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STYLISTICS

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THE METALANGUAGE OF LINGUOSTYLISTICS


In the European philological tradition there have always existed phenomena
regarded as linguostylistic concepts proper. They are: tropes which are based on
2

the transfer of meaning, when a word (or a combination of words) is used to denote
an object which is not normally correlated with this word, and figures of speech
whose stylistic effect is achieved due to the unusual arrangement of linguistic
units, unusual construction or extension of utterance.
There is a considerable number of terms which can serve to denote different
tropes and figures of speech. Most of these terms go back to ancient rhetoric where
all the stylistic devices were thoroughly investigated and provided with names and
definitions. In the course of time some terms used in Greek and Roman philology
have disappeared whereas new ones were introduced. The meanings of some terms
have changed. Thus, the Greek "metaphora" was used by Aristotle in a very broad
sense, close to the modern meaning of the term "trope", that is, it embraced
metonymy, synechdoche, hyperbole and simile.
Theoretically speaking, the division into tropes and figures, which can be
traced back to classical philology, is characteristic not only of Russian but also of
English and American philological traditions. A Russian anglicist, however, is
bound to be faced with certain metalinguistic difficulties. The fact is that the
English term "figure of speech" is often indiscriminately used to denote any
stylistic device, including metaphor (this is how "metaphor" is defined, for
instance, in one of the dictionaries of literary terms published in the U.S.A.: "a
metaphor is a figure of speech in which one object is likened to another by
speaking of it as if it were that other" - Standard College Dictionary. N.-Y. # 1963).
The term "trope", which was widely employed in the XVIII century in almost the
same meaning as the Russian "", has practically fallen out of use.
Nevertheless we are convinced that the distinction between tropes and figures
is not only a question of metalanguage. It concerns the ontology of linguostylistic
phenomena, their essential features. We regard tropes and figures of speech as basic
linguostylistic categories whose study should be based on their numerous realitions
in speech.
Expressive means of a language are those forms and properties that have the
potential to make the utterance emphatic or expressive. They dont change the
3

semantic structure. They only add some degree of emotive force to the utterance
structure. These can be found on all the levels phonetic, phonographical,
morphological, lexical or syntactical.
A stylistic device is a literary model in which semantic and structural
features are blended so that it represents a generalized pattern.
All stylistic devices belong to expressive means, but not all expressive
means are stylistic devices. Thus, phonetic phenomena, such as pitch, stress,
pausation, tempo are all expressive means without being stylistic devices: I do
know you. Im really angry with that dog of yours (Intensifiers). According to
Professor Galperin a stylistic device is such a generative model which through
frequent use in language is transformed into a stylistic device (e.g. metaphor). Its
like an algorithm used for an expressive purpose.
A convergence of expressive means and stylistic devices is the accumulation
of several expressive means and stylistic devices of the same or different levels of
language, promoting the same idea or emotion in the same context.

PHONOGRAPHICAL AND PHONOSTYLISTIC


EXPRESSIVE MEANS AND STYLISTIC DEVICES
OF THE PARADIGMATIC AND SYNTAGMATIC LEVEL
4

Essential Terms:
GRAPHON - intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word
combination) used to reflect its authentic pronunciation. It represents blurred,
incoherent, careless pronunciation caused by young age, intoxication, ignorance of
the discussed theme or social, territorial, educational status: "De old Foolosopher,
like Hickey calls yuh, ain't yuh?"
ONOMATOPOEIA (SOUND SYMBOLISM) - the use of words whose sounds
imitate those of the signified object or action. It occurs when there is a
correspondence between the sound of a word and the sound or sense denoted by
the word i.e. when the word actually imitates or echoes the sound or sense it
stands for: Buzz, murmur, clatter, whisper, cuckoo
PARONOMASIA

a figure which consists in the deliberate (often humorous)

use of the partial phonetic similarity of words different in meaning: A young man
married is a man that's marred (Shakespeare); Gentlemen wanted their bankers
prudent but not prudish.
SPOONERISM - a figure based on an interchange of initial sounds or syllables of
successive words, often designed for comic effect (called after Rev. Dr. W.A.
Spooner, a Professor of Oxford University, a noted perpetrator of spoonerisms):
You've hissed my mystery lessons, you've tasted the worm and you'll have to leave by
the town drain.
ALLITERATION - a figure of speech which consists in the repetition of the same
(esp. initial) consonant sound in words in close succession (usually in the stressed
syllables):
1) The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,
The furrow followed free;
We were the first that ever burst
5

Into that silent sea

(S.T.Coleridge)

2) A university should be a place of light, of liberty, and of learning. (Disraeli)


ASSONANCE - a figure of speech based on the coincidence of vowels (r
diphthongs) without regard to consonants, a kind of vowel-rhyme: 1) How sad and
bad and mad it was (R. Browning); 2) ... the rare and radiant maiden whom the
angels name Lenore -/Nameless here for evermore (E.A. Poe).
RHYME is the repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combinations of
words (or the repetition of the same vowel in two or more stressed syllables).
Identity and particularly similarity of sound combinations may be relative. We
distinguish between full rhymes and incomplete rhymes. The full rhyme
presupposes identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a
stressed syllable. Incomplete rhymes can be divided into two main groups: vowel
rhymes and consonant rhymes. In vowel rhymes the vowels of the syllables in
corresponding words are identical, but the consonants may be different. Consonant
rhymes, on the contrary, show concordance in consonants and disparity in vowels:
might-right; needless-heedless (full rhyme)
flesh-fresh-press (vowel rhyme)
tale-tool; treble-trouble (consonant rhyme)
STANZAS - different patterns of rhyming.
couplet: a a when the last words of two successive lines are rhymed
triple rhymes: a a a
cross-rhymes: a b a b
framing rhyme / ring rhyme: a b b a
Other stanzas typical of English poetry are the following: tercet (aba bcb);
quatrain; the ballad stanza ; the heroic couplet (aa bb cc ); the Spenserian stanza
(abab bcb cc); ottava rima (ab ab ab cc); the sonnet (three quatrains and a
concluding couplet - abab cdcd, efef, gg), etc.
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RHYTHM - The measured flow of words and phrases in verse or prose. In verse
measured alternation of accented and unaccented syllables, in prose the
alternation of similar syntactical patterns.

I. Speak on the following:


Paradigmatic level:
1) graphon as a phonographical stylistic device
2) onomatopoeia as a phonostylistic device
3) paronomasia as a phonostylistic device
4) spoonerism as a phonostylistic device
Syntagmatic level:
1) alliteration and assonance as rhythm forming figures of speech
2) rhythm and rhyme

II. In your books of either home reading or individual reading find


the above mentioned expressive means and stylistic devices and
comment upon their structure and stylistic function.
III. Do the following exercises:
Exercise I. Indicate the causes and effects of the following cases of
alliteration, assonance and onomatopoeia:
1. He swallowed the hint with a gulp and a gasp and a grin.
2. The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,
The furrow followed free. (S. C.)
3. The Italian trio tut-tutted their tongues at me. (. .)
4. You, lean, long, lanky lam of a lousy bastard! (O'C.)
5. "Luscious, languid and lustful, isn't she?" "Those are not the correct epithets.
She is-or rather was surly, lustrous and sadistic." (E. W.)
7

6. "Sh-sh." "But I am whispering." This continual shushing annoyed him. (A.


H.)
7. Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky. (Ch. R.)
8. Dreadful young creatures-squealing and squawking. (C.)
9. The quick crackling of dry wood aflame cut through the night. (St. H.)
Exercise II. Think of the causes originating graphon (young age, a physical
defect of speech, lack of education, the influence of dialectal norms,
affectation, intoxication, carelessness in speech, etc.):
1. He began to render the famous tune "I lost my heart in an English garden,
Just where the roses of England grow" with much feeling:
"Ah-ee last mah-ee hawrt een ahn Angleesh gawrden, Jost whahr thah
rawzaz ahv Angland graw." (H. C.)
2. She mimicked a lisp: I dont weally know wevver Im a good girl. The last
thing hell do would be to be mixed with a howwid woman. (J. Br.)
3. "All the village dogs are no-'count mongrels, Papa says. Fish-gut eaters
and no class a-tall; this here dog, he got insteek." (. .)
4. "My daddy's coming tomorrow on a nairplane." (S.)
5. After a hum a beautiful Negress sings "Without a song, the dahay would
nehever end." (U.)
6. "Oh, well, then, you just trot over to the table and make your little mommy
a gweat big dwink." (E. A.)
7. "I allus remember me man sayin' to me when I passed me scholarship - 'You
break one o'my winders an' I'll skin ye alive'." (St. B.)
8. He spoke with the flat ugly "a" and withered "r" of Boston Irish, and Levi
8

looked up at him and mimicked "All right, I'll give the caaads a break and
staaat playing." (N. M.)
9. "Whereja get all these pictures?" he said. "Meetcha at the corner. Wuddaya
think she's doing out there?" (S.)
10."Lookat him go. D'javer see him walk home from school? You're French
Canadian, aintcha?" (J. K.)
Exercise III. State the functions and the type of the following graphical
expressive means:
1. Piglet, sitting in the running Kanga's pocket, substituting the kidnapped Roo,
thinks:
this
"If

shall
is

take
never

flying

to
really

it." (M.)

2. Kiddies and grown-ups too-oo-oo


We haven't enough to do-oo-oo. (R. K.)
3. "Hey," he said "is it a goddamn cardroom? or a latrine? Attensh HUT! Da-ress
right! DHRESS! (J.)
4. "When Will's ma was down here keeping house for him - she used to run in to
see me, real often." (S. L.)
5. He missed our father very much. He was s-1-a-i-n in North Africa. (S.)

6. His voice began on a medium key, and climbed steadily up till it reached a
certain point, where it bore with strong emphasis upon the topmost word, and then
plunged down as if from a spring board:
beds
flowery
9

on
skies
the
to
carried
be
I
Shall

of ease,

blood
throu'
sailed
and
prize
the
toe
fought
others
Whilst

seas? (M. T.)

7. "We'll teach the children to look at things. Don't let the world pass you by,
I shall tell them. For the sun, I shall say, open your eyes for that laaaarge sun"
(A. W.)
8. "Now listen, Ed, stop that, now. I'm desperate. I am desperate, Ed, do you
hear?" (Dr.)
9. "Adieu you, old man, grey. I pity you, and I de-spise you." (D.)
10. "ALL our troubles are over, old girl," he said fondly. "We can put a bit by
now for a rainy day." (S. M.)

10

REFERENCE LIST:
Galperin I. R. Stylistics. - Part III p.p. 123-135.
Kukharenko V. A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. - p.p. 10-22

LEXICAL EXPRESSIVE MEANS AND STYLISTIC DEVICES


Essential Terms:
METAPHOR is a trope which consists in the use of words (word combinations) in
transferred meanings by way of similarity or analogy. Metaphor is the application
of a name or a descriptive term to an object to which it is not literally applicable.
This is an implied comparison. It is based on analogy or association: Art is a
jealous mistress (Emerson).
ANTONOMASIA (a variant of METAPHOR) a trope which consists in the use of a
proper name to denote a different person who possesses some qualities of the
primary owner of the name: Every Caesar has his Brutus (O'Henry).
METONYMY is a SD based on association, the name of one thing is used in place
of the name of another, closely related to it. There is an objectively existing
relation between the object named and the object implied: from the cradle to the
grave
SYNECDOCHE (a variant of METONYMY) - a trope which consists in putting part
for the whole, the concrete for the general, or vice versa: 1) Two heads are better than one;
2) The hat went away.

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IRONY - a trope which consists in: a) the use of evaluative (meliorative) words in
the opposite meanings (cf. ENANTIOSEMY): Youre in complimentary mood
today, arent you? First you called my explanation rubbish and now you call me a
liar; b) worsening of the meliorative connotation of a word: Im very glad you
think so, Lady Sneerwell; c) the acquisition of a pejorative connotation by a nonevaluative word: Jack: If you want to know, Cecily happens to be my aunt.Algernon: Your aunt; Ironic use of words is accompanied by specific
suprasyntactic prosody.
ZEUGMA (a variant of SYLLEPSIS )- a figure of speech using a verb or adjective with
two nouns, to one of which it is strictly applicable while the word appropriate to the other is
not used: 1) to kill the boys and /destroy/ the luggage; 2) with weeping eyes and /grieving/
hearts.
PUN (or PLAY UPON WORDS) - a figure which consists in a humorous use of words
identical in sound but different in meaning, or the use of different meanings of the same
word: "What's the matter with the boy?" - exlaimed Wardle. "Nothen's the matter with me",
- replied Joe, nervously. "Have you been seeing any spirits?" - inquired the old gentleman.
"Or taking any?" - added Ben Allen.
INTERJECTIONS AND EXCLAMATORY WORDS are words we use when
we express our feelings strongly and which may be said to exist in
language as conventional symbols of human emotions. Heaven,
goodgracious!, dear me!, God!, Come o n ! , Look here!,
dear, by the Lord!, God knows!, Bless me!, Humbug! and many
others of this kind are not interjections as such; a better name for them would be
exclamatory words generally used as interjections, i.e., their function is that of
the interjection.

12

EPITHET is an attributive characterization of a person, thing or phenomenon.


