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Discarded vehicle tyres are one of the important solid
waste challenges needing more useful applications than just
becoming a material for land filling. Due to the rapid depletion of
available sites for waste disposal, many countries discourage the
disposal of waste tyre rubber in landfills and encourage the
construction sector to use these waste materials in concrete in
place of fine or coarse aggregates.
The production of shredded or ground tyre rubber is
now well developed, making the reuse of this material in concrete
practicable.2 Developing such construction materials could have
both environmental and economic advantages. However, concrete
with scrap tyre aggre -gates must satisfy the minimum
requirements of strength and durability. The idea of developing
Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) incorporating rubber aggregates
is a novel approach to combine the advantages of both SCC and
rubberized concrete, to attain the required self-compacting
Tyre derived concrete requires a slightly higher super
plasticiser than conventional SCC at the same water/powder
ratios. Even though this technology has the potential for obtaining
an interesting mechanical behavior, few studies have been
carried out on Self Compacting Rubberised Concrete(4-7). Past
investigations suggest that the partial replacement of coarse or
fine aggregate of concrete with waste tyre can improve properties
such as abrasion resistance, shock absorption, vibration
absorption and ductility(8-10). The use of steel fibres in SCC
improves the engineering properties such as ductility, post crack
resistance and energy absorption capacity.
The large volume of waste tire rubber becomes a serious
problem which has impact on the environment. Many alternatives
were proposed by many researchers for solving this problem. One
methodology is recycling waste tire by cutting or scraping actual
waste materials to be smaller sizes down to powder particles and

reused this material in many industrial fields, so-called reclaimed

rubber. One suitable application of this rubber is to use it as an
additive for conventional asphalt in production of asphalt concrete
for road pavement.
Tyres are not desired at landfills, due to their large
volumes and 75% void space, which quickly consume valuable
space. Tyres can trap methane gases, causing them to become
buoyant, or bubble to the surface. This bubbling effect can
damage landfill liners that have been installed to help keep
landfill contaminants from polluting local surface and ground
water. Shredded tyres are now being used in landfills, replacing
other construction materials, for a lightweight backfill in gas
venting systems, leach ate collection systems, and operational
liners. Shredded tyre material may also be used to cap, close, or
daily cover landfill sites. Scrap tyres as a backfill and cover
material are also more cost-effective, since tyres can be shredded
on-site instead of hauling in other fill materials.
Many countries are experiencing an escalation in
waste management problems. This is caused by the
indiscriminate disposal of non-biodegradable materials like
discarded transportation vehicle rubber tyres in the
environment. By utilizing these discarded transportation vehicle
rubber tyres of cut rubber pellets in combination with fine and
coarse aggregates rather than directly disposing them, people
can minimize the waste material production. Making use of
pelletized cut rubber tyre particles as partial aggregates in a
concrete mix can be a step towards recycling used cut rubber
tyres, and reducing the presence of these non-biodegradable
often unwanted materials in the environment while at the same
time help address the supply requirement of coarse aggregates in
low-strength concrete mixes in the construction industry. This
process would not only reduce the pollution in our country. It
would also reduce quarrying in the rivers and mountains that
causes landslide and flashfloods that destroys lives and

The use of recycled rubber as aggregate in concrete has

not given results that could indicate the possibility of its use as
structural material. It is thought that the main cause of the
decrease of strength in rubber concrete is due to the weak bond
between the recycled rubber particles and the cement. This
investigation intents to further explore this issue by comparing an
OPC control mix with three mixes with different amount of natural
coarse aggregate replacement (10, 15 and 20%) by pelletized cut
rubber and with three concrete mixes (10, 15 and 20%) with the
surface modified shredded rubber tire particles.

This study shall be concentrated on the performance and
durability of a single gradation of crumb rubber. The waste tyres
shall be collected from local sources and manually cut into pieces
to achieve a uniform size of 20 mm, which is generally the
maximum aggregate size in the mix design. The influence of
different gradations of the rubber aggregate on concrete
properties was not evaluated in this study but it should be
considered in future researches. The study was done on four
grades of concrete (C15, C25, C30, and C40). The influence of
using recycled tyres in high strength concrete is not covered in
the present study. The percentage replacements were limited to
three categories i.e. 10, 25 and 50% replacement of the natural
coarse aggregate. The different effects on durability shall be
observed in different percentages of replacements.


