2 views

Uploaded by shamedalfredo18

content server example

- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Blog - LEAP Australia & New Zealand _ Turbulence Part 3 – Selection of Wall Functions and Y_ to Best Capture the Turbulent Boundary Layer
- NASA - HTC Distribution Over Vane Profiles
- Oil Spreading on the Sea
- Fluid Mechanics Architecture and Questions
- 2dheat.pdf
- Modelling Assignment: OpenFoam
- AN APPROACH TO OBTAIN THE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF AQUEOUS SUCROSE SOLUTIONS IN AGITATED BOILING VESSELS
- JFE122_1_2000PP174-188_Technic
- تورباين رياح
- wrr_43_06403.pdf
- 9783642007170-c1
- ForcedConv_InternalFlows
- Fluid Mechanics
- Laminar Flow Friction and Heat Pt 2
- Batchelor vs Stewartson Flow Structures in a Rotor Statotr Cavity
- db3ch7
- Mvjce Me 6 Sem
- PanelMethods by Abrar
- Final Thermodynamics Project Report
- Ek 23822828

You are on page 1of 20

ISSN: 1040-7782 print=1521-0634 online

DOI: 10.1080/10407782.2012.712462

TRANSPIRATION COOLING BY THE PRECONDITIONED

DENSITY-BASED ALGORITHM

H. J. Zhang and Z. P. Zou

National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engines,

School of Jet Propulsion, Beihang University, Beijing, China

The preconditioned density-based algorithm and two-domain approach were used to investigate the laminar-plate transpiration cooling process. In the porous zone, the momentum

equations were formulated by the Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model; and the local

thermal equilibrium model (LTE) was adopted for the energy equation. At the porous/uid

interface, the stress-continuity interfacial condition was utilized. The effects of coolant

injection rate, Reynolds number, pressure gradient of mainstream, and thermal conductivity

ratio on the transpiration cooling performance were studied. Results indicate that the

thickness of the coolant boundary layer on the protected surface has a signicant effect

on the transpiration cooling effect. Under the current conditions, the transpiration cooling

performance would be enhanced with increasing coolant injection rate, but would be

weakened with increasing Re. The adverse pressure gradient of mainstream would improve

the transpiration cooling performance.

1. INTRODUCTION

With the development of aerospace technology, the thermal loading imposed

on the hot-end components of aerospace vehicles is becoming higher and higher.

Thermo-protection technologies are faced with more and more austere challenges.

Due to unique advantages such as high cooling efciency, good covering ability

and easy control, the transpiration cooling based on a porous matrix is one of the

most efcient cooling technologies to prevent surface damage from hot gas.

Many researchers adopt experimental, analytical or numerical methods to

investigate transpiration cooling. Kays et al. [14] conducted systematic experimental

studies to forced convective turbulent-plate transpiration cooling, and inuence of the

injection rate, suction rate, and pressure gradient on cooling performance were investigated. The experimental results agree well with the analytic dimensionless Stanton

Received 16 May 2012; accepted 30 June 2012.

This work was nancially supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under

grant number 50776003; the Innovation Foundation of BUAA for Ph.D. graduates

(YWF-12-RBYJ-010); and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher

Education (20101102110011).

Address correspondence to Z. P. Zou, National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on

Aero-Engines, School of Jet Propulsion, Beihang University, Xueyuan Rd. No. 37, Beijing, Haidian

District, 100191, P.R. China. E-mail: zouzhengping@buaa.edu.cn

761

762

NOMENCLATURE

Ar

Cs

CF

Da

E

F

~

F

H

Hf

h

hf

K

L

P

q

~

Q

Re

Rev

T

area

specic heat of solid, J=Kg K

inertia drag coefcient of porous media

Darcy number based on porous plate

length

total energy per unit mass of uid, J=Kg

coolant ow injection rate

ux vector

porous plate height, m

total enthalpy per unit mass of uid,

J=Kg

porous layer thickness, m

static enthalpy per unit mass of uid,

J=Kg

permeability of porous medium, m2

porous plate length, m

uid pressure, Pa

heat ux density, W=m K

source term

Reynolds number based on mainstream

inlet velocity

Reynolds number based on coolant inlet

velocity

temperature, K

s

u, v, w

~

V

~

W

~p

W

x, y, z

dij

e

h

k

m

q

s

hi

time, s

velocity component, m=s

velocity vector, m=s

vector of conservative variables

vector of primitive variables

coordinates

Kronecker delta function

porosity of porous medium

dimensionless temperature

thermal conductivity, W=m K

dynamic viscosity, Kg= m s

density, Kg=m3

viscous stress tensor

volume averaging

c

related to convection

e

effective

f

uid phase in porous medium

pure uid

i

the porous=uid interface

in

inlet

s

solid phase in porous medium

v

related to diffusion

w

wall

correlations proposed by Mickley et al. [5]. Liu and Chen [6], Thames and Landrum

[7], and Frohlke et al. [8] studied the characteristics of transpiration cooling in the

liquid rocket combustor and the exhaust nozzle, with the hydrogen utilized as the coolant medium. Choi et al. [9] investigated the feasibility of transpiration cooling in a

supersonic ramjet combustor, with the helium as the cooling medium instead of hydrogen. Wang et al. [10, 11] studied the transpiration cooling experimentally in a hot wind

tunnel based on the background of gas turbine blade cooling.