Having a logical meaning, it acquires in the context emotive meaning, rendering
the subjective attitude of the writer towards the concepts he evaluates.
Semantically we distinguish:
Fixed (logical/usual) epithets are fixed word-combination which have become
traditional: sweet smile
Affective (emotive/occasional) epithet serve to convey the emotional evaluation of
the object by the speaker: gorgeous, nasty, magnificent
Figurative (transferred/metaphoric) epithets are formed of metaphors, metonymies
and similes expressed by adjectives: the smiling sun
Structurally we distinguish:
Simple epithet are built like simple adjectives: true love
Compound epithet are built like compound adjectives: heart-burning sigh
Phrase/sentence epithets - a phrase which has lost its independence and come to
refer to a noun describing human behaviour or look (used with the words: 'attitude',
'look', 'expression'). The words in the phrase or sentence epithet are hyphenated or
written in inverted commas: a move-if-you-dare expression (a move-if-you-dare
expression); She looked at me with that please-dont-touch-me look of hers. ( She
looked at me with that please dont touch me look of hers.
Reversed (inverted) epithet - two nouns connected in an "of"-phrase where one
part is metaphorical: this devil of a woman
Chain of epithets - a number of epithets which give a many-sided description of an
object. Each next epithet is stronger than the previous one, the last is the strongest
(from the speaker's point of view): her large blue crying crasy eyes
OXYMORON is a figure of speech by means of which contradictory words
(notions) are combined: 1) To live a life half-dead, a living death (Milton); 2) Thou
art to me a delicious torment (Emerson).

I. Speak on the following:


13

1. Lexical EMs & SDs based on the interaction of the nominative and contextually
imposed meaning:
a) metaphor
b) antonomasia
c) metonymy
d) irony
2. Lexical EMs & SDs based on the interaction of the nominative and the derivative
logical meaning:
a) zeugma
b) pun
3. Lexical EMs & SDs based on the interaction of the logical and the emotive meaning:
a) interjections and exclamatory words
b) epithets
c) oxymoron
II. In your books of either home reading or individual reading find
the above mentioned expressive means and stylistic devices and
comment upon their structure and stylistic function.
III. Do the following exercises:
Exercise I. Analyse the given cases of metaphor from all sides mentioned
above - semantics, originality, expressiveness, syntactic function, vividness and
elaboration of the created image. Pay attention to the manner in which two
objects (actions) are identified: with both named or only hint the
metaphorized one presented explicit:
1. And the skirts! What a sight were those skirts! They were nothing but vast
decorated pyramids; on the summit of each was stuck the upper half of a
princess. (A. B.)
2. She was handsome in a rather leonine way. Where this girl was a lioness,
the other was a panther-lithe and quick. (Ch)
3. He felt the first watery eggs of sweat moistening the palms of his hands.
14

(W. S.)
4. He smelled the ever-beautiful smell of coffee imprisoned in the can. (J. St.)
5. They walked along, two continents of experience and feeling, unable to
communicate. (W. G.)
6. Geneva,

mother

of

the

Red

Cross,

hostess

of humanitarian

congresses for the civilizing of warfare! (J. R.)


7. Autumn comes
And trees are shedding their leaves,
And Mother Nature blushes
Before disrobing. (N. W.)
Exercise II. Indicate metonymies, state the type of relations between the
object named and the object implied, which they represent, also pay attention
to the degree of their originality, and to their syntactical function:
1. He went about her room, after his introduction, looking at her pictures, her
bronzes and clays, asking after the creator of this, the painter of that, where a third
thing came from. (Dr.)
2. She wanted to have a lot of children, and she was glad that things were that
way, that the Church approved. Then the little girl died. Nancy broke with Rome
the day her baby died. It was a secret break, but no Catholic breaks with Rome
casually. (J. O'H.)
3. "Evelyn Clasgow, get up out of that chair this minute." The girl looked up from
her book.
"What's the matter?
"Your satin. The skirt'll be a mass of wrinkles in the back." (E. F.)
4. She saw around her, clustered about the white tables, multitudes of violently
red lips, powdered cheeks, cold, hard eyes, self-possessed arrogant faces, and
insolent bosoms. (A. B.)
5. "Some remarkable pictures in this room, gentlemen. A Holbein, two Van
Dycks and if I am not mistaken, a Velasquez. I am interested in pictures."
15

(Ch.)
6. I crossed a high toll bridge and negotiated a no man's land and came to the
place where the Stars and Stripes stood shoulder to shoulder with the Union Jack.
(J. St.)
7. He made his way through the perfume and conversation. (I. Sh.)

Exercise III. Analyse various cases of play on words, indicate which type is
used, how it is created, what effect it adds to the utterance:
1. After a while and a cake he crept nervously to the door of the parlour. (A. T.)
2. There are two things I look for in a man. A sympathetic character and full lips. (I.
Sh.)
3. Dorothy, at my statement, had clapped her hand over mouth to hold down
laughter and chewing gum. (Jn. B.)
4. "Someone at the door," he said, blinking.
"Some four, I should say by the sound," said Fili. (A. T.)
5. He may be poor and shabby, but beneath those ragged trousers beats a
heart of gold. (E.)
6. Babbitt respected bigness in anything: in mountains, jewels, muscles, wealth
or words. (S. L.)
7. Men, pals, red plush seats, white marble tables, waiters in white aprons. Miss
Moss walked through them all. (M.)
8. My mother wearing her best grey dress and gold brooch and a faint pink flush
under each cheek bone. (W. Gl.)
9. "There is only one brand of tobacco allowed here - 'Three nuns'. None
today, none tomorrow, and none the day after." (Br. B.)
10. Good morning," said Bilbo, and he meant it. The sun was shining and the
grass was very green. (A. T.)

Exercise IV. In the following excerpts you will find mainly examples of
16

verbal irony. Explain what conditions made the realization of the opposite
evaluation possible. Pay attention to the part of speech which is used in
irony, also its syntactical function:
1. When the war broke out she took down the signed photograph of the Kaiser and,
with some solemnity, hung it in the men-servants' lavatory; it was her one
combative action. (E. W.)
2. From her earliest infancy Gertrude was brought up by her aunt. Her aunt had
carefully instructed her to Christian principles. She had also taught her
Mohammedanism, to make sure. (L.)
3. "Well. It's shaping up into a lovely evening, isn't it?"
"Great," he said.
"And if I may say so, you're doing everything to make it harder, you
little sweet." (D. P.)
4. Mr. Vholes is a very respectable man. He has not a large business,
but he is a very respectable man. He is allowed by the greater attorneys
to be a most respectable man. He never misses a chance in his practice
which is a mark of respectability, he never takes any pleasure, which is
another mark of respectability, he is reserved and serious which is another
mark of respectability. His digestion is impaired which is highly respectable.
(D.)
5. Several months ago a magazine named Playboy which concentrates
editorially on girls, books, girls, art, girls, music, fashion, girls and girls,
published an article about old-time science-fiction. (M. St.)
6. Apart from splits

based on politics,

racial, religious and ethnic

backgrounds and specific personality differences, we're just one cohesive


team. (D. U.)
7. I had been admitted as a partner in the firm of Andrews and Bishop,
and throughout 1927 and 1928 I enriched myself and the firm at the rate of
perhaps forty dollars a month. (Jn. B.)
8. Last time it was a nice, simple, European-style war. (I. Sh.)
17

9. But every Englishman is born with a certain miraculous power that makes
him master of the world. As the great champion of freedom and national
independence he conquers and annexes half the world and calls it
Colonization. (B. Sh.)

Exercise V. Analyse the following cases of antonomasia. State the type of


meaning employed and implied; indicate what additional information is
created by the use of antonomasia; pay attention to the morphological and
semantic characteristics of common nouns used as proper names:
1. "Her mother is perfectly unbearable. Never met such a Gorgon." (O.W.)
2. Cats and canaries had added to the already stale house an entirely new
dimension of defeat. As I stepped down, an evil-looking Tom slid by us
into the house. (W. Gl.)
3. Kate kept him because she knew he would do anything in the world
if he were paid to do it or was afraid not to do it. She had no illusions
about him. In her business Joes were necessary. (J. St.)
4. In the moon-landing year what choice is there for Mr. and Mrs.
Average-the programme against poverty or the ambitious NASA project? (M.
St.)
5. We sat down at a table with two girls in yellow and three men, each
one introduced to us as Mr. Mumble. (Sc. F.)
Exercise VI. Discuss the structure and semantics of epithets in the following
examples. Define the type and function of epithets:
1. He has that unmistakable tall lanky "rangy" loose-jointed graceful
closecropped formidably clean American look. (I. M.)
2. He's a proud, haughty, consequential, turned-nosed peacock. (D.)
3. The Fascisti, or extreme Nationalists, which means black-shirted, knifecarrying, club-swinging, quick-stepping, nineteen- year-old-pot-shot patriots,
have worn out their welcome in Italy. (H.)
18

4. Harrison-a fine, muscular, sun-bronzed, gentle-eyed, patrician-nosed, steakfed, Gilman-Schooled, soft-spoken, well-tailored aristocrat was an out-and-out
leaflet-writing revolutionary at the time. (Jn. B.)
5. Her painful shoes slipped off. (U.)
6. She was a faded white rabbit of a woman. (A. C.)
7. And she still has that look, that don't-you-touch-me look, that women
who were beautilul carry with them to the grave. (J. B.)
8. Ten-thirty is a dark hour in a town where respectable
doors are locked at nine. (T. C.)
9."Thief!" "Pilon shouted. "Dirty pig of an untrue friend!" (J. St.)
10. He acknowledged an early-afternoon customer with a be-with-you-in-aminute nod. (D. U.)
11. His shrivelled head bobbed like a dried pod on his frail stick of a body.
(J. G.)
12. The children were very brown and filthily dirty. (V. W.)
13. Liza Hamilton was a very different kettle of Irish. Her head was small
and round and it held small and round convictions. (J. St.)
Exercise VII. In the following sentences pay attention to the structure
and semantics of oxymorons. Also indicate which of their members
conveys the individually viewed feature of the object and which one
reflects its generally accepted characteristic:
1. He caught a ride home to the crowded loneliness of the barracks. (J.)
2. Sprinting towards

the

elevator he felt amazed at his own cowardly

courage. (G. M.)


3. He behaved pretty lousily to Jan. (D. C.)
4. There

were

some

bookcases

of superbly

unreadable books. (E. W.)

6. Absorbed as we were in the pleasures of travel-and I in my modest


pride at being the only examinee to cause a commotion-we were over the
old Bridge. (W. G.)
7. Harriet turned back across the dim garden. The lightless light looked down
19

from the night sky. (I. M.)


8. Sara

was a

menace

and .a

tonic, my

best enemy; Rozzie was a

disease, my worst friend. (J. Car.)


9. A neon sign reads "Welcome to Reno-the biggest little town in the
world." (A. M.)
10. Huck Finn and Holden Caulfield are Good Bad Boys of American
literature. (V.)
11. You have got two beautiful bad examples for parents. (Sc. F.)

REFERENCE LIST:
Galperin I. R. Stylistics. - Part IV (B). p.p. 139-146,148-164.
. . 11-12 . 82-92; 94-95.
Kukharenko V. A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. - p.p. 22-24; 37-38; 40-41; 4244; 46-47; 53-55; 60-61.

LEXICAL EXPRESSIVE MEANS AND STYLISTIC DEVICES


PECULIAR USE OF SET EXPRESSIONS
STYLISTIC FUNCTIONING OF MORPHOLOGIVAL FORMS
Essential Terms:
SIMILE (or LITERARY COMPARISON) a figure of speech which consists in
an explicit likening of one thing to another on the basis of a common feature: 1)
Bees flew like cake-crumbs through the golden air, white butterflies like sugared
wafers (Laurie Lee); 2) Marjorie appeared quite unconscious of the rarity of
herself, ... wearing her beauty like a kind of sleep (Laurie Lee).
20

PERIPHRASIS - a figure of speech which names a familiar object or


phenomenon in a round - about or indirect way (by means of a circumlocution
instead of a word).
1) Of all the days that's in the week
I dearly love but one day And that's the day that comes between
A Saturday and Monday.
2) I understand you are poor and wish to earn money by nursing the little boy,
my son, who has been so prematurely deprived of what can never be replaced
(Dickens).
Periphrases are classified into:
a) figurative (metonymic and metaphoric)- phrase-metonymies and phrasemetaphors: "The hospital was crowded with the surgically interesting products of
the fighting in Africa" (I. Sh.);
b) logical - phrases synonymic with the words which were substituted by
periphrases: "Mr. Du Pont was dressed in the conventional disguise with which
Brooks Brothers cover the shame of American millionaires." (M. St.)
Periphrasis may be also considered euphemistic when offers a more
polite qualification instead of a coarser one.

