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Cotton Fiber and its Origin:

Cotton is the oldest and most important textile fibre in the world. Historian can hardly trace cotton to its
true origin. The best we know is that the English word Cotton is derived from Arabic word katan (or
qutn, kuteen). Each cotton fibre is a unicellular hair collected from the seed of the cotton plant. Cotton
plant belongs to the order Malvales, the family Malvaceae, the tribe Gossypieae and the genus
Gossypium. It grows in subtropical climates. Most of the cotton cultivated in Asia, Africa, America Egypt,
India and other places. Cotton had grown in more than 80 countries in worldwide.
Cotton fibre is the purest source of cellulose and the most significant natural fibre. The economic
significant of cotton in global market is evident by its majority share (50%) among fibres for apparel and
textiles goods . Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fibre that grows in a boll or protective capsule, around the
seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. Nearly 90% of cotton fibres are cellulose.
Classification of Cotton Fibre:
Commercial cotton may be classified broadly into following classes with reference of the staple length.
1.

Short staple: Length: 3/8 inch to 1 inch. Includes the coarse, low grade fibers which have
often low strength and little luster, the fibers are generally of 13-22 microns diameter and are
of 1.5 -2.9 dtex. Many Indian and Asiatic cottons come into this category.

2.

Medium staple: Length: 0.5 inch to 1.25 inch. Includes the medium strength, medium luster
cottons which from bulk of the world crop. The fibers are generally 12-17 microns diameter and
are of 1.4-2.2 dtex., American upland and some Peruvian types come into this category cotton.

3.

Long staple: Length: 1inch to 2.5 inch. Includes the fine, luster fibers which from the top quality
cottons. The fibers are generally 10-15 microns diameter and 1.1-1.8 dtex. Sea Island,
Egyptian and American pima cottons are this category. This high quality cottons are often the
most difficult to grow and are in comparatively short supply.

Chemical Composition of Cotton:


Cotton fibers are composed of mostly cellulose. The specific chemical compositions of cotton fibers vary
by their varieties, growing conditions (soil, water, temperature, pest etc.) and maturity, Due to this
reasons it was expressed the average value of different component of cotton. Therefore chemical
composition of cotton is given below .
Table Chemical composition of cotton fibre.

Basic Concept and Characteristics of Cotton and Silk Fiber

:Cotton Fiber and its Origin

Cotton is the oldest and most important textile fibre in the world. Historian
can hardly trace cotton to its true origin. The best we know is that the
English word Cotton is derived from Arabic word katan (or qutn, kuteen).
Each cotton fibre is a unicellular hair collected from the seed of the cotton
plant. Cotton plant belongs to the order Malvales, the family Malvaceae,
the tribe Gossypieae and the genus Gossypium. It grows in subtropical
climates. Most of the cotton cultivated in Asia, Africa, America Egypt, India
and other places. Cotton had grown in more than 80 countries in
.worldwide

Cotton fibre is the purest source of cellulose and the most significant
natural fibre. The economic significant of cotton in global market is evident
by its majority share (50%) among fibres for apparel and textiles goods .
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fibre that grows in a boll or protective
capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium.
.Nearly 90% of cotton fibres are cellulose

:Classification of Cotton Fibre

Commercial cotton may be classified broadly into following classes with


.reference of the staple length
Short staple: Length: 3/8 inch to 1 inch. Includes the coarse, low grade .1
fibers which have often low strength and little luster, the fibers are
generally of 13-22 microns diameter and are of 1.5 -2.9 dtex. Many
.Indian and Asiatic cottons come into this category
Medium staple: Length: 0.5 inch to 1.25 inch. Includes the medium .2
strength, medium luster cottons which from bulk of the world crop. The
fibers are generally 12-17 microns diameter and are of 1.4-2.2 dtex.,
.American upland and some Peruvian types come into this category cotton
Long staple: Length: 1inch to 2.5 inch. Includes the fine, luster fibers .3
which from the top quality cottons. The fibers are generally 10-15 microns
diameter and 1.1-1.8 dtex. Sea Island, Egyptian and American pima

cottons are this category. This high quality cottons are often the most
.difficult to grow and are in comparatively short supply

:Chemical Composition of Cotton

Cotton fibers are composed of mostly cellulose. The specific chemical


compositions of cotton fibers vary by their varieties, growing conditions
(soil, water, temperature, pest etc.) and maturity, Due to this reasons it
was expressed the average value of different component of cotton.
. Therefore chemical composition of cotton is given below

.Table Chemical composition of cotton fibre

Cellulose

94%

Protein

1.3%

Pectin

1.2%

Ash

1.5%

Fat/wax

0.6%

Sugar

0.8%

Others

0.9%

:Cellulose

Cellulose is the principle constituent of all plant life. The main features of
the chemical structure are well known and have been summarized many
times. The elemental analysis shows that cellulose contains 44.4% carbon,
6.2% hydrogen and 49.4% of oxygen. It is a liner polymer of
anhydroglucose units linked in 1 and 4 positions by -glucoside links. The
empirical formula of cellulose (C6H10O5) corresponds to a polyanhydride
of glucose. The two terminal glucose residues of a cellulose molecule
contain two different end groups. One contains a reducing hemiacetal
group in the position C1 and known as the reducing end group where as

the other contains an extra secondary hydroxyl group in the position C4


.and its known as the non reducing end group

Properties of Cotton Fibre:

Metamerism (Colour)
Metamerism is a phenomenon where two objects of the
same color under one illuminant but show different colors under
another illuminant. This phenomenon can be observed from the
spectral curve. If there are three or more intersecting points, the
objects have Metamerism.

Ex. Graphs generated Metamerism

Ex. Graphs do not Metamerism