Transpiration cooling includes two processes. First, the coolant medium ows

through the porous matrix and removes the heat ux by convection; then, the coolant medium interacts with the hot mainstream and forms a uniform coolant layer on

the hot-side surface. The interaction of the two processes plays an important role in

the transpiration cooling. The numerical investigations of transpiration cooling can

be divided into two categories: the coupling method and the un-coupling method. As

for the un-coupling method, the uid ow and heat transfer characteristics of a

coolant medium in the porous matrix are studied by analytic method; and the

interactions of coolant ow and hot mainstream are studied by numerical or analytic

methods. Wang and Shi [12] investigated the transpiration cooling process using the

un-coupling method. The ow in a porous region was simplied as one-dimensional

ow, and the local thermal nonequilibrium (LTNE) model was utilized for the

energy equation. Then, the error caused by the assumption of the local thermal equilibrium (LTE) model is discussed, and a quantitative criterion to choose the LTE or

763

one-dimensional model for the uid ow in the porous matrix, with the LTNE model

adopted for the energy equation. The specied heat ux density was given for the

boundary condition of the hot-side surface. Wolfersdorf [14] and Wang and Shi

[15] investigated the inuence of the coolant side and hot side boundary conditions

on transpiration cooling performance, respectively, with the LTNE model adopted

for the energy equation. Elbashbeshy [16] and Aydin and Kaya [17] investigated

the laminar boundary layer characteristics with uniform gas injection or suction

by the analytical method. Jiang et al. [18] studied the turbulent ow and heat transfer

in a rectangular channel with and without transpiration cooling by experimental and

numerical methods. The inuences of injection rate on the convective heat transfer

rate and turbulent boundary layer characteristics were analyzed.

As for the coupling methods, Hwang and Chang [19] simulated the forced convective heat transfer in a square duct with one-wall injection and suction. In the

porous region, the ow was considered to be one-dimensional, and the LTNE model

was adopted for the energy equation. At the porous=uid interface, the temperature

of the solid phase was assumed to be equal to that of the uid phase. Yu and Jiang

[20] applied the commercial CFD software Fluent to investigate the high temperature transpiration cooling in a cylindrical porous channel, with the LTE model

adopted for the porous energy equation. The RNG k-e turbulence model was used

for the simulation of turbulent mainstream ow. Liu et al. [21] investigated the

transpiration cooling mechanisms used for the thermal protection of a nose cone

for various cooling gases by the coupling method based on Fluent. The numerical

results agree well with the experimental data.

There are many factors that affect the uid ow and heat transfer characteristics

of transpiration cooling, and the parametric study was conducted here. In reference

[22], a preconditioned density-based algorithm was proposed to solve the conjugate

uid ow and heat transfer problem in hybrid porous=uid=solid domains. The

numerical results indicate that the proposed numerical method has characteristics

of high numerical precision and good applicability. On the basis of this, the

laminar-plate transpiration cooling was investigated numerically. The effects of coolant injection rate, Reynolds number, pressure gradient of mainstream, and thermal

conductivity ratio on the transpiration cooling performance were analyzed.

2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL

2.1. Problem Description

The schematic diagram of the computational model is shown in Figure 1. The

hot mainstream with uniform temperature Tin and velocity Uin ows across the

porous plate with length L and thickness H. The coolant medium with low temperature Tc is injected into the porous plate at constant velocity Vc. The coolant ows

through the porous matrix, and forms a uniform coolant layer over the hot-side surface of the porous structure. On one hand, the coolant ow removes the heat ux in

the porous matrix by convection; on the other hand, the coolant layer could isolate

the hot-side surface from hot mainstream, and increase the convective thermal resistance. So, the cooling efcient of transpiration cooling is very high.

764

In this article, the two-domain approach is adopted to simulate the uid ow

and heat transfer problems in porous=uid hybrid domains, and each domain has

the corresponding governing equations. It should be noted that the coolant medium

and mainstream are the same kind of uid, and there is no phase transition.

For simplicity, only the governing equations for porous domain are given. The

following assumptions are adopted in the models: 1) the porous medium is homogeneous and isotropic; 2) the momentum equations were formulated by the DarcyBrinkman-Forchheimer model; 3) the local thermal equilibrium model (LTE) was

adopted for the energy equation; 4) ignore the impact of temperature on the physical

properties; and 5) the mainstream ow is laminar. Then, the macro-governing equations for porous domain based on volumetric method could be written as follows.

f

f

qehqif qehqi hvij

0

qs

qxj

"

#

f

f

f

qehqif hvifi qehqi hvii hvij

qehPif

q qehvifi

mf

qs

qxi

qxj

qxj

qxj

mf

~ f f

e2 hvifi e3 K 0:5 CF qf hV

i hvii

K

f

f

f

f

f

f

qehqif hEif 1 ehqis cs hTif qehqi hHi hvij qhsiij hvii qhqij

qs

qxj

qxj

qxj

coefcient; hEif is the average total energy per unit mass hEif hHif hPif =hqif ;

h

f i

~ if j2 =2, hhif hhPif ; hTif ; mf q qehvii is the Brinkman term;

hHif hhif jhV

qxj

hqifj

hqifj

qxj

ke qhTi

and

qxj , where the effective

thermal conductivity of porous medium ke could be simply estimated as:

ke ekf (1 e)ks, when the tortuosity and thermal dispersion are neglected. The

corresponding uid state equation: hqif q(hPif, hTif). hqis, cs are density and specic heat of solid, respectively. The physical parameters in the porous domain mentioned above are all intrinsic-phase average values.