EUPHEMISM - I. a trope in which an unpleasant or offensive thing is described


by an indirect, polite or conventional word: With my various friends we had visited
most of these tiny, dark, smoky bars, and drunk drinks of minute size and colossal
price and watched the female hostesses at their age-old work (G.Durrell).
II. a figure of speech which consists in describing an unpleasant or offensive
object or phenomenon in a polite round-about way (a variant of periphrasis): They
think we have come by this horse in some dishonest manner (Dickens).
21

HYPERBOLE a trope which consist in a deliberate exaggeration of a feature


essential to an object or phenomenon (cf. MEIOSIS). The function is to intensify
the feature: Her family is one aunt about a thousand years old (Sc. Fitzgerald).
MEIOSIS - a trope which consists in a deliberate understatement.
DECOMPOSITION OF A SET PHRASE is alike to pun (play upon words), it
is the interplay between the literal meaning and the phraseological meaning (i.e.
figurative):
- I'm eating my heart out.
- It's evidently a diet that agrees with you. You are growing fat on it.
(Maugham)
ALLUSION is a reference to characters and events of mythology, legends, history,
specific places, literary characters that, by some association, have come to stand
for a certain thing or idea. They are based on the accumulated experience and
knowledge of the writer who expects a similar knowledge of the reader. The full
impact of an allusion comes to the reader who is aware of the origin of the word,
phrase, place or character allude to: The town gossips called her Virgin Jekyll and
Miss Hyde.
(N.Mailer)
The allusion here is to R.L. Stevensons story a strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr.
Hyde.
MORPHEMIC REPETITION - repetition of the affix in a number of adjacent
words: It was there again, more clearly than before: the terrible expression of pain
in her eyes; unblinking, unaccepting, unbelieving pain.
THE EXTENSION OF MORPHEMIC VALENCY a stylistic device which is
based on ascribing of a morpheme of one part of speech to another, which is
22

normally not correlated with this part of speech: Mr. Hamilton, you havent any
children, have you? Well, no. And Im sorry about that I guess. I am sorriest
about that.

I. Speak on the following:


1. Figure of identity:
a) simile
b) periphrasis & euphemism as a variant of periphrasis
2. Figures of inequality:
a) hyperbole
b) meiosis
3. Particular use of set expressions:
a) decomposition of a set phrase
b) allusion
4. The stylistic functioning of grammatical forms:
a) morphemic repetition and the extension of morphemic valency
II. In your books of either home reading or individual reading find
the above mentioned expressive means and stylistic devices and
comment upon their structure and stylistic function.
III. Do the following exercises:
Exercise I. In the following examples concentrate on cases of hyperbole and
understatement. Pay attention to their originality or staleness, to other SDs
promoting their effect, to exact words containing the foregrounded emotive
meaning:
1. I was scared to death when he entered the room. (S.)
2. The girls were dressed to kill. (J. Br.)
23

3. Newspapers are the organs of individual men who have jockeyed themselves to
be party leaders, in countries where a new party is born every hour over a glass
of beer in the nearest cafe. (J. R.)
4. I was violently sympathetic, as usual. (Jn. B.)
5. Four loudspeakers attached to the flagpole emitted a shattering roar of what
Benjamin could hardly call music, as if it were played by a collection of brass
bands, a few hundred fire engines, a thousand blacksmiths' hammers and the
amplified reproduction of a force-twelve wind. (A.S.)
6. The car which picked me up on that particular guilty evening was a Cadillac
limousine about seventy-three blocks long. (J. B.)
7. Her family is one aunt about a thousand years old. (Sc. F.)
8. He didn't appear like the same man; then he was all milk and honey-now he was
all starch and vinegar. (D.)
9. She was a giant of a woman. Her bulging figure was encased in a green crepe
dress and her feet overflowed in red shoes. She carried a mammoth red pocketbook
that bulged throughout as if it were stuffed with rocks. (Fl. O'C.)
10. She was very much upset by the catastrophe that had befallen the Bishops, but
it was exciting, and she was tickled to death to have someone fresh to whom she
could tell all about it (S. M.)
11. Babbitt's preparations for leaving the office to its feeble self during
the hour and a half of his lunch-period were somewhat less elaborate than the
plans for a general European War. (S. M.)
12. The little woman, for she was of pocket size, crossed her hands solemnly on
her middle. (G.)
13. We danced on the handkerchief-big space between the speak-easy tables.
(R.W.)
14. She wore a pink hat, the size of a button. (J. R.)
15. She was a sparrow of a woman. (Ph. L.)
16. And if either of us should lean toward the other, even a fraction of an
inch, the balance would be upset. (O.W.)
24

17. He smiled back, breathing a memory of gin at me. (W. G.)


18. About a very small man in the Navy. This new sailor stood five feet
nothing in sea boots. (Th. P.)
19. She busied herself in her midget kitchen. (. .)
20. The rain had thickened, fish could have swum through the air. (T. C.)
Exercise II. Pay attention to the stylistic function of various lexical
expressive means used individually and in convergence:
1. Constantinople is noisy, hot, hilly, dirty and

beautiful. It is packed with

uniforms and rumors. (H.)


2. Across the street a bingo parlour was going full blast; the voice of the hot dog
merchant split the dusk like an axe. The big blue blared down the street. (R. Ch.)
3. "I guess," said Mr. Hiram Fish sotto voce to himself and the world at large,
"that this has been a great little old week." (Ch.)
4. The good ships Law and Equity, these teak-built, copper-bottomed, ironfastened, brazen-faced, and not by any means fast-sailing Clippers, are laid up in
ordinary. (D.)
5. An

enormous

grand

piano

grinned

savagely

at

the curtains as if it

would grab them, given the chance. (W. Gl.)


6. On little pond the leaves floated in peace and praised heaven with their hues,
the sunlight haunting over them.(G.)
7. From the throats of the ragged black men, as they trotted up and down the
landing-stage, strange haunting notes. Words were caught up, tossed about, held in
the throat. Word-lovers, sound-lovers-the blacks seemed to hold a tone in some
warm place, under their red tongues perhaps. Their thick lips were walls under
which the tone hid. (Sh. A.)
8. It was relief not to have to machete my way through a jungle of whatare-you-talking-aboutery before I could get at him. (J. A.)
9. Outside the narrow street fumed, the sidewalks swarmed with fat stomachs. (J.
R.)
25

10. The owner, now at the wheel, was the essence of decent self-satisfaction;
a baldish, largish, level-eyed man, rugged of neck but sleek and round of
face-face like the back of a spoon bowl. (S. L.)
11. His fingertips seemed to caress the wheel as he nursed it over the dark
winding roads at a mere whispering sixty. (L. Ch.)
12. We plunged in and out of sun and shadow-pools, and joy, a glad-to-be-alive
exhilaration, jolted through me like a jigger of nitrogen. (. .)
13. These jingling

toys

in

his

pocket were

of eternal importance like

baseball or Republican Party. (S. L.)

Exercise III. State the function of the following cases of morphemic


repetition:
1. She unchained, unbolted and unlocked the door. (A. B.)
2. It was there again, more clearly than before: the terrible expression of
pain in her eyes; unblinking, unaccepting, unbelieving pain. (D. U.)
3. We were sitting in the cheapest of all the cheap restaurants that cheapen that
very cheap and noisy street, the Rue des Petits Champs in Paris. (H.)
4. Laughing,

crying,

cheering,

chaffing,

singing,

David Rossi's people

brought him home in triumph. (H. C.)


5. The procession then re-formed; the chairmen resumed their stations, and the
march was recommenced. (D.)
6. We are overbrave and overfearful, overfriendly and at the same time
frightened of strangers, we're oversentimental and realistic. (P. St.)
7. There was then a calling over of names, and great work of signing, sealing,
stamping,

inking,

and

sanding,

will exceedingly blurred, gritty and

undecipherable results. (D.)


8. Three million years ago something had passed this way, had left this unknown
and perhaps unknowable symbol f its purpose, and had returned to the planets-or
to the stars (A.C.)
26

9. "Sit down, you dancing, prancing, shambling, scrambling fool parrot! Sit
down!" (D.)
Exercise IV. Analyze the morphemic structure and the
creating the occasional words in the following examples:

purpose

of

1. The girls could not take off their panama hats because this was not far from the
school gates and hatlessness was an offence. (M. Sp.)
2. David, in his new grown-upness, had already a sort of authority. (I. M.)
3. That fact had all the unbelievableness of the sudden wound. (R. W.)
4. Lucy wasn't Willie's luck. Or his unluck either. (R. W.)
5. She was waiting for something to happen or for everything to un-happen. (. .)
6. "You asked him."
"I'm un-asking him," the Boss replied. (R. W.)
7. She was a young and unbeautiful woman. (I. Sh.)
8. "Mr. Hamilton, you haven't any children, have you?"
"Well, no. And I'm sorry about that, I guess. I am sorriest about that." (J. St.)
9. "To think that I should have lived to be good-morninged, by Belladonna Took's
son!" (A. T.)
REFERENCE LIST:
Galperin I. R. Stylistics. - Part IV. p.p. 166-177,187-189.
Kukharenko V. A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. - p.p. 18-19; 57-58.

SYNTACTICAL EXPRESSIVE MEANS AND STYLISTIC


DEVICES: COMPOSITIONAL PATTERNS OF SYNTACTICAL
ARRANGEMENT
27

Essential Terms:
INVERSION - the reversal of the normal order of words in a sentence, for the
sake of emphasis (in prose) or for the sake of the metre (in poetry): Dark they were
and golden-eyed. (Bradbury)
The stylistic inversion has the following patterns:
1) the object is placed at the beginning of the sentence (before the subject);
2) the attribute is placed after the word it modifies;
3) the predicative is placed before the subject;
4) the predicative is placed before the link-verb and both are placed before the
subject;
5) the adverbial modifier is placed at the beginning of the sentence.
6) both the adverbial modifier and the predicate are placed before the subject.
DETACHED CONSTRUCTION (DETACHMENT)- One of the secondary parts
of the sentence is detached from the word it refers to and is made to seem
independent of this word. Such parts are called detached and marked off by
brackets, dashes or commas or even by full stops or exclamation marks: "I have to
beg you for money! Daily!"

PARALLEL CONSTRUCTION (or SYNTACTIC PARALLELISM) - a figure


based on the use of the similar syntactic pattern in two or more sentences or
syntagms:
1) When the lamp is shattered
The light in the dust lies dead
When the cloud is scattered
The rainbow's glory is shed.
When the lute is broken.
Sweet tones are remembered not;
28

When the lips have spoken,


Loved accents are soon forgot.
(P.B. Shelley)
2)

I was a stranger, and ye took me in: Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick,

and ye visited me: I was in prison and ye came into me (St. Matthew).
CHIASMUS (REVERSED PARALLEL CONSTRUCTIONS) - a figure of
speech based on the repetition of a syntactical pattern with a reverse word-order
(see: SYNTACTIC PARALLELISM):
1) Let the long contention cease:
Geese are swans, and swans are geese.
(M. Arnold)
2) Beauty is truth, truth beautyt - that is all
Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.
(Keats)
3) But many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be first
(St. Matthew).

I. Speak on the following:


Compositional patterns of syntactical arrangement:
1)

inversion;

2)

detachment;

3)

parallel constructions;

4)

reversed parallel constructions (chaismus).

II. In your books of either home reading or individual reading find


the above mentioned expressive means and stylistic devices and
comment upon their structure and stylistic function.
III. Do the following exercises:
29

Exercise III. Find and analyse cases of detachment, suspense and inversion.
Comment on the structure and functions of each:
1. She narrowed her eyes a trifle at me and said I looked exactly

like

Celia

Briganza's boy. Around the mouth. (S.)


2. She was crazy about you. In the beginning. (R. W.)
3. Of all my old association,

of all my old pursuits and hopes of all the living

and the dead world, this one poor soul alone comes natural to me. (D.)
4. On, on he wandered, night and day, beneath the blazing sun, and the cold pale
moon; through the dry heat of noon, and the damp cold of night; in the grey light
of morn and the red glare of eve. (D.)
5. Benny Collan, respected guy, Benny Collan wants to marry her. An agent
could ask for more? (T. C.)
6. Women are not made for attack. Wait they must. (J. C.)
7. Out came the chase - in went the horses - on sprang - the boys - in got the
travellers. (D.)
8. Then he

said:

"You think it's

so? She

was mixed up in this lousy

business? (J. B.)


9. And she saw that Gopher Prairie was merely an enlargement of all the
hamlets which they had been passing. Only to the eyes of a Kennicot was it
exceptional. (S. L.)
REFERENCE LIST:
Galperin I. R. Stylistics. - Part V (A), p.p. 191-]93, 202-225.
. . . IV, . 160-169; 182-187.
Kukharenko V. A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. - p.p. 66-67; 76-77.

