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University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

CE-412: Introduction to Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering

LECTURE 9:

mjaved@nwfpuet.edu.pk

1 1

Modal decoupling of the EOMs

It is known that the equations of motion for a a MDOF with lumped mass system and undergoing only lateral displacement can be written as:

[m ]{u&&}+ [c ]{u&}+ [k ]{u}= {p(t) }

CE-412: LECTURE 9

Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET

2

Modal decoupling of the EOMs
Let
[Φ]
be the modal matrix (matrix of mode shapes) in which the
nth column is the nth mode shape of vibration (i.e. each column
represents a particular mode shape) which means that
{u}=[Φ]{q}
{u&}=[Φ]{q&}
{u&&}=[Φ]{q&&}
Substituting these in the equation given on previous slide
[m ][Φ ]{q& & } + [c ][Φ ]{q& } + [k ][Φ ]{q } = { p(t) }
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
3
 Modal decoupling of the EOMs Pre-multiply both sides by [ Φ ] T T Φ Or [ ] [m][ ]{q} [ ] [c][ ]{q} [ ] [k][ ]{q} [ ] T Φ&&+Φ Φ&+Φ T T Φ =Φ {p(t)} [M]{q&&}+[C]{q&}+[K]{q}={P(t)} Where because of orthogonally properties of mode shapes (a matrix [A ] said to be orthogonal if [A ][A ] [I] T = where [I] is an identity matrix in which diagonal terms are 1 and off diagonal terms are 0 and therefore det[I]=1) the matrices [M ], [C ]and [K ] are diagonal matrices (i.e., matrices in which off diagonal terms are zero) CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 4
Modal decoupling of the EOMs
Since
[M ][, C ]and [K ]
are diagonal matrices so the N
coupled equations replaces by N uncoupled equation for SDOF
systems
M
q
&&+ &+
C q
K q
=
P (t)
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
Where M n = Generalized mass for the nth natural mode
K n = Generalized stiffnes for the nth natural mode
C n = Generalized damping for the nth natural mode
P n (t)= Generalized force for the nth natural mode
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
5

Modal decoupling of the EOMs

The equation given on previous slide is for nth mode of MDOF of order N. All the independent equations for N modes in matrix form can be written as

Mq&& +Cq& + Kq = P(t)

Where M= Diagonal matrix of the generalized modal masses K= Diagonal matrix of the generalized modal stiffnesses C= Diagonal matrix of the generalized modal dampings P(t) = Column vector of the generalized modal forces P n (t)