765

and heat transfer problems in porous=uid hybrid domains, the relevant boundary

conditions should be specied at the porous=uid interfaces. The mass, momentum,

and energy balance conditions should be satised at the interface. In this article, the

shear stress continuity model is adopted for the interfacial hydrodynamic boundary

condition. In transpiration cooling, the ow in porous medium is low-speed seepage

ow, and the development of thermal equilibrium between coolant medium and

porous matrix is adequate enough. When the temperature difference between solid

phase and uid phase is not big, the local thermal equilibrium (LTE) model could

be adopted for the energy equation in the porous domain. Correspondingly, the

temperature and heat ux continuity model are applied for the interfacial thermal

boundary condition.

2.3. Numerical Method

In this article, the density-based nite-volume algorithm is used to simulate the

uid ow and heat transfer problem in hybrid porous=uid domains, with the preconditioning method applied to solve the convergence and stability problems in

the calculation of the low-speed ows. Because the density-based algorithm in the

pure uid domain is commonly seen, only the numerical procedure for the porous

domain is presented. For the energy equation of the porous domain, the pseudo-time

derivative term is very complicated and the derivation of the preconditioning matrix

is difcult. For the time-marching method, the appropriate change to the

pseudo-time derivative terms would not inuence the nal steady converged solution. In this article, the pseudo-time derivative term of the energy equation (Eq.

f

cs hTi

(3)) qehqi hEi 1ehqi

is modied as qehqiqshEi . Then, the governing equations

qs

of the porous domain (Eqs. (1)(3)) can be expressed as follows.

Z

I

Z

q

~ dX

~

~

~

W dX

F c F v dS

Q

4

qs X

qX

X

~ ehqif ehqif huif ehqif hvif ehqif hwif ehqif hEif T is the vector

Where W

~ i hqif huif hV

~ i hPi~i hqif hvif hV

~i

of conservative variables: ~

F c hqif hV

f

f ~

f

f ~ T

~

hPi j hqi hwi hV i hPi hqi hHi hV i is the vector of convective uxes:

~

~

F v 0 hsxi if hsyi if hszi if hsij if hvj if hqi if T is the vector of viscous uxes: and Q

is the source term.

~ p , can

The preconditioned N-S equations, formulated in primitive variables W

be written as follows.

Z

I

Z

q

~

~

~

W p dX

F c F v dS ~

C

S dX

5

qt X

qX

X

~ p is the vector of primitive variables. When choosing primitive variWhere W

ables in the porous domain, it should be under consideration that the ow physical

parameters should be continuous in space. According to this request and the primitive variables used in SIMPLE-family schemes in the porous domain, the vector of

~

~ p hPif ehuif ehvif ehwif hTif T ; ~

primitive variables is chosen as: W

F c; ~

F v , and Q

766

are consistent with the terms mentioned above; and C is the preconditioning matrix.

In the clear uid region, the preconditioning matrix proposed by Weiss and Smith

[23] is applied. The preconditioning matrix for the porous domain can be seen in reference [22]. Although its not the same as that for the clear uid domain, the form of

eigenvalues of preconditioned convective ux Jacobian is the same as that for the

clear uid domain, which means that the proposed preconditioning matrix for the

porous domain could alleviate the stiffness of governing equations in the porous

domain effectively, and also solve the convergence problem at low speed.

For the clear uid or porous domains, the discretization schemes of the governing equations are almost the same. The central scheme is used for the spatial discretization, with the matrix articial dissipation scheme [24, 25] which has a smaller

numerical dissipation applied. The detailed discretization scheme and numerical procedure can be seen in reference [22].

2.4. Code Validation

The computational domain of transpiration cooling includes the porous and

pure uid domains. In references [22, 26], the numerical results indicate that the

numerical method adopted here is suitable for the simulation of the coupled uid ow

and heat transfer problems in hybrid porous=uid=solid domains. In order to indicate

the reliability to the simulation of transpiration boundary layer ows, the present code

was validated by the case of laminar ow in a plate channel with permeable walls.

The schematic diagram of laminar ow in a plate channel with permeable walls

is presented in Figure 2, where the upper and bottom walls are permeable. The coolant ow enters into the mainstream from the bottom wall and outow from the

upper wall with the same velocity Vc. The ow is laminar and incompressible. When

the ow is under a fully developed condition, the velocity distribution is the

superposition of a motion perpendicular to the walls with velocity Vc and a axial

motion with the velocity U(y) [27].

