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Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, 62: 761779, 2012

Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


ISSN: 1040-7782 print=1521-0634 online
DOI: 10.1080/10407782.2012.712462

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF LAMINAR-PLATE


TRANSPIRATION COOLING BY THE PRECONDITIONED
DENSITY-BASED ALGORITHM
H. J. Zhang and Z. P. Zou
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engines,
School of Jet Propulsion, Beihang University, Beijing, China
The preconditioned density-based algorithm and two-domain approach were used to investigate the laminar-plate transpiration cooling process. In the porous zone, the momentum
equations were formulated by the Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model; and the local
thermal equilibrium model (LTE) was adopted for the energy equation. At the porous/uid
interface, the stress-continuity interfacial condition was utilized. The effects of coolant
injection rate, Reynolds number, pressure gradient of mainstream, and thermal conductivity
ratio on the transpiration cooling performance were studied. Results indicate that the
thickness of the coolant boundary layer on the protected surface has a signicant effect
on the transpiration cooling effect. Under the current conditions, the transpiration cooling
performance would be enhanced with increasing coolant injection rate, but would be
weakened with increasing Re. The adverse pressure gradient of mainstream would improve
the transpiration cooling performance.

1. INTRODUCTION
With the development of aerospace technology, the thermal loading imposed
on the hot-end components of aerospace vehicles is becoming higher and higher.
Thermo-protection technologies are faced with more and more austere challenges.
Due to unique advantages such as high cooling efciency, good covering ability
and easy control, the transpiration cooling based on a porous matrix is one of the
most efcient cooling technologies to prevent surface damage from hot gas.
Many researchers adopt experimental, analytical or numerical methods to
investigate transpiration cooling. Kays et al. [14] conducted systematic experimental
studies to forced convective turbulent-plate transpiration cooling, and inuence of the
injection rate, suction rate, and pressure gradient on cooling performance were investigated. The experimental results agree well with the analytic dimensionless Stanton
Received 16 May 2012; accepted 30 June 2012.
This work was nancially supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under
grant number 50776003; the Innovation Foundation of BUAA for Ph.D. graduates
(YWF-12-RBYJ-010); and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher
Education (20101102110011).
Address correspondence to Z. P. Zou, National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on
Aero-Engines, School of Jet Propulsion, Beihang University, Xueyuan Rd. No. 37, Beijing, Haidian
District, 100191, P.R. China. E-mail: zouzhengping@buaa.edu.cn

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H. J. ZHANG AND Z. P. ZOU

NOMENCLATURE
Ar
Cs
CF
Da
E
F
~
F
H
Hf
h
hf
K
L
P
q
~
Q
Re
Rev
T

ratio of mainstream inlet area to outlet


area
specic heat of solid, J=Kg K
inertia drag coefcient of porous media
Darcy number based on porous plate
length
total energy per unit mass of uid, J=Kg
coolant ow injection rate
ux vector
porous plate height, m
total enthalpy per unit mass of uid,
J=Kg
porous layer thickness, m
static enthalpy per unit mass of uid,
J=Kg
permeability of porous medium, m2
porous plate length, m
uid pressure, Pa
heat ux density, W=m K
source term
Reynolds number based on mainstream
inlet velocity
Reynolds number based on coolant inlet
velocity
temperature, K

s
u, v, w
~
V
~
W
~p
W
x, y, z
dij
e
h
k
m
q
s
hi

time, s
velocity component, m=s
velocity vector, m=s
vector of conservative variables
vector of primitive variables
coordinates
Kronecker delta function
porosity of porous medium
dimensionless temperature
thermal conductivity, W=m K
dynamic viscosity, Kg= m s
density, Kg=m3
viscous stress tensor
volume averaging

