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THE FALL

OF THE

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LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
RIVERSIDE

THE FALL

THE CONGO ARABS

,^^^f^^l;^ri^^^;:^^^^^is-*i^*t^

THE FALL
OF

THE CONGO ARABS

SIDNEY LANGFORD HINDE


CHEVALIER DE l'oRDRE ROVAL DU LION

MEMBRE HONORAIRE DE LA SOCi6t6 BELGE DE GEOGRAPHIE


MEDICAL OFFICER OF THE INTERIOR, BRITISH EAST AFRICA
LATE CAPTAIN, CONGO FREE STATE FORCES

METHUEN

36

& CO.
ESSEX STREET, W.C.

LONDON
1897

CONTENTS
Introduction

.......
.......
CHAPTER

Introductory

CHAPTER
Arrival at Banana
tlie

PAGE
1

21

II

Description of a Caravan Journey from


Skirmish with Natives of Interior

Coast Inland

CHAPTER

26

III

Voyage up the Kasai and Sankuru


Arrival at Lusambo Defeat by Commandant

Bangala Cannibals
Rivers

Dhanis
Lutete

of

Tippu

Tib's

CHAPTER

Gongo

Agent,

Slave-raiding

Basongo Cannibals

"

.51

IV

Proposals of Peace and Alliance with the State Forces from

Visit

Gongo Lutete
N'Gandu The

to

Gongo Lutete

at his capital,

Little People of the Forest

70

CONTENTS

vi

CHAPTER V
PAGE

Gongo Lutete

leaves the

finally

Arabs and

himself

allies

with the State Forces Arrival at Kabinda, capital of


of the

Lupungu, Great Chief


the

Enemy headed by Tippu

tions for

an Encounter

Baluba

Movements of
Prepara-

Tib's son, Sefu


.

.92

CHAPTER VI

.......

First Encounter with the

Forts

Arabs

Capture of

CHAPTER
Skirmishes with the

Enemy Return

CHAPTER

two

of their

112

VII
of

Sefu to the Attack

126

VIII

More Arab Defeats The Commandant decides to take the


initiative and to lead an Attack upon Sefu's Forces
.

141

CHAPTER IX
The

State Forces

camp

town

opposite the

the other side of the River Lualaba

Water-people

of

Nyangwe, on

Description of

the

Surprise Encounter with two columns of

advancing Arabs

.153

.169

CHAPTER X
Account

of the Fall of

Nyangwe

CHAPTER XI
Arrival of Ambassadors from Sefu with offers of

Peace The
March on Kasongo ReinForces March on Kasongo its

Commandant postpones
forcement of the State

his

CONTENTS
Fall

PAGE

Description of

Kelics of

town

tlie

Luxuries found in the

The State Forces


the Natives

settle

down

their Habits

CHAPTER

.178

XII

Superstitions

Kasongo

at

and Mode

CHAPTER
Our

Town

Emin Pasha Insubordination in the conquered

Nyangwe

of

vii

of

Living

of

.194

XIII

Gongo Lutete, accused of Treachery and executed


N'Gandu Arrival at Kasongo of five Officers from
Europe Continued Encounters with the Enemy The
Arabs decamp from the town of Stanley Falls, leaving
it at the mercy of the State Troops
The State Forces
are joined by Captain Lothaire from Bangala, and follow
ally,

at

the Arabs up the River

After severe Fighting, the River

cleared of Arabs and their Hordes as far as

Reverses of the State Forces

Attack

Nyangwe

by Commandant

.......

Dhanis on Rumaliza's Fort, eight hours' march from

Kasongo

206

CHAPTER XIV
Transference of the State Forces from Kasongo to Bena

Musua
to

The

cut

off

Commandant

the

divides his Forces in order

Arab Communication

Extra

Forces

Bena Quia, on the main road to KabamBena Kalunga, and at Bena Musua Reinforce-

stationed at
bari, at

ment of the Enemy The State Troops form a semicircle


round the Arab Forts and cut off their Food Supply
Arrival of Captain Lothaire with contingent of Soldiers

from Bangala
tion of the

Chiefs

made

Explosion in the Arab

Enemy The Taking


Prisoners by Lothaire

of

Camp CapitulaKabambari
.

Arab
.

233

viii

CONTENTS

'

CHAPTER XV

......

Description of Expedition to explore the


the Lualaba River

Upper Waters

PAGE

of

248

CHAPTER XVI
The Return Journey

to the Coast

....

......
....
.......

Note on Cannibalism

Note on Congo Lutete's Bodyguard


Note on Exploration

Hinde

of section of Lualaba River

272

282
285

by Captain
287

27
Vincent BrooUs^Da/

1 Son

(iLh

INTRODUCTION
The

year 1892 marks

tlie

crisis

of a struggle in

Central Africa between the conflicting forces of the

East and the West.

Between these

forces, repre-

sented on the one hand by the Arabs from Zanzibar,

the

and on the other by the Europeans from

mouth

pending

of the Congo, a collision

and

since

each was bent upon supre-

macy within the same


the extinction

had long been

was evident that

area, it

of one power or the other could

alone solve the problem.

body of Arab

ivory,

traders, hunters of slaves

had long striven

to gather to Zanzibar the

entire trade of Central Africa

of the
to

Congo Free

divert the

and

while the Belgians

State, later in the field, sought

commerce of the

Interior to

Congo mouth, and thence, ultimately,

the

to Europe.

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

During the present century, many circumstances


have combined to make the Zanzibar Arabs the

most noted slave-hunters and slave-dealers

Of

world.

their earlier history little

is

in the

definitely

known, beyond the

fact that already in the tenth

century there were

Arab settlements along the

East Coast of Africa.


After the discovery of the Cape
Indies,

Road

to the

most of these settlements were conquered

by the Portuguese, and were then gradually

re-

conquered in the eighteenth and beginning of the


nineteenth centuries by the

Of

this

Imams

of Muscat.

second Arab dominion the most im-

portant centres were the islands of Zanzibar and

Pemba and from


;

these islands, as the result of the

mingling of Arab and negro blood, a race of black

Arabs has sprung.

Yet, despite their long occupa-

tion of the Zanzibar coast


tricts, it is

and neighbouring

dis-

only within recent times that the Arabs

have advanced into the

Some two

Interior.

generations ago the island of

Pemba

developed into a great clove-plantation, worked by


slaves

in

the

manner of the cotton and sugar

INTRODUCTION

America.

of

plantations

migrated

creditors,

it

certain

Africa

tsetse fly, they

necessary to employ the natives as porters

thus

it

that

arose

Zanzibar

blacks

slave-market,

demand

tions of

as

make

there was a

slaves ultimately

Mohammedan

countries of Asia.

of the ivory and slave hunters, failing to

life,

there grew

chiefs.

drawn by the

remained in the Interior

spell of a

and hence

up a system of Arab trade-routes and

trade-centres,

Arab

when

The supply of

their fortunes, or

nomadic

by-product of the

as to permit of a large export across

the seas to the

Many

and

for their laliour in the clove-planta-

Pemba.

became such

found

were shipped to the

ivory-trade, at the very time

strong

to

to the destruction of

burden by the

their beasts of

Central

to

Owing

prospect for ivory.

later,

little

becoming involved with

merchants of Zanzibar,
their

controlled
It

by

certain

was along these

well-known

routes,

and with

the aid, or at times the obstruction, of the Arabs,


that the European explorers of the

Lake country,

and of the sources of the Congo and the


travelled.

Nile,

Thus the great trunk-route from Baga-

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

moyo

(opposite to Zanzibar),

yembe, to
successively

on

Ujiji

by Tabora

and Speke, Livingstone

by Burton

across

An

Unyan-

was followed

Tanganyika,

and Stanley, Cameron, and,

and Grant.

in

in

by Speke

part,

extension of this route from Ujiji,

Tanganyika,

through

led

Manyema

the

country, by Kabambari and Kasongo, to

Nyangwe

on the Lualaba River.

So

far,

European discovery had followed

in the

track of the Arabs from Zanzibar as a basis.

the serious occupation of Central Africa

But

by the

Europeans began with Stanley's expedition under


the International Association, from the

the Congo up the river

mouth

and from that moment

a conflict, however postponed, was certain.

was

it less

certain in

strategical lines,

region,

Nor

and along w^hat

the struggle would take place.

The Europeans had


to Matadi, just

what

of

access for their ocean steamers

below the Yellala

Falls,

removed from Arab

by

portages, far

up

to Stanley Pool.

From

and thence

interference,

the Pool, their river

steamers could navigate without interruption, on


the one hand, eastwards, along the main river to

INTRODUCTION

Stanley Falls, and, on the other, from the

Kwa

mouth, southwards, along the Kasai and Sankuru


Since the Falls are to the north, and the

systems.

Sankuru

is

to the west, of the

Manyema

country,

the Belgians had two separate lines of advance,

converging from two distinct bases upon Nyangwe,


the head of the road from Zanzibar.

yema country was

The Man-

natural

therefore the

centre,

both offensive and defensive, of the Arabs.

When

the Belgian expedition of which Captain

Hinde was a member, passed from the

Kasai,

southwards, to the copper country of Katanga,

exposed

itself to

it

a flank attack from the east, at a

time when the Arabs wxre secure on the side of


the Falls
there

in

for they

had destroyed the State station


Reinforced

1886.

by

Commandant

Dhanis, the expedition turned eastwards to face


the Arabs, and advanced
tributaries of the

from river-line to

upon Nyangwe, crossing

Congo and driving the Arabs

river-line.

Successive encounters

took place at the Lubefu and the Lualaba, ending,


in

each case,

Belgians.

in

the

successful

passage

of

the

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

On

the Lualaba the Arabs

Nyangwe, the two

at

banks

of the

sionally

river,

attempting

made a long stand


occupying the two

forces

across

firing

it,

occa-

flank

by

passage

the

and

movement.

At

stage

a later

fighting

had been carried

Kasongo, the

campaign, when the

of the

Belgians,

still

farther eastward, to

having

recovered

their

position in the Falls country, brought reinforce-

ments from the north

illustrating the second

that was

advance

of

line

thus

open

the forces

to

of the Free State.

In summing up the results of the Belgian campaign, Captain

"The

political

Hinde says ^

geography of the Upper Congo Basin has been

completely changed, as a result of the Belgian canipaign


the Arabs.