SYNTACTICAL EXPRESSIVE MEANS AND STYLISTIC


30

DEVICES: COMPOSITIONAL PATTERNS OF SYNTACTICAL


ARRANGEMENT
Essential Terms:
REPETITION is based upon a repeated occurrence of one and the same wordgroup. And a great desire for peace, peace of no matter what kind, swept through
her. (A.B.) Depending upon the position a repeated unit occupies in the utterance
there are several types of repetition:
ANAPHORA the beginning of some successive sentences, syntagms, lines, etc.
(with the same sounds, morphemes, words or word-combinations) is repeated
a, a, a. The main stylistic function of anaphora is not so much to
emphasize the repeated unit as to create the background for the nonrepeated unit, which, through its novelty, becomes foregrounded.
EPIPHORA repetition of the final word or word-group especially in poetry
when some stanzas end with the same line a, a, a. The main function of
epiphora is to add stress to the final words of the sentence.
ANADIPLOSIS (CATCH REPETITION) -- a figure which consists in the
repetition of the same word at the end of one and at the beginning of the following
sense-groups (or lines). Thus the two or more parts are linked a, a.
Specification of the semantics occurs here too, but on a more modest level.
CHAIN REPETITION a string of several successive anadiplosis: a, ab,
bc, c . It smoothly develops logical reasoning.
FRAMING - the beginning of the sentence is repeated in the end, thus forming
the "frame" for the non-repeated part of the sentence (utterance) a a. The
31

function of framing is to elucidate the notion mentioned in the beginning of the


sentence. Between two appearances of the repeated unit there comes the
developing middle part of the sentence which explains and clarifies what was
introduced in the beginning, so that by the time it is used for the second time its
semantics is concretized and specified.
SUCCESSIVE REPETITION is a string of closely following each other
reiterated units - a, a, a . This is the most emphatic type of repetition which
signifies the peak of emotions of the speaker.
ORDINARY

REPETITION

emphasizes

both

the

logical

and

the

emotional meanings of the reiterated word (phrase). In this type of repetition the
repeated element has no definite place in the sentence or utterance.
PROLEPSIS (SYNTACTIC TAUTOLOGY) a figure of syntactic anticipation,
the use of words not applicable till a later time. In prolepsis the noun subject is
repeated in the form of a corresponding personal pronoun. Miss Tilly Webster, she
slept forty days and nights without waking up. (O. H.)
SUSPENSE (RETARDATION) is a deliberate delay in the completion of the
expressed thought. What has been delayed is the main task of the utterance, and the
reader awaits the completion of the utterance with an everincreasing tension. A
suspence is achieved by a repeated occurrence of phrases or clauses expressing
condition, supposition, time and the like, all of which hold back the conclusion of
the utterance: Mankind, says a Chinese manuscript, which my friend was obliging
enough to read and explain to me, for the firsteventy thousand ages ate their meat
raw. (Ch. L)
CLIMAX (GRADATION) is a figure based upon such an arrangement of parts of
an utterance which secures a gradual increase in semantic significance or
32

emotional tension: I dont attach any value to money, I dont care about it, I dont
know about it, I dont want it, I dont keep it, it goes away from me directly.
The increase in significance may be: logical, emotional or quantitative.
Logical the relative importance of the components is looked from the point
of view of the concepts embodied in them. Every successive word or wordcombination in logical climax is semantically more important than the previous
one.
Emotive climax is based on the relative emotive meaning. It is mainly found
in one sentence as emotive charge cannot hold long. It is usually based on
repetition of the semantic centre, usually expressed by an adjective or adverb and
the introduction of an intensifier between the repeated items.
Quantitative is an evident increase in the volume of the corresponding
concepts: numerical increase, concepts of measure and time.
ANTICLIMAX is the reverse of climax. It is the descent from the sublime to the
ridiculous. In this figure of speech emotive or logical importance accumulates only
to be unexpectedly broken and brought down. The sudden reversal usually brings
forth a humorous or ironic effect. Many paradoxes are based on anticlimax:
America is the Paradise for women. That is why, like Eve, they are so extremely
anxious to get out of it!

ANTITHESIS (a variant of SYNTACTIC PARALLELISM) - a figure of speech


based on parallel constructions with contrasted words (usually antonyms):
1) Yet each man kills the thing he loves,
By each let this be heard,
Some do it with a bitter look,
Some with a flattering word,
The coward does it with a kiss,
The brave man with a sword!
33

(O.Wilde)
2) God made the country, and man made the town (Cowper).
NONSENSE OF NON-SEQUENCE rests on the extension of syntactical valency
and results in joining two semantically disconnected clauses into one sentence, as
in: "Emperor Nero played the fiddle, so they burnt Rome." (E.) Two disconnected
statements are forcibly linked together by cause / effect relations.

I. Speak on the following:


Compositional pattern of syntactical arrangement:
5) repetition;
6) prolepsis (syntactic tautology);
7) suspense;
8) climax / anticlimax;
9) antithesis;
10) nonsense of non-sequence.
II. In your books of either home reading or individual reading find
the above mentioned expressive means and stylistic devices and
comment upon their structure and stylistic function.
III. Do the following exercises:
Exercise I. From the following examples you will get a better idea of the
functions of various types of repetition, and also of parallelism and
chiasmus:
1. I wake up and I'm alone and I walk round Warley and I'm alone; and I talk
with people and I'm alone and I look at his face when I'm home and it's dead.
(J. Br.)
2. I might as well face facts: good-bye, Susan, good-bye a big car, good-bye a big
house, good-bye power, good-bye the silly handsome dreams. (J.Br.)
34

3. I really don't see anything romantic in proposing. It is very romantic to be in


love. But there is nothing romantic about a definite proposal. (O. W.)
4. I wanted to knock over the table and hit him until my arm had no more strength
in it, then give him the boot, give

him

the

boot,

give

him

the

boot - I

drew a deep breath. (J. Br.)


5. On her father's being groundlessly suspected, she felt sure. Sure. Sure. (D.)
6. Now he understood. He understood many things. One can be a person first. A
man first and then a black man or a white man. (P. A.)
7. Obviously-this is a streptococcal infection. Obviously. (W.D.)
8. And everywhere were people-People going into gates and coming out of gates.
People staggering and falling. People fighting and cursing. (P. A.)
9.

Then

there

was

something

between

them.

There

was..

There was. (Dr.)


10.

Living is the art of loving.


Loving is the art of caring.
Caring is the art of sharing.
Sharing is the art of living. (W. H. D.)

11. I notice that father's is a large hand, but never a heavy one when it
touches me, and that father is a rough voice but never an angry one
when it speaks to me. (D.)
Exercise II. Discuss the semantic centres and structural peculiarities of
antithesis:
1. Mrs. Nork had a large home and a small husband. (S. L.)
2. I like big parties. They're so intimate. At small parties there isn't any
privacy. (Sc. F.)
3. There is Mr. Guppy, who was at first

as open as the sun at noon,

but who suddenly shut up as close as midnight. (D.)


4. His coat-sleeves being a great deal too long, and his trousers a great
deal too short, he appeared ill at ease in his clothes. (D.)
35

5. It is safer to be married to the man you can be happy with than


to the man you cannot be happy without. (E.)
6. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of
wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was
the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of
Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair;
we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going
direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way-in short the
period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest
authorities insisted on its being received for good or for evil, in the
superlative degree of comparison only. (D.)
Exercise III. Indicate the type of climax. Pay attention to its structure and
the semantics of its components:
1. He saw clearly that the best thing was a cover story or camouflage. As he
wondered and wondered what to do, he first rejected a stop as impossible,
then as improbable, then as quite dreadful. (W. G.)
2."Is it "shark?" said Brody.

The possibility that he at last was going to

confront the fish-the beast, the monster, the nightmare-made Brody's heart
pound. (P. B.)
3. We were all in all to one another, it was the morning of life, it was bliss, it
was frenzy, it was everything else of that sort in the highest degree. (D.)
4. "I shall be sorry, I shall be truly sorry to leave you, my friend." (D.)
5. After so many kisses and promises-the lie given to her dreams, her words, the lie
given to kisses, hours, days, weeks, months of unspeakable bliss. (Dr.)
6. In marriage the upkeep of woman is often the downfall of man. (Ev.)
7. Women have a wonderful instinct about things. They can discover everything
except the obvious. (O. W.)

36

REFERENCE LIST:
Galperin I. R. Stylistics. - Part V (A), p.p. 191-193,202-225.
. . . IV, . 160-169; 182-187.
Kukharenko V. A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. - p.p. 72-73; 84-85; 86-87.

SYNTACTICAL EXPRESSIVE MEANS AND STYLISTIC


DEVICES: PARTICULAR WAYS OF COMBINING PARTS OF
THE UTTERANCE
Essential Terms:
ASYNDETON a deliberate avoidance of connectives where they are expected to
be: The audience rolled about in their chairs; they held their sides, they groaned in
an agony of laughter.
POLYSYNDETON is an insistent repetition of a connective between words,
phrases or clauses of an utterance:
They were all three from Milan and one of them was to be a lawyer, and one was
to be a painter, and one had intended to be a soldier, and after we were finished
with the machines, sometimes we walked back together. (H.)
ATTACHMENT (THE GAP-SENTENCE LINK) is mainly to be found in
various representations of the voice of the personage dialogue, reported
speech, entrusted narrative. In the attachment the second part of the
utterance is separated from the first one by a full stop though their
37

semantic and grammatical ties remain very strong. The second part
appears as an afterthought and is often connected with the beginning of
the utterance with the help of a conjunction which brings the latter into
the foregrounded opening position: "It wasn't his fault. It was yours. And
mine. I now humbly beg you to give me the money with which to buy
meals for you to eat. And hereafter do remember it: the next time I shan't
beg. I shall simply starve." (S. L.); "Prison is where she belongs. And my
husband agrees one thousand per cent." (T. C.)
APOKOINU CONSTRUCTIONS Here the omission of the pronominal
(adverbial) connective creates a blend of the main and the subordinate clauses so
that the predicative or the object of the first one is simultaneously used as the
subject of the second one: He was the man killed that deer. (R.W.)
ELLIPSIS is absence of one or both principal parts (the subject, the predicate in
the sentence). The missing parts are either present in the syntactic environment of
the sentence (verbal context), or they are implied by the situation. In any case these
parts are easily restored from the context:
- Where is the man Im going to speak to?
- Out in the garden.
APOSIOPESIS (BREAK-IN-THE-NARRATIVE) This term which in Greek
means silence denotes intentional abstention from continuing the utterance to the
end. The speaker (writer) either begins a new utterance or stops altogether: These
people talked to me like this because they dont know who I am. If only they knew
(M. T.)
QUESTION-IN-THE-NARRATIVE (RATIOCINATIVE QUESTION) a figure
in the form of a question which a speaker often asks and often answers himself:
For what is left the poet there?
38

For Greeks a blush for Greece a tear. (G. B.)


RHETORICAL QUESTION a figure of speech based on a statement expressed
in an interrogative form, which requires no answer on the part of the reader or
speaker: What is this life if, full of care, we have no time to stand and stare?
(Dav.)
REPRESENTED SPEECH is the representation of the actual utterance by a
second person, usually by the author, as if it had been spoken, whereas it had not
been spoken, but is only represented in the authors words:
1. Could he bring a reference from where he now was? He could. (Dr.)
2. An idea had occurred to Soames. His cousin Jolyon was Irenes trustee, the
first step would be to go down and see him at Robin Hill. Robin Hill! (G.)
Represented speech exists in 2 varieties: uttered represented speech (1) and
unuttered or inner represented speech (2).
LITOTES (A VARIANT OF PERIPHRASIS) a figure of speech which consists
in the affirmation of the contrary by negation: The wedding was no distant
event. (Au.)

I. Speak on the following:


1.1. Particular ways of combining parts of the utterance (Types of connection):
1) asyndeton;
2) polysyndeton;
3) attachment( the gap-sentence link);
4) apokoinu constructions
1.2. Particular use of colloquial constructions:
1) ellipsis
2) aposiopesis (break-in-the-narrative)
39

3) question-in-the-narrative
4) rhetorical question
5) represented speech
1.3. Stylistic use of the structural meaning:
1) litotes
II. In your books of either home reading or individual reading find
the above mentioned expressive means and stylistic devices and
comment upon their structure and stylistic function.
III. Do the following exercises:
Exercise I. Discuss different types of stylistic devices dealing with the
completeness of the sentence:
1.
In manner, close and dry. In voice, husky and low. In face, watchful
behind a blind. (D.).
2.

Malay Camp. A row of streets

crossing another row of streets.

Mostly narrow streets. Mostly dirty streets. Mostly dark streets. (P. A.)
3.

His forehead was narrow, his face wide, his head large, and his nose all

on one side. (D.)


4.

A solemn silence: Mr. Pickwick humorous, the old lady , the fat

gentleman cautious and Mr. Miller timorous. (D.)


5.

She merely looked at him weakly. The wonder of him! The beauty of

love! Her desire toward him! (Dr.)


6.

Ever since

he was a young man,

the

hard life on Earth,

the

panic of 2130, the starvation, chaos, riot, want. Then bucking through the
planets, the womanless, loveless years, the alone years. (R. Br.)
7.

Im a horse doctor, animal man. Do some farming, too. Near Tulip,

Texas. (. .)
8.

black

February

day.

Clouds

hewn

of ponderous timber

weighing down on the earth: an irresolute dropping of snow specks upon


the

trampled wastes. Gloom but no veiling of angularity. The second day

of Kennicott's absence. (S. L.)


40

9.

And we got down at the bridge. White cloudy sky, with mother-of-

pearl veins. Pearl rays shooting through, green and blue-white. River
roughed by a breeze. White as a new file in the distance. Fish-white
streak on the smooth pin-silver upstream. Shooting new pins. (J. C.)
10.

This is a story how a Baggins had an adventure. He may have

lost the neighbours' respect, but he gained- well, you will see whether
he gained anything in the end. (A. T.)
11.

"People liked to be with her. And-" She paused again, "-and she

was crazy about you." (R. W.)


12.

What I had seen of Patti didn't really contradict Kitty's view

of her: a girl who means well, but. (D. U.)


13.

"He was shouting out that he'd come back, that his mother had better

have the money ready for him. Or else! That is what he said: 'Or else!' It
was a threat." (Ch.)
14.
he'll

"Listen,
know

I'll
my

talk
voice.

to

the

Will

butler

that

pass

over
me

that
in

or

phone
do

and
have

to ride on your back?"