Superscripts and Subscripts


c
related to convection
e
effective
f
uid phase in porous medium

pure uid
i
the porous=uid interface
in
inlet
s
solid phase in porous medium
v
related to diffusion
w
wall

correlations proposed by Mickley et al. [5]. Liu and Chen [6], Thames and Landrum
[7], and Frohlke et al. [8] studied the characteristics of transpiration cooling in the
liquid rocket combustor and the exhaust nozzle, with the hydrogen utilized as the coolant medium. Choi et al. [9] investigated the feasibility of transpiration cooling in a
supersonic ramjet combustor, with the helium as the cooling medium instead of hydrogen. Wang et al. [10, 11] studied the transpiration cooling experimentally in a hot wind
tunnel based on the background of gas turbine blade cooling.
Transpiration cooling includes two processes. First, the coolant medium ows
through the porous matrix and removes the heat ux by convection; then, the coolant medium interacts with the hot mainstream and forms a uniform coolant layer on
the hot-side surface. The interaction of the two processes plays an important role in
the transpiration cooling. The numerical investigations of transpiration cooling can
be divided into two categories: the coupling method and the un-coupling method. As
for the un-coupling method, the uid ow and heat transfer characteristics of a
coolant medium in the porous matrix are studied by analytic method; and the
interactions of coolant ow and hot mainstream are studied by numerical or analytic
methods. Wang and Shi [12] investigated the transpiration cooling process using the
un-coupling method. The ow in a porous region was simplied as one-dimensional
ow, and the local thermal nonequilibrium (LTNE) model was utilized for the
energy equation. Then, the error caused by the assumption of the local thermal equilibrium (LTE) model is discussed, and a quantitative criterion to choose the LTE or

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LTNE model is suggested. Polezhaev and Seliverstov [13] proposed a universal


one-dimensional model for the uid ow in the porous matrix, with the LTNE model
adopted for the energy equation. The specied heat ux density was given for the
boundary condition of the hot-side surface. Wolfersdorf [14] and Wang and Shi
[15] investigated the inuence of the coolant side and hot side boundary conditions
on transpiration cooling performance, respectively, with the LTNE model adopted
for the energy equation. Elbashbeshy [16] and Aydin and Kaya [17] investigated
the laminar boundary layer characteristics with uniform gas injection or suction
by the analytical method. Jiang et al. [18] studied the turbulent ow and heat transfer
in a rectangular channel with and without transpiration cooling by experimental and
numerical methods. The inuences of injection rate on the convective heat transfer
rate and turbulent boundary layer characteristics were analyzed.
As for the coupling methods, Hwang and Chang [19] simulated the forced convective heat transfer in a square duct with one-wall injection and suction. In the
porous region, the ow was considered to be one-dimensional, and the LTNE model
was adopted for the energy equation. At the porous=uid interface, the temperature
of the solid phase was assumed to be equal to that of the uid phase. Yu and Jiang
[20] applied the commercial CFD software Fluent to investigate the high temperature transpiration cooling in a cylindrical porous channel, with the LTE model
adopted for the porous energy equation. The RNG k-e turbulence model was used
for the simulation of turbulent mainstream ow. Liu et al. [21] investigated the
transpiration cooling mechanisms used for the thermal protection of a nose cone
for various cooling gases by the coupling method based on Fluent. The numerical
results agree well with the experimental data.
There are many factors that affect the uid ow and heat transfer characteristics
of transpiration cooling, and the parametric study was conducted here. In reference
[22], a preconditioned density-based algorithm was proposed to solve the conjugate
uid ow and heat transfer problem in hybrid porous=uid=solid domains. The
numerical results indicate that the proposed numerical method has characteristics
of high numerical precision and good applicability. On the basis of this, the
laminar-plate transpiration cooling was investigated numerically. The effects of coolant injection rate, Reynolds number, pressure gradient of mainstream, and thermal
conductivity ratio on the transpiration cooling performance were analyzed.

2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL
2.1. Problem Description
The schematic diagram of the computational model is shown in Figure 1. The
hot mainstream with uniform temperature Tin and velocity Uin ows across the
porous plate with length L and thickness H. The coolant medium with low temperature Tc is injected into the porous plate at constant velocity Vc. The coolant ows
through the porous matrix, and forms a uniform coolant layer over the hot-side surface of the porous structure. On one hand, the coolant ow removes the heat ux in
the porous matrix by convection; on the other hand, the coolant layer could isolate
the hot-side surface from hot mainstream, and increase the convective thermal resistance. So, the cooling efcient of transpiration cooling is very high.