CE-412: LECTURE 9

Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET

6

Modal analysis for earthquake forces
The uncoupled equations of motions for earthquake excitations
can be written as
[M]{q} [C]{q} [K]{q}
T
&&+ &+
{p
=
(t)}
[
]
(t)}
{P eff
eff
{p
(t)}
=− ι&&
[m]{}u (t)
eff
g
{ι}= position vector={1} for shear structures
Where {1} represents a unit vector matrix of dimensions N (the
total DOF)
[ ]{}[]{}[]{}{
}
T
M
q &&
+
C
q &
+
K
q
=
P
(t)
=−Φ
[][]{}
m
ι
u &&
( )
t
eff
g
T
=−Φ [ ][ ]{1} && ( ) for shear structures
m
u
t
g
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
7
 Modal analysis for earthquake forces T Replacing [][m]{} L Φ ι= ⇒ [M]{q} [C]{q} [K]{q} &&+ &+ = {P eff (t)} L and m has same units {L}u =− && g (t) For nth mode M n M q n &&+ &+ n C q n n K q n n ζ 2 n M n ω n &+ K n =− && L u (t) n g =− L n M n q &&+ n M n q n M n q n M n u && (t) g or L &&+ζω&+ω =− u && t q n 2 n n q n n q n n M n g ( ) 2 CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 8
Participation factors
The term L n /M n has been given the name of participation
factor for the nth mode and is represented by Γ n (Gamma)
The participation factor is a measure (although rough) of how
much the nth mode contributes to the displacement response
The magnitude of the participation factor is dependent on the
normalization method used for the mode shapes.
L
{}[]{}
T
φ
m
ι
n
n
Γ=
=
n
M
{}[]{} n
T
φ
m
φ
n
n
It can be seen that the normalization has an effect once in the
numerator and twice in the denominator.
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
9
Participation factors
Once the modal amplitudes {q} have been found the displacements
of the structure are obtained from
{u}=[Φ]{q}
and the effect of the normalization is cancelled out.
What must be noted is that one should not compare one computer
program’s Participation Factors with those of another program unless
they are both using the same normalization method
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
10
Participation factors
The participation factors are used to determine the number of
mode shapes used to get a satisfactory estimate of the displacements
of the structure
The displacements associated with the nth mode are given by
{u
(t)}
[ ]{q
(t)}
n
n
n
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
11
Effective weight of structure in nth mode, Wn
Effective weight of structure in nth mode=
{}[]{}{}[]{}
T
T
2
φ
m
ιφ
m
ι
L
n
n
n
W
=
g
=
g
n
{}[]{}
T
φ
m
φ
M
n
n
n
It shall be noted that the sum of the all effective weights for an
excitation in a given direction, i.e. for a given {ι}, should equal the
total weight of the structure. Note, this may be not be the case
where rotational inertia terms also exist in the mass matrix.
Many building codes require that a sufficient number of modes
be used in the analyses such that the sum of the effective weights is
at least 90% of the weight of the structure. This provides a second
measure on the number of modes required in the analysis.
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
12
 Base Shear Force in the structure in the nth node, V bn The base shear in nth mode can be determined using relation V = L n 2 ⎛ ⎜ A ⎞ n ⎛ ⎟ = W ⎜ A n ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ bn M n g ⎜ ⎝ g ⎟ ⎠ n ⎜ ⎝ g Where Wn = Effective weight of structures in nth mode CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 13
 Distribution of nodal (joint) forces in the structure from the base shear In many design codes the first step is to compute the modal base shear force and this is then distributed along the structures (shown on next slide) to each degrees of freedom. The distributed loads are assumed to give the same displacements in the structure as those generated by the exciting base shear. {} f n = V bn L n []{} n m φ CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 14

Distribution of nodal (joint) forces in the structure from the base shear

m 3n
f 3n
m
2n
f 2n
m
1n
f 1n
V bn
Base shear acting in
nth mode, V bn
V bn distributed along the
structure in each DOF
V
=
f
+
f
+
f
=
∑ f
bn
1
n
2
n
3
n
n

