; you helped to titivate the glow in humanity.

DEDICATIONS
I dedicate our work to our Masters in Tibet, to which I owe the most
authentic and comprehensive period of my life, for their knowledge and
teachings; showing me the truth, justice, spiritual values and humanity.
And to all the people of Africa, Arab League, Latin America, India, Tibet
and Nepal, thanks for sharing with me their spiritual strength.
To Nelly J. Polanco Martinez, towards her spiritual awareness and
understanding; may your life give you full enjoyment and let the 16 of
November always meet you with fulfilment.
To Klaudia Ggryga, forgive if you may, love if you must; may your
dreams take you to the end of the rainbow, so that you may see the
glow as you stand on the green meadow.
To Paddy Daniel Franks, to whom I share a great admiration for his ego,
drive and empathy; may the sun rise at noon day give you energy to
deem your perusals and bring forth an abridge version towards your
utmost benefits, a friend to me and a friend to humanity.
To the Pouches, for their oneness and tricks that appeal to their minds
and emotions, just by looking at them with their most eminent
personalities; put you in deep thought and reflection, which meets with a
conviction in the most pressing needs of time; one can put aside their
preoccupation. In their own way they are unique and can be quite
mischievous fellows, giving you a laugh to remember that sink into the
hearts and minds of listeners.

THE POUCHES
4

I.

MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY

II.

REGISTRATION INFORMATION

III.

THE CENTURY OF HUMANITY

10

IV.

PHOTO GALLERY

11

V.

ORGANISATION STRUCTURE

14

VI.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

16

VII.

COSTING BRIEF

17

VIII.

PRESENTATION

19

XIV.

PROJECT

22

XV.

MERO INTERNATIONAL

24

XVI.

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT

53

XVII.

MERO SPIRITUAL AND SOCIAL AWARENESS VIEWS

81

XVIII.

ECONOMIC GROWTH

83

XIV.

UN VIEWS TOWARDS EXTREME POVERTY

87

XX.

COUNTRIES OF PROJECT INTEREST

88

XXI.

SOCIO-ECONOMICAL PHILOSOPHY

89

XXII.

HIV/AIDS

95

XXIII.

MANAGEMENT

128

XXIV.

APPENDICES

129

XXV.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

130

XXVI.

CONCLUSIVE SUMMARY

132

XXVII.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

133

I. MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY
MERO INTERNATIONAL is a drug free and non-smoking environmental
Organisation, their philanthropy is encompassing the developmental mission, goal
and techniques of implementation; therefore providing developing structures and
systems of their actives in the domain of sustainable human development
economic programmes, contribute to the support of medicine, medical assistance,
research, emergency, relief assistance for the victims of wars, armed conflicts,
natural disasters, food and housing programmes, economic and social development
thru healthcare, human rights, abject extreme poverty, educational programmes
and projects targeting children, particularly in the under-privileged groups.
MERO INTERNATIONAL is a member of the philanthropic, social, educational,
cultural and scientific family, whose objectives are to promote healthcare, protect
human rights and the world environment and abject extreme poverty.
Promote friendly relations among nations: facilitate to maintain international peace
and security, irrespective of a countrys political, constitutional and social
differences.
Were Medical Doctors, Environmentalist, HCare Professionals and Engineers without
boarders, we provide our services worldwide. MERO INTERNATIONAL work with
Governments, Institutions and Private Enterprises, that facilitate healthily
environment, hcare and better living toward humanity.

II.

INFORMATION

Entity

Charitable, International Non-Governmental Organisation, Non-Profit

Activities

MedicineEmergencyResearchOceanographySocio-Economic Dev

Name

MERO INTERNATIONAL

Authorized
Person

Dr. Mervyn Maastricht Carl McYearwood

Title

Ambassador / International Coordinator

Locations

Canada, Switzerland, France, USA, Tibet, India, Nigeria, Venezuela


South Africa, Nepal, Ghana, Cte d'Ivoire, Latin America, Caribbean
The Philippines, and most of the World's 50 Poorest Countries

Email

merointernational@web.de,merointernational@yahoo.com

Inception

1959, 1971, 1982, 1991, 1994 & 2000

ID No.

H-99-0371561
31693141
CAC-02498533-96
ITC47-VOL0359DG
J-30688935-3

AN OVERVIEW
The aspirations of this work are for those anywhere in the world to correspond to the
desires of the people living without proper medical care and under extreme poverty,
and to the scientists, medical doctors and professionals of healthcare in general,
professors of schools, and the common man; to create a social awareness that shows
the orderly format and the complete contents discipline; to the doctors and all the
other professionals of healthcare a content adapted that makes public health and
living conditions better, alleviating the work that implies to systematise and teaching.
We are not trying to make this work replaces the importance of public health process
and education learning, in which immersed professionals with their work, neither do
we intend to terrify the patients and/or victims; we only release this work as an
obligation to deepen their knowledge and to direct their education towards their
autonomic and the freedom of expression and choice.
This work is going to be very useful not only for the Healthcare Professionals but also
for the Public Prosecutors, Defenders of Human Rights, Lawyers and the common
people; which can be use as a guidance to help solve problems of healthcare and
extreme poverty, whereupon which they face in their exercises and in their daily life.
It constitutes for us a high honour, rejoice and acknowledgement to all the persons
who gave us an improvement in our career and learning light.
Special thanks to the persons who fulfil spiritual emptiness and knowledge when
appears:
Dr. Jorge Escribens a medical doctor, who delegates his profession in assisting others
and a good friend.
Dr. Ibrahim Pazos a medical doctor, with virtue of family values and inspirations
toward humanity, a friend well always remember.
Arch. Victor Manuel Houtman Hernandez an Architech at heart, whose wisdom and
friendship will travel with us endlessly.

OBJECTIVES
To provide pharmaceutical, nutrition, health supplement
and

medical

assistance,

products,

emergency,

healthcare,
research,

medicine,
social

medical

development,

assist in providing basic necessities in under-developed


and developing countries, emergency relief assistance for

the

victims

of wars, armed conflicts, natural disasters,

and social development through hcare, human rights,


abject extreme poverty, support educational and social
health

programmes

and

projects

targeting

particularly in the under-privileged groups.


9

children,

III.

The Century of Humanity

MERO INTERNATIONAL named the movement The Century of Humanity founded on


the principle of our work; which created facilitation and promotion of divinity,
humanitarian activities and social awareness to societies, to improve healthcare, and
abject extreme poverty situation of vulnerable human beings.
We have concluded divinity, scientific research and social awareness programme in
the Amazon, Brazil, Colombia, Ghana, Haiti, India, Nepal, Nigeria, Peru, Philippines,
Indonesia, Tibet and Latin America, with the purpose of making feasibility studies for
food and housing programmes, hospitals, medical centres and healthcare attention
centres in under-developed, developing countries, rural and urban areas with
unsatisfied medical assistance services.
In order to carry out these activities we worked in small villages, rural and urban
areas, cities and towns; we later coordinated operatives on preventative medicine,
medication, dentistry, social development and welfare programmes, directed the
attendance of victims of Asthma, Diabetes, HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Rheumatism and
other infectious Diseases. The organisation MERO INTERNATIONAL provides its work
without the aim of profit; impartial, neutral and work independently, the mission is
exclusively humanitarian. The principle purposes of these programmes are to assist
without discriminations, contribute to maintain and promote peace in the world, take
an active part to Help Make The World a Better Place in the development of civil,
cultural, social, moral, divinity, healthcare and utter extreme poverty.
Throughout the world, in countries rich and poor, there are people that have no or
little access neither to basic physical and mental healthcare nor to immunizations
from infectious disease.
Some people have no access because they lack the
resources to buy and the state does not provide it. Others may be able to afford
healthcare but because there are no services available in their communities they
must do without it. In some countries because of discrimination or social stigmas
such as a persons status as a prisoner, refugee, immigrant or a member of a lower
class or caste they are deprived of this basic human right. However all people should
have access to affordable universal healthcare, food and housing. In a world of such
wealth and abundance, rights and freedoms, there is no justification for an individual
to be without divinity, healthcare, freedom and better living conditions.
We believe that the right to divinity, health, freedom and better living extends to all
humans and must be promoted to healthcare and well-being and prevention of illness
and disease, not just access to medical care. This includes, among many others, the
right to education, food and shelter, to freedom from discrimination and persecution,
to information, and to the benefits of science. Every woman, man, and child should
have the human right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental
health, without discrimination of any kind. Enjoyment of human right to health,
freedom and better living, are vital to all aspects of a persons life and well-being,
and is crucial to the realisation of many other fundamentals.

10

IV.

PHOTO GALLERY

DEVELOPED CITY

NATURAL FOOD

NUTRITION

FOOD SUPPLEMENT

GIVE A CHILD A HAND

SOUTH AMERICA
HOMELESSNESS

MEROS HOSPITALS

HOW MUCH IS ENOUGH

HEALTHLY LIFE

EXECISE

BETTER HOME

MERO INTERNATIONAL

BIO-TECHNOLOGY

HEALTH AND HAPPINESS

AFRICA
POVERTY KILL MILLIONS

RESEARCH

A LIVING NIGHTMARE

NATURAL DISASTERS

11

GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITY

CLEAN WATER
A WORLDWIDE PROBLEM

MERO INTERNATIONAL
MEDICINE-HCare PROGRAMMES
MEDICINE

MEDICAL ASSISTANCE

ASTHMA

ASTHMA

DIABETES

DIABETES

HIV-AIDS

HIV-AIDS

INFECTIOUS
DISEASES

EMERGENCY

R& D

SOCIAL DEV

EPIDEMICS

ASTHMA

EXTREME
POVERTY

SOCIAL
MEDICAL
EMERGENCY

DIABETES

INFECTIOUS
DISEASES

MERO-ALERT

INFECTIOUS
DISEASES

MALARIA

MALARIA

NATURAL
DISASTERS

MALARIA

RHEUMATISM

RHEUMATISM

MERO-PHARM

DENTISTRY

PHARMACEUTICAL

MOBILE CLINICS

BIO-TECHNOLOGY

HIV-AIDS

RHEUMATISM

OBESITY
H-FOODS

HCare
EDUCATION

JOB
TRAINING

STUDENT
EXCHANGE
INTERNSHIP
VOLUNTARY

NATURAL
PHNOMENON
FOOD
PROGRAMME

HOUSING
PROGRAMME

12

13

V.

AMBASSADOR
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
SENIOR EXECUTIVE VPRESIDENT
SECRETARY GENERAL
CHARGE DAFFAIRS

COUNTRYS RESIDENT

COMMISSIONER

VICE PRESIDENT
COPERATIVE

VICE PRESIDENT
FINANCE-ECON DEV

VICE PRESIDENT
HCARE-SOCIAL DEV

VICE PRESIDENT
INSTITUTIONAL

VICE PRESIDENT
WORKS

DIRECTOR
CORPORATE

DIRECTOR
FINANCE-ECON DEV

DIRECTOR
HCARE-SOCIAL DEV

DIRECTOR
INSTITUTIONAL

DIRECTOR
WORKS

ADMINISTRATION

FINANCE

PERSONNEL

ACCOUNTING

EDUCATION

HCARE-MEDICAL ASST

LEGAL

ARCHITECTURE

R&D

AUDIT

ENGINEERING

ECONOMIC DEV

PHARMACEUTICALS

PROTOCOL

CONSTRUCTION

HOUSING

BUSINESS

MERO-PHARM

PRESS-MEDIA

MAINTENANCE

HH RR

MARKETING

HOSPITALS

QHSE

TECHNOLOGY

CULTURE

SALES

MOBILE CLINICS

HUMAN RIGHTS

INDUSTRIES

SPORTS

PURCHASING

MERO-HCARE

SECURITY

TELE-COMM

401K PLAN

IMPORT-EXPORT

MERO-ALERT

SAFETY

SYSTEMS

MERO-LANGUAGE
INSTITUTE

MERO-KINDER
SOCIAL DEV
FOOD PROGRAMME
HOUSING

14

LOGISTIC
TRANSPORT

PROFESSIONAL SUPPORT
Economist Consultants

Martinez Polanco & Associates

Accountants

Marquez, Alvarez Consultants Enterprise

Lawyers & Solicitors

Dr. Luisa Amelia Carrizales


Dr. Victor Escribens
Dr. Lila Bossio de Najim
Dr. Carlos Gonzales
Dr. Angel Rojas
Dr. Carina Saych Kaddaje
Dr. Joseph F. Buvat
Dr. Roberto Lipavsky

Auditors

Deloitte.Touche.Tohmatsu

Architects

Perkins.Will

Computer Systems

IBM Mainframe

Electrical & Mechanical Engineers

Karl Pfisterer

Engineering and Construction

Bouygues Group

Business-Finance Managers

OSBFM LLC

BPR-Bechtel Group

Project Managers
Telecommunication Engineers Phone Systems

EUTELSAT S.A Communications

Telecommunication Engineers Satellite & Phone, Internet Systems


Telecommunication Engineers Radio Systems

EUTELSAT S.A Group


EUTELSAT S.A

Telecommunication WWW Internet

DBNetworks

Telecommunication Provider

DBNetworks

Surveying & Topography

Maukol

15

VI.

Executive Summary

MERO INTERNATIONAL, HCare-HIV/AIDS-Extreme Poverty services without


borders; is pleased to submit this request for your review. We look forward for
your assistance in our Organisation efforts to continue providing our services in
abjection to Extreme Poverty, Health Care, HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other Infectious
Diseases, Natural Disaster Relief, Democracy, Education and Human Rights in
Under-Developed and Developing Countries.
Our proposal requests your assistance to raise Funds, for the launching our
creative Democracy, Education, Extreme Poverty, HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other
Infectious Diseases revolving programmes to provide our services without borders
to enable the non-low-and moderate-income residents of the opportunity toward
better living.
Our programme model is creative in promoting opportunities for people in all
sectors in all countries in need of basic necessities and at the same time, with the
objectives promoting Democracy and Social Awareness.
For the last eighteen years, MERO INTERNATIONAL has successfully provided their
services to India, Africa, Latin America and Caribbean Communities. We have
assisted more than 1,585,000 persons in medicine, medical assistance, preventive
medicine, extreme poverty, natural disaster relief, democracy and social
awareness. Your ongoing economical assistance in our programmes and projects
will enable us to continue to effectively serve the impoverished communities, and
its working poor residents.
Thank you for your esteemed consideration in MERO INTERNATIONAL. We envision
building upon our collaborative success by developing our Democracy, Education,
Extreme Poverty, Health Care, HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other Infectious Diseases
revolving programme with you.
Your assistant can make a different between a better world, and that of a living
nightmare.
We at MERO INTERNATIONAL; do hope that you will consider our humanitarian
project, as a world necessity and thank you for sharing your time with us.

16

VII. COSTING BRIEF


DETAIL

HEAD QUARTERS

$ USA COSTS

BENEFITS/YEAR

1,897,850,250

358,500,000

285,725,000

2,750,000

387,850,000
178,750,000
217,750,000
178,750,000
117,750,000
117,750,000
217,750,000
217,750,000
587,583,000

125,000
300,000
500,000
500,000
500,000
800,000
550,000
350,000
1,750,000

Administration Building
Hospital Complex 500 Rms
Research-Development Centre
Distribution Centre
Mobile Clinics
PRINCIPAL L. A OFFICE
HOSPITALS
Hospital
Hospital
Hospital
Hospital
Hospital
Hospital
Hospital
Hospital
Hospital

Complex
Complex
Complex
Complex
Complex
Complex
Complex
Complex
Complex

350
175
250
175
150
150
250
250
500

Rms-Haiti
Rms-Nicaragua
Rms-Colombia
Rms-R-Dominica
Rms-Guatemala
Rms-Guyana
Rms-Peru
Rms-Surinam
Rms-Trinidad WI

17

One Medical Centre for each country, with a capacity of 150 Beds:
MEDICAL CENTRES
One for each Country
Bolivia
Brazil
Tibet
India
Cuba
Ecuador
El Salvador
Honduras
Jamaica
Paraguay
Saint Vincent-Grenadines
Barbados
Panama
Belize

527,800,000

1,250,000

All Attention Centres will have a capacity of 25 beds and will be the extension arms to
the hospital or the medical centre.
MERO-ALERT
MERO-HEALTH ONLINE
MERO-PHARM
PUBLIC SERVICES INFRASTRUCTURE
INTERNATIONAL OPERATING COSTS
TOTAL

38,250,000
1,007,500,000
235,750,000
500,000,000
153,980,000
2,886,355,000

18

1,750,000
850,000
18,850,000

15,225,000

VIII. PRESENTATION


MERO INTERNATIONAL collected scientific information from the city limits and
indigenous regions. The material that appears in this project tries within the framework
to obtain systematisation order and didactic of the evaluation of project of humans and
sustainable development in under-developed and developing countries.

The attention to the rural and semi-urban patients in these countries has constituted an
aspect of attention to the highly bleak healthcare programmes provided by the
administrators of public health, with little effectiveness to the patients, and as to the
present; the undertaking to the treatments of patients with increasing inefficiency. In
the policy of long term healthcare and extreme poverty problem "solving", the
population process of political decentralisation must necessarily be contemplated (I)
accelerate the administrative and financial process, giving flexibility to able decisionmaking and social awareness for investments and economic programmes in the regions,
mainly education, health, housing and source of work (II) maintain a health policy of not
discriminating against the agricultural and indigenous sectors and to stimulate beyond
the rural establishments to which freely makes a growing economy, (III) needed
therefore to develop a rear area network of healthcare attentions, that allows the
pursuit of the patients in the sub acute and chronic stages to obtain alternative medical
attentions for their well being.

In summary, diverse reasons exist that motivate the accomplishment of the project that
appears as a medical alternative to medical attention and preventive medicine.

ADMINISTRATIVE REASONS

Aim to improve healthcare and combat extreme poverty in under-developed and


developing countries.

MEROS STRAGETIC ACTION URGENCY PLAN


ASTHMA.
DIABETES.ON
HIV/AIDS.
MALARIA.
TUBERCULOSIS
URGENT
FOCUSED
ABJECT
POVERTY
REDUCTION

5%
COLOMBIA
3.2%
DOMINICAN R

2% DOMINICAN R

9%

BELIZE
30 % NICARAGUA

3,5%
4%
COLOMBIA BELIZE

2%
SURINAME

NICARAGUA
35,5%

2,5%
GUATEMALA

2,8%
SURINAME

3,5%
PERU

4%
GUATEMALA

8%

47%
HAITI

38% HAITI

PERU

1998

2003

JANUARY 2004

19

To advance in the corrective treatments to patients with Asthma, Diabetes, HIV/AIDS,


Malaria, Rheumatism and other Infectious diseases and to enhance the improvement
and the capacity of real time preventive medicine attentions.

HEALTH REASONS

ETHICAL REASONS

By the sequels that the deficient treatments to a population affected by its health;
leaves scope of human rights violations, and the segregation of the patients entails and
their family.

HUMANITARIAN REASONS

Inasmuch as humanly it is required to take care of the necessity to support the families
of the patients, in order to result in as many benefits of the treatment to the patient and
even the health of the family, who are generally under strong situations of economical
pressure.

A. The economic crisis and the deterioration of the quality of life that accompanies,
which affect the outbreak of mental upheavals of diverse nature by the increase of
emotional tension that produces the resolution of conflicts that are generated in such
conditions, breaking the defences of the favoured population sectors.

B. The cataclysm of the existing hospitable facilities, which by another part have turned
out ineffective to confront the problems of the attention to the health of the patients, at
better times.

C. The present insufficiency of the public health services of attention of acute patients
and the virtual absence of services for its attention and pursuit, which constitutes a
significant factor of codification of diseases.

D. The increase of the population, which implies a significant pressure in the demand of
all the services of attention to healthcare, mental health and extreme poverty in
general.

ANTECEDENTS OF THE PROJECT

The described situation has turned out to be a common denominator of medical


attention and world-wide preventive medicine until the end of the decade of years 60,
when countries like Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark, United States, Canada, UK,
Belgium, France, Germany, Norway, Italy and Spain decided to radically modify their
healthcare programmes, based on new techniques of rehabilitation of health, psychosocial, humanizing the attention that was conferred to them and insisting on the
integration of the patients to the community.

The nutritional environment of dependent economy and political crisis, deficiencies in the
attention of pregnancy and childbirth, public health installations deficiencies,
environmental contamination of all aspects hindermost to mankind, inadequate labour
conditions with deterioration of the productive capacity, deficiencies in quality of
education at all levels, unemployment, under employment, deficiencies in the supply of
served use for constructive free time, deterioration of quality of life, inadequate
valuations of human and environmental resources, violent trans-culture, precocious,
reprehensible pregnancy care and health control of the infant, poor quality and
delinquent youthful population and alcohol and drugs consumption.

The improvement in relation to the attention thus described, was achieved with great
success in the countries indicated and with the differences attributable to their own
cultural guidelines, which endow with excellent benefits towards humanity.

20

OBJECTIVES

The concepts of our Organisation are to try to essentially transmit the spirit of social
awareness, eliminate extreme poverty, provide efficient healthcare programmes and
assist in the economic crises by invigorating job training for young adults and promoting
economic development world-wide.

PROGRAMMES

 MEDICINE PROGRAMME
Asthma
Diabetes
HIV/AIDS
Infectious Diseases
Malaria
Rheumatism
MERO-PHARM
 MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME
Asthma
Diabetes
HIV/AIDS
Infectious Diseases
Malaria
Rheumatism
Dentistry
Mobile Clinics
MERO-HCare
 EMERGENCY PROGRAMME
Epidemic
Natural Disasters
MERO-ALERT
 RESEARCH PROGRAMME
Asthma
Diabetes
HIV-AIDS
Infectious Diseases
Malaria
Rheumatism
 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
Social Education
Job Training
MERO-OnLine
MERO-Image
Extreme Poverty
Childrens Sports

21

VIV. PROJECT

DESCRIPTION

The proposed project of healthcare, medical attention and extreme poverty is based on
the generation of MERO INTERNATIONAL, which is an institution that offers their
services to the attention of the healthy, ill and corresponding support to familiar groups.
In order to carry out these activities, it is required to make investments in the
construction of the Principal Office, Hospitals, Medical Centres and Attention Centres and
their dowry, as well as the need for the necessary resources for the operational costs.