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H. J. ZHANG AND Z. P. ZOU

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the computational model.

2.2. Governing Equations


In this article, the two-domain approach is adopted to simulate the uid ow
and heat transfer problems in porous=uid hybrid domains, and each domain has
the corresponding governing equations. It should be noted that the coolant medium
and mainstream are the same kind of uid, and there is no phase transition.
For simplicity, only the governing equations for porous domain are given. The
following assumptions are adopted in the models: 1) the porous medium is homogeneous and isotropic; 2) the momentum equations were formulated by the DarcyBrinkman-Forchheimer model; 3) the local thermal equilibrium model (LTE) was
adopted for the energy equation; 4) ignore the impact of temperature on the physical
properties; and 5) the mainstream ow is laminar. Then, the macro-governing equations for porous domain based on volumetric method could be written as follows.
f
f
qehqif qehqi hvij

0
qs
qxj

"
#
f
f
f
qehqif hvifi qehqi hvii hvij
qehPif
q qehvifi


mf
qs
qxi
qxj
qxj
qxj


mf
 ~ f f
 e2 hvifi  e3 K 0:5 CF qf hV
i hvii
K
f
f
f
f
f
f
qehqif hEif 1  ehqis cs hTif qehqi hHi hvij qhsiij hvii qhqij


qs
qxj
qxj
qxj

Where e is the porosity; K is the permeability; CF is the dimensionless drag


coefcient; hEif is the average total energy per unit mass hEif hHif  hPif =hqif ;
h
f i
~ if j2 =2, hhif hhPif ; hTif ; mf q qehvii is the Brinkman term;
hHif hhif  jhV
qxj

hqifj

hqifj

qxj

is the average heat conduction term


ke qhTi
and
qxj , where the effective
thermal conductivity of porous medium ke could be simply estimated as:
ke ekf (1  e)ks, when the tortuosity and thermal dispersion are neglected. The
corresponding uid state equation: hqif q(hPif, hTif). hqis, cs are density and specic heat of solid, respectively. The physical parameters in the porous domain mentioned above are all intrinsic-phase average values.

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When the two-domain approach is applied to simulate the conjugate uid ow


and heat transfer problems in porous=uid hybrid domains, the relevant boundary
conditions should be specied at the porous=uid interfaces. The mass, momentum,
and energy balance conditions should be satised at the interface. In this article, the
shear stress continuity model is adopted for the interfacial hydrodynamic boundary
condition. In transpiration cooling, the ow in porous medium is low-speed seepage
ow, and the development of thermal equilibrium between coolant medium and
porous matrix is adequate enough. When the temperature difference between solid
phase and uid phase is not big, the local thermal equilibrium (LTE) model could
be adopted for the energy equation in the porous domain. Correspondingly, the
temperature and heat ux continuity model are applied for the interfacial thermal
boundary condition.
2.3. Numerical Method
In this article, the density-based nite-volume algorithm is used to simulate the
uid ow and heat transfer problem in hybrid porous=uid domains, with the preconditioning method applied to solve the convergence and stability problems in
the calculation of the low-speed ows. Because the density-based algorithm in the
pure uid domain is commonly seen, only the numerical procedure for the porous
domain is presented. For the energy equation of the porous domain, the pseudo-time
derivative term is very complicated and the derivation of the preconditioning matrix
is difcult. For the time-marching method, the appropriate change to the
pseudo-time derivative terms would not inuence the nal steady converged solution. In this article, the pseudo-time derivative term of the energy equation (Eq.
f

cs hTi
(3)) qehqi hEi 1ehqi
is modied as qehqiqshEi . Then, the governing equations
qs
of the porous domain (Eqs. (1)(3)) can be expressed as follows.
Z
I 
Z

q
~  dX
~
~
~
W  dX
F c  F v  dS
Q
4
qs X
qX
X

~ ehqif ehqif huif ehqif hvif ehqif hwif ehqif hEif T is the vector
Where W
~ i hqif huif hV
~ i hPi~i hqif hvif hV
~i
of conservative variables: ~
F c hqif hV
f
f ~
f
f ~ T
~
hPi j hqi hwi hV i hPi hqi hHi hV i is the vector of convective uxes:
~
~
F v 0 hsxi if hsyi if hszi if hsij if hvj if hqi if T is the vector of viscous uxes: and Q
is the source term.
~ p , can
The preconditioned N-S equations, formulated in primitive variables W
be written as follows.
Z
I 
Z