Dp H

1

Uy

chRev expY Rev

Y

6

shRev

Vc

767

Figure 3. Axial velocity distributions for different coolant injection rates (color gure available online).

dp

Where Ren VcnH ; Y y=H; Dp q1 dx

h

i

R

H

Dp H chRen

1

1

Average channel velocity: Um 2H

H Uydy Vc

shRen Ren

When Ren ! 0, the ow mentioned above tends to be Poiseuille ow.

The axial velocity proles for different coolant injection rates are shown in

Figure 3, in comparison to the corresponding analytic solutions. It is found that

the numerical results agree well with the analytic solutions for different injection

rates, which demonstrates the reliability of the present approach to deal with the

transpiration boundary layer ows. In addition, the axial velocity distributions tend

to be more and more asymmetric with increasing coolant injection rates. Also, the

maximum value of axial velocity increases and the location of maximum velocity

moves to the upper wall.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The schematic diagrams of the computational grid are shown in Figure 4. After

a mesh independent test, the grid density of the pure uid domain is chosen as

181 41 5, and the grid density of the porous domain is chosen as 101 31 5.

The mesh is rened at the porous=uid interface. The mainstream ow is laminar

Figure 4. Schematic diagrams of computational grid a) Overall grid and b) grid at the porous=uid

interface (color gure available online).

768

and incompressible. The ow velocity and temperature are given for the mainstream

and coolant ow inlets. The static pressure is specied at the mainstream outlet. The

upper wall of the uid domain is slip wall, and the bottom wall of the uid domain

without contact with the porous domain is the non-slip wall.

Besides geometry size, the dimensionless parameters controlling the transpiration cooling performance can be achieved with the governing equations nondimensionalized, which are: Reynolds number Re qUinL=m; Prandtl number Pr; coolant

ow injection rate F Vc=Uin; porosity e; Darcy number Da K=L2; and the thermal conductivity ratio ks=kf. In the following simulations, the above dimensionless

parameters are considered to be defaults without special emphasis, which are:

Re 5e4, Pr 0.7, F 0.1%, e 0.5, Da 5e-7, ks=kf 10, and CF 0.0. In this article, the inuences of some parameters including Re, F, ks=kf, and the pressure gradient of the mainstream on the transpiration cooling performance and transpiration

boundary layer characteristics are studied.

3.1. Effect of Coolant Injection Rate F

The temperature contours for different coolant injection rates are shown in

Figure 5. (The inlet temperature of the mainstream is 310 k; the inlet temperature

of coolant ow is 300 k.) With an increase in the coolant ow injection rate F, the

temperature in the porous domain and at the porous=uid interface decreases.

The coolant ow enters into the mainstream and forms a uniform coolant layer over

the hot-side surface of the porous structure. The transpiration boundary layer

becomes thicker, and the temperature and convective heat transfer coefcient at

the interface would decrease. At the downstream of the interface, the coolant

boundary layer would develop and protect the downstream wall. But the cooling

Figure 5. Temperature contours for different coolant injection rates (color gure available online).

769

Figure 6. Dimensionless temperature proles at porous=uid interface for different coolant injection rates

(color gure available online).

performance becomes worse with the heating of the mainstream (the downstream

non-slip wall is adiabatic).

Figure 6 shows the dimensionless temperature h proles at the porous=uid

interface for different coolant injection rates. The dimensionless temperature is

dened as: h (Ti Tc)=(Tin Tc), where Ti is the interfacial temperature; Tin is

the inlet temperature of mainstream; and Tc is the inlet temperature of coolant ow.

It is obvious that the interfacial dimensional temperature decreases with an increase

in coolant injection rate. Under the current conditions, the interfacial dimensionless

temperature would decrease to 0.5 with the coolant ow injection F 0.2%, which

demonstrates the high efciency of the transpiration cooling.

Figure 7. Schematic diagrams of coolant ow streamline for different coolant injection rates (color gure

available online).

770

are presented in Figure 7. It can be seen that the coolant ow enters into the mainstream and forms a coolant boundary layer over the porous=uid interface. At the

downstream, the boundary layer becomes thicker with the accumulation of the coolant ow. Besides, with an increase in the injection rate, the transpiration boundary

layer is thicker, and the transpiration cooling performance becomes better. Figure 8

shows the velocity boundary layer thickness and thermal boundary layer thickness

proles at the porous=uid interface for different coolant injection rates. It is

obvious that the velocity and thermal boundary layers both become thicker with a

higher injection rate. The interfacial temperature and convective heat transfer

coefcient would also decrease remarkably.

3.2. Effect of Reynolds Number Re

Obviously, the Reynolds number has a signicant inuence on transpiration

boundary layer characteristics, so it would affect the transpiration cooling

Figure 8. a) Velocity boundary thickness and b) thermal boundary thickness proles for different coolant

injection rates (color gure available online).

771

Figure 9. Dimensionless temperature proles at the porous=uid interface for different Re (color gure

available online).

Figure 10. a) Velocity boundary thickness and b) thermal boundary thickness proles for different Re

(color gure available online).

772

mainstream inlet velocity. In order to maintain a constant injection rate F, the inlet

velocity of coolant ow would change correspondingly.