The different methods utilized in this research include the

i) Background study
Literature survey was carried out to review previous studies
related to this synopsis.
ii) Collection of raw Materials
All the required materials were collected and delivered to the
laboratory. These are; Cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate,
used rubber tyres and admixture.
iii) Material Tests
Tests shall be conducted on the raw materials to determine their
properties and suitability for the experiment.
iv) Mix Proportioning (Mix Design)
Concrete mix designs shall be prepared using the BIS Method. A
total of 16 mixes with four types of concrete grades (C15, C25,
C30 and C40) shall be produced. They shall be prepared with
coarse aggregate replacements by 10, 25 and 50 % of the rubber
aggregate. A control mix with no rubber aggregate replacement
was produced to make a comparative analysis.

v) Specimen preparation
The prepared samples consist of concrete cubes and beams.
vi) Testing of Specimens
Laboratory tests shall be carried out on the prepared concrete
samples. The tests conducted shall be slump, unit weight,
compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, durability test,
impact resistance and flexural strength tests.
vii) Data Analysis and Evaluation
The test results of the samples shall be compared with the
respective control concrete properties and the results shall be
presented using tables, pictures and graphs. Conclusions and
recommendations shall be finally forwarded based on the findings
and observations.

1.Properties and durability of concrete containing
polymeric wastes (tyre rubber and polyethylene
terephthalate bottles)

F. Pacheco-Torgal , Yining Ding b, Said Jalali JUNUARY 2011

Elseviers journals University of Minho, C-TAC Research Centre,
Guimares, Portugal State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore
Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.

The work reported about the abrasion resistance by immersion of

rubber waste concrete reporting a lower degradation than the
reference concrete when only 5% rubber by mass is used to
replace the coarse aggregate. This result is quite interesting since
the rubber addition leads to a 30% compressive strength
decrease. The Tensile strength (flexural) of concrete with 15%
aggregates replaced by rubber particles the Compressive strength
was reported as 24.0 MPa and Compressive strength decrease by
11.6 %, Tensile strength (flexural) of concrete with 15%

aggregates replaced by rubber particles tensile strength is 5.10

MPa and Tensile strength decrease was is 4.49 % , studies on
rubber waste paving blocks showed that an increase in the rubber
waste decreases the abrasion resistance. It was recommend that
a 20 vol.% replacement should not be exceeded.

compacting rubberised concrete



N. Ganesan, Bharati Raj. J and A.P. Shashikala, SEPTEMBER

The Indian Concrete Journal pp. 15 to 24

The strength and durability characteristics of self compacting

rubberised concrete with and without the addition of fibres were
investigated. The reduction in compressive strength due to the
incorporation of scrap rubber in SCC could be compensated to
some extent by the addition of steel fibres. All the evaluated
durability characteristics namely were found to be within the
limits prescribed by the codes for normal concrete. except for
the sorptivity index. The rubberised concrete with fibres was
seen to have the best resistance against abrasion. The effect of
fibres on the other durability indices was not significant in the
rubberised concrete specimens. These results suggest that Self
Compacting Rubberised Concrete may be a useful cementitious
composite with better durability characteristics
conventional Self Compacting Concrete.

3.Durability Properties of Concrete with Recycled

Waste Tyres
Dubravka Bjegovic, Ana Baricevic and Marijana Serdar
International conference on durability of building material and
April 2011

Tests showed that chemical admixtures are needed in

concrete with recycled waste tyres to improve workability, 5% of
polymer was used for first set of mixtures and 0.4% of
superplasticizer for second set, both added by weight of cement.
In order to increase reduced compressive strength by
presence of rubber in second set of concrete mixtures, 5% of
silica fume by weight of cement was added 10%. Fine particles of
fly ash by weight of cement weight to improve durability
properties and to reduce concrete permeability.
Cement, rubber and mineral admixtures were initially dry mixed
in mixer. The ratio of rubber ranged from 5% to 15% by volume of
the aggregate. Water and chemical admixture content was
adjusted to achieve constant workability (i.e. consistence and
slump between 10 and 40 mm). Investigation confirmed that
presence of rubber particles in concrete induces improvement of
durability properties while at the same time, mechanical
properties such as compressive strength can be reduced.