q
~
~
~
W p  dX
F c  F v  dS ~
C
S  dX
5
qt X
qX
X
~ p is the vector of primitive variables. When choosing primitive variWhere W
ables in the porous domain, it should be under consideration that the ow physical
parameters should be continuous in space. According to this request and the primitive variables used in SIMPLE-family schemes in the porous domain, the vector of
~
~ p hPif ehuif ehvif ehwif hTif T ; ~
primitive variables is chosen as: W
F c; ~
F v , and Q

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H. J. ZHANG AND Z. P. ZOU

are consistent with the terms mentioned above; and C is the preconditioning matrix.
In the clear uid region, the preconditioning matrix proposed by Weiss and Smith
[23] is applied. The preconditioning matrix for the porous domain can be seen in reference [22]. Although its not the same as that for the clear uid domain, the form of
eigenvalues of preconditioned convective ux Jacobian is the same as that for the
clear uid domain, which means that the proposed preconditioning matrix for the
porous domain could alleviate the stiffness of governing equations in the porous
domain effectively, and also solve the convergence problem at low speed.
For the clear uid or porous domains, the discretization schemes of the governing equations are almost the same. The central scheme is used for the spatial discretization, with the matrix articial dissipation scheme [24, 25] which has a smaller
numerical dissipation applied. The detailed discretization scheme and numerical procedure can be seen in reference [22].
2.4. Code Validation
The computational domain of transpiration cooling includes the porous and
pure uid domains. In references [22, 26], the numerical results indicate that the
numerical method adopted here is suitable for the simulation of the coupled uid ow
and heat transfer problems in hybrid porous=uid=solid domains. In order to indicate
the reliability to the simulation of transpiration boundary layer ows, the present code
was validated by the case of laminar ow in a plate channel with permeable walls.
The schematic diagram of laminar ow in a plate channel with permeable walls
is presented in Figure 2, where the upper and bottom walls are permeable. The coolant ow enters into the mainstream from the bottom wall and outow from the
upper wall with the same velocity Vc. The ow is laminar and incompressible. When
the ow is under a fully developed condition, the velocity distribution is the
superposition of a motion perpendicular to the walls with velocity Vc and a axial
motion with the velocity U(y) [27].


Dp  H
1
Uy
chRev  expY  Rev 
Y
6
shRev
Vc

Figure 2. Schematic diagram of laminar ow in a plate channel with permeable walls.

LAMINAR-PLATE TRANSPIRATION COOLING

767

Figure 3. Axial velocity distributions for different coolant injection rates (color gure available online).

dp
Where Ren VcnH ; Y y=H; Dp  q1 dx
h
i
R
H
Dp H chRen
1
1
Average channel velocity: Um 2H
H Uydy Vc
shRen  Ren

Coolant injection rate: F Vc=Um


When Ren ! 0, the ow mentioned above tends to be Poiseuille ow.
The axial velocity proles for different coolant injection rates are shown in
Figure 3, in comparison to the corresponding analytic solutions. It is found that
the numerical results agree well with the analytic solutions for different injection
rates, which demonstrates the reliability of the present approach to deal with the
transpiration boundary layer ows. In addition, the axial velocity distributions tend
to be more and more asymmetric with increasing coolant injection rates. Also, the
maximum value of axial velocity increases and the location of maximum velocity
moves to the upper wall.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The schematic diagrams of the computational grid are shown in Figure 4. After
a mesh independent test, the grid density of the pure uid domain is chosen as
181  41  5, and the grid density of the porous domain is chosen as 101  31  5.
The mesh is rened at the porous=uid interface. The mainstream ow is laminar

Figure 4. Schematic diagrams of computational grid a) Overall grid and b) grid at the porous=uid
interface (color gure available online).