"I just work here," he said softly. "If I didn't-" he let, the rest hang in
the air, and kept on smiling. (R. Ch.)
15. I told her, "You've always acted the free woman, you've never let
any

thing

stop

you

from-"

(He

checks himself, goes on hurriedly).

"That made her sore." (J. O'H.)


16.

"Well,

they'll

get

chance

now

to

show-"

(hastily):

"I don't mean-But let's forget that." (O'N.)


17.And it was unlikely that anyone would trouble to look there-until-untilwell. (Dr.)
18. There was no breeze came through the door. (H.)
19.

I love Nevada. Why, they don't even have mealtimes here. I never

met so many people didn't own a watch. (A. M.)


20.

Go down to Lord and Taylors or someplace and get yourself


41

something real nice to impress the boy invited you. (J. K.)
21.There was a whisper in my family that it was love drove him out and
not love of the wife he married. (J. St.)

Exercise II. Specify stylistic functions of the types of connection given


below:
1. "What sort of a place is Dufton exactly?"
"A lot of mills. And a chemical factory. And a Grammar school and a war
memorial and a river that runs different colours each day. And a cinema
and fourteen pubs. That's really all one can say about it." (J. r.)
2. Then from the town pour Wops and Chinamen and Polaks, men and
women in trousers and rubber coats and oilcloth aprons. They come
running to clean and cut and pack and cook and can the fish. The whole
street rumbles and groans and screams and rattles while the silver rivers
of fish pour in and out of the boats and the boats rise higher and higher
in the water until they are empty. The canneries rumble and rattle and
squeak until the last fish is cleaned and cut and cooked and canned and
then the whistles scream again and the dripping smelly tired Wops and
Chinamen and Polaks, men and women struggle out and droop their ways
up the hill into the town and Cannery Row becomes itself again-quiet and
magical. (J. St.)
3. By the time he had got all the bottles and dishes and knives and
forks and glasses and plates and spoons and things piled up on big trays,
he was getting very hot, and red in the face, and annoyed. (A. T.)
4. Bella soaped his face and rubbed his face, and soaped his hands
rubbed

his

hands,

and

splashed him,
42

and

and rinsed him, and towelled

him, until he was as red as beetroot. (D.)


5. Secretly, after the nightfall, he visited the home of the Prime Minister.
He

examined it from

top

to bottom.

He measured all the doors and

windows. He took up the flooring. He inspected the plumbing. He


examined the furniture. He found nothing. (L.)
6. With these hurried words Mr. Bob Sawyer pushed the postboy

on

one

side, jerked his friend into the vehicle, slammed the door, put up the
steps, wafered the bill on the street-door, locked it, put the key into his
pocket, jumped into the dickey, gave the word for starting. (D.)
7."Well, guess it's about time to turn in." He yawned, went out to look at
the thermometer, slammed the door, patted her head, unbuttoned his
waistcoat, yawned, wound the clock, went to look at the furnace, yawned
and clumped upstairs to bed, casually scratching his thick woolen un dershirt. (S. L.)
8. "Give me an example," I said quietly.

"Of something that means

something. In your opinion." (T. C.)


9. "I got a small apartment over the place. And, well, sometimes I stay
over. In the apartment. Like the last few nights." (D. U.)
10. "He is a very deliberate, careful guy and we trust each other
completely. With a few reservations." (D. U.)

43

FUNCTIONAL STYLES
Each style of the literary language makes use of a group of language means the
interrelation of which is peculiar to the given style. It is the coordination of the
language means and stylistic devices that shapes the distinctive features of each style,
and not the language means or stylistic devices themselves. Each style can be
recognized by one or more leading features, which are especially conspicuous. For
instance, the use of special terminology is a lexical characteristic of the style of
scientific prose, and one by which it can easily be recognized.
A FUNCTIONAL STYLE can be defined as a system of coordinated,
interrelated and interconditioned language means intended to fulfill a specific
function of communication and aiming at a definite effect.

Typology of Functional Styles:


Style
Official
Scientific
Publicistic

Form
Written
Written
Written
and oral

Newspaper

Written

fiction

Written

Domain
Affairs
Science

Function
Information
Information

Human life

Persuasion

Everyday

information

life

Aesthetic

Art

influence

Character
Logical
Logical
Logical +
emotional
Logical
emotional

The English language has evolved a number of functional styles easily


distinguishable one from another. They are not homogeneous and fall into several
44

variants all having some central point of resemblance. Thus, I. R.Galperin


distinguishes five classes:

A. The Belles-Lettres Style


1. Poetry;
2. Emotive Prose;
3. The Drama.
B. Publicistic Style
1. Oratory and Speeches;
2. The Essay;
3. Articles.
C. Newspapers
1. Brief News Items;
2. Headlines;
3. Advertisements and Announcements;
4. The Editorial.
D. Scientific Prose
E. Official Documents.

THE BELLES-LETTRES STYLE


Poetry
Emotive Prose
The Drama
Each of these substyles has certain common features, typical of the general belleslettres style.
The common features of the substyles may be summed up as follows. First of all,
45

comes the common function, which may broadly be called aesthetical-cognitive.


Since the belles-lettres style has a cognitive function as well as an aesthetic one, it
follows that it has something in common with scientific style, but the style of
scientific prose is mainly characterized by an arrangement of language means which
will bring proofs to clinch a theory. Therefore we say that the main function of
scientific prose is proof. The purpose of the belles-lettres style is not to prove but
only to suggest a possible interpretation of the phenomena of life by forcing the
reader to see the viewpoint of the writer.
The belles-lettres style rests on certain indispensable linguistic features, which
are:
1. Genuine, not trite, imagery achieved by purely linguistic devices.
2. The use of words in contextual and very often in more than one
dictionary meaning, or at least greatly influenced by the lexical
environment.
3. A vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser degree the
author's personal evaluation of things or phenomena.
4. A peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax, a kind
of lexical and syntactical idiosyncrasy.
5. The introduction of the typical features of colloquial language to a
full degree or a lesser one or a slight degree, if any.

Poetry
The first differentiating property of poetry is its orderly form, which is based
mainly on the rhythmic and phonetic arrangement of the utterances. The rhythmic
aspect call forth syntactical and semantic peculiarities which also fall into more or
less strict orderly arrangement. Both the syntactical and semantic aspects of the poetic
substyle may be defined as compact, for they are held in check by rhythmic patterns.
Both syntax and semantics comply with the restrictions imposed by the rhythmic
pattern, and the result is brevity of expression, epigram-like utterances, and fresh,
46

unexpected imagery. Syntactically this brevity is shown in elliptical and fragmentary


sentences, in detached constructions, in inversion, asyndeton and other syntactical
peculiarities.
Rhythm and rhyme are distinguishable properties of the poetic substyle
provided they are wrought into compositional patterns. They are typical only of this
one variety of the belles-lettres style.

Emotive Prose
Emotive prose has the same features as have been pointed out for the belleslettres style in general; but all these features are correlated differently in emotive
prose. The imagery is not so rich as it is in poetry, the percentage of words with
contextual meaning is not so high as in poetry, the idiosyncrasy of the author is not
so clearly discernible. Apart from metre and rhyme, what most of all distinguishes
emotive prose from the poetic style is the combination of the literary variant of the
language, both in words and syntax, with the colloquial variant. It would perhaps be
more exact to define this as a combination of the spoken and written varieties of the
language.
Present-day emotive prose is to a large extent characterized by the breaking-up of
traditional syntactical designs of the preceding periods. Not only detached
constructions, but also fragmentation of syntactical models, peculiar, unexpected
ways of combining sentences are freely introduced into present-day emotive prose.

The Drama
The third subdivision of the belles-lettres style is the language of plays. Unlike
poetry, which, except for ballads, in essence excludes direct speech and therefore
dialogue, and unlike emotive prose, which is a combination of monologue and
dialogue, the language of plays is entirely dialogue. The author's speech is almost
entirely excluded except for the playwright's remarks and stage directions,
significant though they may be.
47

PUBLICISTIC STYLE
Publicistic style also falls into three varieties, each having its own distinctive
features. Unlike other styles, the publicistic style has spoken varieties, in particular,
the oratorical substyle. The development of radio and television has brought into
being a new spoken variety, namely, the radio commentary. The other two are the
essay (moral, philosophical, literary) and articles (political, social, economic) in
newspapers, journals and magazines. Book reviews in journals and magazines and
also pamphlets are generally included among essays.
The general aim of the publicistic style, which makes it stand out as a separate
style, is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion, to convince the
reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the
only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech,
essays or article not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as
well. Due to its characteristic combination of logical argumentation and emotional
appeal, the publicistic style has features common with the style of scientific prose,
on the one hand, and that of emotive prose, on the other. Its coherent and logical
syntactical structure, with the expanded system of connectives, and its careful
paragraphing, makes it similar to scientific prose. Its emotional appeal is generally
achieved by the use of words with emotive meaning, the use of imagery and other
stylistic devices as in emotive prose. But the stylistic devices used in the publicistic
style are not fresh or genuine.
Publicistic style is also characterized by brevity of expression. In some varieties
of this style it becomes a leading feature, an important linguistic means. In essays
brevity sometimes becomes epigrammatic.

Oratory and Speeches


Oratorical style is the oral subdivision of the publicistic style. Direct contact with the
listeners permits the combination of the syntactical, lexical and phonetic
peculiarities of both the written and spoken varieties of language. In its leading
48

features, however, oratorical style belongs to the written variety of language, though
it is modified by the oral form of the utterance and the use of gestures. Certain
typical features of the spoken variety of speech present in this style are: direct
address to the audience (ladies and gentlemen, honorable members, the use of
the2nd person pronoun you), sometimes contractions (I'll, won't, haven't, isn't) and
the use of colloquial words.
This style is evident in speeches on political and social problems of the day, in
orations and addresses on solemn occasions as public weddings, funerals and
jubilees, in sermons and debates and also in the speeches of counsel and judges in
courts of law.

The Essay
The essay is a literary composition of moderate length on philosophical,
social, aesthetic or literary subjects. Personality in the treatment of theme and
naturalness of expression are two of the most obvious characteristics of the essay.
This literary genre has definite linguistic traits which shape the essay as a variety of
the publicistic style.
The most characteristic language features of the essay are:
1. Brevity of expression, reaching in a good writer a degree of
epigrammaticalness.
2. The use of the first person singular.
3. A rather expanded use of connectives, which facilitate the process
of grasping the correlation of ideas.
4. The abundant use of emotive words.
5. The use of similes and metaphors as one of media for the
cognitive process.

Articles
Irrespective of the character of the magazine and the divergence of subject matter
49

- whether it is political, literary, popular-scientific or satirical - all the already


mentioned features of the publicistic style are to be found in any article. The
character of the magazine as well as the subject chosen affects the choice and use of
stylistic devices. Words of emotive meaning, for example, are few, if any, in
popular scientific articles. Their exposition is more consistent and the system of
connectives more expanded than, say, in a satirical style.
The language of political magazines articles differs little from that of newspaper
articles. But such elements of the publicistic style as rare and bookish words,
neologisms (which sometimes require explanation in the text), traditional word
combinations and parenthesis are more frequent here than in newspaper articles.
Literary reviews stand closer to essays both by their content and by their linguistic
form. More abstract words of logical meaning are used in them, they more often
resort to emotional language and less frequently to traditional set expressions.

NEWSPAPER STYLE
English newspaper style may be defined as a system of interrelated lexical,
phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by the community
speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of
informing and instructing the leader.
Since the primary function of the newspaper style is to impart information the
four basic newspaper features are:
1.

Brief news items and communiques;

2.

Advertisements and announcement;

3.

The headline;

4.

The editorial.

Brief News Items


The function of a brief news is to inform the reader. It states only facts without
50

giving comments. This accounts for the total absence of any individuality of
expression and the almost complete lack of emotional coloring. It is essentially
matter-of-fact, and stereotyped forms of expression prevail.
The newspaper style has its specific features and is characterized by an extensive
use of:
1. Special political and economic terms.
2. Non-term political vocabulary.
3.

Newspapers clishs.

4.

Abbreviations.

5. Neologisms.
Besides, some grammatical peculiarities may characterize the style:
1. Complex sentences with a developed system of clauses.
2. Verbal constructions.
3. Syntactical complexes.
4. Attributive noun groups.
5. Specific word order.

The Headline
The headline is the title given to a news item or a newspaper article. The main
function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly of what the news that follows
is about. Sometimes headlines contain elements of appraisal, i.e. they show the
reporter's or paper's attitude to the facts reported.
The basic language peculiarities of headlines lie in their structure. Syntactically
headlines are very short sentences or phrases of a variety of patterns:
1. Full declarative sentences.
2. Interrogative sentences.
3. Nominative sentences.
4. Elliptical sentences.
5. Sentences with articles omitted.
6. Phrases with verbals.
51

7. Questions in the form of statements.


8. Complex sentences.
9. Headlines including direct speech.

Advertisements and Announcements


The function of advertisements and announcements, like that of brief news, is to
inform the reader. There are two basic types of advertisements and announcements in
the modern English newspaper: classified and non-classified.
In classified advertisements and announcements various kinds of information
are arranged according to subject-matter into sections, each bearing an appropriate
name.
As for non-classified advertisements and announcements, the variety of language
form and subject-matter is so great that hardly any essential features common to all
may be pointed out. The reader's attention is attracted by every possible means:
typographical, graphical and stylistic: both lexical and syntactical. Here there is
no call for brevity, as advertiser may buy as much space as he chooses.

