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Throughout the complete design process, the following principles are maintained:
Reliability: the selected components are proven technology. All solutions are kept simple if
Redundancy: a FMEA (Failure Mode Effect Analysis) approach is used to ensure maximum
Flexibility: future adaptations and extensions are important design drivers.
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genius loci

motion across crease

motion across creases

motion stopped by
perpendicular crease

switch from supporting edge

to srface

90 degree direction change

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The evolution of form in nature
Energy falls on the earth from the sun, and some of that energy is transformed and transported around the world. Energy and material between
the ocean, the land, the biosphere and the atmosphere are exchanged.
Climate is the metasystem, a system of systems, and their intricate choreography of its forms and behavior modulates the exchanges of energy
and material between all the other systems, and is in turn affected by
them. The metasystem has many critical thresholds with differing scales
of distance and time, and is delicately poised so that a small change at
one scale may initiate a great and rapid change at another.
The process of the climate metasystem is affected by interactions with
the surface of the Earth, and inputs of energy and material to the atmosphere are received from the surface below. The two most significant
material transfers are water and carbon.
Water cycling between the surface and the atmosphere transfers heat
from the surface to the atmosphere. Water passes through many systems
in unceasing cycles. All living things contain water, sometimes up to 80
percent of their body mass, but their water is not held permanently in
the organism. Water cycles through organism, so that they continually
ingest water to replace the water that is shed by evaporation from their
outer surfaces.
Energy is critical to the phase changes of water, the molecules must shed
energy to become ice and acquire energy to become a vapour. Ice melts
water when sufficient energy is absorbed, then energy remains latent in
the water vapour molecules, until it is released as heat into the surrounding air.
The surface layer of the ocean, to a depth of three or four meters, holds
as much heat energy as entire 40 kilometers deep atmosphere. Current
transfer heat from the equatorial region to the poles. Like the global
circulation of the atmosphere, the pattern of the ocean currents is persistent over time, but is subject to variations and perturbations, and there
is strong fossil evidence that there have been substantially different
patterns of ocean currents in the geological past. Heating of the water in
equatorial latitudes and the cooling in the polar latitudes is the principal
driver of the system. In the polar latitudes very little solar energy is received from the sun and the surface of the ocean loses heat to the wind,
which also carries away the water that does evaporate. The cold salty
water becomes denser and sinks.
Heat I transported from the equator to the poles by the ocean surface
gyres and by the surface winds. As warm ocean water moves from the
equatorial regions towards the cooler high latitudes, the atmosphere
above it becomes progressively cooler. Air flowing over a warm ocean
current will gain heat energy and moisture from the water, and in con-

sequence the warm moist air is more able to form clouds, so that land
areas nearby will have increased rainfall. Conversely, air flowing over cold
ocean currents will lose some heat energy to the water, and the cooler
air is less able to from clouds; consequently nearby coasts will be drier
and cooler. Changes to weather patterns are driven by oscillations in the
input to the atmosphere from the oceans, and this oscillations may occur
in quite short cycles of decades.
Surface morphology
The interaction of climate and the surface modifies and changes the larger landform. Water, wind and the processes of living forms rae the agents
of change, weathering and eroding even the hardest materials, breaking
them down into smaller and smaller fragments, and carrying them away
and depositing them elsewhere.
Glacial landforms
Snow that accumulates over long periods of time in very low temperatures eventually becomes so dense that it compresses under its own
weight and is transformed into dense ice. Ice masses begin to move
when the accumulating ice becomes too massive to maintain its rigid
shape and it plasticity deforms, becoming a glacier. Glaciers have variant
forms in distinct flow characteristics, such as linear glaciers that are constrained to flow in a single direction by topography; or continuous sheets
or masses of ice that move out from a central area in all directions; and
large flat masses of ice that spread laterally over a level surface. Glaciers
scour the land wherever they touch, leaving characteristics deep scratches or striations. The abraded material becomes embedded in the moving ice, increasing the scouring action, and being deposited elsewhere.
The abraded material varies in size from huge rocks to fine grains and is
known as till, or when deposited as moraine. Ice has shaped much of the
landscapes of the middle and high latitudes.

than three centuries. When the transition is completed sea level will be 7
meters higher than it is today. The west Antarctic ice sheet has a temperature threshold of 3 degree Celsius or more than three centuries. Complete transition will add a further sea level rise of 5 meters.
The Atlantic thermohaline overturning circulation is sensitive to increased freshwater entering the North Atlantic from the melting ice, with
a temperature threshold of 3 degree Celsius or more of global warming.
The reduction and eventual failure of the circulation will significantly
shift the converge zones of the atmospheric circulation, inducing larger
shifts to the existing climatic regimes across the Northern hemisphere.
( timescale - 100 years) The effects will be prolonged and see intense
droughts in South-East Asia and other regions in similar latitudes. The
monsoon belt has always been prone to abrupt changes, typically taking
over only one or two years for transition through its critical threshold.

