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ARANYA LOW COST HOUSING

LOCATION:

DESIGN FEATURES:

The site is located 6 km north of Indore city. The city I


suitable in terms of linkages to the city and employment
areas.
There are large pockets of existing and proposed
industrial areas within a range of 2km radius from the site.
The site is approached by the Bombay-Delhi highway on
the east

Innovative cost effective infrastructure design and


incremental house growth with freedom in building has
resulted into humane, manageable, user friendly and
visually pleasing environment.
Technological aspects were integrated with designing as an
element. The service slot between houses for sewerage
network became a successful cluster open space, play area
and a visual pause breaking the linear mass of houses.

INTENT OF STUDY:
To study the site planning to evolve a low income
housing.
To study the designing of dwelling units for low income
projects.
To understand the use of locally available material for the
construction.

PROJECT DETAILS

Site: 6 Kilometers north of Indore city.


Client: Indore Development Authority, Indore
Architects: Vastu-Shilpa Foundation; B. V. Doshi
Planner: Himanshu, H. Parikh
Engineers: Muktirajsinhji Chauhan
Consultant Engineers: V.D. Joshi, S.L. Shah,
Land area: 220 acres (total)
Phase I: 100 hectares
Number of plots: 6500
Population (projected): 40,000 (initial)

Hierarchy of green spaces

A typical housing cluster

Site location

CONCEPT:

The project was conceptualized to be a pioneer in site


and service project.
With the indigenous factors in mind a masterplan was
prepared with the integration of built and unbuilt spaces;
hierarchy and distribution of roads spaces and amenities.
Cross subsidization through income mix and
incrementally growing house over a service plot project
has been the highlight of this project

At the community/ street level, the aim was to produce a


design linking the scale of the built form and the human
scale by incorporating a street life with plugged cluster
houses, sympathetic and aesthetically complimenting
each other and a socio cultural life of community
interaction of families in the otta (outdoor platform).
An important feature of the Indian home, at the service
space between house, community spaces and the cul-desac.
The street corner spaces are formed by the alternating
arrangement of the road, the green space, and the
pedestrian pathway

persons 65,000 (final)

Planning: 1982

OBJECTIVES:

To improve and upgrade the existing slum area.


To provide serviced sites for new housing development
projects instead of building complete houses
To provide 6,500 residential plots ranging in size from
35m2 for EWS to 475m2 for high income groups

Plan showing varied houses with


backyard(open private spaces)

Stages Of Development

PLANNING:

An array of available options from, one room to more


spacious houses, emphasize a sense of family and
A net planning area of 85 hectares was laid out in six
neighborhood while driving to encourage adaptation and
sectors that converge on a central spine known as Central
personalization according to individual needs and resources.
Business District.

SPACE USE

pedestrian
25%

open space
8%
Other
15%

residential
60%

commercial
facility
7%

Site divided into 6 sectors


Whole planning is based on the requirements of the
Division of spaces
users.
Road network hierarchy; its segregation from pedestrian
Owners were free to use any material for their house
pathways; open space hierarchy from service slots
construction and decorations; brick, stone and cement
between 4 houses to group spaces between 40 houses to
are all available locally.
sectoral green for 1000 families and provision of
amenities and social infrastructure within walking
distances makes the project user friendly.
The project comprises of 7,000 housing units in various
Vehicular access in the form of rectilinear and formal road
income categories but predominantly EWS and all the
in the hierarchy of 4.5 mts wide to 15 mts wide road draw
the vehicles outwardly.
necessary social, welfare, economic and infrastructure
Pedestrian access in the form of informal interlinked open
amenities are included.
spaces draws people inwardly.
The site plan integrates a variety of the income groups.
This achieves a clear and safe segregation of vehicular and
The poorest are located in the middle of each sector;
pedestrian movements.
higher income plots are along the periphery and the
central spine of the settlement.

CIRCULATION NETWORK:

EWS- 65%
LIG- 11%
MIG- 14%
HIG- 9%

Distribution of plots according to income groups

Accessibility

SERVICES:

SITE AND SERVICE APPROACH


Cost-effective
Progressive development of facilities.
Houses built by the people themselves to suit their needs.
Each family provided with a plot having a water tank,
Vehicular roads
sewerage connection, paved access with street lighting,
storm water drainage
Service cores - key to this site and service scheme.
- nuclei around which houses were built.
Houses were clustered in groups of 10.
Septic tank provided for every 2 clusters.
Water drawn from 3 local reservoirs.
To economize, 20 toilets are connected to 1 manhole.
Informal pedestrian
pathway and open spaces One service line serves four rows of houses

BASIC PLAN OF A HOUSING UNIT


A house plan included two rooms and a living area
followed by a kitchen .

Lavatory was constructed between the front extension


and the multi use courtyard at the back.

Most houses were provided with an additional access


at the back , which allowed for keeping animals, a
vehicle or even renting out part of the house to provide
income.

For interaction of families an otta (an important feature


of the Indian home) was provided between the service
spaces and the cul-de-sac.