The Editorial
Editorials are intermediate phenomenon bearing the stamp of both the newspaper
style and the publicistic style.
The function of the editorial is to influence the reader by giving an interpretation
of certain facts. Editorials comments on the political and other events of the day.
Their purpose is to give the editor's opinion and interpretation of news published and
suggest to the reader that it is the correct one. Like any publicistic writing, editorials
appeal not only to the reader's mind but to his feelings as well.

SCIENTIFIC PROSE
The language of science is governed by the aim of the functional style of scientific
prose, which is to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal
laws of existence, development, relations between phenomena, etc. The language
52

means used, therefore, tend to be objective, precise, unemotional, devoid of any


individuality; there is a striving for the most generalized form of expression.
The first and most noticeable feature of the style in question is the logical
sequence of utterances with clear indication of their interrelation and
interdependence. The second and no less important one is the use of terms specific to
a certain branch of science. The third characteristic feature is sentence pattern of
three types: postulatory, argumentative, and formulative. The fourth observable
feature is the use of quotations and references. The fifth one is the frequent use of
foot-notes of digressive character. The impersonality of scientific writing can also be
considered a typical feature of this style.
The characteristic features enumerated above do not cover all the peculiarities of
scientific prose, but they are the most essential ones.
OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS
The style of official documents, like other styles, is not homogeneous and is
represented by the following substyles or variants:
1. The language of business documents;
2. The language of legal documents;
3. That of diplomacy;
4. That of military documents.
This style has a definite communicative aim and accordingly has its own system
of interrelated language and stylistic means. The main aim of this type of
communication is to state the condition binding two parties in an undertaking.
In other words the aim of communication in this style of language is to reach
agreement between two contracting parties. Even protest against violations of
statutes, contracts, regulations, etc., can also be regarded as a form by which normal
cooperation is sought on the basis of previously attained concordance.
As in the case with the above varieties this style also has some peculiarities:
1. The use of abbreviations, conventional symbols, contractions;
53

2. The use of words in their logical dictionary meaning;


3. Compositional patterns of the variants of this style.
4. Absence of any emotiveness.
Do the following exercise: Analyze the texts below and indicate the
basic style-forming characteristics of each style and overlapping
features:
(1) Speech of Viscount Simon of the House of Lords:
...The noble and learned Earl, Lord Jowitt, made a speech of much
persuasiveness on the second reading raising this point, and today as is natural and
proper, he has again presented with his usual skill, and I am sure with the greatest
sincerity, many of the same considerations. I certainly do not take the view that the
argument in this matter is all on the side. One could not possibly say that when one
considers that there is considerable academic opinion at the present time in favour
of this change, and in view of the fact that there are other countries under the
British Flag where, I understand, there was a change in the law, to a greater or less
degree, in the direction which the noble and learned Earl so earnestly recommends
to the House. But just as I am very willing to accept the view that the case for
resisting the noble Earl's Amendment is not overwhelming, so I do not think it
reasonable that the view should be taken that the argument is practically and
considerably the other way. The real truth is that, in framing statuary provisions
about the law of defamation, we have to choose the sensible way between two
principles, each of which is greatly to be admitted but both of which run into some
conflict.
(2) An extract from the instruction manual:
THE CARBURETTOR
The purpose of the carburettor is to provide a mixture of petrol and air for
combustion in the engine. The mixture normally consists of one part (by weight) of
petrol to fifteen parts of air, but this mixture varies quite considerably with
54

temperature and engine speed. If there is a higher proportion of petrol the mixture
is said to be rich. A higher proportion of air gives a weak mixture.
Very simply, the carburettor consists of a tube through which the air is drawn,
and a series of very small holes known as jets which break the petrol up into tiny
droplets and pass it into the airstream in the form of a mist. The mixture of petrol
mist and air is sucked along an inlet pipe (induction manifold) and then, by way of
branches in the pipe, into each cylinder. A float chamber in the carburettor provides
a small reserve of petrol for the jets and ensures an even supply.
The flow of air into the carburettor is controlled by a butterfly throttle, which
is a flap that can be opened and closed by operating the accelerator pedal in the car.
Pressing the accelerator opens the throttle. This lets in more air which in turn sucks
more petrol vapour through the main jet. The mixture passes into the cylinders
making the engine run faster.
(3) A commercial letter:
September 16, 1998
FRAMES-BY-YOU
126 Walnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 17503
ATTENTION: MS. CYBEL MEGAN
Dear Sirs:
We are pleased to have received your order of September 15 and would like to
welcome you as a new customer of Payton's Plastics.
Your order (No. 62997) for one dozen 4"x 5" sheets of 1/8" Lucite is being
processed and will be ready for shipment on September 21. It will be delivered to
your workshop by our own van, and payment will be c.o.d. (our policy for all
orders under $100).
55

We are sure you will appreciate the clear finish and tensile strength of our entire
line of plastics. Ms. Julie Methel, your sales representative, will call on you soon
with a catalog and samples.
Cordially,
PAYTON'S PLASTICS, INC. Howard Roberts Customer relations
(4) An extract from a contract for sale/purchase of goods:
The Supplier guarantees that the goods are in all respects in accordance with the
description, technical conditions and specifications of the order, that they are free
from defects in material, design and workmanship and they conform to the
Supplier's highest standards. Should the goods prove defective during the period of
12 months from the date of putting the machine, equipment or instruments into
operation but not more than 18 months from the date of shipment, the Supplier
undertakes to remedy the defects or to replace the faulty goods delivering them
c.i.f. Baltic or Black Sea port at the Buyer's option, free of charge, or to refund the
value of the goods paid by the Buyer.
(5) A newspaper article:
Ageism Factor
I blame Prince Philip, rather than the Queen, for the extraordinarily silly
decision to support Jeffrey Archer's private bill which will allow a female child of
the monarch to inherit the crown if she is born before her brothers. Although it may
seem vaguely progressive and modern, even feminist, the truth is that it will do
nothing for women's dismal role within the reproductive system which is the basis
of all disadvantages.
If the monarchy is seen as a prize which anyone would want, then it might make
some sort of sense to open it up further to women, but in those circumstances, the
proposal emphasizes another injustice. If the former arrangement was sexist, the
new one is unacceptably ageist. Why should one child be preferred to another just
because it is older?
56

In the new spirit of the age, we have to accept that the younger our leaders or
rulers, the better their image. That is why the Conservatives are now led by
exciting, 36-year old William Hague. Some of us might be regretting the choice.
Most, I think, would agree he made a mistake in allowing his spin-doctors to
persuade him to adopt the accents of Wallace, the television entertainer of Wallace
and Gromit fame, to promote his young image.
Even so, the superiority of youth is now unassailable. Before too long, when the
monarchy falls vacant, it will go to the youngest child of either sex... are we soon
to be told that the Queen will become such a law? We rather look to the monarchy
to protect us from such nonsense. In point of fact, as I said, I suspect that Prince
Philip is to blame for this latest bit of mischief. He and Jeffrey Archer are simply
sending rude messages to their sons. Lord Archer is a Life Peer, so his opinions are
not of the slightest interest on this or any other subject, but Prince Philip deserves a
small rap on the knuckles. Some things are too important to joke about.
(The Daily Telegraph, March 2, 1998)
(6) A news item:
Standard Investor Seeking to Sell Stake
Standard Chartered is expected to be back in the bid limelight today after
reports that its biggest shareholder is looking to sell his 15pc stake.
Malaysian businessman Tan Sri Khoo is said to have been attempting to find a
buyer through a third party, with Barclays Bank one of the prime targets. The stake
is believed to have figured in the short-lived and tentative negotiations over a
Barclays bid for Standard.
Banking sources said yesterday there were two approaches involving Barclays
and Standard. But Standard sources disputed suggestions that Malcolm
Williamson, chief executive, was the driving force behind one of them despite a
meeting with Martin Taylor, Barclays chief executive.
Mr. Khoo has maintained close and friendly links with Standard since helping
the bank beat off an unwelcome bid from Lloyds more than a decade ago.
57

Banking sources say that he is unlikely to make any move without consulting
Patrick Gillam, Standard chairman, or seeking his approval.
One said: He wouldn't want to do anything which would upset Standard but it
would be surprising if he hadn't been approach about selling his stake. He's been
tremendously supportive over the years.
(The Daily Telegraph, March 2, 1998)
(7) A classified advertisement:
Companies for Sale
POLLUTION CONTROL. Company located West Midlands. Having own modern
facility in pleasant rural area with easy access to motorway network. Company
formed in 1980. Current turnover approx 750K. Profitable. Trading in UK and
internationally. Designs, supplies, installs water and wastewater treatment plant
specializing in industrial treatment schemes.
(The Daily Telegraph, March 2, 1998)
(8) From Hexameters by S. T. Coleridge:
William, my teacher, my friend! dear William
and dear Dorothea!
Smooth out the folds of my letter, and place
it on desk or on table;
Place it on table or desk; and your right hands
loosely half-closing,
Gently sustain them in air, and extending
the digit didactic,
Rest it a moment on each of the forks
of the five-forked left hand,
Twice on the breadth of the thumb, and once
on the tip of each finger;
Read with a nod of the head in a humouring
recitativo;
And, as I live, you will see my hexameters
hopping before you.
This is a galloping measure; a hop, and a trot,
and a gallop!

58

PATTERNS FOR STYLISTIC ANALYSIS


Stylistic Phonetics
1. At the level of phonetic description stylistically of interest is an instance of
substandard pronunciation (are instances of)...
2. The vowel ... is reduced to...
The consonant ... is replaced by...
The sound ... is omitted.
The word ... is completely mispronounced.
3. The substandard (colloquial, low colloquial etc.) pronunciation is rendered in
writing by deviations from standard spelling.
4. The non-standard pronunciation
a) serves for character drawing;
b) is due to the social position of the character; the low educational level of the
speaker; the dialectal peculiarities of speech; the emotional state of the
character, etc.
5. The prosodic features are rendered in writing by...
6. The emphatic stress/intonation, etc.
a) conveys a special importance to the words...
b) renders the emotional state of the personage...
c) shows the attitude of the character to ...
7. Alliteration (intentional repetition of consonants)/onomatopoeia (sound
imitation)
a) creates a melodic/rhythmic effect;
b) serves

as a

method

of euphonic

organization

c) evokes a concrete sensuous image of the phenomena described


d) serves for comic representation of foreign speech.

59

of the

text;

Stylistic Morphology
1. In the extract under consideration we observe transposition of ...
2. The pronoun ... is used instead of... in order to express ... /show
that...
3. The use of... instead of...
a) is a sign of "popular"/ illiterate/low colloquial speech;
b) creates connotations of irritation/surprise/irony etc.
4. Repetition of morphemes
a) is employed for emphasis;
b) serves the purpose of...;
c) creates indirect onomatopoeia.
5. The forms... are completely "ungrammatical" and thus show the low social
status of the speaker.
6. Stylistically colored morphemes (such as...) are signals of...
7. The substitution of... by... is stylistically relevant, because...
8. The text (the personage's discourse, the dialogue, etc.) abounds in contracted
forms, which

render colloquial (informal) character of communication.

Stylistic Lexicology
1.

At the level of lexical description (lexical analysis) of interest

stylistically is/are...

2.

a)

The bookish/colloquial type of speech is marked by...

b)

The text is remarkable for the use of ... vocabulary...

c)

The bookish/colloquial/slang word ... stands for the neutral...

The use of specific vocabulary (archaisms, barbarisms, terms, dialectisms,

etc.) serves to create a particular background (historical, local, professional, etc.)


3.

The use of ... serves for character drawing (indicates the social position,

educational level; renders official / unofficial / familiar / humorous / sneering. etc.


60

manner of speech.
4.

... are used in close context


a) to achieve comic / humorous effect;
b) to create connotations of irony / mockery etc.

5.

The specific (poetic, colloquial, etc.) vocabulary gives / renders a particular

(solemn, grave, passionate, pompous, unofficial, familiar, etc.) tone to the text.
6.

The hyperbole ... is intended for emphasis.

7.

conveys the author's subjective evaluation of

8.

...

is introduced /
underestimation of...

9.

...

carries
a
sarcastic
overtone /
mockery/creates humorous connotations.

to

describe

(to

characterize)
has

by

deliberate

connotation

of

a) The text owes its vividness to the use of...


b) ... gives a vivid colourful description of...
10.

The

metaphor / metonymy /

irony replaces

traditional

nomination on the basis of...


... presents an abstract notion as a concrete thing with vigor and
vividness.
... serves for an expressive characterization of...
11.

... creates gradual intensification of meaning.

12.

The stylistic effect of... is based on defeated expectancy.

13.

... is used to bring forth a comic/humorous etc. effect.

14.

is made up by deliberate combination of words incompatible in

meaning.
15.

The stylistic function of the oxymoron is to present ... in

complexity of contrasting features.


16.

The antithesis a) is made up of lexical/contextual antonyms


a) serves to show ...
b) is realized through the use of...