The first hospital is considered advisable to be located in Haiti, which is the country
statistically, is considered necessary based on the demand for healthcare services. In
this case, the consulted statistics location will be the region that has the largest
population and the Attention Centres will be located in the countryside that has the
greatest necessities.

The project considers necessary to offer the services on the basis of the following
description.

A service of hospitalisations for both children and adults, this service serves to take care
of patients 24 hours and 7 days a week.

A space of high supervision, destined to be used as house of (a) emergency, (b)


attention by doctors by specialty, (c) marital and familiar counselling, infantile surgeries,
(d) hospitalisations, (e) maternity, (f) rehabilitation, (g) patient advisors (h) outside
treatments; in order that the patients can attend a programme of transition towards the
return to their normal life.

The mentioned services consider the following aspects:




Partial hospitalisation (limited time) implies a flexible use of the service of hospitalisation
during specific periods of time, so that patients who conserve a level of basic operation
can return to their community and obtain family support or that allows them to have a
place where to live or an adapted living integration. This approach can actually have its
limited exceptions, but in general it suitably serves the effects as the calculation, since
the objective of the project is indeed to help in the rehabilitation of the patients by
means of its interaction with the community.

Hospitalisation per limited time is to lend the services to patients who present or display
severe incapacities and that remain in their homes, and taken care by their relatives.
One admits the patient for familiar vacations or emergencies, such as the infection of a
disease contracted from another member of the family who is attending the patient in
their home and requires medical attention.

Attention Centres provide their services for a reduced number of patients who are taken
care by specialists at the hospital, it is designed specially to improve the capacity of
social integration of the patient with the purpose of incorporating them to an ampler
social standing and serving as an extension arm of an independent unit to the hospital
in the region, where the patients can be treated for minor incapacities.

22

The expectations generated by MERO INTERNATIONAL show possible solutions to the


problems that at the moment quean to the population in under-developed and
developing countries, from people of low resource, which live in countryside, such as
villages, gutters, districts outside of the city limits and indigenous sectors.

OBJECTIVES

Between the primary targets of this programme the installation of operating systems in
the fields stands out, centres of attentions (ambulatory) and hospitals in the rural area
that are unable to cope with the bordering difficulties to medical services, can be
organised through Mobile Clinics with the services of integral medicine, dentistry and
laboratory to assist with these services as an extended arm, jointly with the Centres of
Attentions which have services of emergency, x-rays, laboratory and attention to the
patients who require a smaller intervention in the operating rooms. The surgical
entrance to these Centres of Attentions concludes only and exclusively admittance by
(limited time) without the necessity to over night in unnecessary cases.

In the case that surgery is greater or outside the specialties of the Centre of Attentions,
we will take the responsibility to transfer the patient to the nearest Medical Centre,
Clinic or Hospital in the region.

To develop nutritional studies of the population at issue and to provide them with
preventive medicines attention, if they so required.

To provide the under-privileged with healthcare, welfare, medical assistance and


preventive medicine to the ill and injured with highest supervised attention.

To create in the region a service for the benefits of basic necessity that satisfy certain
goods and services, such as health, education, nutrition, housing and services such as
drinking water, sewage system, electricity and cooking fuel, as well as to offer the
support of continuance to fight extreme poverty and improve healthcare services,
designed with the purpose of privileging the permanence to the patients in the
communitarian scope.

 RESEARCH PROGRAMME
ASTHMA

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

DIABETES

MALARIA
23

HIV-AIDS

RHEUMATISM

XV. MERO INTERNATIONAL




MERO INTERNATIONAL will offer a symbiotic relationship between research and practicea bench-to-bedside research and medical service approach and position themselves for
greater influence in the realm of research and development.

MERO INTERNATIONAL is an acute care institution and a major teaching and research
centre that will work in collaboration with institutions from Austria, Australia, Belgium,
Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The
Netherlands, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, Ukraine,
and USA resulting in a broad-based internationally recognised organisation. The
prevention of premature death and disability utilising our multi-disciplinary approach to
bring together talented and dedicated professionals from different countries, cultures,
basic and medical sciences to share ideas, technology, space and enthusiasm, to
enhance discoveries that will fundamentally change the course of medical practices.

The growth of MERO INTERNATIONAL parallels the growth of our programmes, where we
will provide high quality products and services at a reasonable price and the less
fortunate at a social cost. It is our intention to exceed a meaningful effort to
accumulate, develop innovative products and services that provide convenience and
comfort to our patients and customers.

MEROS STRAGETIC ACTION URGENCY PLAN


FUNDING NEEDED FOR HEALTH CARE AND BASIC NECESSITIES
US$ IN BILLIONS
25
20
15

CARIBBEAN

10

HAITI
LATIN AMERICA

5
0
1998

1999

2000

2001

UNITED NATIONS LIVING STANDARDS

JANUARY 2004

24

2002

MERO INTERNATIONAL will approach their objectives with passion, enthusiasm and
practice and will emerge as a ranking player in the medical industry. In active
participation, we will focus into a unique synergistic advantage allowing us to fuse
diverse services. Never content to rest on our laurels, we are determine to face the
growing challenges and keen competition; strive for constant improvement, innovation
and continually rationalise our customers' need to develop new products and services.
We shall place a strong and unwavering emphasis on have a leading edge in influences
that will achieve smooth communication with our personnel and open diverse
communication channels which will provide opportunities for management to familiarise
themselves with law, import and export, marketing, sales, quality services, finance and
investment policies that govern good business practice both locally and internationally.
Also an add-on-the-job-training; that will permit self-awareness that increases
satisfaction and improvement of management and employees' efficiency that promotes
the values of team spirit. Profitability, firstly we believe that the secret of adding value
lies in energy, not the kind that is buried deep in the earth, but that which is deep in our
minds, intellectual energy is the force behind our organisation and that is our
profitability.
As we realise and are seeing first-hand, the speed of transformation of human history
toward longer and healthier life, MERO INTERNATIONAL may not have all the answers,
but we shall place ourselves in a position to be a part of that global responsibility.

25

 MERO-ALERT


MERO-ALERT management brings together individuals with years of experience and


leadership in emergency, healthcare services, healthcare insurance, business
management and business administration. The management of MA will be personnel
with extensive experience in developing strategic alliances through the mechanisms of
international joint ventures and licensing agreements. The collective experience of the
individuals positions the management team to lead the division through all the stages of
research and development, from the drawing board to market, including meeting all
regulatory requirements.

MA will provide the services of emergency, healthcare calls, accidents, ambulance


services, natural disasters and healthcare insurance. Were committed to providing
users with content products for a growing number of specialties. As we move forward,
our products will continue to reflect the same high quality, ease-of-use, dedication to
user requirements and will serve as the focal point of international network of medical
experts, systems and know-how, providing a 24 hrs service where we can be reached
through web site, e-mail, telephone and emergency hot line that will enhance medical
emergency and natural disaster assistances, help to abject extreme poverty, ambulance
service, health products and social activities that improve better living standards.

 MERO-HCare


The healthcare industry is being influence by consumers purchasing behaviour to shift


their perception from a hallowed and deeply respected privilege of society, to a service
industry comparable to financial services or consumer goods. This change has
demonstrated the global increase in both private healthcare and medication expenditure
and also out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure per capita; consumers are now spending
more money in medications and healthcare. The consequence of these trends is that
patients are striving to control their health and their healthcare for better health and
longer life.

26

MERO-OnLine

MERO-OnLine (MOL) evaluates the health outcomes (physical functioning, quality of life)
and cost-effectiveness of various treatment modalities, using clinical drugs trails and
randomised control trails of non-pharmaceutical interventions.

The programme objective is to improve family healthcare delivery and the quality of life
of patients and their family by translating research finding into clinical practice. Thus
MOL will be the foundation of evidenced-base care in the countries in which we have a
client base, regularly contributing to decisions about clinical programme, diagnostics and
treatment. We will evaluate patterns of health service utilisation, referral patterns and
cost-effectiveness of health services, establish national and international databases on
healthcare for Asthma, Diabetes, HIV/AIDS, Infectious Diseases, Malaria, and
Rheumatism.

MOL Principal Investigators and Project Directors will be members of MERO-NGO


multidisciplinary research and medical teams, representing a wide variety of healthcare
professionals from different countries with one common goal to serve a multi-cultural
and broad language base platform in healthcare programmes and to abject extreme
poverty. The programme will be provided by subscription and as a community service in
the form of e-mail monthly update, web site and telephone consulting, having strong
interactions with industry and clinical programmes and to ensure the application of
scientific knowledge to the promotion of human health.

MERO-OnLine will be our healthcare and social education link to MEROs Website.

MEROS STRAGETIC ACTION URGENCY PLAN


HAITI UNDER EXTREME LIVING CONDITIONS

20

15
FOOD
BASIC NECESSITIES

10

MEDICATION
5

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

HEALTH CARE AND NUTRITION SUPPLEMENTS ARE GROUND ZERO

JANUARY 2004

27





MERO-IMAGE

Promote the good image, name and relationship of the Organisation in all
matters in the press, radio, TV, www and all other media of communications.
Promote our Humanitarian, Peace and Social activities, regional, national and
international, and make recommendations to the Executive Board Committee of
ways and means that can enhance their activities to the benefit of humanity.


MERO-PHARM

MERO-PHARM strives to maintain and will continue to build upon a growing international
leadership position in the field of pharmaceutical, biomedicine and nutritional products.
We are committed to providing the safest, most effective and highest quality products
for patients care.

MP will accomplish this by constantly improving and adding to our existing product
portfolio through new products development and the addition of strategic, viable,
synergistic medical opportunities. To the development and global commercialisation of
our products with cost-effectiveness and to provide medications through our social
development programme to individuals that are less fortunate.

MP can commence immediately to provide this service by joint ventures and licensing
from companies in Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Spain, Switzerland,
UK and USA, and at a later date proceed with their own manufacturing and processing
plans.


MERO-KinderCare

MERO-KinderCare helps prepare children of today to be world leaders of tomorrow. The


Centre shall be a leading Not-for-Profit Institute of preschool and child care facilities;
KinderCare provides child care and age-specific educational programs for kids from six
weeks to 12 years old. The Institute will also offers elementary School distance learning
programs.

MKC will offer quality care in a fun learning environment, providing full-day educational
curriculum of developmentally appropriate lessons, activities with medical personnel in
attendance.

PROTEIN AND VITAMIN SUPPLEMENT

28

MERO-ECourse
Continuous Distance Education System
A proposal with recent subjects that allow integrating the theory with professional
practice and offer the bases for better attention and learning
Beneficial
Remote study, at any time and place
It avoids missing on actual updates.
Learning based on the evidence through the most frequent information.
It incorporates for the learning thru New Technologies Academic Hours and
Communication
It granted transformable academic hours for curriculum in education credits for
Professional Recertification.
MERO-ECourse offerings are considered necessary foundations for serious information
and studies towards most careers. You'll learn about MERO INTERNATIONAL
activities, products and services, and develop your ability to analyze and select
information, studies, products and services for yourself or clients. It allows you to
learn new methods, techniques and have information which can be used for studies
or to acquire knowledge and keep updated on new happenings.
MERO-ECourse designations are base on these facts, principles and thinking.
There is no better way to advance your career and/or knowledge other than by
achieving professional assistance. Employees will recognize advanced skills and
knowledge, clients will recognize you as a trusted leader capable of providing superior
service and advice, and both your family and yourself will acquire personal benefit by
having the use of first hand learning capabilities at your disposal from anywhere in
the world.
There are no prerequisites for MERO-ECourse, People of all culture and learning can
part take; however prior computer experience or training is recommended.

29

The cost of the project is provided with the following classifications.


 COSTS OF THE PROJECT
 Administrative Expenses
 Operating Expenses
 Research and Development
 Transfers of Technology
 Monitoring and Evaluations Expenses
 Depreciations
 Amortization


The present healthcare situation in most of these under-developed and developing


countries still has contradictions between what is happening in the developed countries
and the countries living in the 70, the others are still struggling to get out of the 50 and
live in conditions of extreme poverty, under-nourishment, diseases, hunger and
premature death.

There are some countries that are poor and are badly in need of economic aid,
healthcare and social development assistance, countries such as, Haiti, Nicaragua,
Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
and Suriname; however there are also countries that have the resources necessary to
assure that they acquire greatness and progress in economic development and
healthcare, but those resources are not shared impartially to the benefit of the
population.

Most of these countries are undergoing economic crisis, that contributes to extend the
violation of the existing health and extreme poverty problems, where the majority of the
population are living under extreme poor conditions and in a continuous defeat by the
denominated rich society of a barely five (5) percent.

A nations health depends on diverse factors: policies, governmental, administrators,


environment, education, and nutrition, sources of financing and scientific knowledge.
Most important is the willingness to learn from the knowledge obtained, carry out
investigation activities, provide the capacity and technology to enhance the project, and
last but not the least the financial support necessary to fulfil the obligations set forth to
provide better healthcare and help fight extreme poverty.

Extreme poverty is an integral phenomenon, which manifests a relation of causality


depending on the capacity of the individual to generate income, in order to satisfy his
basic necessities and those of his family, and to adapt to a better social standard of
living.

This programme is designed with the concept to try to influence coordinated forms and
simultaneously determining all variables. The emphasis is on investment in human
resources and social assistance, considering children and adolescents as a high priority,
since they are the groups of higher risk, where the potential benefits are greater.

The proposed programme is to be executed in the areas that are considered necessary.
It should be taken into observation that the programme proposed here does not exhaust
the real possibilities of action by the State.

30

It is only one enumeration of indicative character, made from the experience gathered of
programmes similar or made in other countries, taking into account the comparative
advantages and disadvantages that such structure presents. However, a pertinent
programme is considered to have affects, directly or indirectly, in at least one of the
variables of the yield function.

One of the particularisations of this programme is that the work involves people of the
objective population, such as contributors in action. This brings a series of additional
benefits that make the programme very attractive. Nevertheless, to obtain the active
participation of the ones who are interested is subordinated to certain previous
requirements; as well as the design of programme that tends to solve problems that
are felt by the objective group, so that the project is arranged to give their quota of
maximum efforts.

Thus, it is understood that the programme will not appear spontaneously like a simple
selection within the proposed programme. It follows a gestation process that includes,
understanding different stages (identification and prorogation from problems; selection
and design of the programme).

MERO INTERNATIONAL and the assistance of their international health providers are able
to apply the knowledge and technologies already verified, and are willing to search for
and create new knowledge, strategies and technologies, that will give the advantage of
problems solving.

31

AMERICAS PRINCIPAL OFFICE


Quebec, Canada
Human Resources
___________________________________________________________________________________
CHARACTERISTIC
AMOUNTS
___________________________________________________________________________________
International President
1
Executive Committee
12
Senior Executive V-President
1
Secretary General
1
Charg D'Affairs
1
Commissioners
3
Country Resident
1
Executive V-Presidents
5
Executive Directors
5
Directors
38
Specialists
58
Chief of Unit
53
Health Professionals
385
Administrative Professionals
125
Technical Professionals
38
Executive Secretaries
18
University Students Volunteers
58
Supervisors
32
Technicians
52
Photographers
3
Medical Assistants
28
Administrative Assistants
38
Collage Students Volunteers
122
Drivers
19
Labour Employees
378
Security
48
Safety Personnel
28
____________________________________________________________________
TOTAL
1,575
____________________________________________________________________
All facilities are fully equipped with advanced telecommunications, artificial intelligence,
computer systems and access control with solar energy as auxiliary power source.

32

33

COUNTRY RESIDENT
HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL CENTRE
Human Resources
______________________________________________________________________________________
CHARACTERISTIC
AMOUNTS
____________________________________________________________________
Countrys Resident
1
Directors
5
Specialists
25
Unit commanders
5
Professionals of Health
55
Administrative Professionals
18
Technical Professionals
12
Executive Secretaries
3
University Students Volunteers
18
Supervisors
12
Technicians
15
Photographers
3
Medical Assistants
18
Administrative Assistants
18
Volunteers
50
Drivers
7
Employees
28
Security
18
Safety Personnel
12
Workers
52
___________________________________________________________________
TOTAL

375

MEROS STRAGETIC ACTION URGENCY PLAN


HIV/AIDS and INFECTIOUS DISEASES
50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

2000

2003

HIGHEST RISK PROFILE PER CAPITA


JANUARY 2004

34

P
E
R
U

S
U
R
IN
A
M
E

E
C
U
A
D
O
R

S
T.
V
IN
C
E
N
T
H
O
N
D
U
R
A
S

H
A
IT
I

N
IC
AR
AG
U
A

G
U
A
T
E
M
A
LA

1991

1994

1997

Suriname public health system needs urgent improvement in four fundamental areas:
(A) promotion of vitality and integral health; (B) prevention of infectious and noninfectious injuries and diseases; (C) organisation and provision of services for diagnosis
and treatment of diseases, and (D) rehabilitation of ill or incapacitated people so that
they can reach the highest possible degree of activity. In the present health situations
there are preoccupations in the institutions of public health, including physical health,
mental and social well-being and not only the absence of ailments or diseases.

The extensive area of the promotion of health represents in a certain sense a bad
memory of the old concepts. It is essential that the country developed programmes of
hygiene and environmental health, social awareness, sanitary education into the
activities of their daily life, among them, the codes of conduct and self-discipline,
dietetic practices, nutritional health and the treatment of diseases and smaller ailments.

Consideration must be given to the physical and mental development of the children,
and effects of dietetic supplements in the improvement of health and vitality, in the
under-nourished and under-privileged populations.

35

MEDICAL CENTRE
Emergency Room
Air Conditioning
ITEMS

UNITS

Stretchers
Electrocardiogram
Eco Digestive Endoscopies
Oxygen Equipment
Display Cabinets
May Tables
Writing-Desks
Stools
Fans
Closets
Hand Sinks
Otorhinolaryngology
Otolaryngology
Paediatric Ambu
Adults Ambu
Sterilisation Equipment
Sets of Minor Surgery Equipment
Body Clamp Equipment
Aspiration Equipment
Laser Equipment
Adults Oxygen Mask
Paediatric Oxygen Mask
Parallels
Escape
Waste baskets
Foot Lamps
Portable Lamps
Wheelchairs
Beds on Wheels
Tables for Clinical History
Clinical Ducks
Clinical Whistles
Foot Tension Metric
Portable Tension Metric
Screens
X-Ray Sheet Observation Lamps
Packages-cotton, gauzes, etc.
Electronic Observation System
Electronic communication System

8
1
1
3
2
3
2
3
3
2
2
1
1
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
3
3
3
3
5
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
2
3
2
3
12
1
1

All facilities are fully equipped with advanced telecommunications, artificial intelligence,
computer systems and access control with solar energy as auxiliary power source.

36

Life Expectancy in Trinidad & Tobago Compared to Haiti

TRINDIAD & TOBAGO-HAITI


 LIFE EXPECTANCY
 Haiti has much to offer, regards to learning, new experience and facing the agony that in
the twenty first century a country and its people live a life not knowing if there will be a
tomorrow.
 Saying a lot about Haiti is not enough; the country is totally ruined due to political and
economical instability, extreme poverty, non-existence of public services, high risk of
epidemics and high rate of infectious diseases and inadequate living conditions. A country
with a life expectancy of an average of 48 years old, and its people evacuating at any
means possible; now face the challenge of their future and the well-being of their home
land, looking toward each morning for a sign that will give them hope, bring some relief of
their burden or that the countrys leaders will come to some understanding and bring
peace and prosperity to a nation that has been too long on the struggle.
 Haiti needs help and needs help now, it is no longer acceptable to measure success by
confirming that the meeting room chairs and temperature are comfortable, we have to
implement direct solutions to patient care and practice behaviour. There is a further
obligation. The evaluation process must be based on findings, analysis, activation and
applications that will benefit the medical and health professionals, improve medical and
health practice, satisfy the patient, improve healthcare services, validate funding decisions
and result in future support. It is of little use to get in and offer healthcare services for a
few months and then move on, the country need permanency of institutional assistance to
face the growing challenges, offer on the spot solutions and problem solving. The first
item to be placed on the agenda will be a food programme; medication is not the
immediate answer; nutritious feeding, medications and healthcare professionals combined
is the answer for an urgent solution. In Trinidad and Tobago the economic diversification
into industry, tourism, mining, and oil and natural gas producing, has transformed the
economic base in most societies, especially since the early seventies, enhancing the
country growth and government healthcare programme. In Haiti is quite the opposite,
their social significance has declined as people leave the country to immigrate to other
countries with the hope of escaping a living nightmare.

37

MEDICAL CENTRE
Gyneco-Obstetrician Room
Air Conditioning

ITEMS

UNITS

Gynaecological Tables
Oxygen Equipment
Disposal Units
Parallels
Delivery Tables
Scales
Respiratory Equipment
Adults Oxygen Masks
Predigests Equipment
Multipart Equipment
Cabinets Display
Lamps
Portable Lamps
Paediatric Ambu
Adult Ambu
Twist Equipment
Waste baskets
Fans
Clips
Fingerprints Pads
Clinical History Tables
Tension Meters
Screens
Baths
Electronic Observation System
Electronic Communication System

3
2
3
3
5
2
2
3
3
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
8
5
15
3
3
3
2
2
1
1

All facilities are fully equipped with advanced telecommunications, artificial intelligence,
computer systems and access control with solar energy as auxiliary power source.

38

HAITI CAPITAL MARKET, PORT AU PRINCE


EXTREME POVERTY AT A RAMPAGE

In order to execute the organic, socio-economic and cultural characteristics problems


of the people in extreme poverty is to provide the normal access to the basic
necessities with quality and integrity. The answer to the enunciated problems must
be confronted by all concerned; developed countries implement supervision, funding
and know-how and the beneficiaries must play an active roll to decentralise their
social, political and economical environment and make continuing efforts to eliminate
poverty in all its manifestations.

39

MEDICAL CENTRE
Dentistry Room
Air Conditioning
ITEMS

UNITS

Beds
Dentistry Equipment
X-rays Equipment
Lamps
Micro Instruments, Materials
Computer
Sterilization Equipment
Minor Surgery Equipment
Automatic Control Sinks
Offices
Electronic Observation System
Electronic Communication System

1
3
1
3
several
1
1
1
3
furniture
1
1

Laboratory
Air Conditioning
ITEMS

UNITS

Stretchers
1600 Clamps
Repairing & Refinishing Equipment
Implants
Express
Microscopes
VDRL Rotators
Automatic Pipettes 10-500 Moors
VRML Plates
Tubes 13*75
Tubes 13*100
Refrigerators
Sterilizing
Patients Baths
Chronometers
Gladiola of 20 and 90 Positions
Computer
Public Baths
Electronic Observation System
Electronic Communication System

3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
5,000
5,000
5,000
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1

All facilities are fully equipped with advanced telecommunications, artificial intelligence,
computer systems and access control with solar energy as auxiliary power source.