CE-412: LECTURE 9

Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET

15

Response spectrum analysis: Example
A 3 story R.C. building as shown below is required to be
designed for a design earthquake with PGA=0.3g, and its elastic
design spectrum is given by Fig 6.9.5 multiplied by 0.3). It is
required to carry out the dynamic modal analysis by using the
afore mentioned design spectrum . Take:
m
3
Story height = 10ft
k
3
m
•Total stiffness of each story = 250 kips/in.
2
Weight of each floor = 386.4 kips
k
m
2
1
k
1
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
16
 Develop mass and stiffness matrices m=W/g = (386.4k) /(396.4 in/sec 2 )= 1.0 kip-sec 2 /in ⎡ 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 500 − 250 0 ⎤ [] m = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 1 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 500 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ [] k = − 2 250 0 500 − 250 250 − 250 250 0 ⎦ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ − − ω n − ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ [] k − ω n 2 [ m ] = 250 500 − ω n 2 − 250 2 ⎣ 0 − 250 250 − ω n ⎦ CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 17
Determine frequencies
2
Setting
det[[
[
]]
k
]
ω
m
= 0
Yields following values
n
ω
= 7.0360
/ sec
n
1
ω
= 19.685
/ sec
n
2
ω
= 28.491
/ sec
n
3
T
= 0.893 sec
n
1
T
= 0.319 sec
n
2
T
= 0.221 sec
n
3
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
18
 Determine mode shapes Normalized coordinates of first mode shape [[ k −ω ] n 1 2 [ ]]{ m φ 1 } = 0 ⇒ ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 500 − − 250 ω 0 n 1 2 − 500 − 250 − 250 ω n 1 2 − 250 0 250 − ω n 1 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ ⎪ φ 11 ⎨ φ 21 ⎪ ⎩ φ 31 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ = 0 Substituting ω 2 n 1 = 4 9 .51 and φ = 11 1 CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 19
 Determine mode shapes ⎡ 450 .49 − 250 0 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⇒ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ − 250 0 450 .49 − 250 − 250 200 .49 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ φ 21 φ 31 ⎦ ⎩ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ = 0 First row gives Second row gives 450 .49 250 φ = ⇒φ = 21 0 21 450.49 250 − 250 1.802 0 ⇒− 250 ⇒ {} φ 1 = 450.49(1.802) + ⎧ φ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ 11 φ 21 φ ⎩ 31 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎭ ⎪ = ⎧ 1.000 ⎫ 1.802 2.247 ⎩ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ − − = + 250 φ 31 = 0 φ 21 ⇒ φ ⎧ 1.000/2.247 ⎫ 1.802/2.247 2.247/2.247 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎬ ⎭ = − 31 = φ 31 = 2.247 ⎧ 0.445 ⎫ 0.802 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎬ 1.000 ⎭ CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 20
 Determine mode shapes ω 2 = 387 .5 n 2 ⇒ ⎡ 500 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ − 387 .5 − 250 − 500 0 − 250 − 387 .5 250 0 ⎤ ⎧ ⎥ ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ φ 12 φ 22 − 250 − 250 387 .5 ⎦ ⎥ ⎩ φ 32 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ = 0 ⎡ 112 .5 − 250 0 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⇒ − ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 250 0 112 .5 − 250 − − ⎥ ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ 250 φ 22 137 .5 ⎦ ⎥ ⎩ φ 32 ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ = 0 ⇒ & φ 22 φ 32 = 0.45 =− 0.798 ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ φ 12 φ 22 φ 32 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ = ⎧ + ⎪ 1.000 ⎫ ⎪ ⎨ ⎩ ⎪ + 0.450 − 0.798 ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 21
Determine mode shapes
φ
⎧ + 1.802 ⎫
⎧ + 0.801 ⎫
31
Similarly
φ
=
− 2.250
=
− 1.000
23
φ
+ 1.000
+ 0.444
⎭ ⎪
⎩ ⎪
⎪ ⎩
33
0.445
+ 1.000
[]
Φ=
φ φ φ
=
0.802
+ 0.450
1
2
3
+ 0.801 ⎤
− 1.000
+ 0.444 ⎥
⎢ 1.000
− 0.798
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
22
3
Mode shapes
2
1
First mode shape
Second mode
shape
Third mode shape
0
-2
-1
0
1
2
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
23
Calculate Modal mass and participation factors
for each mode, Γ n
T
L
{}[]{}
φ
m
ι
n
n
Γ=
=
n
T
M
{}[]{} n
φ
m
φ
n
n
For shear buildings {ι}={1}
L
{}[]{}
T
φ
m
1
n
n
∴Γ=
=
n
M
{}[]{} n
T
φ
m
φ
n
n
{}[]{}
T
L
φ
m
1
1
1
Γ= =
1
M 1 {}[]{}
T
φ
m
φ
1
1
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
24
T
φ
⎫ ⎡ 1
0
0 ⎤ ⎧ ⎫
1
11
{}[]{}
T
L
=
φ
m
1 =
φ
0
1
0
1
1
1
21
φ
0
1
1
⎭ ⎪
⎢ ⎣ 0
⎦ ⎩ ⎭
31
T
⎧ 0.445 ⎫ ⎡ 1
0
0 ⎤ ⎧ ⎫
1
L
=
0.802
0
1
0
1
1
1.000
0
1
1
⎢ ⎣ 0
⎦ ⎩ ⎭
⎧ 1 ⎫
L
=
0.445 0.802 1.000
1
1
1
⎩ ⎭
2
2
L
=
2.247kips-sec /in.
=
26.964 kips-sec /ft
1
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
25
T
M
=
{}[]{}
φ m φ
1
1
1
T
⎧ 0.445 ⎫ ⎡ 1
0
0 ⎤ ⎧ 0.445 ⎫
M
=