Figure 9 shows the dimensionless temperature proles at the porous=uid

interface for different Re. The mainstream Re would affect the transpiration

cooling performance remarkably. Under the current conditions, with an increase

in Re the dimensionless temperature at the porous=uid interface decreases, and

the transpiration cooling performance would be weakened. For the laminar

transpiration boundary layer, the variation of Re would inuence the boundary

layer characteristics. The effect of viscous force in the boundary layer would

be weakened and the boundary layer would become thinner with the increase

of Re; so, the transpiration cooling performance would become worse. In

Figure 11. a) Dimensionless axial velocity and b) dimensionless vertical velocity proles at the porous=

uid interface for different Re (color gure available online).

773

more sensitive to the variation of Re.

The velocity boundary layer thickness and thermal boundary layer thickness

proles at the porous=uid interface for different Re are shown in Figure 10. With

the increase of Re, the thicknesses of the velocity boundary and thermal boundary

layers would decrease.

Figure 11 presents the dimensionless axial velocity and vertical velocity

proles at the porous=uid interface, where the axial velocity Vx is nondimensionalized by mainstream inlet velocity Uin; and the vertical velocity Vy is nondimensionalized by the coolant inlet velocity Vc. It is found that the variation of Re has

an obvious effect on the coolant velocity proles at the porous=uid interface. At

the interface, the axial velocity increases to the maximum value from 0 at a short

distance; then, it would decrease gradually. Besides, the interfacial coolant axial

velocity increases with an increase in Re. This is because the boundary layer

Figure 12. a) Interfacial dimensionless temperature and b) thermal boundary layer thickness proles for

different ks=kf (color gure available online).

774

would become thinner, and the shear stress would increase with increasing Re. It

is known Figure 11b that the prole of dimensionless vertical velocity is not uniform; and the nonuniform extent of interfacial vertical velocity would increase

with an increase in Re.

In this article, the uid thermal conductivity is constant and the variation of

ks=kf is caused by the change of solid thermal conductivity. Normally, the solid thermal conductivity is bigger than the uid thermal conductivity, and the variation of

ks=kf would inuence the effect thermal conductivity of porous media (the LTE

model is adopted for the energy equation). So, the thermal conductivity ratio has

a signicant effect on the transpiration cooling performance. The interfacial dimensionless temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness proles for different

ks=kf are presented in Figure 12. It is found that the interfacial temperature decreases

and the thermal boundary layer becomes thicker with an increase in ks=kf. So, the

transpiration cooling performance would become better with increasing ks=kf.

3.4. Effect of Mainstream Pressure Gradient

The uid ow characteristic in the porous domain is closely related to the

pressure drop characteristic. So, the pressure distribution of mainstream would

affect the ow characteristic of porous domain. In this article, the inuence of

different mainstream pressure distributions on transpiration cooling performance

Figure 13. Pressure contours and coolant streamline distributions for different mainstream pressure distributions (color gure available online).

775

is analyzed. Three kinds of mainstream pressure distributions, including zero pressure gradient, adverse pressure gradient, and favorable pressure gradient, are considered. The variation of pressure distribution is caused by the change of the

mainstream channel shape. For the zero pressure gradient case, the mainstream

channel would not change along ow direction. For adverse or favorable pressure

gradient cases, the mainstream channel is divergent or convergent, respectively.

The upper wall of the mainstream channel is a slip wall. Here, the constant velocity

and temperature are given for the mainstream inlet condition, and the specied static

pressure for mainstream outlet is 1000 Pa. The boundary condition for the porous

domain would not change. In order to denote the strength of the pressure gradient,

the ratio of the mainstream inlet area to outlet area (Ar) is used to demonstrate the

mainstream pressure distribution characteristics. Ar 1 means zero pressure

gradient; Ar < 1 means adverse pressure gradient; and the smaller Ar means bigger

adverse pressure gradient. While, Ar > 1 is just the opposite.

Figure 14. a) Dimensionless temperature and b) friction coefcient proles at the porous=uid interface

for different Ar (color gure available online).

776

Figure 13 for the zero pressure gradient case, the adverse pressure gradient case,

and the favorable pressure gradient case. It is found that the pressure distribution

has a signicant inuence on the pressure distribution in the porous domain and

the coolant streamline distribution. For the zero pressure gradient case

(Figure 13a), the pressure distribution at the porous=uid interface is relatively more

uniform, and the pressure gradient direction in the porous domain is almost vertical.

So, the coolant streamline in the porous domain is almost vertical too, and the local

coolant injection rate on the hot-side surface is uniform. For the adverse pressure

gradient case (Figure 13b), the pressure distribution in the porous domain changes

obviously. The pressure gradient direction inclines toward the upstream, and so does

the coolant streamline. The local interfacial coolant injection rate is not uniform, and

the local injection rate at upstream is relatively higher. Besides, the coolant boundary

layer would become thicker under adverse pressure gradient conditions, so the

Figure 15. a) Velocity boundary layer thickness and b) thermal boundary layer thickness proles for

different Ar (color gure available online).

777

transpiration cooling performance would be better. For the favorable pressure gradient case (Figure 13c), the phenomenon is just the opposite.