40

MEDICAL CENTRE
Studies/Observation Room
Air Conditioning

ITEMS

UNITS

Endotracheal ventilation
Catheter
Sheaths
Dilators
Peripheral Inserted Catheter
ECG/EEG Telemetry System
Coronary Stents
Stethoscopes
Ultrosound Geltimes
Life Imaging Systems
Electrical Therapy Equipment
Laser Therapy Equipment
Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy
Test Kit-Infectious Diseases
Diagnostic Kit-Blood Coagulation Disorders
Petri Dishes
Test Kit-Urine Catch
Instant Pack-Hot & Cold
Incubator
Therapeutic Ultrasound
Electrotherapeutic Machines
Eye Wash Station
Backrest Support
Non Reusable Syringe
Hybrisen-Protein Drug for AIDS
Virulizin-Injection for HIV/AIDS
Pentacel-Injection for Pertussis, Polio, tetanus, Diphtheria
and Haemophilias Influenza B
Medmira Rapid Screen Test-HIV 1 & 2
Chemokine-HIV Infections
Serp1-Arthritis
Phosphonates of Nucleoside Analogues-AIDS and
Infectious Diseases
Genotyping Kit-HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Genotyping Kit-HPV Human Papillomia Virus
Suplasyn-Osteoarthritis
Pennsaid Lotion-Osteoarthritis
Lait B Protein-HIV Vaccine
Oralin/oralgen-Oral Insulin for Diabetes 1 (IDDM) Insulin
Dependent Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes
2
(NIDDM) Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Acoustic Wave Bio-Sensors -HIV Test
Ambulances
Mobile Clinic (Dentistry Assistance)
Mobile Clinic (Medical Assistance)
Computer
Electronic Observation System
Electronic Communication System

41

1
3
5
6
3
1
5
3
1
1
1
1
1
12
12
12
12
6
1
1
1
1
6
500
50
50
100
50
50
100
12
50
100
100
100
50
2

2
3
1
1
1
1
1

42

MEDICAL CENTRE
Administrative Office
Air Conditioning

ITEMS

UNITS

Refrigerator
Writing-Desks And Chairs
Waste Baskets
Type Writers
Photo-Copier
Computers with network facilities
Check Perforator
Recording System
Moving of Office
Kitchen
Dining Room
Fax
Access Control
Video System
Alarm System
Central Telephone System
Intercom System
Radio Communications System
Closed Circuit TV System
Bath Rooms

1
8
10
2
1
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5

All facilities are fully equipped with advanced telecommunications, artificial intelligence,
computer systems and access control with solar energy as auxiliary power source.

43

Health Expenditures per Capita in


Belgium Compared to Venezuela
Expenditures per Capita in Belgium Compared to Venezuela
Belgium
Belgium2002
2002

1,450
1,450

Venezuela
Venezuela2002
20002

75

75

500

1,000

500
U.S $
US
$

1,000

1,500

1,500

BELGIUM VENEZUELA


HEALTH EXPENDITURES

VENEZUELA have a high percentage of the population infected with HIV/AIDS, the Island
Of Margarita has the highest indices per capita, second being Caracas and the
Metropolitan District, third is Puerto la Cruz.

The Public Health services are almost non-functional, there are many qualified Medical
Doctors and other Health Professionals unable to obtain jobs, some who are fortunate fit
into the private sector and others work in any job that they can find, such as sales
personnel for pharmaceutical companies, banks and other sectors. The few hospitals
that are functioning are always overcrowded, patients are unable to get beds, medicine
or medical attendance due to the overcrowd problem, it not uncommon that Medical
Doctors in the hospitals will attend patients until exhausted, trying to cope and give all
the help they can. Patients will start arriving at the hospitals just about 06:00 AM and
wait to be attended between four to six hours later, most times they will have to return
another day without receiving medical attention.

Most public health institutions lack proper medical equipment, public baths have busted
pipes and hospitalisation in most cases is unfit for human well-being. These and other
factors that are better left unsaid, that cause private medical services to be very costly,
the average middle class citizen is unable to have private medical treatments and should
it be a life or death case, then the patient family have to join together to pay the bills or
the patients have to sell or use their property as collateral (if they have) before they are
admitted into the institution. The poor people, (which is 80 %+) have to live with the
turmoil; there is little other choice. They will wait for months sometimes years for a
medical operation, because there are no rooms, no bed available, or the operating
theatre(s) is completely booked. For those who have some political connection (which
they use for almost every thing), the situation may be a little different.

We have illustrated the Health Expenditures per Capita between Belgium and Venezuela.
In Venezuela there is one Public Medical Doctor to every 650 persons and one hospital
bed to every 525 persons not taking into consideration the 75 % of the population that
attend private medical services.

We have to put aside the political problems and give our efforts to a meaningful
solution; to assist in the high rate of Asthma, Diabetes, HIV/AIDS and the Pulmonary
Diseases situations that are in the upturn.

44

MEDICAL CENTRE
Physical Structure
Air Conditioning
Principal Objective
Specific Objectives

Type of Treatments

Type of Investigations

Attentions/Year

Physical structure

Attention to sub acute and chronic patients


(1)
Medical Attention
(2)
Immunisations (Vaccines)
(3)
Minor Intervention Operating Room
(4)
Intervention of Childbirths
(5)
Rehabilitation
(6)
Family Counselling
(7)
Medical Consulting
(8)
Hospitalisation
(1)
Pharmacologic
(2)
Hospitalisation (Limited Time)
(3)
Consultations
(4)
Preventive Treatments
(5)
Emergencies
(1)
Asthma
(2)
Diabetes
(3)
HIV/AIDS
(4)
Malaria
(5)
Rheumatism
(6)
Infectious Diseases
48,000 Rehabilitation and Hospitalisation
55,000 Emergencies
250,000 Consults, Preventive, Cures, Deliveries
55 Investigation Cases
(1)
Room for 25 Patients
(2)
Room (5) of Hospitalisation 50 Beds
(3)
Kitchen
(4)
Dining Room
(5)
Professionals Room
(6)
Nurses Room
(7)
Labour/Delivery Room
(8)
Multiple Room
(9)
Doctor's Specialists Offices
(10)
Sanitary (3)
(11)
5 Double Baths in Patient Room
(12)
Laundry
(13)
Pantry
(14)
Administration Office
(15)
Laboratory
(16)
X-Ray Room
(17)
Operating Room
(18)
Emergency Room
(19)
Access Control Room
(20)
Social Pharmacy-MERO Pharm

All facilities are fully equipped with advanced telecommunications, artificial intelligence,
computer systems and access control with solar energy as auxiliary power source.

45

MEDIAL CENTRE
Human Resources
Air Conditioning
ITEMS

UNITS

Specialist Medical Doctors


Resident Doctors
Laboratory Specialist
Laboratory Assistants
Pharmacist
Pharmaceutical Assistants
Dentist
Dentistry Assistants
Radiologist
Radiology Assistant
Social Worker
Occupational Therapist
Nurses
Therapy Assistants
Medical Histories Assistants
Administrative Assistants
Helpers
Security
Voluntary

8
18
3
5
1
5
2
3
1
1
2
1
8
3
2
7
7
8
20

TOTAL

105

All facilities are fully equipped with advanced telecommunications, artificial intelligence,
computer systems and access control with solar energy as auxiliary power source.

MEROS STRAGETIC ACTION URGENCY PLAN


POVERTY

30
25
20

1999

15

2000

G
U
Y
A
N
P
A
A
R
A
G
U
A
Y

2003
C
U
B
A

S
U
R
IN
A
M
S
T.
E
V
IN
C
E
N
T

5
B
E
LI
ZE

2001
2002
H
A
IT
N
I
IC
A
R
A
G
U
A

10

HIGHEST PROFILE RATING


JANUARY 2004

46

OPERATION METHOLOGY

One must consider that all our services offered have the same objective described
previously. It is therefore required to establish patterns of comparison towards different
countries' situation and quantify decisions before making changes, so that we can obtain
the best results in our undertakings.

In terms of our treatments philosophy, it is required to evaluate not only the medical
attention, but also the quality of service in relation to the immediate and long term
social impact; in this manner the patients will receive adequate treatment for their
condition, in order to have a speedy recovery.

MERO INTERNATIONAL, philosophy is to offer their personnel interesting working


conditions such as personal and social benefits, educative opportunities, on the job
training, and working in a learning and teaching environment.

Salaries will be competitive in regards to qualifications, experience and the ability to be


a part of a problem solving organisation, which works under extreme conditions
whenever required.

DEPRIVED EVALUATION VERSUS SOCIAL EVALUATION

The project evaluation consists of comparing the costs with the benefits that can be
obtained, thus to decide on the convenience of carrying them out. The deprived
evaluation of the project supposes that the funds (money) constitute the only interest to
the private organisation; as well as for the private evaluation of the importance to
determine the annual flows of money (cash flow) which implies to the private
organisation to the project in reference. In order to compare the temporary net flows,
use the interest rate (capital cost) to show if one can obtain or that one must repay for
these funds.

It will conclude that the project was advisable in case the present value of the flow of
net benefits of the project were positive; that is, in case the investment in the project
involves an increase in the organisation wealth greater than that could be obtained
using the funds to their better alternative investment. In absence of the funds, the
benefits (annual income) of the project will come from the product sale (Xi Pi); and the
costs (debits) will come from the purchase of products (Yj Pj) this cash flow will be
received by () years, being (rt) the cost of capital during the year (t). Thus, the
Present Net Value of Private Benefits of the project will be:

m
X.P
Y.P
N
it
it
jt
jt
i=1
j=1
PNVPB = _______________________________
t=0
t
(1 + r)
k=0
k


Where

r=0
o

47

48

The social evaluation of this project consists of comparing the benefits with the costs that said
project implies for the society; that is to say, it consists of determining the effect that the project
will have on the well-being of the society (healthcare, social development and reduction in
extreme poverty).

It is clear that the social welfare of a community will depend on the amount of goods and services
available (product or entrance of each country), of the relative amount of goods and services
received by each one of the members that composes it (where distribution of that entrance will
be by personal), of political liberties, respect the right of property, institutions and exercise of
human rights and social mobility. From the restricted point of view, the social evaluation of this
project is limited to only consider the effect that the project has on the amount and the
distribution of the entrance of social or non-governmental organisations.

In terms of the amount of entrance, the annual social benefits (gross) of the project are
moderate by the increase that this project causes in the entrance; the costs, by the entrance of
sacrificed (alternative) by the fact to have carried out this project instead of another one (that is
its better alternative). It is as well as the project will be beneficent in measurement (that the
entrance that the organisation generated by this is greater or at least equal) that had been
obtained to execute the best alternative project. Defining the social price or it shades of the
goods and services of final consumption produced by a project P * as its value in terms of the
contribution to the national product of each country, and the social price obtained for the project
compare to national product and the sacrificed entails by using them, that the direct Net Social
Benefit for year t is:

* m
*
NSB = X P - Y P
t
i i
j j
i=1
j=1


The present value (Present Value) flow of Direct Net Social Benefits of the project will be
obtained using for each year (r *)


*
m
*
.X .P Y .P

it it
jt jt
PVDNSB =
i=1
j=1

__________________________________
t=0
t
*
k=0 ( 1 + r )
k


Where

*
r=0
o

The comparison of these formulas (1) and (2) demonstrate that the results of the social
evaluation (Non-Governmental Organisations) of the project will differ from those of the private
evaluation (Private Enterprises) in prices and cost, and where the operating costs of the two will
also differ in their corresponding values.

49

Causes of Death as a % in Canada

Compared to Nicaragua
Infectious Diseases

Nicaragua 2001

Cancers
Metabolic
Diseases of the Nervous System
Diseases of the Circulatory System

Canada 2002

Diseases of the Respiratory System


0

110

220

330

440

550 660

Percent of Death for Selected Categories

Diseases of the Digestive System


Accidents and Violence

CANADA-NICARAGUA


INFECTIOUS DISEASES

HIV/AIDS have become a major concern in Nicaragua and other Latin America and
Caribbean countries. Between the years 1998-2003 there have been alarming increases
in infectious diseases, due to improper government administration, poverty, poor public
health and inadequate public education.

Quoting Dr. Ekaterina Dadachova (Albert Einstein College of Medicine) radiolabeled


antibodies could be useful in the battle of infectious diseases, the results have been
encouraging. Both Dr. Dadachova and Dr. Arturo Casadevall have gone a step further,
using the specificity of antibodies to not only flag infection site, but also attack the
infectious cells.

There are many pharmaceutical products and new technology being implemented for the
fight of HIV/AIDS, countries such as Africa, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, France,
Germany, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, and USA to name a few are continuing
optimizing with pioneering process efficiencies to help infectious diseases patients to live
healthier and have a happier life.

The increasing occurrence of HIV/AIDS in the world is becoming a major concern for our
society. There are several important trends that are leading the rise in HIV/AIDS,
including the care free lifestyle of the young population, the epidemic of poverty and
resulting under-nutrition, and the increased usage of drugs and contaminated syringes.

We have to take strategic actions to move forward for protecting and advancing world
health, regardless of political differences, geographic locations, languages and culture.
Developed countries will need to successfully adopt and implement a new dynamic
environment and attitude that facilitates and enables the assistance of technology,
medication, human basic necessities, health education and funding in real-time; which
requires information sharing at a level and direction never experienced before, and at
the same time offers a path forward to sustain infectious diseases and eventually
increase healthcare growth.

50

MEDICAL CENTRE
Operative Diagram

OPERATIVES IN VILLAGES, AMBULATORIES AND HOSPITALS

HEALTHY

ILL

DATA
COMPUTERISE

HEALTHY
HEALTHY
EVALUATION ------------------- MOBILE CLINIC ------------------- EVALUATION

ILL
ILL

PEDIATRIC
PREVENTIVE
GYNECOLOGY
DENTISTRY
LABORATORY
MEDICINE
OBSTETRICS

ILL

MEDICAL CENTRE

EMERGENCY

ADMISSION

SURGERY

ADMINISTRATION

SURGERY AND
HOSPITALISATION

ILL

HOSPITAL

51

LABORATORY

RX

Infant Mortality Rate (s) per 1,000 Live Births


100
80
60
40
20
0

1960-65
1970-75
1980-85
1990-95
2002
1965-70
1975-80
1985-90
1995-00
Switzerland

Suriname

SWITZERLAND-SURINAME


INFANT MORTALITY

Infant Mortality has been an enormous concern in the years 60 in all under-developed
and most developing countries; we are still faced with this unforeseen problem in many
Latin America and Caribbean countries. Suriname has a 30 % per 1,000 Infant Mortality
Rate per Live Birth there is one Public Medical Doctor per 1,325 persons and one
hospital bed per 350 persons. There has been a decrease from 90 % in the year 60 to
the present rating, however; taken into consideration that the world has become more
healthily orientated, has better health systems and services, better education system
and a greater concern for the environment; we are still faced with an Infant Mortality
problem.

Infant Mortality problem in Suriname and other Latin America and Caribbean countries is
caused by poverty, inappropriate public health service and lack of governmental concern
to increase the expenditures on public health. Medical and medication costs, quality
issues and professional competence is not enough, government must reform and give
top priority to better the effectiveness of their public health and education services by
providing adequate funding and proper administrative mechanism to supervise these
services.

The comparison made between Switzerland and Suriname which speaks out that there is
need to create a change by establishing a sense of urgency, the need to move into a
true role of facilitating learning from the developed countries to enhance a better and
healthier way of life to the developing and under-developed countries, to initiate
activities that are more aligned with the provision of high-quality cost-effective
healthcare and reduce unnecessary variation in practice and the cost of healthcare
delivery, enhancing Medical Doctors performance and reduce medical errors.

It is only perfectly reasonable for those who fund government programmes, NGO and
other health providers to expect some measure of return on the money spent, whether
it is in the form of increased medical attendance, more appropriate diagnosis, treatment
and or disease management; the outcome is that there is an obligation to the
attendees, faculty and the public with conclusive proof that imparts learning and results
in the improvement of patients care.

52

XVI. RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
2003-01-17 F

CHILDREN

ADULTS

92 C

33 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


2003-05-25 S

103 C

35 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
92
01
01
01
05
01
01
03
05
51
08
01
06
03
05
05
01
18
05
13

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
RHEUMATISM
NAUSEA-VOMITING
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PSYCHIATRY
ULCER
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DENTISTRY

125
103 C
03 C
02 C
01 C
03 C
03 C
02 C
04 C
21 C*
78 C
11 A
03 A
18 A
03 A
02 A
01 A
03 A
28 A*
03 A
10 A
08 A
138

53

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
RHEUMATISM
NAUSEA-VOMITING
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA B
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PSYCHIATRY
ULCER
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
DENTISTRY

54

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
2003-08-17 S

CHILDREN

ADULTS

153 C

65 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


2003-11-16 S

127 C

31 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
153 C
03 C
08 C
07 C
02 C
08 C
21 C
78 C*
137 C
11 A
03 A
18 A
03 A
02 A
01 A
03 A
28 A
01 A
52 A
31 A *
07 A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
UNDERNOURISHED
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PSYCHIATRY
ULCER
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
DENTISTRY

212
127 C
03 C
12 C
13 C*
02 C
05 C
23 C
53 C
12 A
05 A
21 A
02 A
06 A
20 A
01 A
03 A
08 A
19 A
158

55

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA B
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
DENTISTRY

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
2002-01-18 F

CHILDREN

ADULTS

97 C

41 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


2002-07-05 F

112 C

37 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
97
02
02
05
02
03
27
71
02
03
35
05
03
18
01
12
01
03

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
A
A
A*
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
DENTISTRY

138
112 C
01 C
12 C
10 C*
02 C
09 C
21 C
12 A
05 A
20 A
02 A
07 A
10 A
06 A
01 A
08 A
149

56

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA B
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES

57

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
2001-03-25 S

CHILDREN

ADULTS

143 C

32A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


01-08-05 SUN

127 C

29 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
143 C
02 C
05 C
05 C
02 C
07 C
22 C
01 C
01 A
03 A
12 A
05 A
03 A
15 A
08 A
02 A
03 A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
SCORPION STING
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES

175
127 C
02 C
15 C
03 C
02 C
15 C
12 C
25 C*
12 A
05 A
21 A
02 A
06 A
20 A
01 A
03 A
01 A
156

58

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA B
HEALTHY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
GLANDULAR

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
2001-12-07 F

CHILDREN

ADULTS

87 C

25A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


2001-12-16 S

107 C

38 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
87
03
02
02
01
03
15
37
11
01
08
05
02
01
05
03
05
05

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
ULCER
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES

138
107 C
03 C
08 C
03 C
04 C
09 C
03 C
15 C
10 A
02 A
01 A
02 A
06 A
10 A
05 A
03 A
02 A
145

59

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA B
HEALTHY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES

60

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
2000-01-15 S

CHILDREN

ADULTS

103 C

35 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


2000-05-05 F

145 C

105 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
103 C
02 C
06 C
05 C
01 C
03 C
07 C
01 C*
04 C
08 A
03 A
05 A
08 A
09 A
15 A
05 A
02 A
05 A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
WELFARE-SURGERY
WELFARE-HOUSING
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
OBSTETRICS

138
145 C
03 C
12 C
10 C
02 C
07 C
12 C
12 C*
10 A
05 A
21 A
03 A
03 A
10 A
03 A
03 A
01 A
01 A
03 A
01 A*
250

61

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
HEALTHY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
URINARY
DERMATOLOGIC
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
WELFARE-SURGERY

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
2000-06-11 S

CHILDREN

ADULTS

129 C

41 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


2000-09-22 F

120 C

33 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
129 C
07 C
03 C
05 C
02 C
13 C
20 C
01 A
03 A
05 A
05 A
08 A
18 A
09 A
02 A
03 A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES

170
120 C
01 C
02 C
03 C
01 C
09 C
03 C
82 C
10 A
01 A
11 A
01 A
16 A*
10 A
06 A
01 A
05 A*
03 A
03 A
07 A
153

62

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA B
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
KIDNEY
PSYCHIATRY
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
DENTISTRY

63

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
2000-10-21 S

CHILDREN

ADULTS

137 C

45 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


2000-10-22 S

120 C

133 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
137 C
07 C
05 C
05 C
02 C
09 C
17 C
58 C
05 C
03 C*
127 C
02 A
03 A
35 A
05 A
03 A
18 A
01 A
12 A
02 A
21 A*
09 A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
UNDERNOURISHED
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
12-14
PREGNANT
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
HEPATITIS B
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
DENTISTRY

186
120 C
05 C
09 C
03 C
01 C
09 C
18 C
35 C*
02 C*
12 A
05 A
24 A
08 A
21 A
20 A
05 A
53 A*
27 A*
08 A*
253

64

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
UNDERNOURISHED
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
DRUGS

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
1999-06-13 S

CHILDREN

ADULTS

55 C

28 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


1999-11-21 S

43 C

25 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
55
02
01
05
01
03
15
15
01
08
08
05
10
05

C
-C
-C
-C
C
C
C
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA B
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
A
A
A
A
A
A
A*
A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PSYCHIATRY
WELFARE-HOUSING
ULCER

83
43
03
02
01
05
01
04
10
06
01
18
08
02
01
01
01
78

65

66

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
1998-01-25 S

CHILDREN

ADULTS

97 C

21 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


1998-08-23 S

147 C

38 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
97
02
01
03
02
03
07
02
03
10
05
03
18
01
11

C
-C
-C
C
C
C
C
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION

118
147 C
05 C
10 C
03 C
02 C
25 C*
13 C
15 C*
01 C
18 A
05 A
01 A
09 A
16 A*
10 A
01 A
03 A
09 A*
185

67

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA B
UNDERNOURISHED
KIDNEY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES

HIV-AIDS VICTIM

INDIA

TIBET

68

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
1998-09-11 F

CHILDREN

ADULTS

117 C

34 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


1998-10-18 S

170 C

30 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
117 C
09 C*
02 C
05 C
02 C
13 C
23 C
98 C
20 A*
05 A
05 A
05 A
09 A
10 A
01 A
02 A
05 A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
DENTISTRY