A service core was provided with the prime objective


that the basic house when completed will be sensitive
to the lifestyle and daily needs of individuals with the
freedom to integrate indoor and outdoor spaces with
privacy within and from outside the homes, by
designing optional plan.

MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY:

Conventional and locally available building materials


and construction techniques were adopted.
The structures were constructed with load bearing brick
walls.
Walls were plastered and painted.
Floors were cement concrete.
The CRC roof was always constructed at a later stage
because it was a high investment item.
The black cotton soil of the site necessitated pile
foundation even for simple and 2-storey buildings.
Low cost hand made under reamed CRC piles were built
for the core house (latrine, wash room) and the
residents were provided with ready built foundations.
The doors, windows, and grills were made on site by all
of the residents who made it their role.
Railings, parapets and cornices were made to ornament
the house.

CLIMATE RESPONSIVE
FEATURES
Most of the plots small in size and clustered in
low rise blocks
Longer side facade oriented in the north-south
axis to reduce the solar radiation on the
building.
Each house has minimum exposure to wall
surface and a common wall.
The two openings on the north and south
permit light and cross ventilation.
Courtyards within the houses, cul-de-sacs,
public squares and small activity areas shaded
adequately by adjacent buildings.
Use of locally available building materials.
Topography used for orientation of major
infrastructure network and spatial organization.

Typical house plans

The north south


orientation of clusters

The building height to street width ratio


is such that streets are shaded except
when the sun is overhead

LIBRARY STUDY- HOUSING


BASIC TERMINOLOGY
Building Height Vertical Distance Measured From
Average Ground Level And Continues To The Building
Or As Decided By Authority To Terrace Of The
Liveable Floor Of The Building. (Flat Roof)
Building Line Line Up to Which Plinth Of A Building
Adjoining A Street Or Extension Of Street May
Lawfully Extend. It May Change From Time To Time
As Per Authorities.
Coverage Area - Ground Area Covered By Building
Immediately Above Plinth Line . Open Space Like
Garden , Well, Plants, Chabutra, Catch Pts, Gully Pit,
Gutter Etc Are Excluded From Coverage Area.
Fire Separation Distance Measured From External
Wall Of Building Concerned To External Wall Of Any
Other Building On Site Or Public Space For Purpose
Of Preventing The Spread Of Fire.
Floor Lower Surface In A Storey On Which A Person
Walks.
F.A.R Floor Area Ratio

= Total Covered Area Of All Floors

Plot Area
Plinth Area Built Up Covered Area Measured At
Floor Level Of Basement Or Of Any Storey.

SITE PLANNING
INTRODUCTION

LOT LAYOUT

Site planning in its narrow sense involves the disposition


of space for appropriate uses; the positioning of
structures to provide effective relationships; the
provision of access to structures in an expeditious,
attractive, and safe manner; the design of the services,
walks, streets, parking facilities, drainage, and utilities;
the preservation of the natural advantage of the site,
and its enhancement by landscaping.
Analysis of the site should be made in terms of
densities, housing types, construction types,
topography and grading, and local requirements with
regards to zoning, subdivision regulations, and utility
services.
TOPOGRAPHY
Topography influences the character of the
development. Hilly land, with grades greater than 10
percent, may be developed for low density, high priced
homes, or for multi-family projects of relatively low
density, but it is rarely adaptable to small lots and lowcost homes.
Flat land, because of difficulty of obtaining good
drainage for sewers and storm drains, may also not be
suitable for low-priced homes.
Gently sloping land without drainage pockets or
swampy areas or underlying rock is best for low-cost
development.

Setback Line A Line Usually Parallel To Plot


Boundaries And Laid Down In Each Case By Authority
Beyond Which Nothing Can Be Constructed Towards
Site Boundaries.
Carpet Area Covered Area Of Usable Rooms At Any
Floor Level (Excluding Area Of Wall)
Density It Is The Residential Density Expressed In
Terms Of Number Of Dwelling Units Per Hectare.

Prototype
Neighborhood
Plan

The layout of the lots can make a difference between an


attractive and an unattractive development and also
difference between an economical and an uneconomical
project.
HOUSING TYPES: SINGLE FAMILY HOUSES
ROW HOUSES
RENTAL HOUSING
1. LOW RISE
APARTMENTS
2. MID RISE APARTMENTS
3. HIGH RISE
APARTMENTS
A
well
planned
neighborhood plan

SINGLE FAMILY HOUSES


These are employed by the developers as they are
based on the use of identical designs.
Lot sizes for single family detached house are wider
these days; 60 ft.. is considered the minimum width
and 70 to 80 ft. is more usual.
This provides one storey houses with large glass areas
and provision for outdoor living with a reasonable
degree of privacy.
Devices such as patios and courts and fenced-in areas
are used to provide privacy when lot sizes are small.
Garages or carports are often included on the side
boundaries.

