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Welcome to the Presentation of

Plasma Based HNO3


Manufacturing
Plant

We thankful to authority for


offering opportunity to Present
our New PLASMA Based
Technology Products.

HNO3 Manufacturing
Plant based on Plasma
Technology in Details

Due

to rapid change in
technology, the correct design
of all steps of the process &
last application of Cold Plasma
Technology, VVX can offer a
complete plant ECO-FRIENDLY
and Energy saving, totally
powered with green energy, so
the final Production cost is low.

INTRODUCTORY REPORT
The Nitric Acid can be produced by 3 ways :
1- Starting by Sodium Nitrate (Chile Nitrate) that is
a natural mineral.
2- Starting from Air. Birkeland-Eyde process.
3- Starting from Ammonia. Ostwald process &
followings. (Currently used in manufacturing)
The 1^ and 2^ method have been abandoned for a lot of
reasons.

PRESENT

The Available Technique is considered the


OSTWALD process and its variants.

At the moment all plants for the production


of nitric acid are currently based on the
same basic chemical operations, developed
on original process called OSTWALD, which
includes:

Oxidation of ammonia with air to give nitric oxide.


Oxidation of the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide
and absorption in water to give a solution of
nitric acid.

The

first step reaction is carried out


at low pressure whereas the second
step is at high pressure. These
considerations, combined with
economic reasons give rise to
two types of nitric acid plant,
Single pressure plants and Dual
pressure plants.

In the single pressure plant, the oxidation


and absorption steps take place at the
same pressure. In dual pressure plants
absorption takes place at a higher
pressure than the oxidation stage.

The oxidation and absorption steps can be classified


as:-

Low pressure (pressure below 1.7bar)


Medium pressure (pressure between 1.7 and
6.5bar)
High pressure (pressure between 6.5 and 13bar)

The main unit operations involved in the nitric


acid process is same for all types of plant and in
sequential order these are:-

Air filtration.

Air compression.

Air/ammonia mixing.

Air/ammonia oxidation over catalytic gauzes.

Energy recovery by steam generation and/or


gas re-heating, Gas cooling.

Gas compression, energy recovery


and cooling (dual pressure plants
only).

Absorption with the production of nitric


acid.

Waste gas (tail gas) heating.

Energy recovery by expansion of the


waste gas to atmosphere, in a gas
turbine.

The problems and disadvantages of


this, OSTWALD process are :

The use of Ammonia as a raw material,


that have a cost and is dangerous.

Explosion risk in every step of line for


formation of Ammonia explosive mix.

Explosion risk in absorbing column for


formation of Nitrous/Nitric explosive mix.

Toxic risk for handling and storage of Ammonia.

Liquid waste to treat from boiler and heat


exchanger.

Solid waste as salt from boiler, from condensing


tower and catalyst.

Gas emission as NOx between 200 to 3500 ppmv


to treat.

Precious catalyst loss (Platinum-Rhodium)


around 0.2 to 0.25 gm/ T of HNO3.

High temperature in line, until +900 C.

High pressure in line, until 13 Bar.

High Power requirement for operation.


Only some part of power partially
generated by self-production.

Produced acid to 40-60% in water. If need


more concentrated acid is necessary a
Final step with Sulphuric Acid.

Use of equipments expensive and need for


careful monitoring.

OLD Plasma Technology Process:

The AIR have around 21% of Oxygen and 78%


of Nitrogen plus a very little other gas as Carbon
Dioxide and others.

At the beginning of Year 1900 the production of


nitric acid was also made with this process
known as Birkeland-Eyde or arch, from oxygen
and atmospheric nitrogen.

This process has been abandoned for a


number of reasons that did not meet the
demand of the industry, including:

A : Technological difficulty in past time to


have the right components as pumps,
spray nozzle, corrosion resistant
materials and others.
B : High consumption of electricity &
operating cost.

The New Plasma Technology process

High Voltage Ionisation


1) N2 + 2O2 ----------------> 2NO2 gas
Wet Reactor
2) 3NO2 + H2O ---> 2HNO3 + NO
liquid + gas (Untreated)
Recirculation with High Voltage
Ionisation & Cold Plasma

3) 2NO + O2 -----------------------> 2NO2 gas


Wet Reactor
4) 2NO2 + 2H20 ------------------> 2HNO3
Final Product liquid
The N2 gas added with O2 gas go in first step
where cross a special High Voltage Reactor.
In this reactor the N2 react with O2 to form
NO + NO2 = NOx

(reaction 1)

The

Air is filtered to remove dust and


other materials and blowers in the
first step where air enters into a
special VVXs Cold Plasma Reactor.

In

this reactor the N2 react with O2


to form
NO + NO2 = NOx (reaction 1)

The NOx cross a special wet reactor in


which it is contacted with a diffuses fog
water.

The only NO2 in NOx react with water to


form Nitric Acid (reactions 2).

The partially unreacted NO return to


Cold plasma reactor to complete the
reaction into NO2 ( reaction 1).

The unreacted NO and the excess N2 goes


to Waste Air Treatment Plant by second
blowers.

The Nitric Acid produced is drained as a


liquid from wet reactor and go in some
tanks for storage.

The water need for reactions can be


taken from river, lake or well and is
treated to remove the pollutants.

Finally this water cross a deionising plant


to Osmosis or Resin before to go to fog
nozzle inside the wet reactor.

The Waste Air Treatment Plant is foresee


to Biofilter, with special biomass
preinoculated of bacteria.

The waste air treated, rich only in


Nitrogen gas, is unload in
environment

Advantage of VVXs process:


1.

The start gas is simply to have is nitrogen


& oxygen from Air.

2.

The oxidizing reaction of the nitrogen is at


ambient temp. & press. Thank the utilization
of Cold Plasma Technology.

3.

The synthesis reaction of nitric acid by NO2


is carried from low temp. & press., until
ambient temp. & press.

4. Catalyst Not required.


5. Energy requirement can be selfproduced with Solar Panel and Wind
Turbine..
6. Only final product is conc. Acid and
require special storage.
7. No need of high press. or high temp.
vessels and piping.

8. No explosion risk.
9. Less risks of chemical accidents.
10. No high corrosion in piping, pumps, blowers
and others thanks the low Press. & temp.
11. No cost for raw chemicals & energy.
12. No cost for storage of raw chemicals.
13. Eco-friendly

Thank You For Your Attention.