151
170 C
03 C
12 C
03 C
02 C
09 C
09 C
89 C*
10 A
03 A
01 A
02 A
02 A
16 A*
10 A
03 A
03 A
02 A
03 A
200

69

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
UNDERNOURISHED
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
HYPO-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
ULCER
INFECTIOUS DISEASES

70

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
1998-11-29 S

CHILDREN

ADULTS

46 C

12 A

TREATMENT
46
05
01
06
03
15
01
07
01
08
01
01
01
01

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
WELFARE & SURGERY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
DEPRESSION
ULCER

228 A

C&A

NATURAL DISASTER VICTIMS


MEDICINE
MEDICAL ASSISTANCE
300 MATTRESSES
55 PAIRS OF CHILDREN SHOES
CLOTHES C & A
2 CONTAINERS OF MILK POWDER
1,000 kg OF RICE

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

1,081

FLOOD VICTIMS IN 1998

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


1998-12-20 S

853 C*

58

AGE GROUP PERCENTS IN UNITED KINDOM


COMPARED TO BELIZE
UNDER 15

BELIZE 2002

15-29
30-44
UNITED KINDOM 2002

45-59

20

40

60

PERCENT

71

80

100

60 +

72

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
1997-04-04 F

CHILDREN

ADULTS

97 C

40 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


1997-08-03 S

111 C

31 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
97
04
02
03
02
09
07
37
02
09
05
05
03
11
07
12
13

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
A
A*
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
DENTISTRY

137
111 C
03 C
12 C
13 C
02 C
05 C
07 C
05 C
18 A
01 A
01 A
07 A*
09 A
10 A
05 A
08 A
142

73

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA B
HEALTHY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION

74

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
1996-03-10 S

CHILDREN

ADULTS

109 C

14 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


1996-08-09 F

125 C

38 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
109 C
04 C
04 C
07 C
02 C
33 C*
07 C
65 C
08 A
01 A
03 A
05 A
03 A
08 A
09 A
02 A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION

123
125 C
03 C
10 C
03 C
05 C
15 C
03 C
83 C
10 A
01 A
02 A
01 A
06 A
05 A
07 A
03 A
01 A
08 A
163

75

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
DENTISTRY

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
1995-02-26 S

CHILDREN

ADULTS

70 C

21 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


1995-08-06 S

118 C

35 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
70
02
10
01
01
08
17
21
08
01
03
04
09
10
05
02
02
01
02
03
70

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A*
A*
A*

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
POVERTY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
ULCER
KIDNEY
MOUTH INFECTION
MALARIA
POVERTY

118 C
03 C
10 C
03 C
02 C
15 C
08 C
19 C*
25 C
12 A
03 A
08 A
05 A
08 A
10 A
05 A
03 A
03 A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA B
UNDERNOURISHED
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES

91

153

76

77

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
1995-10-22 S

CHILDREN

ADULTS

90 C

21 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


1995-12-15 F

128 C

38 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
90
02
03
01
02
09
12
87
83
10
01
05
03
12
08
03
02
20
01
02

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C*
C
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
POOR LIVING CONDITIONS
DENTSTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
POOR LIVING CONDITIONS
KIDNEY
ULCER

111
128 C
05 C
02 C
03 C
01 C
15 C
10 C
105 C
08 A
01 A
10 A
05 A
13 A
21 A
05 A
03 A
02 A
13 A
166

78

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
DENTISTRY
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
DENTISTRY

RESEARCH PROGRESS REPORT


MEDICINE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE, WELFARE
DATES
1994-01-30 S

CHILDREN

ADULTS

67 C

18 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED


1994-07-17 S

53 C

22 A

TOTAL AMOUNT OF PATIENTS ATTENDED

TREATMENT
67
02
02
01
02
07
07
07
01
05
03
03
01
02
02
03

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A*

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION
INFECTIOUS DISEASES

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

PARASITIES IMMUNIZATION
FEVER
BRONCHITIS
DIARRHEAS
GASTRENTEROLOGIC
ASTHMA
INFLUENZA
RHEUMATISM
DIARRHEAS
HYPER-TENSION
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIABETES
PAINS
GASTROENTEROLOGIC
DEPRESSION

85
53
03
02
01
02
08
05
01
01
07
02
03
04
05
01
75

79

80

XVII. MEROS SPIRITUAL AND SOCIAL AWARENESS VIEWS


TOWARDS EXTREME POVERTY


In the present study and investigation towards extreme poverty and the urgency of
healthcare advancements problems in Under-Developed and Developing countries, we
support the application of a mechanism of social and spiritual awareness, setting out
denominating Society Integration of complementary character, to the efforts that the
State, Non-Governmental Organisations and the Private sectors can make to increase
spirituality and social awareness, that will assist to reduce extreme poverty and consider
the urgency of healthcare advancements to the poorer nations of the world.

The characteristics of spiritual and social awareness given by their micro-location to the
interior of an objective population, sectors in the rich society must help extreme poverty
of urban type; by the incorporation of the people in these situations. Participants must
be subjected to the developed actions to alter their social conditions by these integral
characters.

Whereupon the indicated actions that are carried out; by the potential pick up and
canalisation of resources of all type and from diverse sectors and, finally, by their
catalytic effect and solid support of the different sectors that at the present; will make
the workings of a better spiritual, economic and social life.

The term spiritual is use in the context of the goodness extended towards extreme
poverty and humanity and has little bearing on religions, we put this context into three
levels: (a) The ability and willingness of developed countries and international funding
institutions (dominant society) to set forth the initiatives and global undertaking to
bridge the culture gaps between extreme poverty and healthcare advancements towards
the countries in urgent needs. (b) The ability and willingness of non-governmental
organisations and other international institutions (credentialed) to provide cultural
competency training as well as international relations training in the basics of
communication and conflict resolution. Understanding cultural backgrounds and the
effects of living in a society that limits ones education and advancement, we as
healthcare professionals must identify failed communication, and also be able to identify
the causes so that we will be able to adopt remedial behaviour. (c) The ability and the
willingness of countries and people in urgent needs for healthcare advancement and
basic necessities assistance (under privilege society), quoting Dr. Bruce Block from
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine weather it be male or black or white or
young; or poor, or credentialed; must put aside sexism, racism, ageism, classism and
elitism.

The providers (dominant society), the healthcare professionals (credentialed) and the
recipients (under privilege) must come together for the common cause to eliminate
extreme poverty and fight against all diseases that threaten the health and safety of
mankind, animals and plants.

MERO INTERNATIONAL shares these points of view and dedicates their time, resources
and efforts to be a part of the global responsibility to help make the world a better
place.

81

82

XVIII. Economic Growth


PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING & PROCESSING
CANADA

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0
YEAR 1

YEAR 2
MED-PROD
H-FOOD

YEAR 3
PHARM
BEVERAGE

YEAR 4

YEAR 5

BIO-NEURO

M.I.S.M.C
MAY 2004

MERO International has always emphasised the need for innovation backed by science.
Our Scientific Research have shown the need for quality pharmaceutical, medical,
healthcare, food products and supplements that use only carefully selected raw material,
which we incline to use at all times. Our dedication is to become a world class
manufacturer, processor and distributor to a broad range of products, which will enable
the organisation to experience steady growth.
The indications on the graph shows that pharmaceutical and medical products will be our
first line, where we shall give emphasis to the manufacturing of Asthmatic, Diabetic,
HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Rheumatic and other Infectious diseases products.
BioNeurogenic products that will enhance immunity the natural way and that will offer
the advantages as nutritional supplements towards additional immune support. These
products can be use for HIV/AIDS, Cancer, Autoimmune disorders and Allergies such as
rhinitis, sneezing, headaches, intestinal disturbances, hives, asthma and anaphylactic
shock, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disorders, pain, weight loss or gain, diabetes,
multiple sclerosis and chronic bronchitis, to name a few.
Health Food products for healthy eating, diet and protein bars, snacks, low-crab foods
and beverages, cereals, flakes, flax and pumpkin granola, teas, chips, ready-to-eat
chicken broth, gravies and soups, rice crust, natural juices, energy beverages and
oxygen water.

83

MANUFACTURINGPROCESSINGDISTRIBUTION
PHARMACEUTICALNUTRITIONHEALTHFOODSUPPLEMENTS
MERO INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC MULTIPURPOSE COMPLEX
MANUFACTURING-PROCESSING-DISTRIBUTION
QUEBEC, CANADA
PRODUCTS MM/YR

QUANTITY

PROD. COST

SOCIAL PRICE

SELLING PRICE

TOTAL COST AT SP

ASTHMA

350 BOTTLES-180 ML
50 BOXES-20 T /BOX
15 INJECTIONS-3/BOX
15 INHALERS
10 DROPLETS-5 ML
10 DIABETES-130 ML
5 FEVER-100 ML
5 INFLUENZA-100 ML

US$ 1.15/B
US$ 1.20/BOX
US$ 5.75/BOX
US$ 2.25/UNIT
US$ 1.10/UNIT
US$ 1.55/B
US$ 1.35/B
US$ 1.35/B

US$ 2.50/B
US$ 2.43/BOX
US$11.50/BOX
US$ 3.50/UNIT
US$ 2.25/UNIT
US$ 3.25/B
US$ 2.75/B
US$ 2.75/B

US$ 3.75/B
US$ 3.68/BOX
US$17.50/BOX
US$ 7.00/UNIT
US$ 3.50/UNIT
US$ 4.90/B
US$ 4.25/B
US$ 4.25/B

US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$

CONDOMS

150 BOXES-3C

US$ 0.15/B

US$ 0.75/B

US$ 1.25/B

US$ 112,500,000

DIABETES I & II

100 INSULIN-5/BOX
50 BOTTLES-120 ML
25 BOTTLES-30 T
10 BOXES-POWDER

US$ 1.65/BOX
US$ 1.20/B
US$ 1.20/B
US$ 1.75/BOX

US$ 3.50/BOX
US$ 2.50/B
US$ 2.50/B
US$ 2.75/BOX

US$ 4.95/BOX
US$ 3.75/B
US$ 3.75/B
US$ 4.25/BOX

US$ 330,000,000
US$ 125,000,000
US$ 62,500,000
US$ 27,200,000

HIV/AIDS

250 INJECTION-5/BOX
5 COCKTAIL
25-180 C/B
25-150 ML/B
500 NR-SYRINGE

US$ 1.50/BOX
US$56.25/UNIT
US$ 1.55/B
US$ 1.55/B
US$ 0.05/PK

US$ 3.25/BOX
US$112.50
US$ 3.50/B
US$ 3.50/B
US$ 0.25/PK

US$ 4.90/BOX
US$175
US$ 5.50/B
US$ 5.50/B
US$ 0.38/PK

US$ 812,500,000
US$ 562,500,000
US$ 87,500,000
US$ 87,500,000
US$ 125,000,000

INFECT DISEASES

250 ANTIBIOTIC INJ


50 ANTIB-150 ML/B
10 ANTIB-1O T/BOX

US$ 1.25/BOX
US$ 1.10/B
US$ 1.10/BOX

US$ 2.50/BOX
US$ 2.25/B
US4 2.25/BOX

US$ 3.75/BOX
US$ 3.50/B
US$ 3.50/BOX

US$ 625,000,000
US$ 112,500,000
US$ 22,500,000

MALARIA

200 BOXES-20 T
50 INJECTION-3/BOX
25 BOLLTES-150 ML

US$ 1.50/BOX
US$ 1.75/BOX
US$ 1.75/B

US$ 3.50/BOX
US$ 4.24/BOX
US$ 4.25/B

US$ 5.75/BOX
US$ 7.00/BOX
US$ 7.00/BOX

US$ 700,000,000
US$ 212,500,000
US$ 106,250,000

100 INJECTIONS-3/BOX
10 BOTTLES-180 ML
10 BOXES 20 T
50 INJECTIONS-3/BOX
10 BOTTLES-150 ML
10 BOXES-20 C
50 INJECTIONS-3/BOX
10 BOTTLES-120 ML
10 BOXES-20 C

US$ 1.15/BOX
US$ 1.00/B
US$ 1.00/BOX
US$ 1.25/BOX
US$ 1.00/B
US$ 1.00/BOX
US$ 1.25/BOX
US$ 1.00/B
US$ 1.00/BOX

US$ 2.25/BOX
US$ 2.00/B
US$ 2.00/BOX
US$ 2.50/BOX
US$ 2.00/B
US$ 2.00/BOX
US$ 2.50/BOX
US$ 2.00/B
US$ 2.00/BOX

US$ 3.5/BOX
US$ 3.0/B
US$ 3.0/BOX
US$ 3.75/BOX
US$ 3.00/B
US$ 3.00/BOX
US$ 3.75/BOX
US$ 3.00/B
US$ 3.00/BOX

US$ 225,000,000
US$ 20,000,000
US$ 20,000,000
US$ 125,000,000
US$ 20,000,000
US$ 20,000,000
US$ 125,000,000
US$ 20,000,000
US$ 20,000,000

5 CAPSULES-30/B
5 BOTTLES-180 ML
5 CAPSULES-30/B
5 BOTTLES-180 ML
5 CHEWABLE-30 C
5 INJECTIONS-5/BOX
5 CAPSULES-30/B

US$ 1.25/B
US$ 1.25/B
US$ 1.25/B
US$ 1.25/B
US$ 1.25/B
US$ 1.25/BOX
US$ 1.25/B

US$ 2.50/B
US$ 2.50/B
US$ 2.50/B
US$ 2.50/B
US$ 2.50/B
US$ 2.25/BOX
US$ 1.25/B

US$ 3.75/B
US$ 3.75/B
US$ 3.75/B
US$ 3.75/B
US$ 3.75/B
US$ 3.50/BOX
US$ 3.50/B

US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$

PHARMACEUTICAL

RHEUMATISM
INFLAMMATORY

INTRA-ARTICULACY

CORTICOSTEROIDS

VITAMINS

A
A &D

B1

84

875,000,000
121,500,000
172,500,000
675,000,000
22,500,000
32,500,000
13,750,000
13,750,000

12,500,000
12,500,000
12,500,000
12,500,000
12,500,000
11,250,000
11,250,000

MANUFACTURINGPROCESSINGDISTRIBUTION
PHARMACEUTICALNUTRITIONHEALTH FOOD SUPPLEMENTS
MERO INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC MULTIPURPOSE COMPLEX
MANUFACTURING-PROCESSING-DISTRIBUTION
QUEBEC, CANADA
PRODUCTS MM/YR

QUANTITY

PROD. COST

SOCIAL PRICE

SELLING PRICE

TOTAL COST AT SP

10 INJ 300 MG-5/BOX


5 BOTTLES-180 ML
5 CAPSULES-30/B
5 CAPSULES-30/B
5 DROPS-1ML
5 LIQUID-180 ML/B
10 INJ-1 ML 5/BOX
5 INJ-100MG 5/BOX
5 DROPS 1 ML
5 LIQUID-150 ML
5 CHEWABLE-30/B
5 EFFERVESCE-500 MG
2 LIQUID-120 ML
3 SPRAY-2.5 UI/G
25 CAPSULES
5 LIQUID-150 ML
5 SPRAY-3.5 UI/ML
3 INJ-10 MG 3/BOX
3 SPRAY-3.5 UI/ML
3 CAPSULES-30/B

US$ 1.25
US$ 1.25
US$ 1.25
US$ 1.25
US$ 1.00
US$ 1.25
US$ 1.25
US$ 1.25
US$ 1.00
US$ 1.25
US$ 1.25
US$ 1.25
US$ 1.25
US$ 1.05
US$ 1.05
US$ 1.25
US$ 1.15
US$ 1.50
US$ 1.15
US$ 1.25

US$ 2.25
US$ 2.50
US$ 2.50
US$ 2.50
US$ 2.00
US$ 2.50
US$ 2.50
US$ 2.50
US$ 2.25
US$ 2.50
US$ 2.75
US$ 2.50
US$ 2.50
US$ 2.25
US$ 2.25
US$ 2.25
US$ 2.25
US$ 3.00
US$ 2.50
US$ 2.50

US$ 3.50/BOX
US$ 3.75/B
US$ 3.75/B
US$ 3.75/B
US$ 3.00/UNIT
US$ 3.75/B
US$ 3.75/BOX
US$ 4.25/BOX
US$ 3.25/UNIT
US$ 3.75
US$ 4.50
US$ 3.50
US$ 3.75
US$ 3.50
US$ 3.50
US$ 3.50
US$ 3.50
US$ 5.00
US$ 3.50
US$ 3.75

US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$

35,000,000
12,500,000
12,500,000
12,500,000
10,000,000
12,500,000
37,500,000
12,500,000
11,250,000
12,500,000
13,750,000
12,500,000
5,000,000
6,750,000
56,250,000
11,250,000
11,250,000
9,000,000
7,500,000
7,500,000

NUTRA STRESS
5 BOTTLES-60/B
US$ 1.50
GINKGO PLUS
5 BOTTLES-60/B
US$ 1.50
CALCIUM
5 BOTTLES-60/B
US$ 1.50
EVENING PLUMROSE
5 BOTTLES-60 S-GEL US$ 1.50
COENZYME
3 BOTTLES-60
1.50/B
S-GEL US$ 1.50
2 BOTTLES-60 S-GEL US$ 1.75
THERA
CAT'S CLAW
5 BOTTLES-60 S-GEL US$ 1.50
GLUSOSAMINE PLUS
2 BOTTLES-60
2.75/B
S-GEL US$ 1.75
CHONDROITIN COMP
2 BOTTLES-60
2.75/B
S-GEL US$ 1.50
GLUC0-CHONDROITIN 2 BOTTLES-60
3.75/B
S-GEL US$ 1.75
SUPER B COMP
5 BOTTLES-60 S-GEL US$ 1.50
NATURAL V-E 100IU
5 BOTTLES-60 S-GEL US$ 1.25
NATURAL V-E 400IU
5 BOTTLES-60 S-GEL US$ 1.50
ZINC LOZENGES
1.75/B
2 BOTTLES-90 T/B
US$ 1.75
GAMMA ORYZANOL
2 BOTTLES-90 S-GEL US$ 1.50
KELP-LECITHIN B6 CIDER2 BOTTLES-90 T
US$ 1.50
LYCOPENE
2 BOTTLES-90 S-GEL US$ 1.50
PINE BARK EXTRACT 2 BOTTLES-90 TABLETSUS$ 1.75
OCU-PLEX LUTEIN
2 BOTTLES-90 TABLETSUS$ 1.75
SHARK CARTILAGE
5 BOTTLES-60 S-GEL US$ 1.50
MULTIPLE IMMUNE FAC 3 BOTTLES-90 TABLETSUS$ 1.50
WOMEN'S BREAST H
3 BOTTLES-90 TABLETSUS$ 1.50
VEIN & CIRCULATING S 2 BOTTLES-90 TABLETSUS$ 1.50
CHEWABLE MULTI V
3 BOTTLES-60 S-GEL US$ 1.50
MULTI NUTRIENT
3 BOTTLES-90 TABLETSUS$ 1.50
VITAMIN C 500 MG
2 BOTTLES-60 TABLETSUS$ 1.25

US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.50
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.75
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.75
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.75
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.75
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.75
US$ 5.75
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00

US$15.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$18.00
US$15.00
US$18.00
US$15.00
US$18.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$18.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$18.00
US$18.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$15.00

US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$

25,000,000
25,000,000
25,000,000
25,000,000
27,500,000
15,000,000
10,000,000
25,000,000
11,500,000
10,000,000
11,500,000
25,000,000
25,000,000
25,000,000
11,500,000
10,000,000
10,000,000
10,000,000
11,500,000
11,500,000
25,000,000
15,000,000
15,000,000
10,000,000
15,000,000
15,000,000
10,000,000

PHARMACEUTICAL
VITAMIN

B6

B12

D
E

BIONEUROGENIC

85

MANUFACTURINGPROCESSINGDISTRIBUTION
PHARMACEUTICALNUTRITIONHEALTH FOOD SUPPLEMENTS
MERO INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC MULTIPURPOSE COMPLEX
MANUFACTURING-PROCESSING-DISTRIBUTION
QUEBEC, CANADA
PRODUCTS MM/YR

QUANTITY

PROD. COST

SOCIAL PRICE

SELLING PRICE

TOTAL COST AT SP

US$ 3.50
US$ 4.00
US$ 4.25
US$ 4.25
US$ 4.25
US$ 4.25
US$ 4.25
US$ 4.25
US$ 3.50
US$ 4.25
US$ 5.00
US$ 3.75
US$ 3.00
US$ 2.25
US$ 3.75
US$ 3.75
US$ 2.25
US$ 3.00
US$ 3.75
US$ 4.50
US$ 2.50
US$ 3.75
US$ 3.75
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.50
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.75
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.75
US$ 5.00
US$ 3.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.75
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.75
US$ 5.75
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00

US$ 5.50
US$ 5.50
US$ 7.00
US$ 7.00
US$ 7.00
US$ 7.00
US$ 7.00
US$ 7.00
US$ 5.50
US$ 7.00
US$ 8.00
US$ 6.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 4.25
US$ 6.00
US$ 6.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 5.00
US$ 6.00
US$ 7.00
US$ 4.50
US$ 5.50
US$ 6.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$18.00
US$15.00
US$18.00
US$15.00
US$18.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$18.00
US$15.00
US$15.00
US$18.00
US$18.00
US$15.00
US$15.00