Example of lot layout Topography used to


drain off water from
site
various site setbacks
for detached houses

Single family semi


detached houses

Plan of semi
detached lot layout

ROW HOUSES

ROADS

These types of houses are employed for large scale


residential projects.
The groups of houses are built with uniform plans and
designs can be laid out in compact or spacious
configurations.
Lots should be 20 to 25 ft. wide; wider lots with side
yards should be provided at end of group.
Garages should be provided either within the house
structure itself or as a one storey attached structure,
often a carport, at the front of the house.

Row houses with


detached parking

Layout of houses
with central court

Row house lot layout

STREETS

The road space necessary for the free movement of


vehicles comprises vehicle size, side and head clearances,
an extra allowance for oncoming traffic, and space for
verges, drainage gutters and hard shoulders.
Based on a vehicle height of 4.20 m the safe clearance
height is 4.50 m.
Although it is better to allow 4.75 m to cater for repairs to
the carriageway surface.
The safe side clearance is dependent on the maximum
speed limit for the area.
The basic space required for cyclists is 1m wide by 2.25 m
high.
For pedestrians, space required is 0.75 m by 2.25 m.
For sufficient head clearance for foot- and cycle paths, 2.50
m should be allowed.
The safe side clearance for cyclists is 0.25 m.
To harmonize the design, constructional and operational
use of roads, standard cross-section should be strictly
observed unless there are special reasons.

These are planned as individual or as groups with


coordinated designs.
It is now built at lower densities and with more
emphasis on open space; it often includes club-like
structures like swimming pools and tennis courts.
Densities of 15 to 25 families per acre and coverage of
15 to 25 percent are standard in garden apartment
development.
These include individual garages or a communal parking
area.
Dwelling unit type
Lot dimension
net density
in feet
D.U.s per net
acre

Single-family units

Multi-family
units

Street width

50 feet

60 feet

Pavement width

26feet

32 feet

Curbs

Straight
recommended

Same

4 feet min.
3 ft if no trees
7 ft with trees

Same
Same

Horizontal
alignment

200 ft min sight


distance

Same

Cul-de-sac

400-500 ft max
length

Same

Turnarounds

40 ft min curb
radius w/t parking

Same

50 ft min curb
radius with parking

Same

Non-skid with
strength to carry
traffic load

Same

Sidewalks
Width
Set-back

RENTAL HOUSING

Dwelling unit

In a city that is connected, traffic flows smoothly


and the street system works for bikes, buses,
pedestrians as well as autos.
The street pattern within the area should be
designed to discourage through traffic.
Streets are intended primarily to provide access to
and circulation within the area. Streets serving
other purposes (arterial roads) should bound rather
than penetrate the area.
At the boundaries, major streets are an asset if
they provide good access to the other areas of the
community.
Arterial streets should be located at approximately
one-mile intervals in both east-west and northsouth directions.

Space requirement for cyclists


without side green

Space requirement for


cyclists with side green
Pavement
surface

Typical street cross sections

dwelling
units/acre

Avg. sq. ft. of lot


per D.U.
Single family
Detached

Single family

Single family

100x200

2.0

80x160

3.5

70x140

3.3

60x125

4.3

50x100

6.5

30x125

8.7

26x125

10.0

20x100

16.3

16x100

20.4

Two storey

15-25

Three storey

35-35

Apartments multi
storey up to 12

50-85

40,000

20,000

Single family

12,500

Single family

10,000

Semi-detached

Row house,2 storey


Two family

6,000

Row house

15

2,600

Garden
apartment

25

1,600

Multistory
apartment

50

800

Lot areas and dwelling


densities

Garden apartment

Lot sizes and dwelling


densities

Traditional grid layout


Street intersection patterns
Road dimensions in
housing estate

Road dimensions with


parking on both sides

The width of the interior streets should be consistent with their


function and the density of housing they serve
At least one Major Collector should divide the segment eastwest and another should divide the segment north-south and
these Major Collector Streets should intersect the arterials
nearly at half.
Collector streets, those carrying traffic from minor streets to
arterial roads should have a paved width of 36 ft., consisting of
two moving lanes and two parking lanes.
Minor Collector Streets should connect with each other
Minor streets, depending upon the off-street parking provisions
and the density of the area they serve, should be 26 ft. wide for
single-family detached houses and 32 ft. wide for row houses
and apartments.

SURFACE DRAINAGE
Not only the entire site be graded for proper drainage but
each individual lot and block are separately and carefully
considered.

Drainage in gentle
cross slope

Drainage along
valley in rear

Drainage if edge
slope in rear

PARKING

Closed bay off street


parking

Open bay off


street parking

Parking court to bring


parking close to houses

Dwelling size

Total no. of parking spaces required

No of spaces provided

Terrace

1 bed

1.75

2.25

2 , 3 bed

2.25

2.25

4 bed

houses

2.5

3.25

4.25

2.5

2.75

3.5

4.25

3 bed

2.5

2.75

3.5

4.25

4 bed

2.75

3.75

4.5

5 bed

3.25

3.75

4.5

Semi detached 3 bed

Detached

Parking requirements when in


house parking spaces are provided

Parking requirements at various angles

A presentation by:
12620 Ashish
12621 Satya
12623 Ananya
12638 Abhishek

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