0.802
0
1
0
0.802
1
1.000
0
1
1.000
⎢ ⎣ 0
⎧ 0.445 ⎫
M
=
0.445 0.802 1.000
0.802
1
1.000
2
2
M
=
1.841kip-sec /in.
=
22.092 kip-sec /ft
1
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
26
 Γ= L 1 = 1 2.247 = 1.221 M 1 1.841 Similarly L 2 0.652 Γ= 2 M 2 = 1.839 = 0.355 L 3 0.245 Γ= 3 M 3 = 1.839 = 0.133 CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 27
 Calculate effective weight of structure in each mode, W n W = {}[]{}{}[]{} φ n T m ιφ n T m ι = L n 2 n W = 1 {}[]{} φ n T m φ n L 1 2 M 1 g = ( ) 2.247 2 1.841 g *386.4 M g n g = 386.4 kip-sec /in 2 = 1059.72 kips W 2 = L 2 2 g = ( ) 0.652 2 *386.4 = 89.32 kips M 2 1.839 W 3 = L 3 2 g = ( ) 0.245 2 *386.4 = 12.61 kips M 3 1.839 CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 28
 Calculate participating mass of the structure in mode n, PM n W n Participating mass of the structure in nth mode= * PM n = * PM 1 = W 1 = 1059.72 = 0.914 = 91.4% W * W W 2 3*386.4 89.32 = = 0.077 = 7.7% PM 2 = W 3*386.4 * PM 3 = W 3 = 12.61 = 0.0109 = 1.09% W 3*386.4 ⇒ ΣPM =1.00 Most of the code requires that such number of modes shall be considered so that ΣPM≥ 0.9. In our case, indeed, the consideration of just the first mode would have been sufficient as PM 1 ≥ 0.9 CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 29
 Calculate base shear in the structure in each mode, V bn 2 V = L n ⎜ ⎛ A n ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ = W ⎜ A n ⎞ ⎟ Values of A for each T n can be bn M n g ⎜ ⎝ g ⎟ ⎠ n ⎜ ⎝ g ⎟ ⎠ determined from Fig. 6.9.5 given on next slide Mode 1: T n1 =0.893 sec V = 1 ⎛ 1.8 ⎟ . = 1059.72* ⎜ 1 ⎞ ⎟ *0.3 = 640.8 For T b 1 W ⎛ ⎜ A ⎞ g ⎟ ⎠ ⎜ ⎝ 1 = 0.319sec: V = ⎛ W ⎜ A 2 ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ T n 1 g * g ⎟ ⎠ *0.3 = 89.32* 2.71 g *0.3 kips = n2 For T b = 0.221sec: V 2 = ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ 2 W ⎜ g A 3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ *0.3 = 12.61* g 2.71 g *0.3 72.6 kips = n3 b 3 3 ⎜ ⎝ g ⎟ ⎠ g 10.2 kips CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 30
0.221
sec
0.319
sec
T
= 0.893 sec
n
1
0.893
sec
T
= 0.319 sec
n
2
T
= 0.221 sec
n
3
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
31
Nodal forces acting on the structure in each
mode, f n
V
{}
bn
f
=
[]{} n
m
φ
n
L
First mode
n
⎧ f ⎫
φ
⎧ f ⎫
φ
1
n
1
n
11
11
V
V
b 1
[]
b 1
f
[]
=
m
φ
⇒ ⎨ f ⎬ =
m
φ
2
n
2
n
21
21
L
L
1
1
f
φ
f
φ
⎪ ⎭
⎪ ⎭
⎪ ⎭
3
n
3
n
31
31
⎧ f ⎫
12
0
0
126.9 ⎫
11
640.8
⎡ ⎤ ⎧ 0.445
f
=
0
12
0
0.802 ⎬ =
228.7
21
(2.247*12)
⎢ ⎣ 12 ⎥
f
0
0
1.000
285.2
⎪ ⎭
⎪ ⎩
31
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
32
 Nodal forces acting on the structure in each V mode, f n {} f n = bn L n []{} n m φ Second mode ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ f ⎫ ⎪ f ⎪ ⎭ f 12 22 32 ⎬ = V b 2 L 2 m [] ⎧ φ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ 12 φ 22 φ ⎩ 32 ⎫ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎬ 12 0 0 ⎧ + 111.3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 72.6 = (0.652*12) ⎧ f ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 12 ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ f 22 f 32 ⎪ ⎭ = ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ + 50.1 − 88.9 ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ 0 12 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ + 1.000 ⎫ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ + 0.450 12 ⎥ − 0.798 ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 33
 Nodal forces acting on the structure in each V mode, f n {} f n = bn L n []{} n m φ Third mode ⎧ f ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ⎭ 13 f 23 f 33 ⎬ = V b 3 L 3 m [] ⎧ φ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ 13 φ 23 φ ⎩ 33 ⎫ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎬ = 10.2 (0.245*12) ⎡ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ ⎢ 12 ⎥ + 0.444 12 0 0 0 12 0 ⎤ ⎧ + 0.801 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎦ ⎥ ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ − 1.000 ⎩ ⎧ f ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 13 ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ f 23 f 33 ⎪ ⎭ = ⎧ + ⎪ 33.4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ − 41.6 + ⎬ ⎪ 18.5 ⎭ ⎬ CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 34
 Nodal forces acting on the structure in each mode, f n {}{ f n = f 1n f 2n f 3n } ⎡ 126.9 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ = 228.7 285.2 + 111.3 + 50.1 − 88.9 + 33.4 ⎤ − 41.6 ⎥ + 18.5 ⎥ ⎦ ⎥ CE-412: LECTURE 9 Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET 35
Nodal forces acting on the structure in each
mode, f n
285.2 k
88.3
k
18.5
k
228.7 k
50.1
k
41.6
k
126.9 k
111.3 k
33.4
k
72.6 kips
640.8 kips
10.2 kips
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
36