5. Tyre rubber wastes based concrete

F.Pacheco Torga, A. Shasavandi and S. Jalali

1St International Conference ,September 2011

In this investigation fine aggregates by 5% and 10% of scrap
rubber waste (particle sizes of 0.29mm and 0.59mm) reporting a
decrease of 88% in concrete slump. Was reported Scrap-tyre (0.5
to 2mm) and crumb-tyre (0.05 to 0.7mm) was used to replace
22.2% and 33.3% of fine aggregates in self-compacting concretes

The introduction of the rubber particles does not influence the

workability in a significant way if the dose of superplasticizer also
increases. Crumbed rubber was used replace 23 kg of fine
aggregates in concretes with 0.6% of a polycarboxile
superplasticizer by cement mass obtaining the same workability
as that of the reference concrete. Crumb rubber tyres (0.075 to
4.75mm) in the concrete was used to replace sand in various
percentages (20%, 40%, 60% and 100%).

5.Flexural Strength of Normal Beam by Replacing Tension

Reinforcement as Waste Tyre
V. Hankare , A. N. Patil, A. R. Deshmukh
Dept. of Civil Engineering, TKIET Warananagar, 416113, India
International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN:2319-6890)
Volume No.3, Issue No.5, pp : 330-332 (2014)

T. Senthil Vadivel, R. Thenmozhi conducted an experimental study

on waste tyre rubber concrete. Test results indicate that all the
test specimens behave in a ductile manner. Siddique and Naik4
presented an overview of some of the research published
regarding the use of scrap tyres in the manufacture of concrete.
Studies indicate that good workable concrete mixtures can be
made with scrap tyre rubber.
Flexural testing:
Standard beams of size 150 x 150 x 1000 mm were supported
symmetrically over a span of 900mm and subjected two points
loading till failure of the specimen
Beam reinforced with Waste Tyre Flexure tests were done on;
BS - Beam reinforced with steel
BT - Beam reinforced with Waste Tire

Hence it is concluded that the waste tyre rubber strips may be

used as reinforcement in lintel beams were the load carrying
capacity is not governing the design.

6. Rubberized Concrete: Needs of Good Environment (Overview)

Parveen, Sachin Dass, Ankit Sharma International Journal of
Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Volume 3, Issue 3, March

The test results of this study indicate that there is great potential
for the utilization of waste tyres in concrete mixes in several
percentages, ranging from 10%,15% to 20%. Based on present
study, the following can be concluded:
1.Slump (mm)
2.Compressive strength(N/mm2)
3.Flexural Strength (N/mm2
4. Split tensile Strength (N/mm2)

49, 40, 35
27.73, 24.8 , 22.7
3, 2.8, 1.4
3.1, 2.9 ,2.7

Failure of plain and rubberized concrete in compression and split

tension shows that rubberized concrete has higher toughness.The
split tensile strength of the concrete decreases about 30% when
20% sand is replaced by crumb rubber. The flexural strength of
the concrete decreases about 69% when 20% sand is replaced by
crumb rubber. The compressive strength of the concrete
decreases about 37% when 20% sand is replaced by crumb
rubber.For large percentage of crumb rubber the compressive
strength gain rate is lower than that of plain concrete. With the
addition of the crumb rubber, the reduction in strength cannot be
7. Laboratory Evaluation of Usage of Waste Tyre Rubber in
Bituminous Concrete

Miss. Mane Priyanka Arun , Mr. Petkar Deepak Ganesh, Mr. Bhosale S.M.
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3,
Issue 9, September 2013