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H. J. ZHANG AND Z. P. ZOU

and incompressible. The ow velocity and temperature are given for the mainstream
and coolant ow inlets. The static pressure is specied at the mainstream outlet. The
upper wall of the uid domain is slip wall, and the bottom wall of the uid domain
without contact with the porous domain is the non-slip wall.
Besides geometry size, the dimensionless parameters controlling the transpiration cooling performance can be achieved with the governing equations nondimensionalized, which are: Reynolds number Re qUinL=m; Prandtl number Pr; coolant
ow injection rate F Vc=Uin; porosity e; Darcy number Da K=L2; and the thermal conductivity ratio ks=kf. In the following simulations, the above dimensionless
parameters are considered to be defaults without special emphasis, which are:
Re 5e4, Pr 0.7, F 0.1%, e 0.5, Da 5e-7, ks=kf 10, and CF 0.0. In this article, the inuences of some parameters including Re, F, ks=kf, and the pressure gradient of the mainstream on the transpiration cooling performance and transpiration
boundary layer characteristics are studied.
3.1. Effect of Coolant Injection Rate F
The temperature contours for different coolant injection rates are shown in
Figure 5. (The inlet temperature of the mainstream is 310 k; the inlet temperature
of coolant ow is 300 k.) With an increase in the coolant ow injection rate F, the
temperature in the porous domain and at the porous=uid interface decreases.
The coolant ow enters into the mainstream and forms a uniform coolant layer over
the hot-side surface of the porous structure. The transpiration boundary layer
becomes thicker, and the temperature and convective heat transfer coefcient at
the interface would decrease. At the downstream of the interface, the coolant
boundary layer would develop and protect the downstream wall. But the cooling

Figure 5. Temperature contours for different coolant injection rates (color gure available online).

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Figure 6. Dimensionless temperature proles at porous=uid interface for different coolant injection rates
(color gure available online).

performance becomes worse with the heating of the mainstream (the downstream
non-slip wall is adiabatic).
Figure 6 shows the dimensionless temperature h proles at the porous=uid
interface for different coolant injection rates. The dimensionless temperature is
dened as: h (Ti  Tc)=(Tin  Tc), where Ti is the interfacial temperature; Tin is
the inlet temperature of mainstream; and Tc is the inlet temperature of coolant ow.
It is obvious that the interfacial dimensional temperature decreases with an increase
in coolant injection rate. Under the current conditions, the interfacial dimensionless
temperature would decrease to 0.5 with the coolant ow injection F 0.2%, which
demonstrates the high efciency of the transpiration cooling.

Figure 7. Schematic diagrams of coolant ow streamline for different coolant injection rates (color gure
available online).

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H. J. ZHANG AND Z. P. ZOU

The schematic diagrams of coolant ow streamline for different injection rates


are presented in Figure 7. It can be seen that the coolant ow enters into the mainstream and forms a coolant boundary layer over the porous=uid interface. At the
downstream, the boundary layer becomes thicker with the accumulation of the coolant ow. Besides, with an increase in the injection rate, the transpiration boundary
layer is thicker, and the transpiration cooling performance becomes better. Figure 8
shows the velocity boundary layer thickness and thermal boundary layer thickness
proles at the porous=uid interface for different coolant injection rates. It is
obvious that the velocity and thermal boundary layers both become thicker with a
higher injection rate. The interfacial temperature and convective heat transfer
coefcient would also decrease remarkably.
3.2. Effect of Reynolds Number Re
Obviously, the Reynolds number has a signicant inuence on transpiration
boundary layer characteristics, so it would affect the transpiration cooling

Figure 8. a) Velocity boundary thickness and b) thermal boundary thickness proles for different coolant
injection rates (color gure available online).

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Figure 9. Dimensionless temperature proles at the porous=uid interface for different Re (color gure
available online).

Figure 10. a) Velocity boundary thickness and b) thermal boundary thickness proles for different Re
(color gure available online).