Combination of Modal Maxima

The use of response spectra techniques for multi-degree of freedom structures is complicated by the difficulty of combining the responses of each mode.

It is extremely unlikely that the maximum response of all the modes would occur at the same instant of time.

When one mode is reaching its peak response there is no way of knowing what another mode is doing.

The response spectra only provide the peak values of the response, the sign of the peak response and the time at which the peak response occurs is not known.

CE-412: LECTURE 9

Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET

37

Combination of Modal Maxima

Therefore

{} []{}

u

max

≠Φ q

max

{} []{}

u

max

≤Φ q

max

and, in general

The combinations are usually made using statistical methods.

CE-412: LECTURE 9

Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET

38

Combined Response r o

Let r n be the modal quantity (base shear, nodal displacement, inter- storey drift, member moment, column stress etc.) for mode n .The r values have been found for all modes (or for as many modes that are significant).

Most design codes do not require all modes to be used but many do require that the number of modes used is sufficient so that the sum of the Effective Weights of the modes reaches, say, 90% of the weight of the building. Checking the significance of the Participation Factors may be useful if computing deflections and rotations only.

CE-412: LECTURE 9

Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET

39

Absolute sum (ABSSUM) method
The maximum absolute response for any system response quantity
is obtained by assuming that maximum response in each mode
occurs at the same instant of time. Thus the maximum value of the
response quantity is the sum of the maximum absolute value of the
response associated with each mode. Therefore using ABSSUM
method
N
r
r
o
no
n = 1
This upper bound value is too conservative. Therefore, ABBSSUM
modal combination rules is not popular is structural design
applications
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
40
method
The SRSS rule for modal combination, developed in
E.Rosenblueth’s PhD thesis (1951) is
N 1 / 2
2
r
∑ r
no
o
n = 1
The most common combination method and is generally
satisfactory for 2-dimensional analyses is the square root of the
sum of the squares method. The method shall not be confused
with the root-mean-square of statistical analysis as there is no n
denominator.
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
41
Modal combination of nodal forces:
ABBSUM rule
V
b = 640.8+ 72.6 +10.2 = 723.6
kips
2
2
2
V
=
640.8
+
72.6
+
10.2
=
645
kips
b
CE-412: LECTURE 9
Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET
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Home Assignment No. 7

A 3 story R.C. building as shown below is required to be designed for a design earthquake with PGA=0.25g, and its elastic design spectrum is given by Fig 6.9.5 (Chopra’s book) multiplied by 0.25). It is required to carry out the dynamic modal analysis by using the afore mentioned design spectrum . Take:

m

3

m 2

• Story height = 10ft

•Total stiffness of each story = 2000 kips/ft.

• Mass of each floor = 5000 slugs

k 3

m 1

k 2

k

1

CE-412: LECTURE 9

Dr. Mohammad Javed, C.E.D, NWFP UET

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