It used to be a

that all roads led to


stone,

Stanley, and

common

Nyangwe.

This town, visited by Living-

Cameron, until

markets in Africa, has ceased to exist


it,

was occupied by a single house.

still

among

saying, in this j^art of Africa,

lately one

of

and

when

its site,

the greatest
I last

saw

Kasongo, a more recent though

larger centre, with perhaps 60,000 inhabitants, has also been

swept away, and

is

now

represented by a station of the Free State

nine miles away, on the river bank.

Paper entitled " Three Years' Travel in the Congo Free State,"

read before the Koyal Geographical Society, 11th

March

1895.

INTRODUCTION
"In harmony with

this political

been completely altered, and the

ganyika to

Congo

Ujiji, or

round the lake

to Stanley Pool

change the trade-routes have

traffic

Nyangwe and

well-beaten track from

which used

to follow the

the Lualaba, across Tan-

to Zanzibar,

now

goes

down

the

and the Atlantic.

" Despite their slave-raiding propensities during the forty years


of their domination, the

Arabs have converted the Manyema and

Malela country into one of the most prosperous in Central Africa.

The landscape, as seen from high


Nyangwe and Kasongo, reminds one
There

arable country.

any other part

of the

hills in the

nothing similar, that

is

Congo Basin

neighbourhood of

strongly of an ordinary English


I

am

aware

and yet the Arabs have

of,

in

left the

Malela perhaps the most inveterate cannibals on the face of the


globe."

Chief of the Arabs


in imperio

for the

who

organised this imperium

Manyema

country was wholly

within the treaty frontiers of the Congo Free State

was the great

slave-raider Tippu Tib.

So

closely

are the events of the last thirty-five years inter-

woven with

this

man's personality that

possible to realise their full

to the

Arab

which

led

im-

significance without

some conception of the moving


they resulted.

it is

force from

which

Tippu Tib's career supplies the key

position before the collision of forces


to

transfer

of power in Central

Mohammed

ben Juna, known to

the

Africa.

Hamed

ben

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

the

world

by

nick-name of Tippu Tib/

his

is

descended from a line of wealthy and influential

His father was a

merchants settled at Zanzibar. ^


half-caste Arab,

negro

slave

and

woman.

his

mother a full-blooded

Yet,

despite

the

strong

element of negro blood in his veins, Tippu Tib

most of

in

Arab

and

is,

his

mental characteristics, essentially

it is

from this side of his descent that

the indomitable

will,

which raised him from a

Zanzibar merchant to the position of potentate


over a vast tract of country,

has doubtless

its

origin.

At an

early

age

Tippu

Tib

struck

out an

independent line for himself, and, having gathered

round him a band of a hundred fighting men,


entered the African mainland in quest of ivory and

After plundering several large districts,

slaves.

and forcing the inhabitants into bondage, he


^

Tippu Tib, or

to

some

of

his

" the gatherer together of wealth.'"'

theories the

guns,

name

According

originated in the frequent use he

which the

natives

described

as

re-

sounding

made
like

" tip-u-tip-u-tip."
2

Since Mr. Stanley in 1876 describes Tippu Tib as "about forty-

four years of age," he was presumably born somewhere about the

year 1832.

INTRODUCTION

turned to Zanzibar to realise on his captured ivory

and to

recruit

his

This he successfully

forces.

accomplished, and his second entry into Africa was


at the head of a large

With

this increase

armed

following.

of strength Tippu Tib was

able to extend his raids,

and to penetrate into

regions hitherto unexplored and

His

possibilities of ivory.

presenting rich

tactics,

based upon and

shaped by the ruling motive of his


satiable greed for riches

sufficiently

and although the

of attack and plunder, he was

statesmanlike

special circumstances he

more than

method of

among

in-

most generally adopted by him was the

ordinary system

on

an

were of wider scope than

those of his fellow slave-traders


policy

life

to

be

had to deal with.

one occasion, he

stirring

Thus,

employed the

up discontent and jealousy

rival native chiefs, and,

about a condition of

guided by the

strife

through bringing

which resulted in war,

gained his ends by identifying himself with the


victorious side

booty.

own

Of

his

interests

and claiming a large share of the


resourcefulness

many

in

furthering

instances testify.

his

It is told

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

10

of

him

was

at too

time when his ammunition

at

that,

low an ebb

summary measures

for

to

be advisable, he pacifically gained entrance, for


himself and his following, to a strongly-fortified

town by impersonating the

had been carried into slavery years before


So successful was

of war.

king

abdicated

in

in a time

this strategy that the

favour,

his

who

king's nephew,

and Tippu

Tib

suddenly found himself reigning sovereign over

some thirty or forty thousand people.

From

this

position of vantage he conquered the neighbouring


chiefs,

and annexed their

spoils

and ivory

and

by these means, together with the establishment


of his

in

allies

the

On

various

adjacent

tribes,

he became practically unassailable.


occasions

goaded
attack

the

by

native

his

upon

chiefs

routed his enemies,

but
to

of

united in

brutality,

him

surrounding

extended so widely that

influence

his

districts,

strongholds in

each

time

making an
Tippu

Tib

the complete destruction

both of their forces and of their villages.

was the terror inspired by

his

name

that

Such

many

of the chiefs voluntarily tendered their stores of

INTRODUCTION
ivory to him, seeking

by means of these

he

gifts,

remained unin-

by them, and continued

fluenced

to

drain

the

most valuable product.

district of its

At the end

bribes to

But though Tippu

ensure safety against his raids.

Tib appropriated the

ii

of

some

years, during which time he

had amassed great wealth and almost unbounded


influence, this life of raiding

began to

make

Tippu, and he resolved to

pall

upon

a journey to the

At

Arab settlements of Kasongo and Nyangwe.

Nyangwe, which he reached


fell

in with

of

the

in the year 1874, he

Cameron, who already had knowledge

great

slave-raider

through Livingstone.

Tippu Tib had crossed Livingstone's path as early


as 1867, in the interval

meeting with

his

influence

between which date and

Cameron he had trebled

and importance.

his

Cam-

After escorting

eron across the Lualaba as far as Utotera, and

providing him

him

to continue his journey,

to Kasongo.
as

with escort sufficient

the

to

enable

Tippu Tib proceeded

Here, in recognition of his position

most powerful Arab of the

was elected governor.

Interior,

But a stationary

life

he

held

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

12

few attractions
his son Sefu

for the restless slaver, and, placing

command

in

of the settlement, he

diverted his energies to raiding the surrounding

and

districts,

to

the

further

increasing

of

his

wealth and strength.


In the year 1876 Stanley arrived at Nyangwe,

on

his great expedition

and there met Tippu


ing at
the

Nyangwe

organisers

down

Tib.

the Congo Kiver,

from

It is

meet-

this

that dates the connection between


of

the

powers

rival

the

Congo

Free State and the Arab dominion at Kasongo.

Tippu

Tib was at

this

time,

as

described

by

Stanley, " about forty-four years of age, of middle


stature

and swarthy complexion, with a broad

face,

black beard just greying, and thin-lipped."

His

manners were those

and

his presence

well-bred

Arab,

conveyed a sense of great power and

With

energy.

of a

considerable

difliculty

Stanley

succeeded in persuading Tippu Tib and a large


following

way on
them

of his people to accompany

his expedition.

him

part-

The agreement between

stipulated that Tippu Tib

and

his people

should, on certain specified conditions of Tippu's


INTRODUCTION
own making,

13

act as escort for a distance of sixty

camps, for which service he was to receive the

sum

of 5000 dollars.

The expedition

November

5th

Nyangwe on

started from

1876,

but,

from

the

the
so

first,

great were the difficulties encountered that before

many days were


after

over Tippu Tib lost heart, and,

some weeks of

for the

5000

vacillating

dollars

undertaking was an
deserted

and

between

his desire

his conviction that the

impossible

Stanley at Vinga

one,

Njara

he finally

on the

28th

way

across

December.

From

this point

the country
to Ujiji,

Tippu Tib made

his

raiding and plundering

as he

went

where he made a halt of some length

before continuing his journey to Zanzibar.

and at Tabora

(at

There,

which place he extended

acquaintance with European travellers by

his

meet-

ing the explorer Wissmann), he established trusted


vassals,

whose

business

it

was

to

receive

and

forward his goods, and to keep the road open.

By

a great stroke of diplomacy, he succeeded in

making peace between the Arab

settlers at

Ujiji

14

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

and

native

hostile

chief

years

for

This achievement secured

blocked the trade-road.


to

who had

Tippu Tib the favour both of the Sultan and

of the British Consul

Zanzibar

at

light of their approval he

made

and

the

in

a protracted stay in

the island, utilising the opportunity by investing a


portion

considerable

of

fortune

his

in

firearms

and powder.

When
it

was

and

Tippu Tib again returned

uncrowned king over a vast

as

at

to the Interior

head

the

He

thousands.

following

out in

struck

Stanley Falls, where


his headquarters

of

the

territory,

of

many

direction

of

had decided to make

he

and there he arrived soon

after

the founding of the Free State, and the establish-

ment of the

From

Falls station,

He

erected small fortified

in the surrounding districts

of his Arabs
regions

Stanley.

the Falls as a basis, Tippu began a fresh

system of operations.

camps

by

made organised

beyond,

capturing

wdiile

bands

incursions into wide


slaves

which

they

bartered back to their tribes in return for ivory.

This state of

affairs

continued until 1886, when,

INTRODUCTION

own, Tippu Tib resolved upon

for reasons of his

On

another expedition to Zanzibar.


settlements

inspected his

and chanced to
Junker,
It

whom

15

with Dr.

in

fall

along the

the

way he

trade-route,

Lenz

and Dr.

he accompanied back to Zanzibar.

was during

this

absence of Tippu Tib that

the Arabs attacked and destroyed the Falls station

Free

of the

Though Tippu was himself

State.

absent from the scene,

it

inconceivable that

is

the attack should have been planned without his

knowledge, and
instigator

of

it

this

is

probable that he

development

fresh

was the

Arab

of

enterprise.

Hostile

relations

between the

had

and the Arab

the

command

in

officer

from

chiefs in the

first

existed

of the station

neighbourhood, who

strongly resented the white man's authority.


his departure for the coast,

Tippu Tib had

left

On
as

deputy in control of his people, his partner, Bwana


N'Zigi

and N'Zigi, with

his son Raschid, exercised

unlimited sway over the natives, and interfered


largely in matters

ment

connected with the manage-

of the station.