Critical thresholds
The arctic summer sea ice, diminished by warmer air close to the surface,
has a temperature thresholds between 0.5 2 degree Celsius of global
warming, and the timescale of complete transition through the threshold
to an ice-free Arctic sea is thought to be very rapid, perhaps less than 10
years. There are many measured observations that suggest this threshold is very close. Transition will amplify warming and accelerate changes
in the ecological systems of the high latitudes. The ice great ice sheets
have such enormous volumes of ice that their complete transitions are
widely thought to be slow, although there are many observations that
strongly suggest that these transitions have begun, and are proceeding
more rapidly than that had been anticipated. The Greenland ice sheets
has a temperature threshold between 1 and 2 degree Celsius of global
warming, with a much longer time scale of complete transition of more

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arctic science

genius loci


Arctic transit routes used in this study. The Exclusive Economic Zone of the Russian Federation

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genius loci - , .

In such a moment as this, we can hardly

leave our heads buried either in the sand or
in our own armpits much longer. Not only are
territory, food, air-time, building products,
parking spaces or polar bears becoming scarce - but scarcer still is that old-school commodity: IDEAS.....
Peter Cook
unavoidable subject to be studied
PROJECTS PAGE: Ready Made Antarctic Base Station, Sustainable Iceberg
Living Station, South Pole Universal
Seed Archive, Ice Flow and Sea Current
Research Unit.
Topography, Topological Sections,
Iceflow Directions, Icebergs, Climate,
Ice and Snow, Flora an Fauna, Extremophiles, Political Claims, Antarctic
Treaty, First Settlements, Building in
the Antarctic, Base stations.

The specific research facilities in question are

specialized in various applied sciences such
as advanced engineering, bio-medicine and
biomedical engineering, biology, geology, oceanography, astronomy, glaciology
and geophysics, climatology, meteorology
and hydrology, and therefore are highly
dependent on a specific location. Extreme
environments, that are very cold or hot, dry
or humid are often key environments, where
scientists can research questions regarding
life, the world surrounding us as well as
outer space

extreme winds, temperatures and precipitation

from solid to liquid state and back
specific light - local alternation of day and
unique adaptation of living organism

, [19]. -
70 % . .

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57,7C ,
62C (, ), 67C (), 46,3C .
28,2C, +1,4C, 14,5C,
-48,8C, 43C, 0C
9,6C, 1,5 C, +0,6C,
0C, 3,5C. ,
, +0,7C. ,
, 44,4C,
+10,3C. 9,2C, 1,6C, +0,5C,
+0,1C, 2,8C.

, 2 2.
11 2 8 2 . 12 ,
34 . 35 , 1015 .

, 420630 /(2 ) [1015 /(2 )],
23 , , , ,
[ 85125 /(2 ) 23 /(2 )].

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genius loci - , .




, [19].
70 % .

. ,

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On the left is Culmanns graphical statics analysis of

the patterns of internal mechanical forces (stresses) in a

Fairbairn crane. The curved column was under a distributed vertical load from the top. On the right is Wolffs
depiction of the trabecular alignment in the proximal
femur. Notice that the trabecular trajectories meet at
right angles. Adapted from Wolff
Adaptive Elasticity approach of Cowin and Hegedus
The Direct Microstructural Approach
saddle joint relying on two y struts that interpenetrate
It is difficult to account for how soft tissue fibers or
membranes can connect these two compression members in a suspended tensegrity configuration that allows
this range of movement.

Its still an extremely harsh environment; you have to be very careful. One of the big challenges is to
keep it pristine This is a continent
for science.
antarctida // 50 years of research /
111 stations/

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crawling motion is not gained by

pumping fluid (air) in or out of the bellow
segments, but uses a mechanical
travelling-wave connected to the
pneumatic-bellows structure

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alternative energy

of Metaphysics


Water is everything.So said the first Greek philosopher, Thales.

Energy strategy of Russia development for period up to 2030

They have praised the natural forces, where

sky ( TENGERY) was a main part.

Water is the chemical matrix required for life, the molecular chain that connects all organisms
on this planet. Today the Earths watertransportation conduit, industrial feedstock, agricultural
necessityis coming under new pressures. From the nano (eg, the migration of pharmaceutical
molecules through the hydrological system) to the macro (a ballooning global population
combined with climate change means intensified competition for this already scarce
resource), water is at risk.

Baikal is a birth place to shamanism.




osmotic power
potential of osmotic power to be
about 1,370 terawatt-hours per year/
thermodynamic extraction efficiency of
The enormous potential of power
generation through the natural process
of osmosis is indisputable. But efficient
and profitable osmotic power plants
that can be installed on a global scale
are still being tested and developed.