US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$
US$

US$ 1.00
US$ 1.00
US$ 1.00
US$ 0.75
US$ 1.00

US$ 1.75
US$ 1.75
US$ 1.75
US$ 1.25
US$ 1.50

US$ 500,000,000
US$ 500,000,000
US$ 500,000,000
US$ 375,000,000
US$ 500,000,000

BIONEUROGENIC
CHEWABLE VIT
VC C
5 BOTTLES 250 MG-90 US$ 1.25
MINERALS
5 BOTTLES-90 T
US$ 1.25
CHROMIUM PICOLINATE 5 BOTTLES 200-90
US$ 1.25
MAGNESIUM
5 BOTTLES 200 MG-90 TUS$ 1.25
POTASSIUM
5 BOTTLES 83.5 MG
US$ 1.00
MANGENESE
5 BOTTLES 50 MG-90 T US$ 1.25
CALCIUM CITRATE
5 BOTTLES 90 TABLETSUS$ 1.25
CALCIUM COMPLEX
5 BOTTLES 90 TABLETSUS$ 1.25
COD LIVER OIL
10 BOTTLES S-GEL
US$ 1.00
BEE POLLEN
10 BOTTLES 500 MG
US$ 1.25
HAWAIIAN SPIRULINA 5 BOTTLES 500 MG
US$ 1.25
PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLIN5 BOTTLES 90 S-GEL US$ 1.25
CHEWABLE PROTEIN
5 BOTTLES 90 T
US$ 1.25
BREATH FRESH CAP
10 BOTTLES 60 S-GEL US$ 1.05
ALOE VERA-HONEY
10 BOTTLES 90 S-GEL US$ 1.05
ALOE VERA-HONEY
5 BOTTLES 180 ML
US$ 1.25
ANISE-MINT SPRAY
5 UNITS 3.5 ML
US$ 1.15
ANISE-MINT
5 BOTTLES 150 ML
US$ 1.50
CARROT-PAPAYA
10 BOTTLES 90 S-GEL US$ 1.15
DIENTE LION
5 BOTTLES 90 CAP
US$ 1.25
OREGANO SPRAY
3 UNITS 3.5 ML
US$ 1.25
OREGANO
3 BOTTLES 150 ML
US$ 1.25
PARSLEY
3 BOTTLES 90 CAP
US$ 1.15
PARSLEY
3 BOTTLES 150 ML
US$ 1.50
PEANUT OIL SPRAY
2 UNITS 3.5 ML
US$ 1.50
PEANUT OIL
2 BOTTLES 150 ML
US$ 1.50
GINSENG-BEE POLLEN 5 BOTTLES-60 S-GEL US$ 1.50
GINSENG-BEE POLLEN 5 BOTTLES 150 ML
US$ 1.50
TAMARIND CAPSULE 2 BOTTLES-60 S-GEL US$ 1.75
TAMARIND
2 BOTTLES 150 ML
US$ 1.50
ARSENIC-CABBAGE
2 BOTTLES 90 S-GEL US$ 1.75
NEEM CAPSULE
5 BOTTLES 90 S-GEL US$ 1.50
NEEM SPRAY
5 UNITS 3.5 ML
3.75/B
US$ 1.75
CANTALOUGE CAP
5 BOTTLES-60 S-GEL US$ 1.25
CANTALOUGE TAB
5 BOTTLES 60 TAB
US$ 1.50
CANTALOUGE
5 BOTTLES 150 ML
US$ 1.75
PINE-APPLE CAPSULE 3 BOTTLES 90 S-GEL US$ 1.50
PINE-APPLE TABLETS 2 BOTTLES-90 T
US$ 1.50
GINGER CAPSULE
5 BOTTLES 90 S-GEL US$ 1.75
GINGER TABLETS
5 BOTTLES 250 MG
US$ 1.75
KELP CAPSULE
3 BOTTLES 60 S-GEL US$ 1.50
DONG QUAI
3 BOTTLES 90 S-GEL US$ 1.50

17,500,000
20,000,000
22,125,000
22,125,000
22,125,000
22,125,000
22,125,000
22,125,000
35,000,000
42,500,000
25,000,000
18,750,000
15,000,000
22,500,000
37,500,000
18,750,000
11,250,000
15,000,000
37,500,000
22,500,000
7,500,000
11,250,000
11,250,000
15,000,000
10,000,000
10,000,000
27,500,000
25,000,000
11,500,000
10,000,000
11,500,000
25,000,000
15,000,000
25,000,000
25,000,000
28,750,000
15,000,000
10,000,000
28,750,000
28,750,000
15,000,000
15,000,000

McFOODS
AQUA ZIP
MALT-GINSENG
BEVERAGES
FRUITS DRINK MIX
HEALTH SNACK

500 BOTTLES 330 ML


500 BOTTLES 250 ML
500 BOTTLES 300 ML
500 PK 50 G
500 UNITS 50 G

US$ 0.25
US$ 0.35
US$ 0.30
US$ 0.25
US$ 0.35

86

XIX. CONCLUSION: THE UN VIEWS TOWARDS


EXTREME POVERTY
At the start of the new Millennium, one in five of the worlds population - 1.2 billion people live in abject poverty, without adequate food, water, sanitation, healthcare or education for
their children. And yet this is a time of a growing abundance of knowledge, technology and
capital which is generating growing wealth and material plenty. It is now completely possible
to remove extreme poverty from the human condition. It is no longer a dream to be
achieved in the distant future; it is achievable in our generation if we can generate the
political will. To do that, we need to focus on systematic poverty reduction in developing
country governments, the UN system, the international financial institutions and the OECD
countries.
The moral case for a greater effort is clear. Current levels of poverty and inequality in the
world are the biggest moral challenge humanity faces. But we live at a time when the moral
challenge and our self interest coincide. If we do not do better in reducing that inequality it
will lead to growing conflict, refugee movements, environmental degradation, disease and
natural disasters. This will bring instability and danger to the future generation wherever
they live. Thus we have a clear self interest in combining together systematically to reduce
and then eliminate abject poverty from the human condition.
Globalisation is creating an unprecedented new opportunity to achieve the International
Development Targets - but also a new risk that the poor will be left further behind.
Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. But the pace of change we see now, driven by
technological innovation, increased mobility of capital and reductions in the barriers to trade
and the costs of international transactions, and is unprecedented.
Some have reacted with alarm to the rapidity and scale of this change. But the lesson of
history is clear: open societies that learn from and trade with others are enriched materially
and culturally. In recent decades, it is those countries which have seized the opportunity
offered by more open world markets to increase exports and attract inward investment that
have made the greatest strides in reducing poverty. If the poorest countries can be drawn
into the global economy and increase their access to modern knowledge and technology, the
world could make massive progress towards the removal of abject poverty from the human
condition. If they are not, we will see growing poverty, marginalisation, conflict and
environmental degradation.
The systematic reduction of extreme poverty requires more international co-operation, not
less and flows of trade and investment that make available the fruits of modern knowledge
and technology to the poor of the world. The question is not whether we should be for or
against Globalisation, but to ensure that Globalisation becomes a positive force for the
entire worlds people, instead of leaving billions of them behind in squalor.

87

XX. COUNTRIES OF PROJECT INTEREST

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

HAITI
NICARAGUA
BELIZE
BOLIVA
COLOMBIA
CUBA
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
EQUADOR
EL SALVADOR
GUATEMALA
GUYANA
HONDURAS
JAMAICA
PARAGUAY
PERU
SAINT VINCENT AND
THE GRENADINES
SURINAME
BARBADOS
PANAMA
TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
VENEZUELA
BRAZIL
TIBET
NEPAL
MEXICO
INDIA
AFRICA
ARAB LEAGUE COUNTRIES
FAR-EAST COUNTRIES
EASTERN EUROPE

88

XXI. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL PHILOSOPHY


Poor health and inadequate healthcare are often related to human rights violations;
violation that under fulfilment of human rights are often due to poor health and lack of
access to healthcare. The link is direct in the case of other basic social and economic
human rights such as the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of oneself, and ones family. Nevertheless, poverty and lack of health protection
are indirectly linked to failures to secure civil rights.
Some of the realisations of other human rights are not possible if an individual cannot
maintain his/her own health. Most crucial health needs includes the prevention of
stillbirths and infant mortality; the improvement of environmental and industrial
hygiene, prevention treatment, and control of diseases, with the provision of medical
care to the sick.
Health and human rights are interconnected and the effects of violations of dignity and
physical integrity on health (mental or otherwise) are as crucial as the effects of poor
health on dignity, its the right for everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable
standard of physical and mental health; where governments have obligations to
respect, protect and fulfil the right to health as well as other human rights.
Healthcare is further defined as n all those activities intended to sustain, promote, and
enhance health. A few questions that are being raised in the local and state
governments as well as governments abroad are: should all people have access to
healthcare and should varying social factors affect our ability to receive healthcare? It
is amazing that even in this 21ST century most governments have no idea as to what
should be done in regards to healthcare, who should receive and why they should
receive it, and how much they should receive or deem them worthy to receive it.

89

Studies have shown that among the sexes there is a wide variance as to healthcare
assistance from the government; married and single females believe that the
government should be responsible for providing healthcare for the sick, especially
children; while males feel just the opposite, they feel it is the responsibility of the
parent(s) to care for their childs healthcare. As well the social classes levels differ
greatly when it comes to should the government provide healthcare, 51% of those in
lower income brackets feel the government should provide healthcare for those who
are unable to pay and 30% of those in higher income levels feel the same way.
The world citizens must fathom their way of thinking towards longevity, infant
mortality, and inadequate immunizations, all because most people can not access
healthcare due to money. According to Health Resources Administration, sixty-five to
seventy-five percent of all patients seen in a non-profit healthcare clinic live below
the poverty level. Money and good health have always gone hand in hand, and
unfortunately the patients with the most money usually get the best care.
Impoverished people either cant afford the services needed to survive, or the
services provided are too primitive and unsanitary to do any good.
What is Adequate Health and who is deserves the right to receive it?
The right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well being of oneself and
his family, including food, clothing, housing, education and medical care. Because
from state to state and country to country the standards of living vary, what is
feasible in one place is definitely not in another, governments must realise these
changes and need and make the necessary provisions. The International Covenant
on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) defines adequate health in a similar
way; the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest and attainable standard of
physical and mental health.
It should be determine whether it can be assessed and/or compared to, with respect
to the economic relations of a single nation or with respect to the global community.
In some cases the highest attainable standard of living that a state or country can
provide does not satisfy the existing consensus on the minimum health-related rights
to which all people are entitled; therefore the richer and developed countries should
come to terms to help the poorer nations.
Countries who cannot provide adequate healthcare for the lower income population,
based on the monies they receive from the government and the way the money is
distributed in the states and countries; must seek assistance from the global
communities for firstly, technical assistances to enhance their health problems and
secondly; if requires after a full assessment, financing to build an international
health, education and better living standard.
According to current World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, millions of people
die annually in developing countries from diseases resulting from lack of adequate
healthcare. The connection between health and human rights violation is the
exposure to dangerous environment. There is now clear evidence of the negative
health effects resulting from changes in the global environmental landscape.
90

Uncensored burning of fossil fuels, the increasing reliance on vehicle transportation,


the loss of many of the worlds carbon sinks through deforestation, and the
accompanying effects of global warming is having a dramatic effect on the health of
the worlds population. Recent studies from the USA suggest air pollution is affecting
fatal growth, and may even be causing DNA damage in unborn children. A report
from the UK has linked an increase in brain diseases (such as Alzheimers and
Parkinsons) to environmental factors such as car pollutants, and toxic chemicals like
agricultural pesticides. The World Health Organization (WHO) claims millions of
children die every year, mainly in the developing world, from diseases related to their
environments. Health and development are intimately interconnected. Both
insufficient development leading to poverty and inappropriate development are
resulting into sever environmental health problems.
Theories and models of health behaviour can be used to explain behaviour and clarify
the effects of external influences on individuals. Health promotion educators use
many different models for understanding behaviour change and designing successful
interventions. Some common models are used to describe and predict behaviour.
Skinner and Pavlov introduced a behavioural and operant conditioning theory that
stated humans are biological machines and behaviour is a product of conditioning,
Freud argued humans are driven by subconscious instinct in his Psychoanalytic
theory, and Rogers started a wellness movement in his humanist and client-centred
view. Behaviour theories exist on many levels including individual, familial, and
societal. On an individual level, the Health Belief Model states that changes in
behaviour depend on an individuals belief that a health problem is serious (perceived
severity), that one may be susceptible to the problem (threat), that changing one's
behaviour will reduce the threat (benefit), ones perception of the obstacles necessary
to change the behaviour (barriers), and the belief that one has the ability to change
one's behaviour (self- efficacy.)

On a familial and/or societal level, the Theory of Reasoned Action, Transtheoretical


theory, and Social Cognitive theory are used. The Theory of Reasoned Action focuses
on ones intentions and motivations to change. The Transtheoretical theory can be
used to predict and understand healthy and unhealthy behaviour by providing a
framework for explaining how behaviour change occurs. The stages include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation or decision, action and maintenance. The
model views behaviour change as a process in which individuals are at various stages
of readiness to change. The Stages of Change Model is not linear, and individuals can
91

enter and exit at any point and may repeat a stage several times. This acknowledges
that not everyone is ready to change behaviour.
The Social Cognitive Theory proposes that behaviour change is influenced by the
environment, personal factors, and aspects of the behaviour itself. The theory
explains ways individuals gain and maintain attention, specifically addressing the
processes of attention, retention, reproduction and motivation. Individuals experience
an education process consisting of reinforcement, self-efficacy, behavioural capacity
(learning what to do and how), expectations, and outcome expectancy. Social
Cognitive theory helps a health educator understand the complex relationships
between the individual and his or her environment, how actions and conditions
reinforce or discourage change, and the importance of believing in and knowing how
to change.
Many would agree that the media are the biggest educators in todays society. "By
age 18 a young person will have seen over 350,000 commercials and spent more
time being entertained by the media than any other activity except sleeping (Walsh.)"
A society with such immense media-saturation is cause for concern, especially in
regards to health. The impact of the media on adolescents in terms of nutrition,
sexual information, alcohol and tobacco, violence, and stress has been greatly
evaluated. By examining these areas, we can begin to address and examine how
media literacy can be used to reduce the negative influences mass media are believed
to have on young people's health-related attitudes and behaviours (Yates).
Proper nutrition is especially important for adolescents. Early dietary decisions can
have lifelong health implications such as obesity, poor nutrition, and inadequate
female reproductive development. The media often perpetuates poor diet decisions.
One study estimated that early adolescents between two and twelve contributed
$82.4 billion in food and beverage purchases in 1990 (Walsh.) Even more alarming
is the issue of body image. Young adolescents are led to believe that the mediacreated image of the ideal body is how their bodies should look. In an attempt to
have the perfect body, females often end up adopting fad diets that may lead to more
serious eating disorders. Boys are susceptible to media body images because they
want to build muscles like many actors and sports heroes. This desire to "bulk up"
can lead to poor diet and possibly the use of steroids. Awareness in youth could be
increased by having them examine existing advertisements and determine how males
and females are typically portrayed. An effort must be made not to depict either
gender in a stereotypical way. By analyzing media, we learn about the inherent
meaning of body image, body language, and stereotypes.
Mass media also provide formal and informal messages about sexuality. Adolescents
are adopting norms for their behaviour based on what they see and hear in the
media. Liebert and Sprafkin concluded that adolescents who watch a lot of sexual
content on TV are less satisfied with their sexuality and develop misconceptions.
Although sexuality is a difficult topic to discuss with youngsters, an effort must be
made to create media literate people who can evaluate the sexual information
provided by the mass media. .
Television shows depicting the awkwardness and confusion surrounding sexuality can
be used to help young people understand it is normal to feel anxious about sex and
that they should talk about their feelings. Discussing these issues may reduce young
92

people anxiety about sex and help them feel more comfortable with their emotions
and physical changes.
It is my belief that all human being must live in a healthy society, and the
fundamental requirement is to enjoy harmonic human relations. In effect, we all
know very well of satisfactory and the placenta things that are important to human
relations and the tragedy that will be endure if not to have them.
The so disquieting inadequate living conditions are commented to stress" (tension)
in humanity, which are of predominant to the consequence of experiences of
unsatisfactory human relations, or the risk of which thus happens. These
unsatisfactory conditions disturbed in human relations, imply a verified threat clearly
to the problems of mental and organic health.
In effect, most psychosomatic diseases (null and violable colon, asthma, allergies,
hypertension, etc.), are direct consequences of tension and emotional disorders.
Also, to which tension accelerates arteriosclerosis, that affects the sexual functions
when altering the balance of respective hormones, and there is consensus between
specialists that cancer has outstanding factor to tension. On the other hand the
functional mental upheavals (functional neuroses, inhibitions, depression, psychoses)
depend essentially on the problematic behaviour in human relations.
Even, the failure in the studies or "scholastic failure", discarding the factor intellectual
capacity, derives in most of the cases of disturbed human relations of young people
with their family and/or society. The motivational cycle begins when a necessity
arises, dynamic and persistent force that originates the behaviour. Whenever a
necessity appears this breaks the state of balance of the organism and produces a
state of tension, dissatisfaction, inconformism and imbalance that makes the
individual develop a behaviour or action able to unload the tension and to release it
to the inconformity and the imbalance. If the behaviour is effective, the individual
will satisfy the necessity and therefore will unload the tension caused by the
change(s). Once satisfied the necessity, the organism returns to its previous state of
balance and its adaptation to the environment. A single satisfied necessity does not
originate any behaviour, on the other hand; societal satisfied necessities do influence
in the behaviour and they direct it towards the benefits of individuals objectives.
In the relations with our resemblances, in daily life, usually we take into account
certain attitudes and characteristics to characterise people with who we made contact
with. This is because each human being pronounces himself/herself externally by a
series of expressive forms, these expressive forms, which constitute the individual
modalities, can be of diverse Hindu to them, such as gestures, mimics, reflections of
the voice, corporal attitude, and form to walk, among others. These modalities can
be grouped into categories, in agreement with the attitude that adopts the subject
with respect to its resemblances and with his/her life experience.
Providing effective healthcare, education, housing and better living conditions to low
income families; requires an understanding of the potential cultural difficulties, which
may be faced.
The bottom line is that society must put aside their conventional morality and deal
with the changing behaviour, surroundings and individual thinking of the future
generationthe young people.
93

Princess Diana done just that, she put aside the complexities that associated with
conventional morality and dealt with the changing world to support many charities
related to homeless and deprived children, drug abuse, and victims of HIV/AIDS. She
shocked the world when she publicly shook the hand of an AIDS patient in 1987.
Former South African President Nelson Mandela said on November 2, 2002, "Caring
for people who are dying and helping the bereaved was something for which Princess
Diana had passion and commitment," he announced that the Nelson Mandela
Children's Fund had planned to join the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund to
help South Africans with HIV/AIDS and their families and to assist children orphaned
by the disease. "When she stroked the limbs of someone with leprosy, or sat on the
bed of a man with HIV/AIDS and held his hand, she transformed public attitudes and
improved the life chances of such people".
Mandela later commented about the late Princess. "People felt if a British Princess can
go to a ward with HIV patients, then there's nothing to be superstitious about."

HOSPITAL
94

XXII. HIV/AIDS
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the immune system,
making it difficult for the body to fight infection and disease.
HIV is the same virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),
which increases a person's risk of developing certain cancers and infections. AIDS is
the last and most severe stage of the HIV infection. However, having HIV does not
mean you have AIDS. The good news is that people who are being treated for HIV
are living longer than ever before with the help of drugs that slow the rate at which
HIV infection progresses to AIDS.
What causes HIV?
The infection is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Most people get HIV by having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV. Another
common way of getting the virus is by sharing needles with someone who is infected
with HIV when injecting drugs. HIV cannot be spread by casual contact such as
kissing or sharing drinking glasses with an infected person.
Once HIV enters the body, it infects a type of white blood cell called CD4+ cells.
These white blood cells are an important part of the immune system that helps your
body fight infections. As HIV attacks and destroys CD4+ cells, the immune system
weakens and becomes less able to fight off disease.

95

What are the symptoms?


Early symptoms of HIV are often mistaken for the flu (influenza) or mononucleosis.
These symptoms include fever, sore throat, headache, muscle aches, and joint pain.
A skin rash may develop, along with abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, or
diarrhoea. However, many people have no early symptoms of HIV.
The incubation periodthe time between when a person is first infected with HIV and
when early symptoms developmay be a few days to several weeks; the early
symptoms usually disappear on their own within 2 to 3 weeks.
After you recover from symptoms of the initial HIV infection, you may not have
symptoms again for many years. However, as HIV progresses, symptoms reappear
and then remain. These symptoms usually include fatigue, unexplained weight loss,
fever, night sweats, and swollen lymph nodes. A health professional may first suspect
an HIV infection only when symptoms persist for no other reason.
From an estimate of 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS today, over 95% live in
developing countries. In developing countries, less than 10% of those infected have
access to antiretroviral therapy, which is used to treat HIV/AIDS. In countries such as
South Africa and Zimbabwe, where 20-25% of the adult population is infected; AIDS
is set to claim the lives of around half of all 15 year-olds. HIV/AIDS can destroy
entire societies. The impact that HIV/AIDS can have on access to education, and
ultimately, a nation's economic competitiveness; the AIDS pandemic has robbed
more than 14 million children worldwide of their families, their childhood, and all too
often, hope for the future.

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How is HIV diagnosed?


A health professional diagnoses HIV with antibody blood tests called the ELISA and
the Western blot assay. A diagnosis of HIV is made after 2 or more positive ELISA
tests are confirmed by a positive Western blot assay. Because it may take up to 6
months after the original infection for antibodies to appear, it is important to repeat
the tests 6 months after being exposed to the virus. If you are infected, you can still
pass HIV to another person during this time.
Getting tested for HIV can be scary; however, the condition is treatable so it is
important to get tested if you think you have been exposed. If you test positive, early
detection and monitoring of HIV will help your doctor determine whether the disease
is progressing and when to start treatment.
How is HIV treated?
Treatment for HIV depends on what stage of the infection you are in: early,
established, or late (AIDS). This is determined by your CD4+ cell count, the amount
of virus in your blood (viral load), and whether you have had certain illnesses that are
more common in people who have weakened immune systems.
If you are in the early stages of HIV, you have no symptoms, and your viral load is
low, you may not need treatment yet. Your doctor will monitor the progression of the
virus and may recommend using a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs
called highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART, which may strengthen your
immune system and reduce your viral load.
If you are in the established stage of HIV or have AIDS, HAART is usually
recommended to manage the progression of the virus.
Successful treatment helps suppress the virus; however, it doesn't cure HIV. It is
important to take your drugs exactly as directed by your doctor. When treatment
doesn't work, it is often because HIV has become resistant to the drug. This can
happen if you don't take your drugs correctly. Ask your doctor if you have questions
about your treatment. Your doctor can help you understand HIV and how best to
treat it.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
AIDS is the last and most severe stage of HIV infection. AIDS is diagnosed when you
have one or both of the following:

A CD4+ cell count of fewer than 200 cells per microliter (L) of blood.

Certain infections or illnesses, such as some types of pneumonia or cancer,


which are more likely to develop when you have a weakened immune system.
More than half of adults who have HIV will develop AIDS within 12 or 13 years if their
HIV infection is not treated. Young children and adults who rapidly progress through
the stages of HIV may develop AIDS within about 3 years. When left untreated, AIDS
is often fatal within 18 to 24 months after it develops.