Perpetual friction between

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

i6

the European officer and N'Zigi culminated in an

open contest of authority, which presented to the


Arabs the excuse, long sought by them,
attack upon the station.

the

opportunity was one

the

station

was cut

and

off

was

As they
not

all

an

fully realised,

likely

from

for

recur

to

possibility

mercy

of

of

an

attacking force overwhelmingly greater than

its

reinforcement,

power of

resistance.

the

at

From

the outset,

standing the desperate defence

manding

men
the

officer,

who

made by the comwith a handful of

kept his opponents at bay for four days


fall

of the station was inevitable.

No immediate
to

Deane

notwith-

attempt was made by the State

retake the position, and the Arabs were for

some time
After

left in

the

undisputed mastery of

overthrow

of

the

Falls

Tippu Tib and Stanley again met

this

it.

station

time at

Zanzibar, where Stanley was organising the

Pasha Belief Expedition.


faced

was one of extreme

The

position

difficulty';

and

Emin
to
it

be
is

unnecessary here to enter into the motives which

induced Stanley to adopt the policy of installing

INTRODUCTION

17

the chief instigator of the attack, and the most

renowned slave-raider of the


Governor of the

Interior,

As was

Falls.

to be expected,

Tippu Tib gave a ready assent to

and thus,

State

as

his proposal,

in the year 1887, the notorious slave-

trader climaxed a

life

of adventure as the repre-

sentative of law and order on behalf of a recognised

Government.

The anomaly of the

to the State officials,

distasteful

first,

situation was,

hard to reconcile Tippu Tib's

it

good
In

with

faith

order,

fences

State

known

his

therefore,

to

in the event of

force,

who found

professions

of

characteristics.

strengthen

their

de-

Arab treachery, the Free

Government despatched

with a small

from the

to

island' of Stanley Falls.

Belgian

occupy the

officer,

abandoned

This slight Tippu Tib

had the wisdom outwardly

to ignore,

though at

the same time he quietly set about increasing his


strongholds, which were beginning to assume for^

The

State

just below

station

was built upon an island in the

the cataracts.

Most

of the

upon the mainland, but some occupied a


itself.

river,

Arabs were established


village

on the island

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

i8

midable
the

assigned

limits

Arab
all

dimensions.

and without

within

him by the State

to

his

had established themselves, and from

allies

sides,

Both

districts

in

uninvaded, their

hitherto

usurpation was reported.


Parallel with this

Arab advance was the gradual

extension of European influence


realised that the contest
significance,

character.

hostilities

The

and as each

was drawing to greater

assumed a more

Belgians,

force

who had

definite

erected fortified

camps on the Aruimi, the Lomami, and the Sankuru Rivers, began to push back the Arab outposts,

and sought by occupation of the country to

prevent further encroachment.


Arabs, recognising to the

full

Meanwhile

the

the largeness of the

stakes at issue, and foreseeing that the impending


struggle would be the final one, resolved to take

the initiative.
selves,

To

this

end they

as vassals of Tippu

Tib,

allied to

many

chiefs in the surrounding districts,

them-

powerful

among whom

Lupungu and Gongo Lutete were of widest influence.


These two

chiefs,

and Gongo Lutete

in especial,

were largely instrumental in shaping the subse-

INTRODUCTION
quent course of events.

19

The defeat of Gongo

in

an attack led by him against the State, and his


subsequent desertion to the Free State, brought

on the Arab invasion


Tib's son,

Sefu

and

in force,

headed by Tippu

opened the campaign

this

narrated in the following pages by Captain Hinde.

Had

the attempt of the Arabs succeeded,

probable that the Free


replaced

State would

it

is

have been

by a Mohammedan Empire analogous

to that of the Khalifa in

the Soudan.

cumstances combined against the Arabs

But

cir-

and

in

their attempt to obliterate the white man's influ-

ence

own
of a

in

Central

Africa

they precipitated

their

downfall, and brought about the destruction

power which, though not so indicated

our maps, was virtually an

independent

in

rival of

the Congo Free State.


E. C. M.

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTORY

Within

arranged by the
often

district

the

map

of the

Congo Free

the limits of the


Berlin

Congress,

State, as

was a great

marked Kasongo or Many em a

of Africa, over

in

which the Government

Congo Free State had no

control, except

through Tippu Tib, Raschid, and one or two other


Arabs,

who were appointed

country by the

officials in

their

own

Congo Free State Government.

In this great district a powerful Arab organisation

was

established, w^hich

cation with Zanzibar


Ujiji,

and

by

was in constant communi-

by the

other

more

direct road through

roundabout

routes.

This Arab power recognised that as soon as the

European influence was

sufficiently strong in the


n

22

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

Congo Basin a

between the two forces was

collision

The Arabs, moreover,

inevitable.

realised that, in

the event of a European success, the greater part


of the ivory and rubber trade would be taken out of

the hands of the

Mohammedans, and would,

of going to the east coast, go

down

the Congo to

The great country, which was then

the Atlantic.

their hunting-ground for forays

would thus be
this,

instead

them

lost to

for ever.

moment

they chose their

and

slave-raiding,

Anticipating

well, at a

time when

the Free State was utterly unprepared for war.

With the

success of the Mahdi, in founding an

empire from which he had ousted Europeans, before

them, they were encouraged to hope that they

might do likewise
first

move was

together with

trading
territory

was
their

at

to

the

Congo Basin.

he

had

men

time a harmless

country,

powerful Arab
large army,

and
chief.

under the
Lastly,

in

left

formed

they then murdered

the

Their

murder Hodister's expedition,

the white

stations
;

in

the

within

Em in

Pasha,

traveller

two
their

who

through

protection

of

they organised a

and attacked the expedition to which

INTRODUCTORY
I

was attached

establish

the

stations

in

object

Katanga,

Had

under Arab influence.


annihilating us,
to continue

of

23

which was
a

by land

not

district

they succeeded

would have been easy

it

to Stanley Pool

for

at the

to

in

them
same

time they hoped that their attack on Stanley Falls


Station would be successful, in which case they

would

have

descended

another column,
difiiculty

and

the

and would

ousting the

in

Congo
have

found

remaining

As

with
small

Europeans,

Mohammedan

in subsequently establishing a

Empire.

itself

from the following pages,

will be seen

extraordinary luck, together with good leading,

was the cause of our


was at

stake,

and

end,

attack, even

An

and

again

To the

to the
to

the

there was no hope of success.

almost incredibly large loss of

result.

what

gravity

Mohammedans fought

returning again

when

Realising

fully recognising the

of the position, the


bitter

first success.

reader

casual

life

was the

unfamiliar with

African history, this might, on the surface, appear


to

have been a curious

white

officers

and

little

four

war, with a dozen

hundred regular black

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

24

troops on the one side, and a couple of hundred

Arab

chiefs,

supported by a few hundred half-bred

Arabs and commanding large numbers of irregular


soldiery,

mind

But

on the other.

that,

it

must be borne

in

unlike the Soudan struggle, this war

took place in a thickly-populated country, whose

whole population, used to savage warfare, took


part in the fighting, and that large bodies of

men

were constantly changing sides as the prestige of


one or other party increased or diminished.

As the

Arabs were driven back towards Tanganyika, they


succeeded in enrolling

all

the fighting

under their banners.

tribes

since for thirty years they

men

of fresh

This was the easier,

had been the

sole

power;

Europeans were also unknown, and the credulous


natives

readily

believed the tales

them by the Arabs


subordinates.

of our
it

is,

allies,

spread

among

of European cruelties to their

Though

large our losses

and those

the Arab loss was immensely greater

in fact, estimated at seventy

This great struggle

is,

point in African history.

thousand men.

without doubt, a turningIt is impossible to

even

surmise what would have been the efiect on the

INTRODUCTORY
future of Africa had another great

Empire been established


things

now

in the

25

Mohammedan

Congo

Basin.

As

with the Arab power in Central

are,

Africa crushed out of existence, the result to the

country

to prophesy.

is difficult

In our present state of ignorance, colonisation,


as opposed to settlement,

the question.

by Europeans

Increased knowledge

and of the treatment of those peculiar


climates,

may some day

healthy European
rich land, in
sort

colony

render
to

it

is

out of

of diseases,
to tropical

possible for a

spring

up

in

this

which migratory traders with some

of military

occupation

European element.

form now the sole

CHAPTER

II

ARRIVAL AT BANANA

DESCRIPTION

JOURNEY

THE

FROM

OF A CARAVAN

COAST

INLAND

SKIRMISH WITH NATIVES OF INTERIOR

The Congo Free


(though four or

more than

its

State, as
five

most people now know


ago few

years

existence),

is,

their water

supply.

shore of Lake Tanganyika

degree

south

north latitude to
latitude.

All

the

its tributaries

extends from

It

Congo mouth, on the Atlantic

of

roughly speaking, a

country from which the Congo and

draw

knew

coast, to the

western

and from the

the

the

fifth

thirteenth degree

important

tributaries

of the Congo, with one exception in the district

known
aries.

as

French Congo, are within these bound-

Large tracts of this enormous space of

country in equatorial Africa are covered by the


great Congo forest.
forests,

one

may

Of the world's great

tropical

say that there are three only

ARRIVAL AT BANANA
the

Amazon,

Malay Archipelago, and

tlie

From

Congo.

27

the

the

coast to Stanley Pool, a dis-

tance of about two hundred and eighty miles, the

Congo

between great

lies

and forms a

cliffs,

and cataracts which

of rapids

series

render the com-

munication by water with the interior absolutely

Once arrived

impossible.

munication with

interior

reached by steamer, since between

Pool there are no rapids.


taries

them

Congo

of the
for

imagined,

river,
it

Nearly

are navigable,

known, though

away

from

unexplored.

The

the

Congo Basin
to

and Stanley
the tribu-

all

and some of

fact

many

it

that

now

still

easily

fairly

distance
entirely

unknown country
be found

curious

From

my

it

people.

is

are to

races

gives

is

very short

bank

unknown

as

tion

at

river

and

yet

be

country in the immediate neigh-

bourhood of any of these tributaries


well

can

As may be

hundreds of miles.
the

Stanley

easy.

is

thousand miles up the

Falls,

the

Stanley Pool, com-

at

in

fascina-

boyhood,

everything connected with the mysterious continent interested

me

and

determined to see

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

28

something of

it

me

circumstances gave

ever

if

the opportunity.