For this research work aggregate, bitumen and crumb of scrap

tyre was used. Different properties of bitumen and aggregate
have been tested. Then different mixes of bitumen and crumb of
waste tyre rubber with varying proportions were preferred by
using wet process. The percentage weight of crumb tyre rubber
replacement for percentage weight of bitumen taken for test.The
feasibility of different mixes of bitumen and crumb tire rubber
with varying proportions with aggregate has been tested.
Physical properties of aggregate

Crushing value (%) 24.8

8. Effects of Recycled Tyres Rubber Aggregates on the Characteristics of

Cement Concrete
Zeineddine Boudaoud1,2, Miloud Beddar1

Open Journal of Civil Engineering,

2012, 2, 193-197

The present research study consists of a basic concrete (control

mix) whose formulation was given by means of the Gorisse-Dreux
method .The following tests were carried out to establish the
mechanical properties of concrete:
Replace the 10,15,20% tyre become Compressive strength is
22,21,21MPa and Flexural strength is 2.3,2.25,2.1 MPa.
The study of the substitution effects of coarse traditional
aggregates by rubber aggregates resulting from worn tires
showed a decrease in the mechanical characteristics of the tested
9.Effect of ussing ground waste tyre rubber as fine and course agg. on behaviour
of concrete mixes (mm balaha, am badhawy and m hashish ) Indian journal of
engineering & material sciences -2007, pp 42-435

In this investigation, Fine and coarse agg. and steel and tyre fiber
>4mm were used compressive strength and tensile strength were
reported Concrete recorded higher toughness compared to
Ordinary Concrete.


Fresh Concrete Properties

Concrete Density and Air Content
The fresh density of recycled aggregate concrete at 100%
replacement of coarse aggregate will generally be 5% to 10%
lower than the corresponding natural aggregate concrete owing to
the adhered mortar on the recycled coarse aggregate4. The
entrapped air content of the recycled aggregate concrete is
generally higher than corresponding natural aggregate concrete
and thus the air entraining admixture dosage may need to be
reduced to maintain the target air content. However, the use of
fine recycled aggregate will require an increase in air entraining
Recycled aggregate concrete made from crushed leftover
concrete may in general require a small cement adjustment to
compensate for increase in water demand. Concrete made from
demolition concrete, which generally has a harsher texture from
the increased adhered mortar will have an even higher water
Increased cement contents are more likely to be necessary for
higher percentages of recycled aggregate replacement and for
higher specified strengths of the recycled aggregate concrete.
Adjustment to air entraining and plasticising admixtures will assist
in minimising any increase in cement content.

Hardened Concrete Properties

Compressive Strength
Compressive strength test on cubes and shall be carried out using
the compression Testing Machine .Compressive strength test shall
be carried out on cubes of dimensions 150 150 150 mm after
7 days and 28 days. For each test and for each mix three
specimens shall be tested. The compressive strength shall be
computed using the expression Fc= P/A for cubes, Where, Fc is
the compressive stress in MPa. P is the maximum load applied in
Newton and A is the cross sectional area in mm2.

Split Tensile Strength

Split tensile strength test shall be used to determine the tensile
strength of concrete. The test shall be performed on cylinder with
the dimension of 300 mm in length and 150 mm diameter after 7
days and 28 days using the UCM. The split tensile strength shall
be computed using the expression Fct = 2P/ed , where, Fct is the
split tensile strength in MPa, P is the maximum compressive load
on the cylinder (in Newton), l is the length of the cylinder in mm,
and d is the diameter of the cylinder in mm.
Flexural Strength
Flexural strength test shall be used to determine the flexural
strength of concrete. The test shall be performed on prisms of
dimensions 100 100 500 mm. Samples shall be cured for 28
days by immersing under water. After 28 days three flexural
strength shall be determined by the two point loading technique,
of shall be computed by using the expression Fb=PL/bd 2, where
Fb is the flexural strength in MPa, P is the maximum applied load
in Newton, L is the span length in mm, b is the width of the
specimen in mm, and d is the depth of the specimen in mm.
Water absorption
The water absorption test shall be carried out following IS
1237:1959 on 100 mm cube specimens to determine the porosity
of specimens containing rubber aggregates.