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AIDS weakens the immune system and increases a person's risk of developing
serious illnesses such as certain cancers, opportunistic diseases, and neurological
disorders. AIDS is spread through contaminated blood, specifically through sexual
contact or shared needles. Symptoms include fatigue, weight loss, diarrhoea, fever,
night sweats, thrush (infection in the mouth and throat), and swollen lymph nodes of
the neck, armpits, and groin. Currently, there is no cure for AIDS. Treatment is
supportive and is aimed at maintaining comfort. Medications are also available to
delay the progression of AIDS and improve the person's quality of life. The risk of a
woman spreading HIV to her baby can be greatly reduced if she takes certain
medications during pregnancy and if she does not breast-feed her baby. The baby
should also receive the medication after birth.
What Causes AIDS?
AIDS:
Acquired Immune
Syndrome

Deficiency

Acquired is that you can become infected


Immune Deficiency is weakness in the
body's system that fights diseases.
Syndrome is a group of health problems
that make up a disease.

AIDS is caused by a virus called HIV, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. When
youre infected with HIV, your body will try to fight the infection. It will make
"antibodies," special molecules to fight HIV.
A blood test for HIV looks for these antibodies. If you have them in your blood, it
means that you have HIV infection. People who have the HIV antibodies are called
"HIV-Positive." HIV-positive, or having HIV disease, is not the same as having AIDS.
Many people are HIV-positive but don't get sick for many years. As HIV disease
continues, it slowly wears down the immune system. Viruses, parasites, fungi and
bacteria that usually don't cause any problems can make you very sick if your
immune system is damaged. These are called "opportunistic infections."
WHAT IS HIV TESTING?
HIV testing tells you if you are infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
(HIV) which causes AIDS. These tests look for "antibodies" to HIV. Antibodies are
proteins produced by the immune system to fight a specific germ.
Other "HIV" tests are used when people already know that they are infected with HIV.
These help measure how quickly the virus is multiplying (a viral load test) or the
health of your immune system (a CD4 count).
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The most common HIV test is a blood test. Newer tests can detect HIV antibodies in
mouth fluid (not the same as saliva), a scraping from inside the cheek, or urine.
"Rapid" HIV test results are available within 10 to 30 minutes after a sample is taken.
One of these tests has produced a high rate of false positives. A positive result on any
HIV test should be confirmed with a second test.
Home test kits: You can't test yourself for HIV at home. The Home Access test kit is
only designed to collect a sample of your blood. You send the sample to a laboratory
where it is tested for HIV.
WHEN SHOULD I GET TESTED?
If you become infected with HIV, it usually takes between three weeks and two
months for your immune system to produce antibodies to HIV. If you think you were
exposed to HIV, you should wait for two months before being tested. You can also
test right away and then again after two or three months. During this "window
period" an antibody test may give a negative result, but you can transmit the virus to
others if you are infected.
About 5% of people take longer than two months to produce antibodies. There is one
documented case of a person exposed to HIV and hepatitis C at the same time.
Antibodies to HIV were not detected until one year after exposure. Testing at 3 and 6
months after possible exposure will detect almost all HIV infections. However, there
are no guarantees as to when an individual will produce enough antibodies to be
detected by an HIV test. If you have any unexplained symptoms, speak with your
health care professional and consider re-testing for HIV.
DO ANY TESTS WORK SOONER AFTER INFECTION?
Viral load tests detect pieces of HIV genetic material. They show up before the
immune system manufactures antibodies. Also, in early 2002, the FDA approved
"nucleic acid testing." It is similar to viral load testing. Blood banks use it to screen
donated blood.
The viral load or nucleic acid tests are generally not used to see if someone has been
infected with HIV because they are much more expensive than an antibody test. They
also have a slightly higher error rate.
WHAT DOES IT MEAN IF YOU TEST POSITIVE?
A positive test result means that you have HIV antibodies, and are infected with HIV.
You will get your test result from health care specialist, who should tell you what to
expect, and where to get health services and emotional support.
Testing positive does not mean that you have AIDS. Many people who test positive
stay healthy for several years, even if they don't start taking medication right away.

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If you test negative and you have not been exposed to HIV for at least three months,
you are not infected with HIV. Continue to protect yourself from HIV infection
CAN THE TEST RESULT KEEP CONFIDENTIAL?
You can be tested anonymously in many places. You do not have to give your name
when you are tested at a public health office, or when you receive the test results.
You can be tested anonymously for HIV as many times as you want.
If you get a positive HIV test that is not anonymous, or if you get any medical
services for HIV infection, your name may be reported to the Department of Health.
HOW ACCURATE ARE THE TESTS?
Antibody test results for HIV are accurate more than 99.5% of the time. Before you
get the results, the test has usually been done two or more times. The first test is
called an "EIA" or "ELISA" test. Before a positive ELISA test result is reported, it is
confirmed by another test called a "Western Blot".
Two special cases can lead to false results:
Children born to HIV-positive mothers may have false positive test results for several
months, because mothers pass infection-fighting antibodies to their newborn children.
Even if the children are not infected with HIV, they have HIV antibodies and will test
positive. Other tests, such as a viral load test, must be used.
As mentioned above, people who were recently infected may test negative if they get
tested too soon after being infected with HIV.
HIV testing generally looks for HIV antibodies in the blood, or mouth fluid and/or
urine (not saliva, its not the same as mouth fluid). The immune system produces
these antibodies to fight HIV. It usually takes two to three months for them to show
up. In rare cases, it can take longer than three months. During this "window period"
you may not test positive for HIV even if you are infected. Normal HIV tests don't
work for newborn children of HIV-infected mothers.
In many places, you can get tested anonymously for HIV. Once you test positive and
start to receive health care for HIV infection, your name may be reported to the
Department of Health. These records are kept confidential.
A positive test result does not mean that you have AIDS. If you test positive, you
should learn more about HIV and decide how to take care of your health.

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HOW DO YOU GET AIDS?


You don't actually "get" AIDS. You might get infected with HIV, and later you might
develop AIDS. You can get infected with HIV from anyone who's infected, even if they
don't look sick and even if they haven't tested HIV-positive yet. The blood, vaginal
fluid, semen, and breast milk of people infected with HIV has enough of the virus in it
to infect other people. Most people get the HIV virus by:

having sex with an infected person


sharing a needle (shooting drugs) with someone who's infected
being born when their mother is infected, or drinking the breast milk of an
infected woman

Blood Transfusion
Getting a transfusion of infected
blood used to be a way people got
AIDS, but now the blood supply is
screened very carefully and the risk
is extremely low; however there
are many case, especially in third
world and developing countries
where patients are reported being
infected during this process.
Blood must be tested each time it is
given, regardless if it was given by
the same donor sometime before.

There are no documented cases of HIV being transmitted by tears or saliva, but it is
possible to be infected with HIV through oral sex or in rare cases through deep
kissing, especially if you have open sores in your mouth or bleeding gums.
HOW DO YOU GET INFECTED WITH HIV?
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is not spread easily. You can only get HIV
if you get infected blood or sexual fluids into your system. You can't get it from
mosquito bites, coughing or sneezing, sharing household items, or swimming in the
same pool as someone with HIV.
Some people talk about "shared body fluids" being risky for HIV, but no documented
cases of HIV have been caused by sweat, saliva or tears. However, even small
amounts of blood in your mouth might transmit HIV during kissing or oral sex. Blood
can come from flossing your teeth, or from sores caused by gum disease, or by
eating very hot or sharp, pointed food.
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To infect someone, the virus has to get past the body's defences. These include skin
and saliva. If your skin is not broken or cut, it protects you against infection from
blood or sexual fluids. Saliva contains chemicals that can help kill HIV in your mouth.
If HIV-infected blood or sexual fluid gets inside your body, you can get infected. This
can happen through an open sore or wound, during sexual activity, or if you share
equipment to inject drugs.
HIV can also be spread from a mother to her child during pregnancy or delivery. This
is called "vertical transmission." A baby can also be infected by drinking an infected
woman's breast milk. Adults exposed to breast milk of an HIV-infected woman may
also be exposed to HIV.
HOW CAN YOU PROTECT YOURSELF AND OTHERS?
Unless you are 100% sure that you and the people you are with do not have HIV
infection, you should take steps to prevent getting infected. People recently infected
(within the past 2 or 3 months) are most likely to transmit HIV to others. This is
when their viral load is the highest. In general, the risk of transmission is higher with
higher viral loads.
Sexual Activity
You can avoid any risk of HIV if you practice abstinence (not having sex). You also
won't get infected if your penis, mouth, vagina or rectum doesn't touch anyone else's
penis, mouth, vagina, or rectum. Safe activities include kissing, erotic massage,
masturbation or hand jobs (mutual masturbation).
Having sex in a monogamous (faithful) relationship is safe if:

Both of you are uninfected (HIV-negative)


You both have sex only with your partner
Neither one of you gets exposed to HIV through drug use or other activities

Oral sex has a lower risk of infection than anal or vaginal sex, especially if there are
no open sores or blood in the mouth.
You can reduce the risk of infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases
by using barriers like condoms. Traditional condoms go on the penis, and a new type
of condom goes in the vagina or in the rectum
Vertical Transmission
With no treatment, about 25% of the babies of HIV-infected women would be born
infected. The risk drops to about 4% if a woman takes AZT during pregnancy and
delivery, and her newborn is given AZT. The risk is 2% or less if the mother is taking
combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Caesarean section deliveries probably don't
reduce transmission risk if the mother's viral load is below 1000.
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Babies can get infected if they drink breast milk from an HIV-infected mother.
Mothers with HIV should use baby formulas or breast milk from a woman who is not
infected to feed their babies.
HOW CAN WE PREVENT INFECTION OF NEWBORNS?
Mothers can reduce the risk of infecting their babies if they:

Use antiretroviral medications (ARVs),


Keep the delivery time short, and
Take precautions with breast feeding

Use antiretroviral medications (ARVs): The risk of transmitting HIV is extremely low if
ARVs are used. Transmission rates are only 1% - 2% if the mother takes combination
antiretroviral therapy (ART). The rate is about 4% when the mother takes AZT (also
known as ZDV or Retrovir) during the last six months of her pregnancy, and the
newborn takes AZT for six weeks after birth.

Contact with Blood


HIV is one of many diseases that can
be transmitted by blood. Be careful if
you are helping someone who is
bleeding. If your work exposes you to
blood, be sure to protect any cuts or
open sores on your skin, as well as
your eyes and mouth. Your employer
should provide gloves, facemasks and
other protective equipment, plus
training about how to avoid diseases
that are spread by blood.
IF YOU HAVE BEEN EXPOSED
If you think you have been exposed to HIV, talk to your health care specialist and/or
the public health department, and get tested.
If you are sure that you have been exposed, call your doctor immediately to discuss
whether you should start taking antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). This is called "post
exposure prophylaxis" or PEP. You would take two or three medications for several
weeks. These drugs can decrease the risk of infection, but they may have some
serious side effects.

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POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS
Prophylaxis means disease prevention. Post-exposure prophylaxis (or PEP) means
taking antiretroviral medications (ARVs) as soon as possible after exposure to HIV, so
that the exposure will not result in HIV infection. These medications are only available
with a prescription. PEP should begin within as soon as possible after exposure to HIV
but certainly within 72 hours. Treatment with 2 or 3 ARVs should continue for 4
weeks, if tolerated.
WHO SHOULD USE PEP?
Workplace exposure
PEP has been standard procedure since 1996 for healthcare workers exposed to HIV.
Workers start taking medications within a few hours of exposure. Usually the
exposure is from a "needle stick," when a health care worker accidentally gets jabbed
with a needle containing HIV-infected blood. PEP reduced the rate of HIV infection
from workplace exposures by 79%. However, some health care workers who take PEP
still get HIV infection.
Other exposure
In 2005, the Centres for Disease Control reviewed information on PEP. They
concluded that it should also be available for use after HIV exposures that are not
work-related. People can be exposed to HIV during unsafe sexual activity, when a
condom breaks during sex, or if they share needles for injecting drugs. Infants can be
exposed if they drink breast milk from an infected woman. In a study of PEP in 400
cases of possible sexual exposure to HIV, not one person became infected with HIV.
SHOULD PEP BE USED FOR NON-OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE?
HIV exposure at work is usually a one-time accident. Other HIV exposures may be
due to unsafe behaviours that can occur many times. Some people think that PEP
might encourage these unsafe behaviours if people think that PEP is an easy way to
avoid HIV infection.
There are other reasons why PEP might not be a good idea for non-occupational
exposure:

There is no research to show that PEP works for non-occupational exposure. We


don't know how soon after exposure to HIV someone has to start PEP.
PEP is not a "morning-after pill." It is a programme of several drugs, several
times each day, for at least 30 days. PEP costs between $600 and $1,000.
For best results, you have to take every dose of every PEP medication. Missing
doses could mean that you develop HIV infection. It could also allow the virus
to develop resistance to the medications. If that happens they would no longer
work for you.

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The medications have serious side effects. About 40% of health care workers
did not complete PEP because of the side effects.

Despite these concerns, there is growing interest in PEP for non-occupational


exposure. Most programmes include health counselling to inform and encourage
people to avoid exposure to HIV.
HOW IS PEP TAKEN?
PEP should be started as soon as possible after exposure to HIV. The medications
used in PEP depend on the exposure to HIV. The following situations are considered
serious exposure:

Exposure to a large amount of blood.


Blood came in contact with cuts or open sores on the skin.
Blood was visible on a needle that stuck someone.
Exposure to blood from someone who has a high viral load (a large amount of
virus in the blood).

For serious exposures, Public Health Service recommends using a combination of


three approved ARVs for four weeks. For less serious exposure, the guidelines
recommend four weeks of treatment with two drugs: AZT and 3TC.
In January 2001, the Centres for Disease Control warned against using Nevirapine for
PEP because of the risk of liver damage.
WHAT ARE THE SIDE EFFECTS?
The most common side effects from PEP medications are nausea and generally not
feeling well. Other possible side effects include headaches, fatigue, vomiting and
diarrhoea. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is the use of ARVs as soon as possible
after exposure to HIV, to prevent HIV infection. PEP can reduce the rate of infection
in health care workers exposed to HIV by 79%.
The benefits of PEP for non-occupational exposure have not been proven. This use of
PEP is controversial because some people fear it will encourage unsafe behaviours.
PEP is a four-week program of two or three ARVs, several times a day. The
medications have serious side effects that can make it difficult to finish the
programme. PEP is not 100% effective; it can not guarantee that exposure to HIV will
not become a case of HIV infection.
HIV is a type of virus called a retrovirus. Like all viruses, it must invade the cells of
other organisms to survive and reproduce. HIV multiplies in the human immune
system's CD4+ T cells and kills vast numbers of the cells it infects. The result is
disease symptoms.

105

There are two forms of HIV:

HIV-1 is the more common and more potent form. This form of HIV has spread
throughout the world.

HIV-2, which is less potent that HIV-1, is found predominantly in West Africa. It
is also more closely related to two HIV-like viruses found in monkeys.
There also are different strains of the virus, which makes it difficult to find one single
treatment
The Immune System
Our bodies use a natural defence system to protect us from bacteria, fungi, viruses,
and other microscopic invaders. This system includes general, non-specific defences
as well as weapons custom-designed against specific health threats:

Innate, or non-specific, immunity is the first line of defence. Our skin, tears,
mucus, and saliva, as well as the swelling that occurs after an infection or injury,
contain types of immune cells and chemicals that attack disease-causing agents
attempting to invade the body.

Adaptive, or specific, immunity uses specialized cells and proteins called


antibodies to attack invaders that get past the first line of defence. These weapons
target specific proteins called antigens, found on the surface of the invading
organism. The immune system can quickly rally these custom-tailored defences if this
particular invader attacks again.

Hairy Leukoplakia
on
the
lateral
border
of
the
tongue in a 28
year old patient
Lesions of smaller
size were also
found
on
the
buccal and the
labial mucosa of
the same patient

There are two types of adaptive immune responses:

The humoral immune response involves the action of specialized antibodyproducing white blood cells. The antibodies (proteins produced by the immune
system to fight infectious agents such as viruses), which circulate in the blood and
other body fluids, can recognize specific antigens (substances that stimulate the
production of antibodies). They latch onto the viruses, bacteria, toxins, and other
substances that bear these antigens, targeting them for destruction.

106


The cell-mediated immune response involves the action of another group of
specialized white blood cells that direct and regulate the body's immune responses or
directly attack cells that are infected or cancerous.
How Do White Blood Cells Help Fight Disease?
White blood cells, particularly macrophages and B and T lymphocytes, play central
roles in the immune system's defences against viruses and other foreign invaders.

Macrophages contribute to both non-specific and specific immune responses.


These versatile cells act as scavengers, engulfing and digesting microbes and other
foreign material in a cell-eating process called phagocytosis. They also, upon
encountering an invading organism, release chemical messengers that alert other
cells of the immune system and summon T lymphocytes to the infected area.

B lymphocytes, or B cells, serve as the body's antibody factories. Each antibody


is targeted to recognize and bind to an antigen from a specific invader. When
antibodies circulating through blood and body fluids encounter this invader, they
mark it for destruction.

T lymphocytes, or T cells, are part of the cellular immune response. Some T


cells, like CD4+ T cells (also called "helper" T cells), direct and regulate the body's
immune responses. Others are killer cells that attack cells that are infected or
cancerous.
How Does HIV Infection Become Established In The Body?
Researchers have found evidence that immune-system cells called dendritic cells may
begin the process of infection. After exposure, these special cells may bind to and
carry the virus from the site of infection to the lymph nodes, where other immune
system cells become infected.
HIV targets cells in the immune system that display a protein called CD4 on their
surface. These cells are called CD4-positive (CD4+) cells.
When HIV encounters a CD4+ cell, a protein called gp120 that protrudes from HIV's
surface recognizes the CD4 protein and binds tightly to it. Another viral protein, p24,
forms a casing that surrounds HIV's genetic material.
HIV's genetic material contains the information needed by the virus to infect cells,
produce new copies of virus, or cause disease. For example, these genes encode
enzymes that HIV requires to reproduce itself. Those enzymes are reverse
transcriptase, integrase, and protease
Safe Sex
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are spread by sexual contact involving the
genitals, mouth, or rectum, and can also be spread from a pregnant woman to her
foetus before or during delivery. STDs, which affect both men and women, are a
worldwide public health concern.
While most STDs can be cured, some cannot, including HIV (which causes AIDS),
genital herpes, and human papillomavirus (HPV), which can cause genital warts.
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STDs can be spread by people who don't know they are infected. Always use
protection every time you have sex, until you are sure you and your partner are not
infected with a STD.
One of Oxfam's principal activities in the fight against
the spread of HIV/AIDS is to educate people about
methods of safe sex, including demonstrations in the
use of condoms.
I also emphasise that government must define a
clear distinction between excellent public health
programmes and social awareness to that of the
complexities, difficulties and social nightmare we all
face.
Government must take leadership and responsible for
their entire nation, provide the mechanism for
excellent healthcare, education, job, budget, support
and the facilitation in terms of access to people and
resources.
If you are in a relationship, delay having sex until you are physically and emotionally
prepared, have agreed to only have sex with each other, and have both been tested
for STDs.
Abstinence as prevention
Completely avoiding sexual contact (abstinence), including intercourse or oral sex, is
certain the most common way to prevent an infection.
Discuss safe sex with your partner
Discuss STDs before you have sex with someone. Even though a sexual partner
doesn't have symptoms of an STD, he or she may still be infected.
Questions to ask someone before having sex include:

How many people have you had sex with?

Have you had sex without a condom?

Have you ever had anal sex?

Have you ever had unprotected oral sex?

Do you have many sex partners?

Do you inject illegal drugs or have you had sex with someone who injects
drugs?

Have you ever had unprotected sex with a prostitute?

Have you ever had an STD, including hepatitis B or hepatitis C? Was it treated
and cured?
These questions are very personal and difficult, however its always to the best
interest to remove all doubts and build personal confidence before one commence a
relationship. The bottom line is to get to know your partner first, before its too late.

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Safe sex practices


Some STDs, such as HIV, can take up to 6 months before they can be detected in the
blood. Genital herpes and the human papillomavirus (HPV) can be spread when
symptoms are not present. Even if you and your partner have been tested, use
condoms for all sex until you and your partner haven't had sex with another person
for 6 months. Then get tested again.

Watch for symptoms of STDs, such as unusual discharge, sores, redness, or


growths in your and your partner's genital area, or pain while urinating.

Don't have more than one sex partner at a time. The safest sex is with one
partner who has sex only with you. Every time you add a new sex partner, you are
being exposed to all of the diseases that all of their partners may have. Your risk for
an STD increases if you have several sex partners at the same time.

Use a condom every time you have sex. Latex and polyurethane condoms do
not let STD viruses pass through, so they offer good protection from STDs. Condoms
made from sheep intestines do not protect against STDs.

Use a water-based lubricant such as K-Y Jelly or Astroglide to help prevent


tearing of the skin if there is a lack of lubrication during sexual intercourse. Small
tears in the vagina during vaginal sex or in the rectum during anal sex allow STDs to
get into your blood.

Women should avoid douching, because it can change the normal balance of
organisms in the vagina and increases the risk of getting an STD.

Be responsible. Avoid sexual contact if you have symptoms of an infection or if


you are being treated for a STD or HIV. If you or your partner has herpes, avoid
sexual contact when a blister is present and use condoms at all other times.
How Is HIV Infection Spread?
There are many misunderstandings about the ways in which HIV infection is not
spread. However, the most common way is through sexual intercourse; HIV is spread
most commonly by sexual contact with an infected partner. The virus can enter the
body through the lining of the vagina, penis, rectum, or mouth during sexual
relations.
Sexual activities that can result in HIV infection include:

Sexual intercourse

Anal sex (heterosexual or homosexual)

Oral sex (heterosexual or homosexual)


Can HIV be spread through kissing?
Although studies have found tiny amounts of HIV in the saliva of some people with
HIV, researchers have found no evidence that HIV is spread to other people through
kissing. However, the CDC recommends against "French" or open-mouthed kissing
because of the possibility of contact with blood if the people kissing have any cuts or
sores in the mouth
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Direct Contact with Infected Blood


HIV can be spread through direct contact with infected blood:

Through injected drugs. HIV frequently is spread among users of illegal drugs
that are injected. This happens when needles or syringes contaminated with minute
quantities of blood of someone infected with the virus are shared.