The

possibility of doing so arose in the follow-

ing manner

My

friend, Dr. Park, of the

Emin Pasha

me

Expedition, had several times asked

and

at last, after holding several

resident appointments in hospitals,

do

so.

to go out

His Majesty the King

to Africa in the service of

of the Belgians

Relief

went down

to Netley

decided to

on the 26th of

October 1891, and, after an hour's conversation


with Park,
the

following

On

Brussels the same night.

left for

day

accepted

commission as

medical ofhcer in the Congo Free State forces, and

duly arrived at Banana,

at

Congo, in December 189L


ration

with

the

reputation

Africa has, the entrance to

The

encouraging.
the

head of the

the

station

is

first
little

built

is

the

mouth of the

Taken
the

into conside-

West Coast

Banana creek

thing noticeable
strip

of sand

entirely

is
is

of

not
that

on which

occupied

by a

crowded cemetery.

Yet

many

high-water mark, with man-

inches above

this

strip

of sand, not

ARRIVAL AT BANANA

29

grove swamps and lagoons on the landward

side,

has the Atlantic rollers on the other, and

is

very good sanatorium for

many

of the enfeebled

Europeans who come down from the

My

reception at

Boma

was, for the

not of the pleasantest.

and

as it

a lodging,

The

far interior.

slept

few days,

first

was crowded

hotel

seemed nobody's business


I

to find

me

on board the steamer at the

The Custom House arrangements,

quay.

An

strike one as peculiar.

ofticer

also,

has to pay duty

on his guns, ammunition, and even on his service


revolver.

After a short time, however, orders to

proceed to Lusambo on the Sankuru reached me,

and

accordingly took the next boat to Matadi,

from which point the caravan route

As the

Stanley Pool.
of three

matters will

the

now

scenery

for

for

upwards

Stanley

Pool to

series of cataracts, this

of the journey had to

is

Congo

hundred miles from

Matadi consists of a

which

river

starts

be done on

foot,

part

though

soon be facilitated by the railway,


well on
is

its

way.

magnificent

Just below Matadi


the mighty

the second largest river in the world

has

Congo
to force

30

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

itself

through a narrow gorge

than a mile wide,

less

and known as the " Chaudron

Infernal."

Though

the ocean steamers go up to Matadi regularly, they

have never yet succeeded in getting soundings in


this gorge.
for

probably only a matter of time

It is

one of these boats to break

its

steering-gear or

other machinery, and for a fearful catastrophe to

Matadi

take place.

as

name

its

in the native

language implies, meaning " stone "

rocky plateau, where the heat

intense.

a week's
I

is

is

a bare, arid,

After

waiting here (during which time

futile

was supplied with neither house, bed, nor

but had to sleep in

my

overcoat on the verandah

of the commissary's house),

I,

three officers since dead, was


porters to carry

my

tent,

in

company with

given a few dozen

baggage, and we started on

the caravan road.

caravan, as most people know,

is

number

of

people travelling together for mutual comfort and


protection

that

it

should contain

elements and equipment


success
occasion

of
to

its

mission.

is

As

the

proper

indispensable for the


I

shall

often

mention a caravan, and as

have

this

my


DESCRIPTION OF A CARAVAN
first

was in no sense

some months

later,

was composed

It

White
and

porters

number of

typical, I will describe ours of

Lusambo

leaving

as follows

regular

for

Katanga.

and their servants

officers

31

gun-bearers

and

soldiers,

certain

additional porters to carry the extras

which are indispensable to the health, well-being,

and contentment of the men.


all

loads

including

for the caravan

food,

The porters carry

ammunition, and water

en route, together with the loads

pertaining to the special object of the expedition,

such as the forming of stations, exploration, trade,

Most of the expeditions with which

or war.

was connected included


extra

men

armourer,

such

tailor,

general comfort
Africa should

as

four elements.

all

and

all

add

A few

blacksmith,

carpenter,

and cook

largely to

the

expeditions in Central

be accompanied by one

or

two

hunters by trade, and at least half a dozen good


canoe

Dhanis
travel

and

water

general

instituted

by allowing

men.

Commandant

new departure
every soldier

wife, or wives as the case

might

to

in

African
take

be, along

his

with

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

32

him

and

even

by

followed

women.

their

were

porters

the

generally

Only by

personal

experience of caravan-travelling with and without

women

possible

it

is

by

gained

advantages

realise

the

enormous

allowing

the

men

to

Among

liberty in this respect.

putable of these advantages

full

the most indis-

the avoidance of

is

trouble with native villages, or peoples, on the

The annoyance and danger

subject of w^omen.
due,

the

despite

"woman

every African traveller knows as


is

what

palaver"

done away with when the men are

]3ractically

On

accompanied by their wives.

women form

the

to

discipline,

strictest

extra

porters

the road, too,


it

being

much

easier for a soldier to carry his food, mat, cooking-

pot, blanket,

help

him

addition,
It

and

must be borne

to hard

she

if

makes

it

of which I

in

ammunition and

am

work

for

him.

mind that among the

races

speaking the

and

with a wife to

has a servant or two in

things

in

rifle,

easier

still

women

are all used

have rarely heard of a case

which they preferred to stay in a comfortable

station

to

following

their

men on

the

road.

DESCRIPTION OF A CARAVAN
Arriving
sets

his

man immediately

camp, each

the

at

and builds a small hut

to

and while he

family,

women

forage

men

At

march,
to

it

take

care

of themselves

and

and weary

long

men

carrying

after

they refuse

day,

all

by the changes of

almost impossible to get the

is

heavy load

As

are comfortably housed

end of a

the

and

thus occupied the

is

well fed, and are not affected

weather.

for himself

and cook the food.

for

consequence the

33

to

take

the

trouble of looking after themselves properly, and


in the

case of

soon become

though he

bad weather, or short commons,


If a

ill.

may

still

man

falls sick

on the road,

be able to walk well, the

thing he throws away

is

his

supply of food

a heavy and cumbersome bundle

often

first

hope that on the following day he

will

to beg, borrow, or steal another supply.

in

the

be able

The good

health enjoyed by our caravans, as a consequence


of this system, was
occasion

most remarkable.

we were on the road

for seven

On

one

months,

with four hundred soldiers and a caravan comprising eighteen


3

hundred

souls,

and during the

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

34

whole of this time did not lose one

man from

sick-

The expedition included seven

ness or desertion.

days' marching through a district recently raided

by Arab

in

parties,

which

was impossible to

it

an atom of food of any kind, and during

find

which time we saw no living thing, the natives


having

taken prisoners or destroyed.

been

all

They had previously exterminated the game

and guinea-fowl, which prefer

the pigeons

the

neighbourhood of man, had taken themselves

Knowing what was

into other districts.


for

us,

whole

the

beforehand

with

cases carrying

had

caravan

food,

itself

many

in

more than an average man

could.

Caravans in Africa usually march in single


the

paths

through

the

country being

more than ten inches wide.


generally headed
soldiers,

but their

to carry anything

and ammunition

a strong

seldom

by a strong advance-guard of

after

the loads with the guard, then the


lastly

file,

Our formation was

who were not allowed


rifles

off

in store

loaded

women

the

and

rear-guard.

each with a good

them came

women, and

The white

ofiicers,

bodyguard, were distributed

DESCRIPTION OF A CARAVAN
along the whole

which was sometimes two

line,

The

or three miles in length.


of

advance

the

35

command

officer in

guard halted the head of the

caravan for perhaps twenty minutes after passing

even so small an obstacle as a fallen


auxiliary forces

All

tree.

and camp followers were sent on

and

in front of the caravan,

withdraw from the

if

overtaken had to

they were

not

allowed to mingle with or interfere in any

way

road,

With the rear-guard the

with the main caravan.


available

extra

whose duty

it

and prisoners

porters

was

since

to collect

marched,

and bring

in

any

loads or sick that had fallen out of the ranks.

The caravan road


tion.

It is

forests,

of

it

crossing

some

descrip-

goes

the width

rocky

uplands

never
or

varies

traversing

descending mountains or the steep sides

ravines,

track.

merits

seldom more than ten inches wide,

and wherever
whether

itself

it

It is

is

always the same

monotonous

wearying enough to follow

for

few hours, but when the hours grow into days,

and the days into weeks, one comes to regard


almost in the light of a personal enemy.

it

After

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

36

crossing

of

blades

scorching

sandy

grass a foot

and lonely that the

or

with

plain,

two apart

drear

so

hum

do not even

insects

dry

its

one perhaps emerges on a rising rocky ground


hours before seen as

(for

distance),

away

may

a grey streak in the

from whence the unending path stretches

in a yellow line towards the horizon.

It

be that away to the northward, though the

course has been a north-easterly one, a blue line


of mountains

is visible,

ever hard they

may

and you know

how-

that,

be to climb, the path will

turn aside and scale them at their steepest point.


If it has led

you into a

fertile

about like a snake, forming

and

succeeds

in

country,

it

winds

itself into letter S's,

doubling the distance to

the

village,

apparently quite close an hour or two

before.

The

as

friend.

his

diameter,

hostile native looks

He

digs holes

upon

in

and places sharp spikes

it

or

this

path

foot

in

poisoned

arrow-heads in them, laying dust-covered leaves


over the opening, into which the unwary

among

the barefooted porters puts his foot, and becomes


useless or dies on the road.

fallen tree across

DESCRIPTION OF A CARAVAN
the

way

enemy

also serves the

such a position that the

side, in

man who

steps over or

jumps

impaled.

When

dies

he

is

aside

man

for ever

on the caravan road

having

left
it

the straight course, the

and

if

again.

bush, a fallen tree, or a stone

turn

The loop thus formed remains

it.

once

it,

little

course at the same distance on the

its

path never returns to

to turn

is

yards from the body, and

two or three

other side of

first

across the tree

not buried, and the path takes a

returns to

into

he places a spear

brushwood overhanging the track

in the grass or

on the other

37

small thorny

may

be sufficient

a precipice or a ford forces

detour of yards or miles,

it

it

invariably

returns to the point opposite to, and never very

Rivers and ravines the

far from, the obstruction.

path usually ignores


crossing

them may

whatever the

be, it

bank on the opposite

winds

side,

its

neither

difficulty of

way up
larger

smaller for the fact that, though the river

is

the

nor
per-

haps fordable in the dry season, a bridge or canoe


is

often the

wet.

only means of crossing during the

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

38

But
Before
to

return

to

the

the journey

to

we were many days on

the road

Dead bodies

be the matter.

we came

something unusual must

that

conclusion

Lusambo.

to

in every state

of

decomposition were lying on the path just as they

had

and loads of

fallen,

all

kinds and descrip-

hanging from the

tions were

men who had

a few feet of the bodies of the

them

evidently placed

within

trees, often

there.