The dimensionless temperature and friction coefcient proles at the porous=

uid interface for different Ar are shown in Figure 14. In Figure 14a it can be seen

that the mainstream pressure distribution has obvious effects on the interfacial

temperature and friction coefcient proles. The interfacial temperature increases

with an increase in Ar, which demonstrates that the mainstream adverse pressure

gradient is benecial to improve the transpiration cooling performance. Figure 13

shows that the local coolant injection rate is higher at upstream under the adverse

pressure gradient condition, which could enhance the transpiration cooling performance. Besides, the mainstream adverse pressure gradient could make the coolant

boundary layer become thicker, which would increase the convective thermal resistance between the hot mainstream and the protected surface. So, the existence of

the mainstream pressure gradient would enhance the transpiration cooling performance. Figure 14b shows that the friction coefcient increases with an increase in

Ar. This is because the boundary layer would become thinner under the favorable

pressure gradient, and the coefcient friction would increase. In addition, for the case

of Ar 0.75, the boundary layer separation occurs at the location x 0.85. Figure 15

shows the velocity boundary layer thickness and thermal boundary layer thickness

proles at the porous=uid interface for different Ar. Both the velocity boundary

layer thickness and thermal boundary layer thickness decrease with an increase in Ar.

4. CONCLUSION

The investigation of laminar plate transpiration cooling was conducted with

the two-domain approach and the preconditioned density-based algorithm adopted.

The inuences of some parameters such as coolant injection rate, Reynolds number,

thermal conductivity ratio, and mainstream pressure gradient on the transpiration

cooling performance were analyzed. The following conclusions can be drawn.

1. The coolant injection rate has a signicant inuence on the transpiration boundary layer characteristics. With the increase of injection rate, the coolant boundary

layer over a hot-side surface would become thicker, which would help to isolate

the protected surface to the hot mainstream and increase the convective thermal

resistance. In the current conditions, the interfacial dimensionless temperature

would decrease to 0.5 with a coolant injection rate of less than 0.2%.

2. The Reynolds number could inuence the development of the coolant boundary

layer, and has obvious effects on the transpiration cooling performance. With the

increase of Re, the inuence of viscous force would be weakened, and the coolant

boundary layer would become thinner. So, the interfacial convective heat transfer

coefcient would increase, and the transpiration cooling performance would

become worse.

3. The mainstream pressure distribution could inuence the coolant ow in the

porous domain and the transpiration boundary layer characteristics, so it would

affect the transpiration cooling performance. With the existence of the mainstream adverse pressure gradient, on one hand, the coolant streamline would

incline toward upstream, and the local coolant injection rate at upstream is

778

higher; on the other hand, the coolant layer over the protected surface would

become thicker, and the convective thermal resistance would increase. The two

effects would enhance the transpiration cooling performance. On the contrary,

the mainstream favorable pressure gradient would weaken the transpiration cooling performance.

REFERENCES

1. R. J. Moffat and W. M. Kays, The Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Porous Plate:

Experimental Heat Transfer with Uniform Blowing and Suction, Int. J. Heat Mass

Transfer, vol. 11, pp. 15471566, 1968.

2. W. M. Kays, Heat Transfer to the Transpired Turbulent Boundary Layer, Int. J. Heat

Mass Transfer, vol. 15, pp. 10231044, 1971.

3. D. W. Kearney, W. M. Kays, and R. J. Moffat, Heat Transfer to a Strong Accelerated

Turbulent Boundary Layer: Some Experimental Results, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer,

vol. 16, pp. 12891305, 1972.

4. P. S. Andersen, W. M. Kays, and R. J. Moffat, Experimental Results for the Transpired

Turbulent Layer in an Adverse Pressure Gradient, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 16, pp. 12891305,

1972.

5. H. S. Mickley, R. C. Ross, A. L. Squyers, and W. E. Stewart, Heat, Mass and Momentum

Transfer for Flow over a Flat Plate with Blowing or Suction, Rep. no. NASA -TN-3208,

1954.

6. W. Q. Liu and Q. Z. Chen, Transpiration Cooling of Rocket Thrust Chamber with Liquid

Oxygen, AIAA-1998-890, 1998.

7. M. Thames and D. B. Landrum, Thermal=Fluid Study of Perforated Plates for

Transpiration Cooled Rocket Chambers, AIAA-1998-3442, 1998.

8. K. Frohlke, O. J. Haidn, and E. Serbest, New Experimental Results on Transpiration

Cooling for Hydrogen=Oxygen Rocket Combustion Chambers, AIAA-1998-3443, 1998.

9. S. H. Choi, S. J. Seotti, K. D. Song, and H. Reis, Transpiration Cooling of a Scram Jet

Engine Combustion Chamber, AIAA-1997-2576, 1997.

10. J. H. Wang, J. Messner, and H. Stetter, An Experimental Investigation of Transpiration

Cooling, Part IApplication of an Infrared Measurement Technique, Int. J. Rot. Mach.,

vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 15423034, 2003.