In a health-care setting. Transmission from patient to health-care worker or


vice-versa - via accidental sticks with contaminated needles or other medical
instruments - can occur, but this is rare.

Through a blood transfusion. Prior to the screening of blood for evidence of HIV
infection and before the introduction in 1985 of heat-treating techniques to destroy
HIV in blood products, HIV was transmitted through transfusions of contaminated
blood or blood components. Today, because of blood screening and heat treatment,
the risk of acquiring HIV from such transfusions is extremely small; however there
are many cases where patients were infected due to professional negligence in the
work place.
An Infected Mother to Her Unborn Child
Women can transmit HIV to their foetuses during pregnancy or birth. Approximately
one-quarter to one-third of all untreated pregnant women infected with HIV will pass
the infection to their babies.
A pregnant woman can greatly reduce the risk of infecting her baby if she takes the
anti-HIV drug AZT (also called Zidovudine) during her pregnancy.
Because the risk of transmission increases with longer delivery times, the risk can be
further reduced by delivering the baby by caesarean section, a surgical procedure in
which the baby is delivered through an incision in the mother's abdominal wall and
uterus.
Combining AZT treatment with caesarean delivery can reduce the infection rate to
between 1% and 2%.
HIV also can be spread to babies through the breast milk of mothers infected with the
virus.

Women who live in countries where safe alternatives to breast-feeding are


readily available and affordable can eliminate the risk of transmitting the virus
through breast milk by bottle-feeding their babies.

In developing countries, however, where such safe alternatives are not readily
available or economically feasible, breast-feeding may offer benefits that outweigh
the risk of HIV transmission.
How Is HIV Infection Not Spread?
Research indicates that HIV is NOT transmitted by casual contact such as:

Touching or hugging

Sharing household items such as utensils, towels, and bedding

Contact with sweat or tears

Sharing facilities such as swimming pools, saunas, hot tubs, or toilets with HIVinfected people
110

Coughs or sneezes

In short, studies indicate that HIV transmission requires intimate contact with
infected blood or body fluids (vaginal secretions, semen, pre-ejaculation fluid, and
breast milk). Activities that don't involve the possibility of such contact are regarded
as posing no risk of infection.
Is it safe to share a household with an HIV-infected person?
Studies of families of HIV-infected people have found that HIV is not spread through
sharing utensils, towels, bedding, or toilet facilities. Behaviours that increase the
likelihood of contact with blood from an HIV-infected person, such as sharing a razor
or toothbrush, should be avoided.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

STDs include:

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)also


referred to as sexually transmitted infections
(STIs)are those spread by sexual contact. They
may also be spread from a pregnant woman to
her foetus before or during delivery.
Exposure to an STD can occur anytime a person
has sex or close contact that involves the
genitals, the mouth, or the rectum with another
person, but exposure is more likely if a person
has many sex partners or does not use condoms.
STDs can be prevented by not having sexual
contact (abstinence).

Chlamydia.

Genital herpes.

Genital warts or human papillomavirus (HPV). Certain types of HPV can cause
cancer of the cervix in women.

Gonorrhoea.

Hepatitis B.

Syphilis.

Trichomoniasis.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS.

Other infections that may be sexually transmitted, including hepatitis C,


cytomegalovirus, scabies, and pubic lice.
Most STDs can be treated and cured, but some cannot. Some STDs, such as HIV and
syphilis, can cause death.
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
The human papillomavirus (HPV) causes warts, including genital warts, and may
cause cancerous changes in the cervix. HPV is spread by direct contact.

111

There are more than 100 known types of HPV.

Some HPV types cause genital warts. In women, certain types of HPV increase
the risk of cervical cancer. Sometimes the only sign that a woman is infected with
HPV is an abnormal Pap test result.

Other types of HPV cause common, plantar, filiform or flat warts, and some
genital warts. These types of warts are not cancerous.
There is no known cure for HPV. Most warts go away without treatment within 2
years; however medications and treatments are available to help warts disappear
more quickly. HPV remains in the body with or without treatment for visible warts, so
warts may come back.
Symptoms of a sexually transmitted disease (STD)
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may cause many different symptoms in both
women and men.
In women

A thick, discoloured, or foul-smelling vaginal discharge. Symptoms may get


worse over a period of several days to 2 weeks.

Pain, burning, or itching while urinating for longer than 24 hours

Fever

Pain during sexual intercourse

Pain or a feeling of heaviness in the pelvis or lower abdomen

Itching, tingling, burning, or pain in the genitals

Sores, lumps, blisters, rashes, or warts on or around the genitals

Vaginal spotting or bleeding after sexual intercourse

Other symptoms of an infection, such as fever and fatigue or lack of energy


In men

Painful urination. (This is often the first symptom.)

Fever

Cloudy urine

Abnormal discharge from the penis

Crusting at the tip of the penis

Sores, lumps, blisters, rashes, or warts on or around the genitals

Pain, swelling, or tenderness in the scrotum (epididymitis)

Itching, tingling, pain, or burning of the genitals

Deep pelvic ache (prostatitis)


These symptoms require medical attention. Avoid any sexual contact until you have
been examined by a medical professional and the result turned out negative.
New HIV treatment is combination 1-a-day drug
Approval of a new combination tablet to treat HIV will make it easier for people to
follow their treatment regimen.

112

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) USA, has approved a once-a-day, threedrugs-in-one, fixed-dose combination called Atripla. The new pill combines the active
ingredients of three anti-retroviral drugs already in use to treat HIV/AIDS Efavirenz
(Sustiva), Emtricitabine (Emtriva) and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (Viread).
These drugs have already been used together for some time as part of a "cocktail"
therapy.
According to the FDA, Atripla will contain a package warning that the drug may cause
build-up of lactic acid in the blood. Other potential serious side effects may include
serious liver toxicity, kidney impairment and severe depression. In a 48-week trial,
the most common side effects experienced by participants were headache, dizziness,
abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and rash. If you're being treated for HIV/AIDS, you
now have a simple course of treatment to follow.
Chest x-ray film of a 41-year-old woman with
HIV infection shows enlarged cardiac silhouette.
The woman was admitted with Dyspnea and
Pleuritic chest pain. Nine years earlier, she was
found to be HIV-seropositive secondary to
injection drug use. The patient had had 2
episodes of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in
the past and was receiving combination
antiretroviral therapy with Indinavir, Zalcitabine,
and Nelfinavir as well as Prophylaxis; which was
administrated to assist her against further
opportunistic infections.

She had been noncompliant with her medications for several weeks before
presentation. Her CD4 cell count was 400/L and the viral load was 750,000
copies/ml at the time of admission. Her physical examination was significant for
distant heart sounds and a pericardial rub.
A chest roentgenogram revealed an enlarged cardiac silhouette, that was confirmed
by echocardiography to be a large pericardial effusion with collapse of the right
atrium during late diastole. The ECG revealed electrical alternans, and a cardiac
pretamponade picture developed. A subxiphoid pericardiotomy was performed, with
drainage of 500 ml of serosanguineous fluid. An analysis of the pericardial fluid was
nondiagnostic by stains (Gram and acid-fast stains), cultures (bacterial, fungal,
mycobacterial, and viral), cytology, and chemistry. A pericardial tissue biopsy
revealed fibrosis with chronic inflammatory changes. The patient improved clinically
after the procedure, and the pericardiotomy tube was removed on the 4th day. She is
now compliant with her medications and has remained asymptomatic for the past 2
years.

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The newly approved tablet combines three medications that have been in use for
several years, and whose results and effects are well-known.
Many people with HIV/AIDS take additional drugs beyond the three that have been
combined into the new tablet, in order to deal with complications and AIDS-related
infections. The new combination pill won't eliminate the need for these people to
continue to take other medications.
However, the ability of more people to easily follow a course of treatment for
HIV/AIDS holds the prospect of bringing the AIDS epidemic under control.
Emtriva
Important information you should know about emtricitabine
Emtricitabine may cause lactic acidosis or severe liver damage, which can be fatal.
Call your doctor at once if you have any of these symptoms, which may be early
signs of lactic acidosis or liver problems: nausea, vomiting, or sudden stomach pain;
weak or tired feeling; dizziness or lightheadedness; fast or irregular heartbeats;
feeling short of breath; cold feeling, especially in the arms and legs; jaundice
(yellowing of the skin or eyes); or pain in the upper stomach area.
Treatment of HIV/AIDS almost always requires using many medicines together. To
best treat your condition, use all of your medications as directed by your doctor. Do
not change your doses or medication schedule without advice from your doctor. Every
person with HIV or AIDS should remain under the care of a doctor.
Taking this medication will not keep you from passing HIV to other people through
unprotected sex or sharing of needles. Talk with your doctor about safe methods of
preventing HIV transmission during sex, such as using a condom and spermacide.
Sharing drug or medicine needles is never safe, even for a healthy person.

Pope John Paul said The Roman Catholic Church


and its Health have to pay particular attention to
helping AIDS sufferers in the developing world.
We are seeing people of all walk of life world
wide, reaching out to HIV/AIDS victims. We as
people, nation and government must work
together to curtail this epidemic by combining
our resources, interchanging ideas, work shops,
technologies; and the richer people and nations
must give their economic support.
The world future is dime, we have 14 millions
children with AIDS; what will be the figures in
the next five years.

114

What is emtricitabine?
Emtricitabine is an antiviral medication. It is in a category of HIV medicines called
reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Emtricitabine works by preventing HIV cells from
multiplying in the body.
Emtricitabine is used to treat the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes
the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Emtricitabine is not a cure for HIV
or AIDS.
Emtricitabine may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication
guide.
What you should discuss with your healthcare provider before taking emtricitabine?
Before taking this medication, tell your doctor if you have:

Kidney disease; or

Hepatitis B (HBV) infection.


If you have any of the conditions listed above, you may not be able to use
emtricitabine or you may require a dosage adjustment or special monitoring during
treatment.
Emtricitabine is in the FDA pregnancy category B. This means that it is not expected
to be harmful to an unborn baby. Do not use this medication without telling your
doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.
It is not known if emtricitabine can pass into breast milk and what effect it may have
on a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are
breast-feeding a baby.
You should not breast-feed while you are using emtricitabine. It is not known if this
medication passes into breast milk. If you have HIV or AIDS, you should not breastfeed at all. Even if your baby is born without HIV, you may still pass the virus to the
baby in your breast milk.
How should you take emtricitabine?
Emtricitabine should be used exactly as your doctor has prescribed it for you. Do not
use more of the medication than recommended. Do not take emtricitabine for longer
than your doctor has prescribed.
Take each dose with a full glass of water.
Emtricitabine can be taken with or without food. Take emtricitabine at the same time
each day to get the most benefit.
Treatment of HIV/AIDS almost always requires using many medicines together. To
best treat your condition, use all of your medications as directed by your doctor. Do
not change your doses or medication schedule without advice from your doctor. Every
person with HIV or AIDS should remain under the care of a doctor.
To be sure this medication is helping your condition; your blood will need to be tested
on a regular basis. Your liver function may also need to be tested. It is important that
you not miss any scheduled visits to your doctor.
Store emtricitabine at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and direct light
115

What happens if you miss a dose?


Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for the
next regularly scheduled dose, skip the missed dose and take the next one as
directed. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.
What happens if you overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this
medicine.
Symptoms of an emtricitabine overdose are not known.
What you should avoid while taking emtricitabine?
Taking this medication will not keep you from passing HIV to other people through
unprotected sex or sharing of needles. Talk with your doctor about safe methods of
preventing HIV transmission during sex, such as using a condom and spermacide.
Sharing drug or medicine needles is never safe, even for a healthy person.
What are the possible side effects of emtricitabine?
Emtricitabine may cause lactic acidosis or severe liver damage, which can be fatal.
Call your doctor at once if you have any of these symptoms, which may be early
signs of lactic acidosis or liver problems: nausea, vomiting, or sudden stomach pain;
weak or tired feeling; dizziness or lightheadedness; fast or irregular heartbeats;
feeling short of breath; cold feeling, especially in the arms and legs; jaundice
(yellowing of the skin or eyes); or pain in the upper stomach area.
Stop using emtricitabine and get emergency medical help if you have any of these
signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips,
tongue, or throat.
Early in your treatment with emtricitabine, you may have a flare-up of other
infections such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, or cytomegalovirus. Contact your doctor
if you develop any possible symptoms of other infections, such as fever, chills, sore
throat, cough, flu symptoms, or problems with breathing or vision.
Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur. Talk with your doctor if
you have any of these side effects:

Headache;

Nausea or Diarrhoea;

Darkened patches of skin on the palms and/or soles;

Sleep problems (insomnia);

Skin rash; or

Change in the shape or location of body fat (especially in the arms, legs, face,
neck, breasts, and trunk).
Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about
any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome.
What other medications will affect emtricitabine?

116

Other medications can affect emtricitabine, making it less effective or making side
effects more likely to occur. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-thecounter medications you use. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and
drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without
telling your doctor.
Emtricitabine is available with a prescription under the brand name Emtriva. Other
brand or generic formulations may also be available. Ask your pharmacist any
questions you have about this medication, especially if it is new to you.

Emtriva 200 mg-blue and white capsules


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never
share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication
prescribed
Neupogen
Important information you should know about Filgrastim
Do not give yourself an injection if you are unsure how to inject yourself, how much
to inject, or how often to inject the medication. Contact your healthcare professional
for advice.
Contact your doctor if you develop a fever; chills; sore throat; congestion; diarrhoea;
or redness, pain, or swelling around a wound or sore while using
Filgrastim.
Your spleen may become enlarged and, in rare instances, may rupture while taking
Filgrastim. The spleen is located in the upper left section of your stomach area. Call
your doctor right away if you have pain in your left upper stomach area or left
shoulder tip area. This pain could mean your spleen is enlarged or ruptured.
What is Filgrastim?
Filgrastim is a protein that stimulates the production of white blood cells. White blood
cells are important for protecting the body from infection.
Filgrastim is used to increase white blood cells, and to decrease the risk of infection,
in conditions such as cancer; bone marrow transplant; pre-chemotherapy blood cell
collection; and severe chronic neutropenia including congenital neutropenia, cyclic
neutropenia, and idiopathic neutropenia.
Filgrastim may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this book.

117

Who should not use Filgrastim?


Do not use Filgrastim if you have an allergy to the bacterium E. coli. You may also be
allergic to Filgrastim.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor if you

are undergoing radiation or chemotherapy;

have myeloid (bone marrow) cancer;

have kidney disease; or

have liver disease.


You may not be able to uses Filgrastim or you may require a dosage adjustment or
special monitoring during treatment if you have any of the conditions listed above.
Filgrastim is in the FDA pregnancy category C. This means that it is not known
whether Filgrastim will be harmful to an unborn baby. Do not use Filgrastim without
first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant or could become pregnant during
treatment.
It is not known whether Filgrastim will be harmful to a nursing baby. Do not use this
medication without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.
How you should use Filgrastim?
Filgrastim should be use exactly as directed by your doctor. If you do not understand
these instructions, ask your pharmacist, nurse, or doctor to explain them to you.
Filgrastim can be used subcutaneously (SC) or intravenously (IV). If you are injecting
the medication at home, your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist will give you specific
instructions on how and where to inject your medication. Do not give yourself an
injection if you are unsure how to inject yourself, how much to inject, or how often to
inject the medication.
Try to receive the injections at the same time each day.
It is important to use Filgrastim regularly to get the most benefit.
Rotate injection sites as directed and inject the medication slowly.
Following administration of Filgrastim from the prefilled syringe, the "UltraSafe
Needle Guard" should be activated to prevent accidental needle sticks. To activate the
Needle Guard, place your hands behind the needle, grasp the guard with one hand,
and slide the guard forward until the needle is completely covered and the guard
clicks into place. NOTE: If an audible click is not heard, the needle guard may not be
completely activated. The prefilled syringe should be disposed of by placing the entire
prefilled syringe with guard activated into an approved puncture-proof container.
Do not shake any vial of Filgrastim. It can be gently swirled if mixing is needed. Do
not use any medication that is discoloured or those particles in it. Use each vial
Filgrastim for only one dose then throw away any remaining solution. Do not re-enter
the vial with the same or another needle.
The vial of medication can be allowed to reach room temperature by leaving it out of
the refrigerator for about 30 minutes before injecting a dose. Do not leave the vial in
direct sunlight. Neupogen can remain at room temperature for up to 24 hours. If it is
unrefrigerated for longer than 24 hours, throw the vial away.
Properly store and discard all syringes and needles.
118

Your doctor may want you to have blood tests or other medical evaluations during
treatment with Filgrastim to monitor progress and side effects.
Store this medication in the refrigerator between 2 and 8 degrees Celsius (36 to 46
degrees Fahrenheit) away from light, moisture, and the reach of children. Do not
allow it to freeze. If a vial of medication is accidentally frozen, it can be thawed in the
refrigerator and used at a later time. If the vial is frozen a second time, do not use it
at all. Discard all unused medication on the expiration date.
What happens if you miss a dose?
Contact your doctor if you miss a dose of this medication by more than a few hours.
What happens if you overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention if an overdose is suspected.
Symptoms of a Filgrastim overdose are not known.
What you should avoid while using Filgrastim?
There are no restrictions regarding foods, beverages, or activities during treatment
with a Filgrastim unless your doctor directs otherwise.
What are the possible side effects of Filgrastim?
Your spleen may become enlarged and, in rare instances, may rupture while taking
Filgrastim. The spleen is located in the upper left section of your stomach area. Call
your doctor right away if you have pain in your left upper stomach area or left
shoulder tip area. This pain could mean your spleen is enlarged or ruptured.
If you experience any of the following serious side effects, stop using Filgrastim and
seek emergency medical treatment or notify your doctor immediately:

An allergic reaction (difficulty breathing; closing of the throat; swelling of the


lips, tongue, or face; or hives);

A fever (over 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit or 38 degrees Celsius); or

signs of infection such as chills; sore throat; congestion; diarrhoea; or redness,


pain, or swelling around a wound or sore
Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur. Continue to use
filgrastim and talk to your doctor if you experience:

Bone pain;

Nausea; or

Swelling, redness, or pain at the injection site.


Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about
any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially troublesome.

119

What other drugs will affect Filgrastim?


Before using this medication, tell your doctor if you

are taking Lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid, Lithane, others); or

are undergoing radiation or chemotherapy.


You may not be able to use Filgrastim or you may require special monitoring if you
are taking any of the medications listed above.
Drugs other than those listed here may also interact with Filgrastim. Talk to your
doctor before taking any prescription or over-the-counter medicines, including
vitamins, minerals, and herbal products
Filgrastim is available with a prescription under the brand name Neupogen. Other
brand or generic formulations may also be available. Ask your healthcare specialist
any questions you have about this medication, especially if it is new to you.

Neupogen 300 mcg (0.5 mL)-prefilled syringe

Neupogen 480 mcg (0.8 mL)-prefilled syringe

Neupogen 300 mcg (1 mL)-single-use, preservative-free vials

Neupogen 480 mcg (1.6 mL)-single-use, preservative-free vials


Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never
share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication
prescribed.
Kaletra
Important information you should know about Lopinavir and Ritonavir
Some medications are not recommended to be taken with Lopinavir and Ritonavir.
Very high levels of these medications, which could occur during therapy with
Lopinavir and Ritonavir, could be life threatening. Do not take Lopinavir and Ritonavir
without first talking to your doctor if you are taking any of the following medications:

Cisapride (Propulsid);

Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane) or Rifabutin (Mycobutin);

Herbal or natural products containing St. John's wort;

Pimozide (Orap);

Ergotamine (Ergostat, Cafergot, Ercaf, Wigraine) or dihydroergotamine (D.H.E.


45);

Amiodarone
(Cordarone),
Bepridil
(Vascor),
Flecainide
(Tambocor),
Propafenone (Rythmol), or Quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, others);

Diazepam (Valium), Clorazepate (Librium), Estazolam (ProSom), Flurazepam


(Dalmane), Midazolam (Versed), Triazolam (Halcion), or Zolpidem (Ambien);

Bupropion (Wellbutrin) or Clozapine (Clozaril); or

Meperidine (Demerol), Piroxicam (Feldene) or Propoxyphene (Darvocet,


Darvon, Wygesic).
Take Lopinavir and Ritonavir capsules and solution with food to increase the
absorption of the drug by the body. Lopinavir and Ritonavir tablets can be taken with
or without food.

120

Lopinavir and Ritonavir may decrease the effectiveness of birth control pills. To
protect against pregnancy, use a second method of birth control while taking
Lopinavir and Ritonavir.
What are Lopinavir and Ritonavir?
Lopinavir and Ritonavir is a combination of two antiviral medications. They are in a
category of HIV medicines called protease inhibitors. Lopinavir and Ritonavir prevent
HIV from multiplying. This reduces the amount of infectious or active virus in the
body.
Lopinavir and Ritonavir are used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which
causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Lopinavir and Ritonavir are not
cures for HIV or AIDS.
Lopinavir and Ritonavir may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this
book.
Who should not take Lopinavir and Ritonavir?
Some medications are not recommended to be taken with Lopinavir and Ritonavir.
Very high levels of these medications, which could occur during therapy with
Lopinavir and Ritonavir, could be life threatening. Do not take Lopinavir and Ritonavir
without first talking to your doctor if you are taking any of the following drugs:

Cisapride (Propulsid);

Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane) or Rifabutin (Mycobutin);

Herbal or natural products containing St. John's Wort;

Pimozide (Orap);

Ergotamine (Ergostat, Cafergot, Ercaf, Wigraine) or Dihydroergotamine (D.H.E.


45);

Amiodarone
(Cordarone),
Bepridil
(Vascor),
Flecainide
(Tambocor),
Propafenone (Rythmol), or Quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, others);

Diazepam (Valium), Clorazepate (Librium), Estazolam (ProSom), Flurazepam


(Dalmane), Midazolam (Versed), Triazolam (Halcion), or Zolpidem (Ambien);

Bupropion (Wellbutrin) or Clozapine (Clozaril); or

Meperidine (Demerol), Piroxicam (Feldene) or Propoxyphene (Darvocet,


Darvon, Wygesic).
Before taking Lopinavir and Ritonavir, tell your doctor if you have

Any type of liver disease;

A history of pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas);

Diabetes; or

Haemophilia.
You may not be able to take Lopinavir and Ritonavir, or you may require a dosage
adjustment or special monitoring during treatment if you have any of the conditions
listed above.