It is a habit

with

native porters to hitch a load in a forked branch


of a tree,
stick

or,

which

with the help of the six-foot walkingof

all

By

some excrescence.
the trouble

them

this

means they

to

way

to

the half-way

Pool

we

Lukungu

as a dead

it

on

are saved

of lifting the load from the ground

when they wish

resume their journey.

found this

Several times

balance

carry, to

we had

horrible

state

of

affairs.

in the stream or spring

which we had been making

We

station to Stanley

difficulty in obtaining water,

body was lying

neighbourhood.

All the

for as a

saw no one

good camping

to tell us

what

was the matter, or to warn us of the then dangerous state of the

district.

Arriving at Lukungu,

JOURNEY FROM THE COAST INLAND


we found

owing to an epidemic, said

that,

dysentery, practically
coast

had

through

ceased,

the

infected

to be

communication with the

all

the

39

natives

refusing

epidemic

This

district.

go

to

spread like wildfire through the caravans, chiefly


because of the filthy habits of the natives of these
It was, in addition, the rainy

especial districts.

season (which

is

also the tornado season),

and we

had altogether many uncomfortable experiences.

Having
poles of

been

my

forewarned,

sank

always

the

tent six or eight inches lower than

usually considered necessary into the

is

and saw

soil,

to the driving of each individual tent-peg myself

In consequence of the poles being sunk, the flap


at the lower edge of the tent

was on the ground,

and, with earth thrown up upon


This, with a trench

extra security.

tent and

exposed

my

side,

in shifting

formed an

dug round the

baggage piled in front of the most


gave even a tornado some

my

habitation.

night, with little or

or other of

it,

my

difliculty

Several times in the

no warning, the tents of one

companions, who were too lazy to

superintend things themselves, were whirled away

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

40

from over them, and occasionally even deposited


in the surrounding trees.

After travelling for some time with

them, I

eventually grew tired of the slow and haphazard

manner
road

in

which

my

companions proceeded on the


them, and, forging ahead,

I therefore left

arrived at Leopoldville, on

Stanley Pool, on the

At Stanley

7th of February 1892.

Pool, which

was extremely short of provisions, an order had been


issued

to

the

that every officer must in

effect

turn go hippo-hunting to supply the troops with


This seemed a delightful

meat.

monotony

of

station

and

life,

break in the
I

immediately

volunteered to hunt whenever or whatever was


desired.

There had, unfortunately, been one or

two accidents during elephant hunts, and antelope


and

hippopotamus

My

only sport then allowed.


hippo-shooting,

was

hunting

though

in

therefore

first

the

experience of

unnoteworthy,

itself

serves to illustrate the foolish things that ignor-

ant

men may

do.

had camped on a sand-

bank near the head of Stanley Pool


discovered to

my

cost, usually the

place, as I

camping-ground

JOURNEY FROM THE COAST INLAND


On

for natives.

turning in for the night

in addition to the sandflies

41

found,

and mosquitoes,

my

tent so infested with vermin that sleep or rest was


alike

impossible.

My

Bangala

who

canoe-men,

were huddled in groups enveloped with the thickest

smoke they could make by putting damp grass on


the

were no better

fire,

ofi",

and the constant slap

slap on their bare bodies as they disposed of

audacious biter was very irritating.

out of the question,

by moonlight.

some

Sleep being

determined to try hunting

After an hour or two's silent

paddling, the Bangala intimated that on an island


close to us hippos

were to be found, and, running

the canoe into the rank vegetation


edge,

we

forced

way some

our

down

the

grass

distance

its

up a

This led to an open space,

narrow slippery path.

where

fringing

had

evidently

been trampled

or eaten, and almost immediately I found

myself face to face with a pair of hippopotami not

twenty yards

and the

distant.

had only a Mannlicher

five cartridges in its

As the trampled and broken


up

to

my

shoulders, I

had no

magazine with me.

grass was

still

difficulty in

nearly

working

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

42

my way

to get a fair shot at the nearer animal.

advanced towards me, and

As he

his ears.

and

dropped

he

I fired,

on

me

by which
for a

man

grass,

to

to

make

as I thought,

advanced,

still

to

his

immediately afterwards got up.


enabled

a second

The other hippo meanwhile

time, at the head.

between

I fired at

swung round,

the shoulder, and, as he

again,

me

round the open space, which enabled

fired

but

knees,

This interval

a bolt for the narrow path

had come,

it

being almost impossible

to break a path for himself through the

where every grass stem

from half an inch

is

an inch in diameter and ten or twelve feet

high.

arrived at the path

first,

my

last

down

the

fired

cartridge at the old bull, and, rushing

narrow track, jumped into the Congo, to find that

my

boatmen

had

embarked, and

had

departed in the canoe to a safe distance.

No

sooner was

swimminsr

remembered the

till

in

crocodiles.

clump of big reeds


shouted

already

came

the
I

to,

Congo than
seized

the

and, lying

the canoe returned and picked

Taking a fresh supply of

cartridges,

we

first
still,

me

up.

returned,

JOURNEY FROM THE COAST INLAND


and found

my

first

43

hippo dead, but the second one

had apparently rolled down a steep place into the


water, and was nowhere to be seen.

amount of blood about

From

the

was sure that he was

his

death

struggles, but could

men

who

were quite

satisfied

in

not persuade the

with the prospect

of gorging themselves that the one hippo aff'orded

We

me

to look for

him.

canoe with as

much meat

as it

to help

would hold, and

towed the remainder down the river

day lower down the

wounded

certain

on
but

charges,

is

to Leopold-

The other hippo was picked up the next

ville.

it

loaded the

land
it

is

stone

river,

hippopotamus

generally

a very easy matter, with a

amount of space,

to get out of its way, since

only able to turn slowly.

invariably returns to the water,

he

should therefore never run

down

by a hippo when on

hippo almost

when alarmed, by

the same road from which

trail left

When

dead.

left

it,

and one

or stand in the

shore.

It is

unwise

to approach big game, especially in a circumscribed


space, with a small-bore
licher,

since,

however

rifle

great

such as the Mannits

accuracy

and

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

44

may

penetration

In this particular case

cally nil.

the

at

be, its stopping

first

blades and a

rib, in

it

would have been

difficult

My

pencil.

second

had entered just above the right eye and

had penetrated the

game with the new

It is fairly safe^ as I

brain.

afterwards often found, to

is

shoulder-shot

each case leaving only a small

to force an ordinary cedar


bullet

my

practi-

is

hippo passed through both shoulder

through which

hole,

power

head of big

at the

fire

small-bore

rifles

for

though

it

improbable that the game will be bagged, except

by

accident, the

what he

is

method.

game
the

animal

doing, and his

The use

is

too stunned to

mad

know

charges are without

of a small-bore

rifle

for

big

seems, however, hardly sportsmanlike, since

number

of animals

wounded

in this

way com-

pared with those killed outright must always be

Some two

enormous.

years after this

careful shots with a

close

Mauser

rifle

had nine
at

a big

bull elephant, the bullet used being within half a

grain

of the

rifle

yet

same weight

as

our Lee-Metford

did not succeed in bagging him, and

eventually he

made

off"

at a

pace wliich

defied

JOURNEY FROM THE COAST INLAND


The poor beast probably died

pursuit.

many

depths of the jungle before

My

unpleasant

work,

which was afterwards of


generally
entirely

ill,

and

upon

his

me.

involved

it

me much

taught

The doctor was

use.

duties

The

in the

hours were over.

stay at Stanley Pool, though

some most

45

devolved

almost

was

station

badly

supplied with provisions, and, as a consequence,

both the white and black


out of health.

More than

men were

thoroughly

half the black soldiers

were suffering from ulcerated legs and feet

gangrenous
ment.

sores,

Later on,

which at
I

first resisted

was a want of

some months afterwards we were


which

all

treat-

found that the probable cause of

this state of things

district, in

huge

salt

for,

in the

when

Lualaba

salt is plentiful, these ulcers

were

never seen except in troops arriving from downriver.

On

several occasions a whole contingent

suffering from these loathsome

ulcers joined us,

and within a month were perfectly

well,

with no

other treatment than a large ration of salt daily

with their food.

Punishment

for offenders of the black race is a

46

very

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS


In the Congo

matter to arrange.

difficult

Free State the

men

are supplied with rations while

up-country, and are only paid on returning to the


coast after the expiration of their term of service.

Certain advances on their pay during their service

and

are allowed,
this

it

almost impossible to stop

is

advance as a punishment, since the few things

obtainable up-country are necessary to their health.


Prisons,

the

in

are almost

present

state

men

detrimental to health, but

and abominable

certainly
criminals.

the

country,

an impossibility, and the substitute

used of chaining the

nicious

of

not

be used

When

in gangs
is

in

not only

is

way

every

in the extreme,

and should

any but

dangerous

for

half a dozen or a dozen

are chained in a row,

per-

and have to work,

and sleep without being ever

men

rest, eat,

free of the chain for

weeks and sometimes months together, their health


naturally gives way.

Commandant Dhanis was

so

convinced of the harm done by this treatment,

which often incapacitated a

man from work

months afterwards, that he

practically abolished

the chain in

During

his

district.

my

for

stay at

JOURNEY FROM THE COAST INLAND


the

Pool

managed

to keep in

health,

47

partly-

through taking plenty of exercise, and also by


contriving
other

get

to

pigeon

two,

or

kind of game, almost

every day.

little fresh

on

has an extraordinary effect

health and strength in this climate.

much more than

food daily-

man's

white

The question,

am

too, of suitable clothing should, I

be emphasised

Con-

damage

tinuous living on tinned food seemed to

everybody's physique, and a

some

or

it

is.

convinced,

Woollen

clothing should always be worn, and an extra wrap


in the

evening

lation in the

is

The white popu-

indispensable.

