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MICRO ANA

Dr. Vibar
ECSV- 1MD-D

THE HUMAN BODY AN ORIENTATION

visualize structures that confer contour to


the surface or are palpable beneath it.

Anatomy- the study of the structure and shape


of the body and its parts
Physiology- study of how the body and its parts
work or function
LEVELS OF STUDY
Gross Anatomy
Large structures
Easily observable
Microscopic Anatomy
Very small structures
Can only be viewed with a microscope
GENERAL PLAN
Cell
Tissues
Organ
System- same or complimentary function
Levels of Structural Organization

Systemic Anatomy- study of the bodys


organ systems that work together to carry
out complex functions; sees the body as
organized into organ systems
Clinical
Anatomyemphasizes
application of anatomical knowledge to
the practice of medicine; it incorporates
the regional and systemic approaches to
studying anatomy and stresses clinical
application
ORGAN SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Integumentary (skin)
Forms the external body covering
Protects deeper tissue from injury
Synthesizes vitamin D
Location of cutaneous nerve receptors

Main Approaches to Study Anatomy


Regional Anatomy- considers the
organization of the human body as major
parts or segments; method of studying
the bodys structure by focusing attention
on a specific part
Surface Anatomy- provides information
about structures that may be observed or
palpated beneath the skin; aim is to

Skeletal (cartilages, joint, bones)


Protects and supports body organs
Provides
muscle
attachment
for
movement
Site of blood cell formation
Stores minerals
Muscular (skeletal muscles)
Allows locomotion
Maintains posture
Produces heat

MICRO ANA
DR. VIBAR
ECSV- 1MD-D


Nervous (brain, sensory receptor, spinal cord,
nerve)
Fast-acting control system
Responds to internal and external change
Activates muscles and glands
Endocrine (Pineal gland; pituitary gland; thyroid
gland parathyroid glands on posterior aspect;
thymus gland, adrenal gland; pancreas; testis;
ovary)
Secretes regulatory hormones
Growth
Reproduction
Metabolism
Cardiovascular (heart, blood vessels)
Transports materials in body via blood pumped
by heart
Oxygen
CO2
Nutrients
Wastes
Lymphatic (thoracic duct, lymph
lymphatic vessels)
Returns fluids to blood vessels
Disposes of debris
Involved in immunity

nodes,

Respiratory (nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx,


trachea, bronchus, left lung)
Keeps blood supplied with oxygen
Removes CO2
Digestive (oral cavity, esophagus, stomach,
small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus)
Breaks down food
Allows for nutrient absorption into blood
Eliminates indigestible material
Urinary (kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra)
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes
Maintains acid-base balance
Regulation of materials
o Water
o Electrolytes
Reproductive [male: seminal vesicles, penis,
prostate gland, vas deferens, testis, scrotum;
female: mammary glands, uterine tube, ovary,
uterus, vagina]
Producing of offspring
ANATOMIC POSITION

Standing upright
Head, eyes, toes directed forward
Arms adjacent to the sides with anteriorly
Lower limbs together with parallel
LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY
Position and Direction
Superior
Cranial
Anterior
Medial
Superficial
External
Proximal
Inferior
Caudal
Posterior
Lateral
Deep
Internal
Distal

MICRO ANA
Dr. Vibar
ECSV- 1MD-D

BODY LANDMARKS
Anterior

Posterior

MICRO ANA
DR. VIBAR
ECSV- 1MD-D


Abdominopelvic Quadrants

Abdominopelvic Major Organs

Abdominopelvic Regions
TERMS OF LATERALITY
Ipsilateral v. Contralateral
Unilateral v. Bilateral
Anatomic Terms for Action or Movements
Flexion
Adduction
Pronation
Eversion
Dorsiflexion
Medial Rotation
Protrusion
Protraction
Elevation

MICRO ANA
Dr. Vibar
ECSV- 1MD-D

Opposition

BODY PLANES

Extensions
Abduction
Supination
Inversion
Plantarflexion
Lateral rotation
Retrusion
Retraction
Depression
Reposition
BODY CAVITIES
ANATOMIC PLANES
Mid-sagittal or medial plane
o Divides the body into equal right and
left halves
Sagittal plane
o Divides the body or structure into
UNEQUAL right and left parts
Coronal plane
o Divides the body into a anterior
(front) and a posterior (back) half
Horizontal or Transverse plane
o Divides the body or structure into an
upper and lower half