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H. J. ZHANG AND Z. P. ZOU

performance. In this article, the change of Re is caused by the variation of the


mainstream inlet velocity. In order to maintain a constant injection rate F, the inlet
velocity of coolant ow would change correspondingly.
Figure 9 shows the dimensionless temperature proles at the porous=uid
interface for different Re. The mainstream Re would affect the transpiration
cooling performance remarkably. Under the current conditions, with an increase
in Re the dimensionless temperature at the porous=uid interface decreases, and
the transpiration cooling performance would be weakened. For the laminar
transpiration boundary layer, the variation of Re would inuence the boundary
layer characteristics. The effect of viscous force in the boundary layer would
be weakened and the boundary layer would become thinner with the increase
of Re; so, the transpiration cooling performance would become worse. In

Figure 11. a) Dimensionless axial velocity and b) dimensionless vertical velocity proles at the porous=
uid interface for different Re (color gure available online).

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addition, when the Re is small, the transpiration cooling performance would be


more sensitive to the variation of Re.
The velocity boundary layer thickness and thermal boundary layer thickness
proles at the porous=uid interface for different Re are shown in Figure 10. With
the increase of Re, the thicknesses of the velocity boundary and thermal boundary
layers would decrease.
Figure 11 presents the dimensionless axial velocity and vertical velocity
proles at the porous=uid interface, where the axial velocity Vx is nondimensionalized by mainstream inlet velocity Uin; and the vertical velocity Vy is nondimensionalized by the coolant inlet velocity Vc. It is found that the variation of Re has
an obvious effect on the coolant velocity proles at the porous=uid interface. At
the interface, the axial velocity increases to the maximum value from 0 at a short
distance; then, it would decrease gradually. Besides, the interfacial coolant axial
velocity increases with an increase in Re. This is because the boundary layer

Figure 12. a) Interfacial dimensionless temperature and b) thermal boundary layer thickness proles for
different ks=kf (color gure available online).

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H. J. ZHANG AND Z. P. ZOU

would become thinner, and the shear stress would increase with increasing Re. It
is known Figure 11b that the prole of dimensionless vertical velocity is not uniform; and the nonuniform extent of interfacial vertical velocity would increase
with an increase in Re.

3.3. Effect of Thermal Conductivity ratio ks/kf


In this article, the uid thermal conductivity is constant and the variation of
ks=kf is caused by the change of solid thermal conductivity. Normally, the solid thermal conductivity is bigger than the uid thermal conductivity, and the variation of
ks=kf would inuence the effect thermal conductivity of porous media (the LTE
model is adopted for the energy equation). So, the thermal conductivity ratio has
a signicant effect on the transpiration cooling performance. The interfacial dimensionless temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness proles for different
ks=kf are presented in Figure 12. It is found that the interfacial temperature decreases
and the thermal boundary layer becomes thicker with an increase in ks=kf. So, the
transpiration cooling performance would become better with increasing ks=kf.
3.4. Effect of Mainstream Pressure Gradient
The uid ow characteristic in the porous domain is closely related to the
pressure drop characteristic. So, the pressure distribution of mainstream would
affect the ow characteristic of porous domain. In this article, the inuence of
different mainstream pressure distributions on transpiration cooling performance

Figure 13. Pressure contours and coolant streamline distributions for different mainstream pressure distributions (color gure available online).

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is analyzed. Three kinds of mainstream pressure distributions, including zero pressure gradient, adverse pressure gradient, and favorable pressure gradient, are considered. The variation of pressure distribution is caused by the change of the
mainstream channel shape. For the zero pressure gradient case, the mainstream
channel would not change along ow direction. For adverse or favorable pressure
gradient cases, the mainstream channel is divergent or convergent, respectively.
The upper wall of the mainstream channel is a slip wall. Here, the constant velocity
and temperature are given for the mainstream inlet condition, and the specied static
pressure for mainstream outlet is 1000 Pa. The boundary condition for the porous
domain would not change. In order to denote the strength of the pressure gradient,
the ratio of the mainstream inlet area to outlet area (Ar) is used to demonstrate the
mainstream pressure distribution characteristics. Ar 1 means zero pressure
gradient; Ar < 1 means adverse pressure gradient; and the smaller Ar means bigger
adverse pressure gradient. While, Ar > 1 is just the opposite.

Figure 14. a) Dimensionless temperature and b) friction coefcient proles at the porous=uid interface
for different Ar (color gure available online).