11. J. H. Wang, J. Messner, and H. Stetter, An Experimental Investigation of Transpiration

Cooling, Part IIComparison of Cooling Method and Media, Int. J. Rot. Mach., vol. 10,

no. 5, pp. 15423034, 2004.

12. J. H. Wang and J. X. Shi, A Discussion of Transpiration Cooling Problem through an

Analytical Solution of Local Thermal Nonequilibrium Model, ASME J. Heat Transfer,

vol. 128, pp. 10931098, 2008.

13. Yu. V. Polezhaev and E. M. Seliverstov, A Universal Model of Heat Transfer in Systems

with Penetration Cooling, High Temp., vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 856864, 2002.

14. J. Von Wolfersdorf, Effect of Coolant Side Heat Transfer on Transpiration Cooling, Heat

Mass Transfer, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 327337, 2005.

15. J. H. Wang and J. X. Shi, A Discussion of Boundary Conditions of Transpiration Cooling

Problems using Analytical Solution of LTNE Model, ASME J. Heat Transfer, vol. 130,

pp. 15, 2008.

16. E. M. A. Elbashbeshy, Laminar Mixed Convection over Horizontal Flat Plate Embedded

in a Non-Darcian Porous Medium with Suction and Injection, Appl. Math. Comp., vol.

121, pp. 123128, 2001.

779

17. O. Aydin and A. Kaya, Laminar Boundary Layer Flow over a Horizontal Permeable Flat

Plate, Appl. Math. Comp., vol. 161, pp. 229240, 2005.

18. P. X. Jiang, L. Yu, J. G. Sun, and J. Wang, Experimental and Numerical Investigation of

Convection Heat Transfer in Transpiration Cooling, Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 24, pp. 1271

1289, 2004.

19. G. J. Hwang and Y. C. Chang, Developing Laminar Flow and Heat Transfer in a Square

Duct with One-Walled Injection and Suction, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 36, no. 9,

pp. 24292440, 1993.

20. M. Yu and P. X. Jiang, Numerical Simulation of High Temperature Transpiration Cooling in Cylindrical Porous Channels, J. Tsinghua Univ. (Sci. & Tech.), vol. 46, no. 2, pp.

242246, 2006 (in Chinese).

21. Y. Q. Liu, P. X. Jiang, S. S. Jin, and J. G. Sun, Transpiration Cooling of a Nose Cone by

Various Foreign Gases, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 53, pp. 53645372, 2010.

22. H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Zou, Y. Li, and J. Ye, Preconditioned Density-Based Algorithm for

Conjugate Porous=Fluid=Solid Domains, Numer. heat transfer A, vol. 60, pp. 129153,

2011.

23. J. M. Weiss and W. A. Smith, Preconditioning Applied to Variable and Constant Density

Flows, AIAA J., vol. 33, pp. 20502057, 1995.

24. R. C. Swanson and E. Turkel, On Central Difference and Upwind Schemes, J. Comput.

Phys., vol. 101, pp. 292306, 1992.

25. R. C. Swanson, R. Radespiel, and E. Turkel, Comparison of Central Several Dissipation

Algorithms for Central Difference Schemes, AIAA-97-1945, 1997.

26. H. J. Zhang and Z. P. Zou, Investigation of a Conned Laminar Impinging Jet on a Plate

with a Porous Layer using the Preconditioned Density-Based Algorithm, Numer. Heat

Transfer A, vol. 61, pp. 241267, 2012.

27. N. V. Nikitin and A. A. Pavelev, Turbulent Flow in a Channel with Permeable Walls,

Direct Numerical Simulation and Results of Three-Parameter Model, Fluid Dyn., vol.

33, pp. 826832, 1998.

Copyright of Numerical Heat Transfer: Part A -- Applications is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its

content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's

express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Blog - LEAP Australia & New Zealand _ Turbulence Part 3 – Selection of Wall Functions and Y_ to Best Capture the Turbulent Boundary LayerUploaded byAbhiA
- NASA - HTC Distribution Over Vane ProfilesUploaded byBob
- Oil Spreading on the SeaUploaded byMaria Eduarda Torres Santos
- Fluid Mechanics Architecture and QuestionsUploaded byPranshu Mahajan
- 2dheat.pdfUploaded byJosé Gomes
- Modelling Assignment: OpenFoamUploaded byAlexandros Kenich
- AN APPROACH TO OBTAIN THE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF AQUEOUS SUCROSE SOLUTIONS IN AGITATED BOILING VESSELSUploaded bynicolasjmunoz
- JFE122_1_2000PP174-188_TechnicUploaded bygadag12
- تورباين رياحUploaded byAnonymous MzrbPd
- wrr_43_06403.pdfUploaded bygetsweet
- 9783642007170-c1Uploaded byRandiRusdiana
- ForcedConv_InternalFlowsUploaded byAjay Yadav
- Fluid MechanicsUploaded byTochi Krishna Abhishek
- Laminar Flow Friction and Heat Pt 2Uploaded byandysarmiento
- Batchelor vs Stewartson Flow Structures in a Rotor Statotr CavityUploaded bykoolwaveoceanic
- db3ch7Uploaded byalejodany
- Mvjce Me 6 SemUploaded byAkash Aku
- PanelMethods by AbrarUploaded bychirag
- Final Thermodynamics Project ReportUploaded byAnil Yarlagadda
- Ek 23822828Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- mel705-2Uploaded byARUNGREESMA
- flu_fibUploaded bySuresh Raju
- TheoryUploaded bydvbnjfd
- sylabus.docxUploaded byArjun Cp
- Chapter 8bUploaded byephrem
- REFERÊNCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS.pdfUploaded byRicardo Catta Preta
- ggg.pdfUploaded byStevan Krstojevic
- Subject CMODERN TRENDS IN MANAGEMENTode With Syllabus MechanicalUploaded byJagannath Rao
- GESTRA Guide.pdfUploaded bymkarahan
- JCE_64_20124_2_066_EngleskiUploaded bytt3340

