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# Calculus Early Transcendentals (7th Edition)

James Stewart
Page 450, #22
Solved by Andy Xiong
A tank is full of water. Find the work required to pump the water out of the spout.
1m

Figure A

3m

## To obtain certain values for calculating

work, we must arbitrarily choose a crosssection where the tank is filled with
water, but not to its maximum capacity.
The cross-section is a circle.
In Figure A, the water is filled close to
the top of the tank as we have chosen.
Considering the cross section, which is a
circle, we must realize that there is a right
triangle that can be related to it in terms
Figure
C

y
r

Figure
B

## Let the tank be graphed on a x-y

coordinate plane where the center of the
tank is at (0,0). The bottom of the tank is
at (0, -3), and the top of the tank (not
considering the spout) is at (0, 3).

r
3m

Figure C is the cross-section, which is a circle with radius r. Figure B is the right triangle,
which relates to the cross-section with radius r.
In order to calculate work, we must consider our integration bounds. The bottom of the tank
is at (0, -3), and the top of the tank is at (0, 3). Therefore, it is plausible to integrate from
[-3, 3] in respect to y.
Now that we understand that our integration is in respect to y, we must express the area of
the cross-section in terms of y.
Recall that
b

V = A ( y ) dy
Note that A ( y ) ya is

expressing
need
V =volume.
A ( y ) We
dy=
A ( y)
this.
a

## We need to find the area of the cross-section, which is A(y).

A ( y )= r 2
In order to find the area, we need solve for r from Figure B with the Pythagorean Theorem.
2

3
2
2
r + y =
r 2=9 y 2
r= 9 y 2

## Incorporate r into A(y).

A ( y )= ( 9 y 2)
A ( y )= (9 y 2 )

Now that we have A(y), we need to reconfigure A(y) in terms of volume. We start by multiplying
both sides of the previous expression by y in order to do this. (Volume is the product of
area and a little thickness. The area is A(y), and a little thickness is y .)
b

V = A ( y ) dy= A ( y) y
a

V = A ( y) y
A ( y ) y= (9 y 2) y
V = ( 9 y 2 ) y
**Note that the unit of this volume is cubed meters.
V = ( 9 y 2 ) y m3
_________________________________________________________________
Recall that
Work=Force distance

and that
Force=mass acceleration
Force=mass gravity
**Note that gravity is contributing to the production of force in this problem. Therefore, its value
would be 9.8 N/kg.

However, we still need mass. We need to find the mass of water at some y.
masswater =density water volumewater
The density of water is 1000 kg/m3 .

masswater = 1000

kg
[ ( 9 y 2 ) y m3 ]
3
m

masswater =1000 ( 9 y 2 ) y kg
Now we look at the equation for force.
Force=mass water gravity
2

Force=[1000 ( 9 y ) y kg ](9.8

N
)
kg

Force=9800 ( 9 y2 ) y N
Incorporate force into the equation of work.
Work=Force distance
Work=[9800 ( 9 y 2 ) y N ](distance )
We need to find the distance water travels or is moved when it is pumped out of the tank. See
Figure D.

1m

Figure D

## The variable y is the distance from

the arbitrary surface of the water to
the
y top of the tank (excluding the
spout). The value 4 is the total
distance of the radius of the tank and
the spout.
3m
Therefore, when water is pumped out
through the spout, the total distance
traveled is
distance=4 y
The unit of this distance is in meters.
distance=( 4 y ) m

y
Calculate the value of work.
Work=Force distance
2
Work=[ 9800 ( 9 y ) y N ] [ ( 4 y ) m]
2
Work=9800 ( 9 y ) (4 y ) y J
**Note that the product of Newtons and meters is Joules. Hence, the unit J (Joules).

This is the value of work done at some y. However, this does not give us the total work. The
total work is the energy required to pump out all of the water from point a to point b. And the
tank is full with water. All of that water needs to be pumped out, so we need to integrate from
[a,b] to get the total work. In our case, we need to integrate from [-3, 3] in respect to y. Again,
the y-value of -3 is at the bottom of the tank, and the y-value of 3 is at the top of the tank
(excluding the spout).

Work Total = g ( y ) dy
a

3
3

3
3

## Work Total =9800 (369 y4 y 2+ y 3)dy

3

9
4
3
36 y y 2 y 3+ y 4 3
2
3
Work Total =9800
Work Total =1,411,200 Joules