61

Stylistic Syntax
1. ... creates a certain rhythmic effect/ serves for rhythmic organization of the
text/creates the inner rhythm of the author's discourse/of the narration.
2. ... creates an atmosphere of tension/dynamic activities/ monotony etc.
3. ... serves as an appending stylistic device, increasing the stylistic effect of...
4. ... conveys the emotional state of the character/ the fragmentary character of his
thoughts/introduces the elements of suspence.
5. The text, which is a specimen of colloquial speech, abounds in elliptical
sentences, such as ...
6. ... is used to imply emotional tension to the text.
7. Implied question/request/negation etc. are disguised as ...
8. ...serves for emphatic negation/assertion etc.
9. ...

convey emphasis

and

expressiveness

to

the

text/description/narration by their condensed and laconic form.


10. The stylistic effect is created by deliberate deviation from the generally
accepted arrangement of sentence elements.
11. ... is detached from the head word and placed in a prominent position
12. ... gives special prominence to
13. ... /introduces some new information/a plane of secondary predication.
14. The sentences/clauses/phrases are built after (follow) the same syntactic
pattern.
15. The stylistic effect of parallelism ...

etc.

anaphora/epiphora/ etc.
16. ... adds to the emphatic overtone of the text.

is increased by

General Stylistic Analysis of a Text


1. The text under analysis is an extract of imaginative prose.
2. It is a homogeneous whole:
a) the author's discourse
b) the personage's discourse
c) the personage's represented speech.
3. It is not a homogeneous whole: the author's discourse followed by ... (e.g. the
personage's discourse); represented speech interspersed with ... mostly the
personage's discourse with instances of ...
4. The text/the author's discourse etc. represents bookish type of speech which
is marked by the use of lengthy sentences of complicated structure/supernatural vocabulary, etc.
5. The personage's discourse ... is a specimen of colloquial type of speech. It is
remarkable for/characterized by the use of elliptical/one- member/short
member

sentences,

contracted

two-

forms, colloquial/vulgar, etc. words.

6. The text / the represented speech is of mixed character. It represents both


bookish

and

colloquial

type

7. At the level of
a) phonetic description...
b) lexicology ...
c) morphological analysis...
d) syntax...
8. Conclusion.

of

speech,

such

as...

SAMPLES OF STYLISTIC ANALYSIS


Stylistic Phonetics
Thquire!... Your thirvant! Thith ith a bad pieth of bithnith, thith ith.... (Ch.
Dickens)
At the level of phonetic description, of interest is substitution of consonants,
which is rendered in writing by intentional violation of spelling: the graphon "th"
replaces the letter "s" in the personage's discourse. This stylistic device serves for
speech characterization, it shows the character's lisp.
My daddy's coming tomorrow on a nairplane." (J. D Salinger) To create an
impression of the little girl's speech, the author resorts to graphical stylistic means:
the graphon " on a nairplane" stands for "on an airplane" . The contracted form
"daddy's" is used to show the informal character of communication (reduction of
vowels is typical of colloquial speech).
"His wife," I said... W-I-F-E. Homebody. Helpmate. Didn 't he tell you?
(Myrer)
Emphatic stress is rendered in writing by capitalized and hyphenated spelling
of the word "wife". The stylistic device of alliteration (repetition of the initial
consonant) in short one-member sentences ("Homebody. Helpmate.") strengthens
the emphatic effect.
How sweet it were,...
To lend our hearts and spirits wholly
To the music of mild-minded melancholy;
To muse and brood and live again in memory. (A. Tennyson)
The repetition of the sonorant "m" at the beginning of successive words
aims at imparting a melodic effect and creating connotations of solemnity.
Whenever the moon and the stars are set,
Whenever the wind is high,
2

AII night long in the dark and wet


A man goes riding by. (R. S. Stevenson)
In the analysed passage, stylistically of interest is a case of indirect onomatopoeia:
repeated "w" is used to reproduce the sound of wind. Unlike alliteration, indirect
onomatopoeia demands some mention of what makes the sound (see the word
"wind").
Stylistic Morphology
"They're certainly going to hold on to her," Nicole assured him briskly. "She did
shoot the man. " (S. Fitzgerald)
At the level of stylistic morphology, we observe transposition of the auxiliary
verb "did", which is used not in its primary function but for the purpose of
emphasis.
"You're the bestest good one - she said - the most bestest good one in the world"
(H.E. Bates)
The emphatic effect of the above given utterance is achieved by intentional
violation of English grammar rules (the rules of forming degrees of comparison).
The nonce-words thus formed ("bestest", "the most bestest") create humorous
connotations.
What else do I remember? Let me see.
There comes out of the cloud our house, our house - not new to me, but quite
familiar, in its earliest remembrance. On the ground floor is Peggoty's
kitchen,opening into the back yard.... (Ch. Dickens)
The reproduced extract is the author's narrative. Charles Dickens depicts
past events as if they were in the present. This stylistic device (the use of present
tense forms with reference to past actions) is called "historical present" ("praesens
historicum" in Latin). It imparts vividness to narration.

"It don't take no nerve to do somepin when there ain't nothing, he voucan
da..." (J. Steinbeck)
The stylistic purpose of the writer is to portray the character by showing
peculiarities of his idiolect. Double negation ("don't take no nerve, etc.), misuse of
person-and-number forms ("it don't"), colloquial speech form ("ain't'), and the
substandard pronunciation of fhe word -'something", rendered in writing by the
graphon "somepin'", - all this shows the low educational and cultural level of the
speaker.
Stylistic Lexicology
"I'm terribly sorry I brought you along, Nickie ", said his father, his post-operative
exhilaration gone. "It was an awful mess to put you through." (E. Hemingway).
Father's tenderness and care is stressed by the writer in the diminutive form of
the boy's name. "Nickie", compared with "Nick", shows that besides the nominal
meaning the derived word has aquired emotive meaning too. Also, the contracted
form "I'm", substandard intensifier "terribly", and the word combination "an awful
mess" participate the conveying the atmosphere of colloquial informality.
The little boy, too, we observed, had a famous appetite, and consumed schinken,
and braten, and kartoffeln, and cranberry jam... with a gallantry that did honour to
his nation. (W. Thackeray)
In the analysed extract, stylistically of interest is the use of barbarisms. The
events take place in a small German town where a boy with a remarkable appetite
is made the focus of attention. By introducing several German words into his
narrative, the author gives an indirect description of the peculiarities of the German
menu and the environment in general.
"Fostered she was with milk of Irish breast, Her sire an earl; her dame of princess
blood." (A. S.) The solemn, high-flown connotations of the utterance are due to the
use of lexical archaisms, such as "to foster" ("nourish", "bring up"), "sire" ("father"),
and "dame" ("mother"). The partial inversion at the beginning of the sentence and
4

two metonymies ("breast" and blood") add to the stylistic effect.


Then they came in. Two of them, a man with long fair moustaches and a
silent dark man... Definitely, the moustache and I had nothing in common (D.
Lessing)
At the level of stylistic semasiology, of interest is a case of genuine
metonymy. A feature of a man which catches the eye - his moustache - stands for
the man himself. The metonymy here implies that the speaker knows nothing of
the man in question; obviously, it is the first time those two have met.
At the top of the steps... amber light flooded out upon the darkness (S.
Fitzgerald).
The metaphors "amber" and "flooded out" are used by the author to create a
colourful picture of the night and the dark hall, part of which is illuminated by a
ray of light coming from the room upstairs. The metaphoric epithet "amber"
substitutes the non-figurative "yellow" (similarity of colour). The figurative verb
"flood out" stands for the traditional "illuminate"; this transfer is based on the
funcational similarity of water flooding the earth and a ray lighting dark space.
"Never mind", said the stranger, cutting the address very short, "said enough - no
more; smart chap that cabman - handled his fives well; but if I'd been your friend in
the green jemmy - damn me - punch his head-, God I would -pig'd whisper - pieman
too, - no gammon."
This coherent speech was interrupted by the entrance of the Rochester
coachman, to announce that... (Ch. Dickens)
The word "coherent", which describes Mr. Jingles speech, is inconsistent with
the actual utterance and therefore becomes self-contradictory. Here, irony as a trope
(the use of a word in the sense opposite to its primary dictionary meaning)
contributes to the general ironic colouring of the author's narration.

In the parlors he was unctuously received by the pastor and a committee of three,
wearing morning clothes and a manner of Christian intellectuality. (S. Lewis)
In the passage under analysis the author brings into play effective zeugma
("wearing morning clothes and a manner of Christian intellectuality") to convey
the ironic attitude of the protagonist to the situation and the members of the
religious committee. The affected insincere atmosphere of the reception is further
sustained by the high-flown epithet "unctuously", which adds to the stylistic effect.
"I'm eating my heart out"
"It's evidently a diet that agrees with you. You are growing fat on it." (W.S.
Maugham)
The semantic and stylistic effect of pun here is due to simultaneous
realization in close context of the phraseological and non-phraseological meanings
of the phrase "to eat one's heart out". The first speaker uses it figuratively, while
the second one intentionally interprets it as a free word combination, thus creating
ironic connotations.
Stylistic Syntax
Into a singularly restricted and indifferent environment Ida Zobel was born. (Th.
Dreiser)
The narration begins with partial inversion, promoting the adverbial
modifier of place into the most conspicuous position, thus adding relevance and
importance to the indication of the place of action.
It is not possible to describe coherently what happened next: but I, for one, am
not ashamed to confess that, though the fair blue sky was above me, and the green
spring woods beneath me, and the kindest friends around me, yet I became terribly
frightened, more frightened that I ever wish to become again, frightened in a way I
never have known either before or after. (E.M. Foster).
The syntax of this sentence paragraph shows several groups of parallel
constructions, combined with epiphora ("above me", "beneath me", "around
me"), polysyndeton ("and... and..."), and anaphora ("frightened... frightened...").
0

These stylistic devices used in convergence create a definitely perceived rhythm,


which helps to render the atmosphere of overwhelming inexplicable horror
dominating the passage. The stylistic effect is reinforced by the masterful use of
climax creating gradual intensification of meaning:
" What - a daughter of his grow up like this! Be permitted to join in this
prancing route of perdition! Never!" (Th. Dreiser)
The represented inner speech of the character culminates in a number of
exclamatory one-member sentences, which emphasize the speaker's emotions. The
sentences are placed in inverted commas, but we perceive that the author's
presentation of the man's words does not occur simultaneously with their utterance,
and the pronoun "his" used instead of "mine" indicates the fact.
Being narrow, sober, workaday Germans, they were annoyed by the groups
of restless, seeking, eager and, as Zobel saw it, rather scandalous men and
women who paraded the neighbourgood streets ... without a single thought
apparently other than pleasure. And these young scramps and their girl-friends
who sped about in automobiles. The loose indifferent parents. What was to
become of such a nation? (Th. Dreiser)
The subjectivity of Zobel`s evaluation is stressed by two parentheses ("as
Zobel saw it" and "apparently"). They lessen the finality and disapprobation of
otherwise negative qualifications of the alien (American) world. The structurally
incomplete (elliptical) sentences and the rhetorical question at the end of the
passage indicate the shift of narration from the author's discourse to the
personage's represented speech.
Stylistic Devices of Different Levels Used in Convergence
Her mother, a severe, prim German woman, died when she was only three,
leaving her to the care of her father and his sister... (Th. Drieser)
In the analysed sentence, two nonfigurative epithets ("severe" and "prim")
appear in detached apposition. This provides them with additional emphasis,
1

produced by independent stress and intonation.


Although nearly perfect, Mr. Murchinson had one little eccentricity,
which he kept extremely private. It was a mere nothing, a thought, a whim; it
seems almost unfair to mention it. The fact is he felt that nothing in the world
could be nicer than to set fire to a house and watch it blaze.
What is the harm in that? Who has not had a similar bright vision at some
time or another? There is no doubt about it, it would be nice, very nice indeed,
absolutely delightful. But most of us are well broken in and we dismiss the idea
as impracticable. Mr. Murchinson found that it took root in his mind and
blossomed there like a sultry flower. (John Collier. "Incident on a Lake')
The extract is on the whole highly ironical. Ridiculing the "little
eccentricity" of Mr. Murchinson, the author brings into play a number of various
stylistic devices: the detached ironical epithet "nearly perfect" is followed by
effective climax of meotical nature, which is combined with asyndeton ("a mere
nothing, a though, a whim... unfair to mention"). The striking discrepancy between
the monstrous idea and the way it is perceived by the character is realized through
anti-climax ("... nothing in the world could be nicer than set fire to a house...") and
further reinforced by two rhetorical questions ("What is the harm...? Who has not
had a similar vision...?"). To crown it all, we had another case of climax ("nice,
very nice indeed, absolutely delightful").
To stress the personage's obsession, the author resorts to metaphor and
simile, which are used in convergence: "... it took root in his mind and blossomed
there like a sultry flower".
Functional Analysis
"Ever do any writing?" he asked.
"Only letters," answered Anna, startled from her marking. It was obvious
that Mr. Forster was disposed to talk, and Anna put down her own marking
pencil. "Why? Do you?" she asked.
Mr. Foster waved a pudgy hand deprecatingly at the exercise book before
2

him.
" Oh! I'm always at it. Had a go at a pretty well everything in the writing
line."
"Have you had anything published?" asked Anna with proper awe. She
was glad to see that Mr. Foster looked gratified and guessed, rightly, that he
had.
"One or two little things," he admitted with a very fair show of insouciance.
"How lovely!" said Anna enthusiastically. ("Fresh from the Country ")
The passage represents an informal dialogue between a young school teacher and
her colleague. The personage's discourse is interspersed with instances of the
author's narration, which is marked by the use of bookish words (" deprecatingly",
"gratified", " awe", "insouciance", etc.) and well-organized lengthy sentences, such as
the following one, complicated by detachment: "She was glad to see that Mr. Foster
looked gratified and guessed, rightly, that he had." The dialogue, on the contrary,
abounds in short, one-member and elliptical, sentences ("Ever do any writing?"
"How lovely!"). The vocabulary, too, participates in conveying the atmosphere of
colloquial informality. Alongside with standard colloquial "had a go", it includes
interjections ("Oh!"), contracted forms ("I'm"), the colloquial intensifier "pretty",
and a word of highly generalized meaning ("little things").
A case of understatement ("One or two little things") in the end of the passage is
used to render the affected modesty of the speaker, which is becomes clear from the
subsequent author's remark.