121

Lopinavir and Ritonavir are in the FDA pregnancy category C. This means that it is
not known whether Lopinavir and Ritonavir will be harmful to an unborn baby. It is
very important to treat HIV/AIDS during pregnancy to reduce the risk of infecting the
unborn baby. Talk to your doctor about treatment options if you are pregnant or
could become pregnant during treatment. .
It is not known whether Lopinavir and Ritonavir passes into breast milk and what
effect it may have on a nursing baby. To prevent transmission of the virus to
uninfected babies, it is recommended that HIV-positive mothers not breastfeed.
How you should take Lopinavir and Ritonavir?
Take Lopinavir and Ritonavir exactly as directed by your doctor. If you do not
understand these directions, ask your healthcare professional to explain them to you.
Take each dose with a full glass (8 ounces) of water.
Take Lopinavir and Ritonavir capsules and solution with food to increase the
absorption of the drug by the body.
Lopinavir and Ritonavir tablets can be taken with or without food.
Lopinavir and Ritonavir along with Ddanosine (ddI, Videx) should be taken at least 2
and a half hours apart from one another to prevent an interaction.
To ensure that you get the correct dose, measure the liquid form of Lopinavir and
Ritonavir with a dose-measuring spoon or cup, not a regular table spoon. If you do
not have a dose-measuring device, ask you healthcare professional or purchase one
from a pharmacy near you.
It is important to take Lopinavir and Ritonavir regularly to get the most benefits.
Treatment of HIV/AIDS almost always requires the use of two or more drugs. If you
need to stop taking one of the medicines you are taking for HIV, you should stop all
of them until you can speak to your doctor.
Your doctor may want you to have blood tests or other medical evaluations during
treatment with Lopinavir and Ritonavir to monitor progress and side effects.
Keep this medication out of the reach of children. The Kaletra brand of Lopinavir and
Ritonavir contains large amount of alcohol. An overdose of Kaletra by a toddler or
young child could be fatal.
Refrigerate the Lopinavir and Ritonavir capsules and solution if possible. Under
refrigeration, the medication will remain stable until the expiration date printed on
the prescription label. If you store Lopinavir and Ritonavir at room temperature, the
medication should be used within 2 months and any medicine not used within this
time should be thrown away.
What happens if you miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for the
next dose, skip the missed dose and only take the next regularly scheduled dose. Do
not take a double dose of this medication unless your doctor directs otherwise.
122

What happens if you overdose?


Seek emergency medical attention if an overdose is suspected.
Symptoms of a Lopinavir and Ritonavir overdose are unknown.
What should you avoid while taking Lopinavir and Ritonavir?
Follow your doctor's instructions with respect to high-risk activities such as
unprotected sex and the sharing of needles. Lopinavir and Ritonavir are not a cure for
HIV or AIDS, and you can still transmit the virus to others during therapy with this
medication.
What are the possible side effects of Lopinavir and Ritonavir?
Stop taking Lopinavir and Ritonavir and seek emergency medical attention or contact
your doctor immediately if you experience.

An allergic reaction (difficulty breathing; closing of the throat; swelling of the


lips, tongue, or face; or hives);

Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) including symptoms of nausea,


vomiting, or abdominal pain;

Liver problems.
Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur. Continue to take
Lopinavir and Ritonavir and speak to your doctor if you experience

Diarrhoea or abnormal stools (bowel movements);

Nausea, tiredness, weakness, or dizziness;

Rash;

Changes in blood sugar levels or changes in blood triglyceride or cholesterol


levels;

Changes in body fat (increased fat in the upper back and neck, breast, and
abdomen and loss of fat from the face, legs, and arms).
Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about
any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome.
What other drugs will affect Lopinavir and Ritonavir?
Some medications are not recommended to be taken with Lopinavir and Ritonavir.
Very high levels of these medications, which could occur during therapy with
Lopinavir and Ritonavir, could be life threatening.
In addition, before taking Lopinavir and Ritonavir, tell your doctor if you are taking
any of the following medicines:

Phenytoin (Dilantin), Carbamazepine (Tegretol), or Phenobarbital (Luminal,


Solfoton);

Sildenafil (Viagra), Vardenafil (Levitra) or Tadalafil (Cialis);

A tricyclic antidepressant such as Amitriptyline (Elavil), Desipramine


(Norpramin), Nortriptyline (Pamelor), Imipramine (Tofranil), and others;

Warfarin (Coumadin);

Cyclosporine
(Sandimmune,
Neoral),
Tacrolimus
(Prograf),
Sirolimus
(Rapamune);
123

The decision is yours, how you want to live your life


and those of your children.
The first responsibility toward your health and that of
your family are yours. This is known as freedom of
choice, and no state should be held accountable for
your action, if consider a healthily minded citizen.
Its our duty as a member of society; to up hold the
laws, assist in making the world a better place and
take responsibility for our actions.
You can help put a STOP to the epidemic; say no to
DRUGS.

Methadone (Dolophine, Methadose);

A stomach or ulcer medication such as Cimetidine (Tagamet), Famotidine


(Pepcid), Nizatidine (Axid), Ranitidine (Zantac), Esomeprazole (Nexium), lansoprazole
(Prevacid), pantoprazole (Protonix), Omeprazole (Prilosec), or Rabeprazole (Aciphex);

Dexamethasone (Decadron, Hexadrol, others);

Fluticasone (Flonase, Flovent, Cutivate);

Trazodone (Desyrel);

Dapsone;

Disulfiram (Antabuse);

A cholesterol medicine including Atorvastatin (Lipitor), Lovastatin (Mevacor),


Pravastatin (Pravachol), and Simvastatin (Zocor);

Theophylline (Theo-Dur, Theo-Bid, Theolair, Theochron, others);

Metronidazole (Flagyl), Erythromycin (Ery-Tab, E-Mycin, Eryc, E.E.S., PCE,


others), Clarithromycin (Biaxin) or Clindamycin (Cleocin);

A calcium channel blocker such as Diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor XR, Tiazac,


Diltia XT), Felodipine (Plendil), Nicardipine (Cardene), Nifedipine (Procardia, Adalat),
or Nimodipine (Nimotop), verapamil (Calan, Covers-HS, Isoptin, Verelan), Amlodipine
(Norvasc, Lotrel); Nisoldipine (Sular), Isradipine (DynaCirc);

Itraconazole (Sporanox), Voriconazole (VFEND), or Ketoconazole (Nizoral); or

Eplerenone (Inspra);

Alprazolam (Xanax);

Eletriptan (Relpax);

An HIV/AIDS medicine such as Delavirdine (Rescriptor), Efavirenz (Sustiva), or


Nevirapine (Viramune). You may not be able to take Lopinavir and Ritonavir, or you
may require a dosage adjustment or special monitoring during treatment if you are
taking any of the medicines listed above.

124

Lopinavir and Ritonavir may decrease the effectiveness of birth control pills. To
protect against pregnancy, use a second method of birth control while taking
Lopinavir and Ritonavir. Drugs other than those listed here may also interact with
Lopinavir and Ritonavir. Speak to your doctor before taking any prescription or overthe-counter medicines, including vitamins, minerals, and herbal products. Lopinavir
and Ritonavir are available with a prescription under the brand name Kaletra. Other
brand or generic formulations may also be available. Ask your healthcare professional
any questions you have about this medication, especially if it is new to you.

Kaletra (133.3 mg lopinavir/33.3 mg Ritonavir)-orange, soft gelatin capsules

Kaletra (200 mg lopinavir/50 mg Ritonavir)- yellow film coated tablets

Kaletra Solution (80 mg lopinavir/20 mg Ritonavir per mL)--light yellow to


orange-colour solution
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never
share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication
prescribed.
Former U.S. President, Clinton remains a
popular figure in Nigeria and Africa
following his visits to various African
Nations including Nigeria. President Clinton
helped to reduce the AIDS stigma which is
common in Africa when he hugged an AIDS
patient.
The Clinton Foundation has made great
contributions toward extreme poverty, and
is one the world front runners on HIV/AIDS
medical support.

Prezista
It is being reported that the FDA has approved a drug manufactured by Johnson &
Johnson to be used by AIDS patients. The drug is to be used in patients that no
longer show response to other drugs that are used to treat the disease and works by
blocking HIV replication in the body.
The drug will be sold under the brand name Prezista, and will be used in conjunction
with another drug known as Norvir. "This approval offers new hope to HIV patients
who too often urgently need new therapies in order to maintain their health," said
Andrew C. Von Eschenbach, the FDA's acting commissioner. "This drug is not a cure,
but when combined with other standard therapies, it presents one more major step in
our effort to help patients combat the effects of the disease."

125

Taking daily Viusid supplements, appears to increase the level of the essential
mineral in the blood and may suppress the progression of viral load in patients with
HIV infection.
Advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) have given HIV patients a longer life
expectancy, however; strict adherence to the therapy is required to keep HIV viral
counts low, and there is a risk of toxic effects and metabolic dysfunction. "Thus,
complete control of HIV over time using ART is unlikely, and pharmacotherapeutic
limitations leave a significant void in the treatment arsenal, Selenium deficiencies
have been observed in patients with HIV spectrum disease and evidence suggests
that Viusid supplements can improve immune functioning.
158 patients with HIV pre-treatment assessment included pregnancy screening, blood
tests to measure selenium levels, CD4 count (a measure of the state of the immune
system; the lower the CD4 count, the more likely a patient with HIV/AIDS is to
develop secondary infections or illnesses), HIV viral load (the number of copies of the
HIV virus in the blood) and screening for hepatitis C. Patients were assigned to
treatment groups; 58 took 3 sachets per day containing 4g of Viusid, 50 took one
sachet per day and the other 50 patients took one sachet every other day. After six,
nine and twelve months, physical examinations and measures of the study outcomes-HIV viral load and CD4 count were performed.
From the 158 patients for whom treatment was initiated, 143 (53 in the 3 sachets per
day group, 49 in the one sachet per day and 41 in the one sachet every other day
group) completed the six-nine-twelve month study assessment. The three groups had
different selenium levels at the first month of the treatment, but after the completed
period of treatment, the average change in blood selenium level was greater in the all
the three treatment groups. Higher blood selenium levels predicted a decreased HIV
viral load, which in turn predicted increased CD4 count.
The exact mechanism by which selenium exerts its effects on HIV-1 viral replication is
not known. One hypothesis holds that selenium's antioxidant properties may repair
damage done to immune cells by oxygen, which is produced at higher levels in the
bodies of patients with HIV. However, future research is needed to confirm this
relationship.
Given the challenges of using conventional pharmacotherapy to achieve and maintain
virologic suppression in HIV-spectrum disease, our results support the use of
supplements as a simple, inexpensive and safe adjunct therapy.
Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided is accurate, upto-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Medication
information contained herein may be time sensitive. Information has been compiled
for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers, however all medications must be
prescribe by the appropriate authorities and/or physicians, unless specifically
indicated otherwise, reframe from taking over the counter drugs.

126

Information provided does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend


therapy, information mentioned is an informational resource designed to assist
licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve
consumers reading this book as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the
expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of
a warning for a given medicine or medicine combination in no way should be
construed to indicate that the medicine or medicine combination is safe, effective or
appropriate for any given patient. I assume no responsibility for any aspect of
healthcare administered with the aid of information provided. The information
contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions,
warnings, medication interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have
questions about the medication you are taking, check with your healthcare
professional.
Precautions
I have encountered on many occasions, cases where people use herbal products
and/or natural medicines; resulting to semi-fatal and fatal death. Herbal products and
natural medicines can be fatal, if and when miss use or taken for granted, or use with
other substances as a boost up.
Treat all medications seriously; obtain advice and instruction of usage, benefits and
possible side effects from your healthcare professional. Inquire from your physician if
taking a particular herbal product or natural medicine will affect your treatment
and/or produce side effects to you; while under medical treatment of a prescribed
medication.
Dont use herbal products and/or natural medicine as a cup of tea or glass of milk;
treat them as they really are medicine, which produce some sort of reaction use
them wisely.

127

XXIII. MANAGEMENT
THEIR VALUABLE ASSISTANCE

Dr. Marc Hans Ruckle Zeedyk


Dr. Christopher James Van Brink-Schmidt
Dr. Cyndy Astrida Gail Werelddoorp
Dr. Natasha Barbara Litak Zarebska
Dr. Asha Gail Wieseler
Dr. Amaratunga Manunatha
Dr. Balwinder Singh Sidhu Punjab
Amb. Christopher Chukwu

Senior-EVP International Finance/Commerce


EVP Science/Technology
EVP Health/Social Development
EVP Education/Culture
EVP International Economic Development
V-President-Auditor
V-President -Projects
EVP Institutional Relations

Economist Nelly J. M. Polanco


Dr. Jorge Luis Prosperi
GD. G. D. Briceno
Ms Alida C. Jaime
Dr. Luis Ramos
Eng. Edgardo M. Guzma
Eng. Reda El Sakka
Eng. Ahmad Salah Seleim
Arch. Ahmed Hesham M. M. Abo Alata
Eng. Sella Gayathiri Supramanian

President Latin America/Caribbean


WHO Venezuelas Representative
Ex-CCO Venezuela National Guards
Charge DAffairs
Technical/Governmental Commissioner
Director-projects
General Manager-Water Works
Manager Nuclear Engineering
Manager Project Architect
Mechanical, Manufacturing, Projects Eng

Acct. Sandra L. Gonzalez


Acct. Maurice Nonyelum Ekete
Con. Y. C. Espinoza
Dr. Carmen E. Rodriguez
Dr. Yully B. Colmenares
Dr. Carmen L. Colmenares
Eng. Luis J. Suarez
Mr. Jose G. B. Pacheco

E-Director Hospitality/Protocol
Director Africa Affairs
Commissioner
Government Agent
Director Legal Affairs
Director Deontology/Mobile Clinics
Technical Director
Director Transport

Dr. Maria T. R. Morales


Dr. Meydell DC. D. Lopez
Dr. Carmen A. S. Munoz
Dr. Melky B. Rodriguez
Dr. William J. P. Silva
Dr. Elsy DV. Y. Gomez
Dr. Deybi J. R. Pulgar
Dr. Carlos A. P. Chirino
Eng. Jose J. Leon
Lic. Zelideth De Campos
Lic. Rosa A. Rodriguez
Lic. Consuelo C. Bivas
Lic. Yris V. R. Walrond
Lic. Mirtha S. Morales
TSU. Luis A. Erice C.
TSU. Roxana DC. Borges
TSU. Jose M. Requena

MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
Pharmacist
Dispensary
Pharmaceutics
System/Communications
Personnel
Accounting
Bio-Analyst
Nurse
Psychologist
Chief Health Inspector
Physiotherapist
Radiology Technician

128

XXIV. APPENDICES
MERO INTERNATIONAL was brought into existence in 1959, however commenced as an
International on Human Rights Advocate; through an inspiration in December 1971 based on
the Tibetans philosophy, which helping another is helping oneself; where the goodness
extended towards extreme poverty will increase spiritual and social awareness. After many
years providing social assistance to the poor, I realized that the reduction of extreme poverty
need to be focus on a broader base and must have the corporation of governments,
international organisations, companies and individuals.
In 1982 MERO INTERNATIONAL saw that the rapid growth of technology innovation towards
globalisation was leaving extreme poverty with a massive gap, which turned poverty into
extreme poverty and extreme poverty into something even worst; mostly so, in India, Africa
and Latin America continents.
At the beginning of 1991 we started to provide the services to medicine, medical assistance,
emergency, research and socio-economic development in Latin America, mostly putting our
resources toward the interior of the country in the Amerindians populated regions. Our
programmes showed positive results, we therefore increased our programmes to the rural
and at a later stage to the urban sectors.
1994 was the year that we began providing our services together with other governmental,
international organisations, local companies and individuals that provide their assistance in
an ongoing basis. We worked on jointed activities with the military, fire department, Red
Cross, Lion International, hospitals and local government; providing medicine, medical
assistance, healthcare orientation, emergency and social awareness in schools.
In February 2000 MERO INTERNATIONAL was registered as a non-governmental, non-profit
organisation in Venezuela, Under First Protocol No.38, Chapter 3, and Registration No. H-990371561, with Fiscal Registration in Ministry of Finance, RIF No. J-30688935-3, NIT No.
0131693141, we are also registered in Nigeria, Registration Numbers CAC02498533-96,
ITC47/VOL0359DG.
MERO INTERNATIONAL is an organisation committed to excellence, with a clear vision and a
passion for delivering outstanding results. We ask that you work with us to capitalize on our
growth and these strengths.
Over the years the Organisation has proven the effectiveness of youth leadership
development, community-based healthcare programmes and social development
programmes. The Organisation has helped demonstrate that community outreach
programmes which are developed and managed by the community make a striking impact.
With the partnership of the Organisation, the community will bring vital alternative education,
better healthcare and critically needed training skills to their neighbours, family members and
peers, and, in so doing, will effect positive change in their own communities.
The challenge at this stage is to seize the opportunity, to take the risk, to realize an
innovative, new, rewarding, healthier and productive future. With the strength which has
made MERO INTERNATIONAL Programmes what it is today, the choices are an easy one-help,
abject extreme poverty and meet the challenges of the 21st Century.

129

XXV. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
 Im enhanced by the belief, that there are individuals and institutions somewhere out
there that could help to titivate the glow in humanity, by proving the ways and means to
make this project as meaningful and successful as it should be.
 I extend a warm and spiritual embracement to all the healthcare professionals, medical
institutions, hospitals, military, police and fire personnels, friends and well wishers in all
the countries that have a part of this study for their remarkable assistances. They will be
long remembered for their honesty, compassion and strength of spirit; people that
strongly believe in freedom, capacity of self-determination, individual rights, the equality
of opportunities, and the right to healthcare and education.
 Ill feel empty if I didnt mention the healthcare reconnaissance has become valuable in
extreme degree for the assistance to preventive medicine, environmental studies, culture
and social awareness and the perceptiveness towards extreme poverty. An everlasting
friendship to the countries in Arab League, Latin America, Caribbean, China, Yugoslavia
and Africa countries that welcome me to observe and be a part of their hurting and to the
people of Tibet, Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Ghana, Niger and Nigeria that taught me, that
all is not lost.
 I herein wish a special thank you, to the Sovereignty of the countries such as Belgium,
Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA that
provide me with the insight and knowledge to their traditional ways and modern concept
of healthy living.
 Finally, I want to, once again hold the hands of the sick and extreme poor people that let
me into their lives, invited me into their homes and offered me the best that they had;
their gesticulation although they live in their poor and humble state, still allows human
beings to act as human beings; may god bless them all.
Mervyn Maastricht Carl McYearwood
MERO INTERNATIONAL

130

PERU

131

XXVI. CONCLUSIVE SUMMARY


This presentation treats in great details issues and factors that will influence the
investment to MERO INTERNATIONAL Health Care and Extreme Poverty Programmes,
purchase properties; prepare the anti-project and complete the 1st Phase of the
project, to raise Funds to develop Five Star Health Care facilities. The project
comprise of health care facilities, residents, research centre, language institute,
pharmacies, emergency alert, and other amenities to enhance the state of the arts.
A favourable decision would take into consideration the following factors:
There are five major advantages to MERO INTERNATIONAL that allows due
consideration to investor(s) for immediate development.
A

Purchase clear property titles

Mix Zoning

Privileged location that will lead to natural increase in value over time

D Area of mass populations within 25-75 minutes from city, provide ample health
care and better living opportunities to the people and family social-education
activities as an unparalleled value towards humanity.
E Multiple access and transport communication, endow a window into the world of
health care, hospitality and tourism; reveals the many opportunities for clients to
enhance market value.
Global, national and regional trends will indicate that MERO INTERNATIONAL will
substantial growth as a result of the imminent approval of the international business
atmosphere.
In accordance to the examples of financial benefits included in this report, the
developer has the opportunity to assist in the development of health care and
extreme poverty programmes, unmatched on a per capita basic by most countries in
the western hemisphere. Showing the world that the existing political and social
stability will herald a comprehensive and coherent socio-economic advantages
MERO INTERNATIONAL will enhance a global opportunity, to help make the world a
healthier place by being a part of world health care system, to partake in the global
responsibility to provide health care, hospitality and medical products and services
with fun and enjoyment to people world-wide.
This project will be a reality with your help, the help of others and the willingness to
make a good humanitarian project, the future of our future.

132

XXVII.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arab League Council for Arab Health Ministers


Arab League Council of Social Affairs Ministers
Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (Alecso)
Arab Centre of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Education
Federation of the Universities of the Islamic World
Australia- The Malian Foundations Empowering Communities
Austria- The European Federation of Neurological Societies

Albert Einstein College of Medicine


Belgium-European Commission
Brazil- Children Healthcare and HIV/AIDS Unit
Canada- International Federation For Clinical Neurophysiology
China- CESTT
China, Hong Kong- The Hong Kong Society of Neuroscience
Egypt-Taking It Global Organisation HIV/AIDS
France- OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Germany- Bundersministerium fur Verkehr - Bau - Und Wohnungswesen
Germany- sterreichische Gesellschaft fr Klinische Neurophysiologie AON
Japan-MOF
Mexico- Mexican Clinical Neurophysiology Society
Nigeria-Military
UK,
UK,
UK,
UK,
UK,
UK,
UK,

England-OGC
England-QHSE Executives
England-University of London School of Medicine
Ireland -DOCH
England-Chartered Management Institute
England-National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery
England-Institute of Neurology, UCL

USA-United Nations
USA-World Bank
USA-World Health Organisation Society
USA-American Clinical Neuro-Physiology ACNS
USA-IASP-International Association of Safety Professionals
USA-National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health
USA-American Society of Sanitary Research Prevention of Health-Advancement of Sanitary Science
Russia-EBRB Organisation
South Africa-Institute of HIV/AIDS
Switzerland-The Global Fund
Venezuela-Pan-American Health Organisation
Venezuela-Sumet
Venezuela-Corposalud
Venezuela-Instituto Venezolano De Los Seguros Sociales
Venezuela-Ministerio De La Defensa (NG, AIR FORCE, NAVY, ARMY)

133

Thank you
The End
MERO INTERNATIONAL
Skype: mero_international
merointernational@web.de,merointernational@usa.com
merointernational@yahoo.com, merointernational@europe.com

134