Congo

district are gradually

coming

to the conclusion that a house, or station, set

a hill

is

always a danger to health.

on

house

situated on higher ground than the surrounding

country

is

exposed to every wind that blows, and

the difference of temperature


it

is

sufficient to

make

dangerous for anyone in a heated condition to

return in the evening to the cooler situation.


statistics of sickness

in the

and death

Congo on high

The

rates of the stations

altitudes,

compared with

those in valleys or actually on river banks, are

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

48

found to be enormously in favour of those low

down, despite the accepted theory with regard


to

malaria.

There

seems

to

be

little

doubt

amongst those who have been on the Congo, that


the healthiest class of

men

are the officers, mechanics,

whole country

in the

and engineers employed

on the steamers and boat services

and

this not-

withstanding the fact that they live on the water,

and are every night moored to the

river

immediate neighbourhood of the

in the

order that they

may

bank

forest, in

be able to procure fuel for

the following day.

In the beginning of April some natives in the


interior

murdered one of the station

soldiers,

and

their chief, calling his people together, attacked

and routed one of our friendly


or four hours'

march of Leopold ville,

killing his

An

expedition,

two sons and many of


which
fifty

chiefs within three

his people.

accompanied, consisting of a hundred and

men with

a couple of officers, was sent to

punish the offender.

The marauders declined

enter into open action, and

we were

to

nearly worn

out at the end of a week by chasing an invisible

SKIRMISH WITH NATIVES OF INTERIOR


foe,

whose

were

villages

always

when we climbed the


though

empty,

our

49

palisades

arrival

five

minutes before in front of the defence was invari-

made

their

when we were on the march, by

occa-

ably saluted by a volley.


presence felt
sional shots.

They

also

All the paths in the district had

traps arranged in

them

small dug-out

with

holes,

a spike or arrow fixed point upwards in the bottom,

and the whole covered over with a plantain


sprinkled with dust or sand, so that
tinguishable

from the surrounding

it

was

soil.

leaf

indis-

Every

bush or tuft of grass which obstructed the path

had a spear placed

in

it

in such a

manner that any

person pushing through was sure to be wounded.


After a week of this amusement

we returned

Leopoldville, very doubtful whether


sufi'ered as

much

as the

enemy

we had not

in actual casualties,

though we had brought back with us a


goats and a

were

all

recruited,

number

young

of fowls.

soldiers,

and who were

flock of

The blacks with us

most of

whom had

terribly afraid

they termed " bush niggers."

to

been

of what

Charging into the

jungle or scouting in twos or threes they point-

50

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

blank declined to do, and they were afraid to

move

a dozen yards from the main body unless

accompanied by a white man.


however, to find

how

quickly

It

many

was curious,
of these

men

developed into good soldiers some months afterwards,

when we had

slave-raiders.

a serious

war with the Arab

CHAPTER

III

VOYAGE UP
RIVERS ARRIVAL

BANGALA CANNIBALS

SANKURU

THE KASAI AND


AT LUSAMBO

DEFEAT BY COMMANDANT DHANIS OF TIPPU


TIB's

SLAVE-RAIDING AGENT, GONGO LUTETE

BASONGO CANNIBALS

On
a

the 29th of April I embarked on the Stanley^


thirty-ton stern-wheel

two large whaleboats


consisted

of

sixty

towing

paddle-steamer,

full

of

and

Bangala

Her crew

men.

white

three

officers.

The Bangala, a very


are a sort of

largely

Kru boy

intelligent useful

of the interior,

employed on the steamers.

grow a

foot long,

and

and are

They

their hair fantastically, allowing one or


tails to

people,

more

dress
pig-

stiffening the plaits

with wax to give them the appearance of horns.

They

also cut

of the

and re-cut the skin from the root

nose upwards to the


51

hair,

the cicatrix

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

52

thus formed being often an inch high, and re-

Upon

sembling a cock's-comb.
are invaluable.

and

sailors.

They

When

the steamers they

are at once hunters, soldiers,

the boat approaches the bank

with the intention of mooring, two or three of

them tumble overboard, and hanging on


flukes of the anchor,

to the

run along the bottom in

several fathoms of water,

till

they come up at the

bank, and are able to hook the anchor into the


root of a tree.
are

constantly

When

They

are,

giving

however, cannibals, and

trouble

in

this

respect.

was returning from Stanley Falls on

homeward journey, over two years

my

afterwards, six

of the crew were in irons on board the ship,

whom

the captain delivered up to justice at Bangala for

having eaten two of

voyage up to the

Falls.

but the captain told


fallen

ill

their

me

number during the


was not at the

trial,

that two of the crew had

on the upward voyage, and had been

given a day or two's

rest.

On

the next ration

day these two were missing, and, upon making


inquiries, the captain

was informed that they had

died in the night and had been buried on shore.

BANGALA CANNIBALS
This, however, did
his

own

not satisfy him, and having

and

suspicions he searched the ship,

covered parts of the

away

53

men

smoke-dried, and hidden

whom

in the lockers of the six Bangala,

was then handing over


Leopoldville,

dis-

he

to the authorities.

as the

chief port

Upper

of the

Congo, has large numbers of these Bangala constantly coming and going,

and

as a conse-

has,

quence, to keep a guard on the cemetery, several


cases

of

body - snatching

against them.

having

resorted to as the only

punishment had to be

means of putting

The Bangala have themselves


on shooting parties,

only breaking the wings and

was better

to

let

of killing

down.

me when,

it

legs

of

the

outright, that

the bird linger, as

the flesh more tender.


in

told

it

remonstrated with them

wounded game instead


it

proved

This practice became at one time

so inveterate that capital

for

been

it

made

This led to conversation,

which they explained that, when at home and

about to prepare a

feast,

the prisoner or slave

who

was to form the piece de resistance had always


his

arms and legs broken three days beforehand,

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

54

and was then placed

in a stream, or pool of water,

chin-deep, with his head tied to a stick to prevent

him committing

suicide, or perhaps falling asleep

On

and thus getting drowned.

was taken out and

the meat then

killed,

Though

very tender.

times,

being

cannot vouch for the truth

of this story, I have heard


at different

the third day he

and

it

it

from different men


curious that

is

they

always break the legs and wings, or arms, as


the case might be, of birds and

monkeys

before

killing them.

During

this

voyage on the Stanley we stopped

every evening, and, putting

all

the crew and soldiers

Half of the men were em-

on shore, formed a camp.

ployed in cutting up timber and carrying


before five o'clock the

us.

on board

following morning,

when

steam launch, with

men on

board, accompanied

we resumed our voyage.


a lieutenant and his

it

This was deemed advisable, since a trading

station, established only a short

time previously on

the Kasai River, had just before this been burned,

and

On

its

occupants murdered by the district natives.

the 7th of

May we moored

opposite the charred

VOYAGE UP THE KASAI RIVER


remains of the trading

station,

were

not

The day following

attacked during the night.


all

but

55

troops were landed, and operations com-

the

menced
natives

with

the

intention

of

who had committed

the

punishing

the

The

outrage.

Bangala crew of the steamer departed in a canoe


on their own account, and returned

same

the

evening with about forty other canoes, and


great

deal

of the cloth and tinned

had been taken from the trading


also

food which

They

station.

brought with them a few prisoners, and the

heads of those they had


troops

regular

returned,

Later on, the

killed.

several

of

them being

wounded, though they had seen very few natives.

The Bangala proved splendid men


of work.

They seemed

to

know by

for

this

instinct

sort

where

the natives hid their canoes in the swamps, and,

when

attacked,

immediately

individual hunting an

opened

each

enemy through the bush

until he either caught him, or,

pened, was himself killed.

what rarely hap-

At the end

two or three days, having, thanks


collected nearly all

out,

of

some

to the Bangala,

the canoes (which

we broke

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

56

up

for firewood) in the

swamps, we proceeded on

our way, and the launch returned to Stanley Pool.

Almost daily when, owing to sandbanks or other


obstructions in the river,

bank,
ever,

we were

fired at

we had

by the

to approach the

natives, who,

seemed to have very few guns

arrows usually either

sun-deck overhead,

fell

and as their

short or stuck in

no one was wounded.

the

At

on several occasions

night the woodcutters were

attacked, or had their axes stolen

who were on

how-

by the

natives,

the watch for anything they could

pilfer.

While steaming up the Kasai one day at noon,

by bats

the air was suddenly darkened

in such

numbers that the crew of the steamer knocked

some of them down with

Upon

sticks.

every tree

on the islands and river banks the bats were constantly settling,

and flying

ofi"

again

when some-

thing alarmed them, such as the breaking of a

branch by their own weight.

measured some

that were killed, and found that they averaged

from eighteen inches to two


tip

to wing-tip.

feet six,

from wing-

The boys on board and the

VOYAGE UP THE SANKURU RIVER

57

crew of the steamer cooked and ate them, and

On

maintained that they were very good eating.

one occasion
the same

saw myriads of bats behaving

way near

Stanley Falls, and

in

have also

seen them in large numbers on the Lualaba.

The whole of the Kasai

teems with game

district

elephant, buffalo, buck, and hog in the forest and

swamps

and hippopotami,

and birds

crocodiles,

of every description on the islands and banks, and


in the river itself.

At

this time

18th

May

1892

there

other stations on the Kasai, though

on this river and

several dozen

The

natives, too,

now
its

were no
there are

tributaries.

have become friendly, and bring

in great quantities of indiarubber, which

everywhere in the

mouth

at the

of days.

was doing a roaring trade

The Sankuru River


mile wide, and
It

is

Kasai

is

is

a couple

established,

in rubber

and

who

ivory.

only from half a mile to a

very deep, with a slow current.

in every respect a
;

we stopped

Here a Frenchman was

found

At Benabendi,

forest, to trade.

of the Sankuru,

is

marked contrast

there are few islands in

it,

to the

and the banks

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

S8

are clothed with forest

down

Hippopotami are

and

rare,

the exception of monkeys,


ness of the forest, invisible

to the water's edge.

all

is,

other game, with

owing to the dense-

as there are

no islands

At

or open spaces, birds also are not to be seen.

one place on the Sankuru

noticed a small kind

of hippopotamus in a herd of twenty-three, none of

Some

which were larger than an Alderney cow.


time later in the Lualaba district

of seventeen of these small hippos.

saw a herd

To anyone

acquainted with the habits of this animal,

it

impossible to suppose that these could have

been young hippos together, and leads

to

is

all

the

conclusion that they must have been an, as yet,

They were considerably larger

undescribed species.

than the slightly-known Liberian hippopotamus,

and not half the

size of the

On

both occasions

but

since,

common hippopotamus.

could easily have shot some,

except by great luck,

should have been

unable to pick them up I refrained from

firing,

hoping to come across them again under more


favourable circumstances.