A Sample of Complex Stylistic Analysis


J. Galsworthy. The Broken Boot (E.M. Zeltin et. Al. English Graduation Course,
1972, pp.88-89: finishing with the words ".. .walked side by side.")
Text Interpretation
The passage under analysis is taken from John Galsworthy's story "The
Broken Boot". It is about an actor whose name is Gilbert Caister. For six months
he had been without a job and a proper meal. He ran into a man whom he had
come to know in a convalescent camp, a man who thought a lot of him as an actor
and was tremendously happy to see him again.
To convey Caister's state of mind on the noon when he "emerged" from his
lodgings, the author brings into play an abundance of expressive stylistic means
and means of speech characterization.
Caister was humiliated by having been out of job, by having to wear old clothes
and being hungry. He did not want to acknowledge his poverty and fought the
humiliation by assuming an ironic attitude towards himself and things happening
to him. The irony is conveyed by lexical means: the epithet "faint" and the bookish
word "regard" (instead of "look at"). The stylistic effect is increased by the verb
"long for" used in the context inappropriate with its high-flown connotations. Cf.
Fixing his monocle, he stopped before a fishmonger's and with a faint smile on his
face, regarded a lobster.... One could long for a lobster without paying....
The metaphoric epithet "ghost" and the euphemistic metonymy "elegance"
add to the stylistic effect: Yet he received the ghost of aesthetic pleasure from the
reflected elegance of a man long fed only twice a day.... The epithet "the ghost of ..
.pleasure" forms a specific structure characterized by reversed syntactic-semantic
connections (inverted epithet). "Elegance" replaces "gauntiness" because Caister
does not like to think of himself as "gaunt".
Irony is accentuated by a mixture of styles (formal, intentionally well-bred
vs highly colloquial) in the following: "/ shall be delighted." But within him

something did not drawl: "By God, you are going to have a feed, my boy!"
To show Caister's attitude to his own distress and worry over his worn-out
clothes, the author makes use of numerous stylistic devices: mixture of styles (cf.
the use of colloquial "fancy himself and bookish "refitted" in close context); the
vulger intensifier "damned"; the anaphoric repetition of "very" and "on", combined
with parallelism: The sunlight of this damned town was very strong, very hard on
sems and button-holes, on knees and elbows! Together with the actual tweeds, in
which he could so easily fancy himself refitted...."
The list of devices employed in the second paragraph is by no means
exhaustive. Find and interpret the meaning and function of the following.
of a man long fed... of an eyeglasses well rimmed... of a velour hat salved...;
under it was his new phenomenon... ;
meche blanche;
Was it an asset or the beginning of the end?
that shadowy face;
atrophy, nerve, tissue;
perhaps, but.
When Caister ran into Bryce-Green, it was the latter's face that attracted his
attention. This idea is emphasized by the use of metonymy. ...he had passed a
face he knew. A chain of post-positive attributes with the metaphoric epithet
"cherubic" gives a vivid and colourful description of Bryce-Green's appearance:
Turning, he saw it also turn on a short and dapper figure - a face rosy, bright, round,
with an air of cherubic knowledge, as of a getter-up of amateur theatricals." This
description sets Bryce-Green at once in an opposition to Caister, as a prosperous
well-fed, well-clothed man to a poor and nearly starving one. This idea is
reinforced by the use of antithesis: And - elegantly threadbare, roundabout and
dapper - the two walked side by side. It is a complex stylistic device, in which the first
opposed part is constituted by another figure of speech, an oxymoron ("elegantly
threadbare"). The antithesis is made prominent by detachment, which is marked in

writing by paired dashes.


To conclude, one may say that within a mere page of the story Galsworthy
displays an abundance of though and feeling, proving himself once again a
brilliant stylist. The extract is a wonderful example of the author's consistency in
the realization of his creative scheme - to achive and sustain ironic effect.
Functional Analysis
The text begins with the author's discourse which constitutes the first
paragraph of the story. The second paragraph is the author's discourse intersperced
with instances of Caister's represented speech. At the end of the chosen extract,
there is a fragment of the conversation between Caister and Bryce-Green (the
personages' discourse).
The author's discourse is marked by lengthy sentences of complex structure,
such as the following: The actor, Gilbert Caister, who had been out for six months
emerged from his east-coast seaside lodging about noon in the day, after the opening
of the "Shooting the Rapids", on tour, in which he was allying Dr. Dominic in the last
act. The bookish type of speech is also signalled by general bookish words:
emerge, remake, jauntiness, regarded; fitted, aesthetic, elegance, phenomenon,
reclined, conspicuous.
The use of words pertaining to the theatrical world creates a professional
background: opening, on tour, act, production, amateur, theatricals, etc. Titles of
plays, such as "Educating Simon", "Gotta-Campus ", etc., add to the stylistic effect.
Caister's represented speech is a peculiar blend of bookish and colloquial
elements. On the one hand, there are no contracted forms in it, some sentences are
rather lengthy and there are instances of bookish words; on the other hand, it
contains elliptical sentences (Ages since he had eaten a lobster! Rather
distinguished, perhaps...) and the vulgar intensifier damned.
Colloquial elements abound in the personages discourse -Caister and BryceGreen's dialogue. Among them we find contracted forms (aren't, haven't);
interjections (By George, Jove, By God); colloquial words (What sport we had...,
here "sport" stands for the neutral "fun"; .. .you are going to have a feed, my boy!

"feed" replaces "meals"); elliptical sentences (Haven't seen you... Doing anything with
yourself?). All these elements serve to render the unofficial character of
communication.

TRAINING TEST I

1. Choose the right answer to define the stylistic device in an underlined word :
I went back to the novel I had been reading, a Simenon.
a) metaphor

c) personification

b) antonomasia

d) metonymy

2. The stylistic device which is defined as a figure of speech based on such an


arrangement of parts of the utterance which secures a gradual increase in
semantic significance or emotional tension is:
a) inversion

c) climax

b) enantiosemy

d) euphemism

3. Give the definition of a functional style and single out the main functional
styles according to Prof. Galperins classification.
4. Name the particular stylistic device, which is defined as a figure of speech
based on the use of the similar syntactic pattern in two or more sentences or
syntagms.
5. Define the particular type of euphemisms in the following phrases:
a) a woman of certain type

c) children with special needs

b) a mighty reaper

d) a sanitary engineer

e) Native Americans
6. Define the structural type of epithets in the following:
a) golden shoulders

) a devil of a woman

b) deep dark-blue crazy crying eyes

d) unbreakfasted morning

e) a please-don't-touch-me-or-I-shall-cry look
7. Oxymoron is:
a) a trope which is based on the use of an evaluative word in the
opposite meaning;
b) a trope based on the transfer of meaning;
c) a figure of speech based on the play upon words similar in spelling
but different in meaning;
d) a figure of speech and a trope based on the combination of words with
contradictory meaning.
8. Adduce illustrative examples of:
a) grammatic inversion
b) emphatic inversion
c) stylistic inversion
9. Enumerate the main types of detachment and adduce illustrative examples of
each type.
10. What are the main structural and semantic differences between the metaphor
and simile? Adduce examples to illustrate your viewpoint.

TRAINING TEST II

1. Choose the right answer to define the stylistic device in an underlined word :
took little satisfaction in telling each Mary something.
a) personification

c) antonomasia

b) simile

d) oxymoron

2. A stylistic device based on the deliberate exaggeration of a quality or


quantity essential to an object or phenomenon is:
a) metaphor

c) pun

b) zeugma

d) hyperbole

3. Give definitions of a trope and a figure of speech and adduce illustrative


examples.
4. Name the stylistic device which is defined as: a figure of speech based on the
repetition of the syntactical pattern with the reversed word order. Give
illustrative examples of each type of repetition.
5. Define the particular kind of metonymy in the following:
a) from the cradle to the grave
b) hands wanted
) I don't like either Jack London or O'Henry.
d) She wears only tweed and cashmere.
e) I prefer gold to silver with my evening dress.
6. Define the particular semantic type of metaphor in the following:
a. the branch of the bank
b. Ploughing is surgery.
Life is full of dangerous corners if you drive at a high speed.
7. Detachment is:
a) a trope based on the use of a common noun instead of a
proper name;
b) a stylistic device based on the play upon words;
c) a figure of speech based on the inverted word order in the
sentence;
d) a figure of speech based on the separation of the secondary
members of the sentence by punctuation marks.
8. Adduce illustrative examples of the main types of climax and define them.

9. Enumerate the main stylistic types of syntactic connection between the parts of
the utterance and adduce illustrative examples.
10.

State the difference between hyperbole and meiosis. Adduce illustrative

examples.

LIST OF AUTHORS WHOSE TEXTS WERE USED IN EXERCISES


. . A. Bennett
. . A. Cronin
A. H. A. Huxley
. . A. Miller
A. S. A. Saxton
A. . A. Tolkien
. W. A. Wesker
Au. J. Austen
. Sh. . Shaw
Br. B. Br. Behan
. D. Carter
Ch. A. Christie
Ch. Br. Ch. Bront
Ch. L. Ch. Lamb
Ch. R. Cildrens
Rhymes
D. Ch. Dickens
Dav. W. Davies
D. . D. Cusack
D. P. D. Parker
D. U. D. Uhnak
Dr. Th. Dreiser

E. Y. Esar
E. A. E. Albey
E. F. E. Ferber
E. W. E. Waugh
FI. O'C. Fl..OConnor
G. - Galsworthy
G. B. - George Byron
G. M. G. Markey
H. E. Hemingway
H. H. Caine
Hut. A. Hutchinson
I. M. I. Murdoch
I. Sh. I. Shaw
J. J. Jones
J. A. J. Aldridge
J. B. J. Baldwin
J. Br. J. Braine
J. Car. J. Cary
J. G. J. Gardner
J. K. J. Kerouac
J. O'H. J. O'Hara

J. R. J. Reed
St. - J. Steinbeck
In. B. - J. Barth
In Bn. - J. Bunyan
K. . . Kesey
L. St. Leacock
L. Ch. L. Charteris
M. A. Milne
M. Sp. M. Spark
M. St. Morning Star
M. T. M. Twain
N. M. N. Mailer
N. W. N. West
OC. S. OCasey
O. H. O. Henry
O. N. O. Nash
O. W. O. Wilde
P. A. P. Abrahams
P. B. P. Benchley
P. St. P. Strevens
Ph. L. Ph. Larkin

R. Ch. R. Chandler
R. K. R. Kipling
R. W. R. P. Warren
S. J. D. Salinger
S. S. T. Coleridge
S. L. S. Lewis
S. M. S. Maugham
Sc. F. Sc. Fitzgerald
Sh. A. Sh. Anderson
St. B. St. Barstow
T. C. T. Capote
. . T. Howard
Th. P. Th. Pynchon
U. J. Updike
W. W. Fr. Collier
W. D. W. Deeping
W. G. W. S. Gilbert
W. Gl. W. Golding
W. H. D. W. H. Davies
W. I. W. Irwing

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. .. (
).

. .: , 1973 (1981)
2. .., .. -
. . : ..
, 2004.
3. .. :
- . . . -. .:
- . , 1986.
4. .. : :
. .: , 2002.
5. .., ..
: . : - ,
2002.
6. Galperin, I.R. Stylistics. M.: Higher School, 1977 (1981).
7. Ivashkin, M, Sdobnikov, V. A Manual of English Stylistics:
. . 2-. : .
.. , 2002.
8. Kukharenko, V.A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. M, ,
1986.
9. Skrebnev, L.M. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. M.: ,
1994.

CONTENTS
THE METALANGUAGE OF LINGUOSTYLISTICS...

page
3

SEMINAR 1 - Phonographical and Phonostylistic Expressive Means and Stylistic


Devices of the Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic Level...

SEMINAR 2 - Lexical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices

11

SEMINAR 3 - Lexical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices. Peculiar Use of Set
Expressions. Stylistic Functioning of Morphological forms........

20

SEMINAR 4- Syntactical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices..

28

SEMINAR 5- Syntactical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices..

31

SEMINAR 6 - Syntactical expressive means and stylistic Devices

37

FUNCTIONAL STYLES

44

PATTERNS FOR STYLISTIC ANALYSIS...

59

SAMPLES OF STYLISTIC ANALYSIS

TRAINING TEST I.

67

TRAINING TEST II

68

LIST OF AUTHORS WHOSE TEXTS WERE USED IN EXERCISES...

71

BIBLIOGRAPHY....

72