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H. J. ZHANG AND Z. P. ZOU

The pressure contours and coolant streamline distributions are presented in


Figure 13 for the zero pressure gradient case, the adverse pressure gradient case,
and the favorable pressure gradient case. It is found that the pressure distribution
has a signicant inuence on the pressure distribution in the porous domain and
the coolant streamline distribution. For the zero pressure gradient case
(Figure 13a), the pressure distribution at the porous=uid interface is relatively more
uniform, and the pressure gradient direction in the porous domain is almost vertical.
So, the coolant streamline in the porous domain is almost vertical too, and the local
coolant injection rate on the hot-side surface is uniform. For the adverse pressure
gradient case (Figure 13b), the pressure distribution in the porous domain changes
obviously. The pressure gradient direction inclines toward the upstream, and so does
the coolant streamline. The local interfacial coolant injection rate is not uniform, and
the local injection rate at upstream is relatively higher. Besides, the coolant boundary
layer would become thicker under adverse pressure gradient conditions, so the

Figure 15. a) Velocity boundary layer thickness and b) thermal boundary layer thickness proles for
different Ar (color gure available online).

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transpiration cooling performance would be better. For the favorable pressure gradient case (Figure 13c), the phenomenon is just the opposite.
The dimensionless temperature and friction coefcient proles at the porous=
uid interface for different Ar are shown in Figure 14. In Figure 14a it can be seen
that the mainstream pressure distribution has obvious effects on the interfacial
temperature and friction coefcient proles. The interfacial temperature increases
with an increase in Ar, which demonstrates that the mainstream adverse pressure
gradient is benecial to improve the transpiration cooling performance. Figure 13
shows that the local coolant injection rate is higher at upstream under the adverse
pressure gradient condition, which could enhance the transpiration cooling performance. Besides, the mainstream adverse pressure gradient could make the coolant
boundary layer become thicker, which would increase the convective thermal resistance between the hot mainstream and the protected surface. So, the existence of
the mainstream pressure gradient would enhance the transpiration cooling performance. Figure 14b shows that the friction coefcient increases with an increase in
Ar. This is because the boundary layer would become thinner under the favorable
pressure gradient, and the coefcient friction would increase. In addition, for the case
of Ar 0.75, the boundary layer separation occurs at the location x  0.85. Figure 15
shows the velocity boundary layer thickness and thermal boundary layer thickness
proles at the porous=uid interface for different Ar. Both the velocity boundary
layer thickness and thermal boundary layer thickness decrease with an increase in Ar.
4. CONCLUSION
The investigation of laminar plate transpiration cooling was conducted with
the two-domain approach and the preconditioned density-based algorithm adopted.
The inuences of some parameters such as coolant injection rate, Reynolds number,
thermal conductivity ratio, and mainstream pressure gradient on the transpiration
cooling performance were analyzed. The following conclusions can be drawn.
1. The coolant injection rate has a signicant inuence on the transpiration boundary layer characteristics. With the increase of injection rate, the coolant boundary
layer over a hot-side surface would become thicker, which would help to isolate
the protected surface to the hot mainstream and increase the convective thermal
resistance. In the current conditions, the interfacial dimensionless temperature
would decrease to 0.5 with a coolant injection rate of less than 0.2%.
2. The Reynolds number could inuence the development of the coolant boundary
layer, and has obvious effects on the transpiration cooling performance. With the
increase of Re, the inuence of viscous force would be weakened, and the coolant
boundary layer would become thinner. So, the interfacial convective heat transfer
coefcient would increase, and the transpiration cooling performance would
become worse.
3. The mainstream pressure distribution could inuence the coolant ow in the
porous domain and the transpiration boundary layer characteristics, so it would
affect the transpiration cooling performance. With the existence of the mainstream adverse pressure gradient, on one hand, the coolant streamline would
incline toward upstream, and the local coolant injection rate at upstream is

778

H. J. ZHANG AND Z. P. ZOU

higher; on the other hand, the coolant layer over the protected surface would
become thicker, and the convective thermal resistance would increase. The two
effects would enhance the transpiration cooling performance. On the contrary,
the mainstream favorable pressure gradient would weaken the transpiration cooling performance.

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