Abrasion resistance
Prism specimens ( 70.7 x 70.7 x 25 mm ) weighed to the accuracy
of 0.1 gm shall be tested following IS 1237:1959 to find the
resistance to abrasion. The grinding path of the abrasion testing
machine shall be evenly strewn with 20 gms of an abrasive
powder. The specimen shall be fixed with the test surface facing

down. A 30 kg weight at the centre loaded the specimen. The

grinding disc rotated at a rate of 30 rpm. After every 22
revolutions, the discwas stopped, the abraded powder shall be
removed and fresh 20-gms abrasive powder shall be applied
each time. After 110 revolutions, the specimen shall be turned
about its vertical axis by 90o and test shall be continued until
220 revolutions shall be completed. After testing, the specim
were weighed again and the average loss in thickness shall be
Sorptivity is a measure of the capillary force exerted by the pore
structure causing fluids to be drawn into the body of the material.
It is calculated as the rate of capillary rise in a concrete prism
placed in 2 to 5 mm deep water. For one-dimensional flow, the
relation between absorption and sorptivity is given by, i = S t0.5
where, i is the cumulative water absorption per unit area of inflow
surface, S is the sorptivity and t is the elapsed time. The test shall
be conducted in the laboratory on 100 mm diameter and 50 mm
thick specimens preconditioned to a certain moisture level by
drying in an oven at 50 0C for 7 days. After cooling, the sides of
the concrete samples shall be sealed and the initial weight shall
be taken. The samples shall be then kept in a tray so that 2 to 5
mm depth was immersed in water. At selected intervals of 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 9, 12, 16, 20 and 25 minutes; the sample shall be removed
and shall be weighed after blotting off excess water. The gain in
mass per unit area over the density of water (gain in mass/unit
area/density of water) versus the square root of time shall be
plotted. The slope of the best fitting line shall be reported as the



This sections shall be describe the results of the tests carried out
to investigate the durability of self compacting concrete (scc)
containing rubber tyre waste materials and studies on super
plasticizer to be added in self compacting concrete (scc) to
improve characteristics.


1. Neville a.m. properties of concrete 4th edition, Addison weseley longman ltd
2 F. pacheco-torgal , yining ding b, said jalali properties and durability of concrete
containing polymeric wastes (tyre rubber and polyethylene terephthalate bottles)
elseviers journals university of minho, 1-junuary 2011
3. N. ganesan, bharati raj. j and a.p. shashikala strength and durability studies of
self compacting rubberised concrete, Indian concrete journal page no. 15 to 24 ,
September 2012
4.dubravka bjegovic, ana baricevic and marijana serdar durability properties of
concrete with recycled waste tyres indian international conference on durability of
building material and components, April 2011
5.F.pacheco torgal, a. shasavandi and s. jalali, tyre rubber wastes based concrete
wastes: solutions, treatments and opportunities, 1st international , conference
September 2011
7. Parveen, sachin dass, ankit sharma ,assistant professor dcrust, murthal, sonipat,
india student dcrust, murthal, sonipat, rubberized concrete: needs of good
environment (overview) india.
8. Mixturetomas u. ganiron jr australian Pelletized cut rubber: an alternative
coarse aggregate for concrete institute of geoscientists, perth, australia college of
architecture, planning & design, qassim university, buraidah city .


9. Gintautas skripkiunas, audrius grinys, benjaminas cernius Deformation

properties of concrete with rubber waste additives building materials and
structures research centre, kaunas university of technology.
10. Abrham kebede seyfu advisor: professor abebe dinku (dr.-ing.) The use of
recycled rubber tires as a partial replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete
construction addis ababa university school of graduate studies faculty of
technology department of civil engineering.
11. MM balaha,am badhawy and m hashish Effect of ussing ground waste tyre
rubber as fine and course agg. on behaviour of concrete mixes engineering
material department , Indian journal of engineering & material sciences.