Up

the Sankuru

we found

ourselves always ex-

ARRIVAL AT LUSAMBO

59

pected, the steamer having been signalled two or

When we

three days in advance.


destination

we found

arrived at our

that the whole native popula-

Lusambo had known that we were coming,

tion at

a couple of days before our arrival.

where in

Here, as

else-

natives have such a perfect

Africa, the

system of telegraphing, or signalling, by means of

drums

their

they are able to make any

that

communications as

which
is
it,

is

far as a

a whole

by

district

few minutes, or

all

the drummers

their

own

hours,

after

rogating a
chiefs

it

and parts of

tribes

all

the codes

drummer on
he

signal,

has

most

is

codes, there seems to be

running through

who hear

knows of an event a very

This system of telegraphing


different

heard,

As the information

often several miles.

usually repeated

Though

drum can be

often

interesting.
tribes

have

some method

for,

the subject
replied

occurred.

when

inter-

of another

that

he

had

never heard that particular drum, or would of


course

know

it.

We

were,

by means of these

drums, able to keep up a constant communication,

day and night, with our

allies

and natives

for

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

6o

member

of

Every

the camp.

round

miles

evening

our company would amuse himself

by rapping out abuse

at the

enemy, which was

returned with zest from the hostile camp.

telling

native

news of

other

what food they had

harems,

many

the

Occa-

would be kept up, one

sionally a friendly gossip


side

some

to

its

respective

eat,

and how

The

hours the chief had slept that day.


instinct

boasting

for

and

exaggeration

generally became a predominant feature on these


occasions,

variably

and the conversation would almost


degenerate into

drummer trying to cap

lying

match,

in-

each

his opponent's last message.

Everything that happened was so

well

known

in

both camps, that by simply telling a piece

of

news

to one's servant

it

immediately spread

throughout the whole Arab camp.

Our

arrival

at

Lusambo was

tremendous rejoicing
the

first intelligence

for

the

signal

for

we not only brought

from the

coast,

but were the

bearers of the only letters that had been received


for

seven months.

was heartily welcomed by

de Wouters and de Heusch, two of the nicest

DEFEAT OF CONGO LUTETE


men

had met

in the

Congo Free

little

State.

having just finished a most successful

campaign against Tippu Tib's slave-raiding

Congo

agent,

He

Lutete.

brought with him over

two thousand prisoners of war and freed

few

Commandant Dhanis

hours after our arrival the


appeared,

6i

fete,

lasting

three

days, celebrated the

mandant's successful return


period of

on the

rejoicing

sick-list.

slaves.

at the

Com-

end of which

had most of the station

There were also occasional cases

of smallpox in the town, and I vaccinated some

hundreds of people with vaccine

had brought

from Europe, but unfortunately none of

it

took.

Congo Lutete by Dhanis

After the defeat of

and Descamps, the Arab authorities at Stanley


Falls

refused to take

Upon
for

the

the

State

incursion,

any action

officials

in the matter.

demanding

satisfaction

they replied that they were

not responsible for Congo Lutete,

who was

acting

independently of them, and that the Free State


officials

must take what

steps they pleased in the

matter.

With us orders had

arrived from Europe

to

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

62

form at the
pedition

explore

to

date

earliest

stores,

a large

ex-

Katanga; and before many-

days had passed we were

men, sorting

possible

engaged in

all

drilling

and making up loads

a caravan of four hundred

men

to last

for a year.

No

load was allowed to exceed forty pounds, which

did away with the likelihood of delay on the road

through the lagging behind of overloaded porters.

On

the 5th of July, just as

we were ready

men, named

most energetic

one of our

died suddenly, and two other

which arrested work

was during

It

men

for

time that the commissary

this

was being carried on

the

Basongo

He

human

traffic

the people on the upper

themselves

in the habit of selling slaves

down

sickened with

some days.

of the district found that a regular

river

Smit,

This threw a gloom over the

hsematuric fever.
station,

to start,

being

cannibals,

and children lower

the river to the Basongo

Meno

for

food.

therefore ordered the sentries on the river to

take, or fire on,

any canoes descending the

river

with children on board, and, after catching a few,


succeeded

in

stopping the

traffic.

Some

of the

BASONGO CANNIBALS
people belonging to Pania

Mutumba

63
(the chief of

the tribe in question up the river) accompanied

Commandant

the

One

of these

an attack on Gongo Lutete,

in

men was on "sentry go"

night, and, having shot a

man, came

for

in to report

what he had done, and despatched someone

When

the body.

else

was brought

to

bring

in,

he found, to his astonishment, that he had

shot his

in

own
and

Dhanis

father.

He

complained

immediately went to
that

shot was his father, and that


lines,

since

he was unable to

Commandant ordered him

it

to

spy he had

the

was very hard

it

him.

eat

bury the body pro-

perly, but discovered afterwards that,

man would
given
a

it

not

eat

the

body

to his friends to eat.

young Basongo

chief

came

The

though the

himself,

he had

That same week

to the

Commandant

while at his dinner in his tent, and asked for the


loan of his knife, which, without thinking,

Commandant

lent

him.

He

immediately

the
dis-

appeared behind the tent and cut the throat of


a

little

girl-slave belonging to

the act of cooking her,

him, and was in

when one

of our soldiers

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

64

saw him, and reported what he was doing.

This

cannibal was put in irons, but some two months


later I

found him in such a wretched condition that,

fearing he would die, I took

and gave him

of the chains,

Scarcely

his liberty with a warning.

a fortnight had passed,

by some of our Hausa

He had

when he was brought

soldiers,

was eating the children


ments.

him out

in

who

in

said that he

and about our canton-

bag slung round his neck,

which on examining we found contained an arm and


a leg of a

young

child.

As

three or four children

had disappeared within the

had been no deaths amongst them


was at

the

trial

and there

fortnight,
in

camp, this

considered sufficient

evidence

against him, and he was taken out and shot, as

the only cure for such an incorrigible.

Shortly after this a

number

of the prisoners of

war took to deserting, and, finding out


direction they went,

we demanded

chief of the district

that

up

to us.

He

which

of the great

they should be given

replied that, with the exception of

one prisoner, they had


thirty-seven

in

slaves

in

all

been eaten, and sent

exchange.

The one he

BASONGO CANNIBALS
returned proved to

be a

little

mine who had been persuaded

some of the
ever, he

By

deserters.

65

boy-servant of
to run

away by

a lucky chance,

had found a friend

how-

and

in the village,

was the only one of the party not eaten.


of what

descriptions

he

His

had seen at the time

were quite sickening.


Prisoners or servants have often spoken to
in this

manner:

"We

me

want meat; we know you

have not enough goats and fowls to be able to


spare us some, but give us that

man

one of their number]

lazy fellow, and

you'll

may

he

is

never get any good out of him, so you


as well give

him

to us to eat."

The question of cannibalism


very

little

discussed

frequently

refer

that the

cannibals,

but

in

in Africa has

been

the great travellers, such as

Cameron,

Livingstone,

fact

[indicating

Stanley,

their

and Wissmann,

works to the simple

peoples they passed through were


all

details

or

statement

of

the

causes that led to these references have usually

been omitted.

As

travellers

continent, accompanied

through an unknown

by an

alien race or races,

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

66

they were naturally not in touch with the people

through whose countries they passed, who, when


not actually hostile, remained in a state of armed

So

neutrality.

nearly

all

far as I

the tribes in the Congo Basin either are,

or have been, cannibals

the practice
lately

have been able to discover,

and among some of them


Races who until

on the increase.

is

do not seem to have been cannibals, though

races, have,

country surrounded

in

situated

by cannibal

from increased intercourse with their

neighbours, learned to eat

human

flesh

for since

the entry of Europeans into the country greater


travelling

for

facilities

travellers

have come about.

who wandered from


among
eaten,

their

surrounding

the

greater

safety

for

Formerly the people

own neighbourhood
were killed and

tribes

and so did not return among their people

to enlighten

was

and

them by showing that human

flesh

useful as an article of food.

Soon

after

lished, the

human
of the

the

station of

Equator was estab-

residents discovered that

traffic

a wholesale

was being carried on by the natives

district

between

this

station

and Lake

BASONGO CANNIBALS

67

The most daring of these

M'Zumba.

natives

were the tribes about Irebo, whose practice was


ascend

to

the

river Luluno;u with

among

armed

large

parties,

and

banks.

These people, though a well-built sturdy

were

race,

raiders

raid

not

had

people to

the

fighting

collected

on

natives

When

people.

its

the

number

sufficient

of

their canoes, they returned to the

fill

Congo, and carried them up the Oubangi, where


they were sold to the natives to serve as food.

Even now, though


Government

since the establishment of the

stations

some years ago

this

traffic

has been stopped,

it

steamers that go

up the Oubangi to buy meat.

The captains

me

that,

of the steamers have often assured

whenever they try

natives, slaves are

natives often

other

almost impossible for the

is

demanded

buy goats from the

in exchange,

and the

come on board with tusks of ivory

money with

complaining

to

that

or

the intention of buying a slave,

meat

is

now

scarce

in

their

neighbourhood.

Judging from what

have seen of these people,

they seem fond of eating

human

flesh

and though

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

68

may

it

be an acquired

doubt

slightest

human
I

lived

among

my mind

in

any

flesh to

taste,

there

they prefer

that

During

other.

not the

is

the time

all

cannibal races I never came across

a single case of their eating any kind of flesh raw

they invariably either

custom of smoking

boil, roast, or

flesh to

have been very useful to

make

ever, never

buy smoked meat

being impossible

human

to

be

sure

it

We

This

it.

keep would

we were

us, as

without meat for long periods.

smoke

often

how-

could,

in the markets, it

that

it

was not

flesh.

