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Welcome to the Presentation of

Plasma Based HNO3


We thankful to authority for

offering opportunity to Present
our New PLASMA Based
Technology Products.

HNO3 Manufacturing
Plant based on Plasma
Technology in Details


to rapid change in
technology, the correct design
of all steps of the process &
last application of Cold Plasma
Technology, VVX can offer a
complete plant ECO-FRIENDLY
and Energy saving, totally
powered with green energy, so
the final Production cost is low.

The Nitric Acid can be produced by 3 ways :
1- Starting by Sodium Nitrate (Chile Nitrate) that is
a natural mineral.
2- Starting from Air. Birkeland-Eyde process.
3- Starting from Ammonia. Ostwald process &
followings. (Currently used in manufacturing)
The 1^ and 2^ method have been abandoned for a lot of


The Available Technique is considered the

OSTWALD process and its variants.

At the moment all plants for the production

of nitric acid are currently based on the
same basic chemical operations, developed
on original process called OSTWALD, which

Oxidation of ammonia with air to give nitric oxide.

Oxidation of the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide
and absorption in water to give a solution of
nitric acid.


first step reaction is carried out

at low pressure whereas the second
step is at high pressure. These
considerations, combined with
economic reasons give rise to
two types of nitric acid plant,
Single pressure plants and Dual
pressure plants.

In the single pressure plant, the oxidation

and absorption steps take place at the
same pressure. In dual pressure plants
absorption takes place at a higher
pressure than the oxidation stage.

The oxidation and absorption steps can be classified


Low pressure (pressure below 1.7bar)

Medium pressure (pressure between 1.7 and
High pressure (pressure between 6.5 and 13bar)

The main unit operations involved in the nitric

acid process is same for all types of plant and in
sequential order these are:-

Air filtration.

Air compression.

Air/ammonia mixing.

Air/ammonia oxidation over catalytic gauzes.

Energy recovery by steam generation and/or

gas re-heating, Gas cooling.

Gas compression, energy recovery

and cooling (dual pressure plants

Absorption with the production of nitric


Waste gas (tail gas) heating.

Energy recovery by expansion of the

waste gas to atmosphere, in a gas

The problems and disadvantages of

this, OSTWALD process are :

The use of Ammonia as a raw material,

that have a cost and is dangerous.

Explosion risk in every step of line for

formation of Ammonia explosive mix.

Explosion risk in absorbing column for

formation of Nitrous/Nitric explosive mix.

Toxic risk for handling and storage of Ammonia.

Liquid waste to treat from boiler and heat


Solid waste as salt from boiler, from condensing

tower and catalyst.

Gas emission as NOx between 200 to 3500 ppmv

to treat.

Precious catalyst loss (Platinum-Rhodium)

around 0.2 to 0.25 gm/ T of HNO3.

High temperature in line, until +900 C.

High pressure in line, until 13 Bar.

High Power requirement for operation.

Only some part of power partially
generated by self-production.

Produced acid to 40-60% in water. If need

more concentrated acid is necessary a
Final step with Sulphuric Acid.

Use of equipments expensive and need for

careful monitoring.

OLD Plasma Technology Process:

The AIR have around 21% of Oxygen and 78%

of Nitrogen plus a very little other gas as Carbon
Dioxide and others.

At the beginning of Year 1900 the production of

nitric acid was also made with this process
known as Birkeland-Eyde or arch, from oxygen
and atmospheric nitrogen.

This process has been abandoned for a

number of reasons that did not meet the
demand of the industry, including:

A : Technological difficulty in past time to

have the right components as pumps,
spray nozzle, corrosion resistant
materials and others.
B : High consumption of electricity &
operating cost.

The New Plasma Technology process

High Voltage Ionisation

1) N2 + 2O2 ----------------> 2NO2 gas
Wet Reactor
2) 3NO2 + H2O ---> 2HNO3 + NO
liquid + gas (Untreated)
Recirculation with High Voltage
Ionisation & Cold Plasma

3) 2NO + O2 -----------------------> 2NO2 gas

Wet Reactor
4) 2NO2 + 2H20 ------------------> 2HNO3
Final Product liquid
The N2 gas added with O2 gas go in first step
where cross a special High Voltage Reactor.
In this reactor the N2 react with O2 to form
NO + NO2 = NOx

(reaction 1)


Air is filtered to remove dust and

other materials and blowers in the
first step where air enters into a
special VVXs Cold Plasma Reactor.


this reactor the N2 react with O2

to form
NO + NO2 = NOx (reaction 1)

The NOx cross a special wet reactor in

which it is contacted with a diffuses fog

The only NO2 in NOx react with water to

form Nitric Acid (reactions 2).

The partially unreacted NO return to

Cold plasma reactor to complete the
reaction into NO2 ( reaction 1).

The unreacted NO and the excess N2 goes

to Waste Air Treatment Plant by second

The Nitric Acid produced is drained as a

liquid from wet reactor and go in some
tanks for storage.

The water need for reactions can be

taken from river, lake or well and is
treated to remove the pollutants.

Finally this water cross a deionising plant

to Osmosis or Resin before to go to fog
nozzle inside the wet reactor.

The Waste Air Treatment Plant is foresee

to Biofilter, with special biomass
preinoculated of bacteria.

The waste air treated, rich only in

Nitrogen gas, is unload in

Advantage of VVXs process:


The start gas is simply to have is nitrogen

& oxygen from Air.


The oxidizing reaction of the nitrogen is at

ambient temp. & press. Thank the utilization
of Cold Plasma Technology.


The synthesis reaction of nitric acid by NO2

is carried from low temp. & press., until
ambient temp. & press.

4. Catalyst Not required.

5. Energy requirement can be selfproduced with Solar Panel and Wind
6. Only final product is conc. Acid and
require special storage.
7. No need of high press. or high temp.
vessels and piping.

8. No explosion risk.
9. Less risks of chemical accidents.
10. No high corrosion in piping, pumps, blowers
and others thanks the low Press. & temp.
11. No cost for raw chemicals & energy.
12. No cost for storage of raw chemicals.
13. Eco-friendly

Thank You For Your Attention.