1 = 278 *

1 coal thermal plant

but too much

black air

105 wind mills


400000 solar panels


330 Mwt on 4500 people in average

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water management has 3 main functions:

Water production: Snow is melted mainly using the primary antifreeze circuit of
the solar thermal system. An additional electrical heating is foreseen in the melting
unit to ensure water production under all conditions. The location of the snow
melting unit is primarily defined by
aerodynamics. As the wind blows on the ridge and building, snow is accumulated.
The collected snow is dumped into (the lower positioned) snow collector in the
garage. If needed a snow tractor can be used to collect the snow and dump it in
the melting unit. Once the snow is melted, it is transported in heat traced ducts to
the technical core for filtering and
Water treatment: Grey and black water are collected separately in influent
buffer tanks of 2
m3. These tanks are located in the bottom part of the tower to ensure a gravity
driven drainage. The stored black water is fed continuously into an anaerobic
biological reactor, which uses a bacteriological substance16 to break down
the waste in an ecological manner at a temperature of 55 degrees C. After the
anaerobic process, the filtered black water is mixed
with the grey water and fed to the aerobic membrane bioreactor for further
filtering. After the complete process, all water passes an active carbon filter, UV
treatment and multiple measuring units. The resulting treated water has hygienic,
non-drinking quality. Under optimal operations, only a minimum of the total water
amount needs to be renewed each cycle. Due to the elevated efficiency of the
cycle (+90%) only a limited amount of filtered water is discharged into the snow
surrounding the base. None of the sludge or waste is discharged into the nature,
but will be stored in specific containers located in the garage. These containers
will be shipped at the end of the season for recycling. Figure 12 is a schematic
representation of the water treatment unit.
Water distribution and storage: both meltwater and recycled water are stored
in tanks in the upper level of the technical core. Sanitation systems (UV treatment)
guarantee the water quality in those tanks. The water is put under pressure and
connected to the water distribution terminals (cold water directly, hot water is
coupled to the heat exchangers and then to the distribution terminals).

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of Metaphysics
Water is everything.So said the first Greek philosopher, Thales.

- .

( )
, :

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aurora borealis


. , ,
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67-70 / H= 90 130 ( 60 - 1130 )



27 . 11

(, ,
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, , .),


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(Coronal ss Ejection, ), ..
, .
( )

( ) -
( ) 1994

, .
, ,
terrestrial magnetic shield acts as a barrier protecting the Earth from energetic particles and
radiation in the hot solar wind.

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CAUSTICS ARE PATTERNS OF BRIGHT points and lines that form

singularity theory is the study of the failure of manifold structure
Different materials lead to different designs. Is the number of possible patterns endless, or is there some way
to classify them in groups of basic designs?
I directed the beam from a helium-neon laser through a layer of transparent plastic with a rippled surface.

A graph of a cusp catastrophe

array of laser-beam caustics

Pedal curves
Spherical parametrization

A classification of caustic patterns

geodesics light rays Sturm Liouville problem

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geometric approach of energetic manifold

stable plasma equilibrium requires magnetic field lines that move
around the torus in a helical shape

This is the IPCC A1B scenario which has a 3.5 .C warming by the year.
One in three people are already facing water shortages



other geometries

ITER blanket

Configurations of stellarator

Vacuum Vessel
Modular Stellarator
Tame that turbulence

" "


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topological abstraction - dna of torus

x = (R+r cos(u))cos()
y = (R+r cos(u))sin()
z = r sin(u),

..An (ordinary) torus is a surface having genus

one, and therefore possessing a single "hole" (left
figure). The single-holed "ring" torus is known in older
literature as an "anchor ring."

alphabet torus

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topological abstraction - dna of torus


Centrifugal force (from Latin centrum, meaning "center", and fugere, meaning "to flee"[1][2]) is
the apparent force that draws a rotating body away from the center of rotation. It is caused by the
inertia of the body. In Newtonian mechanics, the term centrifugal force is used to refer to one of
two distinct concepts: an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" force) observed in a non-inertial
reference frame, and also the equal and opposite reaction to a centripetal force.

its surface can be turned inside out to yield an identical torus. A torus can be
knotted externally or internally, but not both. These two cases are ambient isotopies,
but not regular isotopies. There are therefore three possible ways of embedding a
torus with zero or one knot.



Interlocking congruent rings cut from a single toroid


A foliation of S by Clifford Tori, stereographically projected to

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variations and tesselation for torus

a solenoid is a compact connected topological space (i.e. a continuum) that may

be obtained as the inverse limit of an inverse
system of topological groups and continuous

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with a contracting movement, a great cylindrical-shaped vehicle would be able
to inch its way around in the most difficult terrain, and at a considerable speed (5
mph). This ingenious design could overcome challenging geographical obstacles
that would stop more conventional vehicles in its tracks.

economical design
with a contracting movement, a great cylindrical-shaped vehicle would be able
to inch its way around in the most difficult terrain, and at a considerable speed (5
mph). This ingenious design could overcome challenging geographical obstacles
that would stop more conventional vehicles in its tracks.

selection of a flexible membrane to seal the expandable bellows
material would need to be capable of tolerating the friction, temperatures, and
the continual erosion brought on by the environment

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tesselation Complex Geometry

dea of a lack of control over the final result of a voronoi diagram



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inflection point, line , crease - bifurcation

Right conoid
ruled surface generated
by a family of straight


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personality of future user







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antropological factor

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