- 04 Campo MagneticUploaded bybenrodca
- EcuacióndeVolterrasolucionUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- Tablas mtmUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- Resuelto Sistemas de Cuaciones LinealesUploaded byBenjhy Jordan Castillo Valera
- T2 Hernandez Delgado Alfredo IAM 30 A. Diseño de elementos de maquinaUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- Residual StressUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- Practica MetroUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- ley y reglamentacion de aviación civil mex.pdfUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- ley y reglamentacion de aviación civil mex.pdfUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- Conclusion Plantas Medicinales Si Existen o NoUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- resumen problemas de fundicion y diseño de mazarota calculo de vertidoUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- problemas de mazarota y tiempo de vertidoUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- fadfdafczxa.docxUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- fadfdafczxa.docxUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- Maquinados Convencionales y EspecialesUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- Examen de integrales dobles, volumen. universidad aeronauticaUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- La Caricatu RaUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- Latex 2do Parcial Alfredo Shamed Hernandez DelgadoUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- ContentServer (6)Uploaded byshamedalfredo18
- EDO-TIIIUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- ecuaciones diferenciales exactasUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- Isomeria geometricaUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- problemas-resueltos-derivadasUploaded byIvan Angeles
- Revocación presidencialUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- El sueño de MaríaUploaded bylucy3166
- bc547Uploaded byapi-3747180
- La Guia MetAs 09 11 Metrologia DimensionalUploaded bymotocor28
- integrales por sustitucion trigonometrica UNIVERSIDAD AERONAUTICA EN QUERETQAROUploaded byshamedalfredo18
- Tarea 2Uploaded byFelipe López Garduza

- Prosthetic Meshes for Repair of Hernia and Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Comparison of Biomechanical PropertiesUploaded byHarsha
- Hydrology Soil MoistureUploaded byAtul Kumar
- Determination of the Vuggy Porosity of Some Oolitic Building Limestones and the Practical ImplicationsUploaded byMammox Estrada
- pharmaceutisUploaded bymohamed
- Resistivity Fractal Dimension for Characterizing Shajara Reservoirs of the Permo-Carboniferous Shajara FormationUploaded byProfessor Khalid Elyas Mohamed Elameen Alkhidir
- 221r_96Uploaded byaskarah
- ENM200 Well Testing NotesUploaded byFarid Dib
- Effect of Long Term Sugarcane Saccharum Spp Cultivation on Chemical and Physical Properties of Soils in BelizeUploaded byJosé Olarte
- 00027488- Bowers MethodUploaded byEnrique Daniel Contreras Avila
- How Does the Pore-throat Size Control the Reservoir Quality and Oiliness of Tight Sandstones_ the Case of the Lower Cretaceous Quantou Formation in the Southern Songliao Basin, ChinaUploaded byJean Carlos
- Wicking of Perfectly Wetting Liquids Into a Metallic Mesh 35 07Uploaded bystyleworker
- filters, sorbents and geotextiles.pdfUploaded bythadikkaran
- ETGE2012 ProceedingsUploaded byanu
- materials-02-00790Uploaded byWookyoung Lee
- SpecialUploaded byl0k0tus
- Simplified+Plane+Strain+Modeling+of+Stone+Column+Reinforced+Ground.pdfUploaded bySanti Sari
- Modeling Pressure Drop Evolution on High Temp FiltersUploaded byArdu Stuff
- Petrophysicist ReportUploaded byWorapat Subanapas
- A Review of the Status of Foam Applications in Enhaced Oil RecoveryUploaded byRosales Didier
- Alphabets of Hydrology[1]Uploaded byGhiovani Dayanan
- SPE-123561-MSUploaded byJosé Timaná
- SPE-131772-MS-P - Calculo Shale Gas in PlaceUploaded byDiego Londoño
- Formation EvaluationUploaded byPrasanti Plaban Dash
- Experimental Simulation of Hydrocarbon ExpulsionUploaded byTran Dang Sang
- SPE-171671-MS EORUploaded byJessica Doza
- Well Construction Training Course (DACAAR)Uploaded byTroy
- Determination of the Concrete Chloride Diffusion Coefficient Based OnUploaded bydimitrios25
- FlexiDry Benefits DocUploaded bysimon_bateman
- Latihan Kelompok Mekanika Fluida Dan PartikelUploaded byrizka
- MLE1101 - Tutorial 6 - Suggested SolutionsUploaded byYin Hau