The preference

tribes,

more than

individuals of a tribe, for various parts

diff'erent

of the

of difl"erent

human body,

interesting.

is

Some

cut

long steaks from the flesh of the thighs, legs,

arms

or

others prefer the hands and feet

and

though the great majority do not eat the head,


I

have come across more than one tribe which

prefers the

head to any other

use

some part of the

the

fat

Central

they contain
Africa

part.

intestines
for

recognise,

Almost

all

on account of

even the savages of


in

common with

our

BASONGO CANNIBALS
own

cooks, that fat in

some form

69
a necessary

is

ingredient of different dishes.

During the war


two

years,

followers

in

which we were engaged

for

with our enormous crowds of camp

we reaped perhaps the only advantages

that could be claimed for this diso^usting custom.

In the night following a battle or the storming


of a town, these

human wolves

disposed of

all

the

dead, leaving nothing even for the jackals, and

many an

thus saved us, no doubt, from

A man

with his eyes open has no

difficulty in

knowing, from the horrible remains he

him on the road


:

left to

or battlefield

the jackals which the

generally

with

this differ-

human wolves have

whereas on the road

by the smouldering camp

blackened spot indicating where the


are the whitening bones,

which form the

relics of these

read," if he

know

fire,

fire

or the

has been

cracked and broken,


disgusting banquets.

These form a diary by the way, which

may

obliged

that on a battlefield he will find those parts

not found to their taste

is

way, what people have preceded

to pass on his

ence

epidemic.

'

he who runs

the habits of these peoples.

CHAPTER

IV

PROPOSALS OF PEACE AND ALLIANCE WITH THE STATE


FORCES FROM GONGO LUTETE

GONGO

VISIT TO

LUTETE AT HIS CAPITAL, n'gANDU

THE LITTLE

PEOPLE OF THE FOREST

On

the

19th

of

Gongo Lutete had

July,

formation conveyed to us that he

in-

was sending

ambassadors with a large present, hoping to make

De Wouters and

peace.

proceed on the

way

to

received

orders

meet them, and

to

at five

o'clock the following

morning started up the

in a large canoe.

Our canoe was a very good

one, of the usual kind used

Sankuru water-people

who

are a fine race of traders

was flat-bottomed, with


high,

used by these

long,

and

are

well

the

are not nomadic, but

and farmers.

The canoe

about

ten inches

sides

and tapering to a point

paddles
feet

by the Bakuba

river

fore

people

and

are

aft.

The

about nine

made, many of them

PROPOSALS OF PEACE AND ALLIANCE

71

having a small knob at the upper end which

is

held in

people

While paddling, the water-

the hand.
chant, and

take

a step forward as they

catch the beginning of the stroke, and draw the

They keep the

foot back as they pull through.

most perfect time.


ordinary

canoe.

On

Ten of them paddle

we had

occasion

this

in

an

two-

and-twenty paddles, as the canoe was a specially


large one.

We

arrived at Pania

the end of the second day

Mutumba's

at

very rich village,

well built in straight lines, and with about three

thousand inhabitants.

The huts were

square, but

with roofs of the ordinary beehive shape.

were

larger

than the usual native

thirty or forty feet high,

on the ground.

and

hut,

They
being

fifteen feet square

The only sanitary arrangements

the village could boast of were a herd of pigs,

which was turned loose morning and evening to


dispose of the dirt in and about the village.

the sick

who

I fancy,

are

die,

All

and some before they are dead,

thrown into the

in front of the village.

river,

which passes

Those who die violent

deaths are generally eaten.

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

72

Here we found

envoys from Gongo, in a

five

very nervous condition, not knowing

They showed

treat them.

us at

all,

how we should

their pluck in

coming to

though of course the fear of death was

behind them

they had returned to their chief

if

They had brought

with their mission unfulfilled.

with them a present of some ivory and a flock of

and said that Gongo had been badly treated

goats,

by the Arabs,

and, having been beaten whenever he

had attacked the State


to

make terms

for

forces,

himself,

had now determined


and,

would become our friend and


seemed

who were

natives,

people,

Tib's

known

far

This

auxiliary.

their

as a protection against our

far

from friendly to Tippu

raiding

propensities

De Wouters and

and wide.

turned to Lusambo

by water.

were

that

so

to,

under a strong guard, to Lusambo.

The guard was necessary

own

allowed

and we sent the envoys with

satisfactory,

their present,

if

favourable

his

being
I

re-

Gongo's terms
emissaries,

after

having been feted at Lusambo, were sent back to

him with
visit

presents,

and a promise that we would

him and arrange the

final

terms of

the

CONGO LUTETE

VISIT TO

Immediately afterwards two

agreement.

were sent with a strong guard to

Commandant,
wdiich

as a result of this

had upset many of

that

a fetisher,

the immediate

poisoning

Commandant

population,

the

new arrangement,

At

time we

this

" medicine

man,"

in

Lusambo was

of

district,

to arrest him.

much

in for trial,

the

in

Gongo

and

several

among our own people decided

suspicious cases

the

or

neighbourhood

people

visit

officers

his plans, being unable

to start for another fortnight.

found

73

who

the surprise of the native

to

arrived

would happen to us

by hundreds

for

him.

Upon

tenced

by the tribunal

being

He was brought

to see

what

having interfered with

found guilty, he
to

receive

was
a

sen-

flogging.

Before his sentence was carried out, however, the

Commandant

told

him

publicly that he was going

to be flogged,

but that he would be allowed to

make medicine

first,

feel

it.

He

in order that he should not

replied that he

had nothing

medicine with, his materials being

Some men were

all

to

make

in his hut.

accordingly sent to his village,

and returned to the compound with the hut

itself

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

74

and everything
put inside
medicine,
publicly

He was

contained.

it

thereupon

and given half an hour

it,

which

after

he

His

flogged.

was

taken

out

and

convinced

soon

squeals

make

to

assembled multitude that the white man's

the

" medicine "

was

stronger

liberated afterwards

a guard as

we were

than

the

natives

him
over

he had so long tyrannised, and who would

whom

otherwise have torn him to pieces.

ing day there

was

The

as hens' eggs.
in this district

had

Hail

is

in fact,

never

follow-

a tornado accompanied

some of the hailstones being

hailstorm,

they

and when

obliged to give

against

protection

his,

seen

by a

as large

most unusual occurrence

numbers of natives
it

before

and

it

said

was

immediately supposed by the native population


to

be

vengeance

" medicine

man "

As we, however,
hailstones, with

it

us

by

the

rushed out and collected the

which we made iced drinks, this

feeling soon wore

ing that

on

having interfered with him.

for
all

brought

off,

the natives tersely remark-

was no good making medicine against

the white man,

who only

ate

it.

TO CONGO LUTETE

VISIT
Lusambo was
the

cattle,

75

blessed with a half-wild herd of

from which herd we broke in

bulls

without

much

For

purpose they are most useful, as their

this

difficulty

and

used

for

riding.

huge horns enable them to push through thick

They

grass or light bush with comparative ease.

not at

are

all

swampy ground, but

of

afraid

plunge and struggle through

without hesita-

it

tion.

On

the 18 th of August

Commandant on an

expedition

Lutete and Lupungu, on the

On

the south.

the Sankuru,

started
to

way

with

Gongo

visit

to

the

Katanga

in

the following day, having crossed

had

my

first

experience of travel-

ling in the great forest.

There

is,

despite

the

myriad

difficulties

it

presents at every hand, an element of fascination

about

tropical

forest

anything

unlike

though perhaps the chief pleasure


forward to getting out of

it.

lies

else,

in looking

great

silence

hangs over everything, and seems only greater


for

the

sounds

extraordinary

which

break

and often
in

upon

it

unaccountable
at

intervals,

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

ye

mingled with those more

the

harsh shriek of the toucan,

monkey, or

occasional

branch

or

tree.

despite

sounds, the forest silence

much

itself so

felt

is

chatter

crash

the

Still,

such

familiar,

of

all

oppressive,

that the different

its

the

as

an

of

falling

strange

and makes

members of

a caravan generally speak in whispers, or in low

and the

tones,

the

way

on either side of

slightest noise

will turn instinctively every head.

seems a complete absence of

life

There

everywhere

whir of insects or twitter of birds

no

and though

everywhere but in the forest each blade of grass

and every inch of

some

soil

here there

sort,

is

teeming with

life

of

no sound or movement.

is

The dank heavy smell which pervades everything


is

unrelieved

by other odours,

for in a tropical forest a

can make

no birds

itself felt.

sing.

or even breezes

very strong wind only

There are no flowers, and

Miles and miles of sombre greens

and browns stretch unrelieved by a

Of the

life,

the flower-wonders, the brilliance told

of tropical forests, there


said

single blossom.

that these

may

all

is

no

sign.

It has

been

be found on the tree

VISIT
tops,

TO CONGO LUTETE

hundred

though on

summit of

or

feet

several

more

occasions

yy

overhead
climbed

but

to

the

a spur of rock rising out of the forest

into the sunlight,

and commanding a

full

view of

the tree tops, and from there watched the great

undulating sea of green for hours together, the

same monotony of colour and of soundlessness


was above us

as

now and then

in

the depths below.

solitary

toucan

or

green pigeons would pass, but even

Every
of

flock

these were

only to be seen in the evening or the morning.

Here and
top

there, perhaps half a mile apart, a tree

was entirely covered with blossom, usually

dead white in hue, and sometimes a tree with


scarlet

leaves gave the

distance.

efii"ect

of flowers

the

in

These notes of colour were, however,

so rare that they could hardly be said to relieve

the

uniformity

of

sombre green stretching on

Camps

every side as far as eye could reach.


a forest are most melancholy
is

aff'airs.

damp, and the only wood that

in

Everything

will

burn

is

newly-dead log or branch, from which half an


inch or an inch of the sodden exterior has to be

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

78

away

cut

camp

first.

The ordinary cheery

are absent,

life

noiselessly

the

fires,

of

and everyone moves about

the many layers of sodden and decay-

ing veo-etation under

foot deadenine;

porters and soldiers

Even the

signs

lie

sound.

all

quietly round

and do not laugh and chatter and sing

as usual.

We

arrived at Pania

Mutumba's

24th, and here rearranged the caravan.


to

our

demand

men

that fifty

on the

village

In reply

should be sent

with us to serve as guides or extra porters, Pania


raised

many

difficulties,

could have the

men

if

we paid

Commandant thereupon bought


for

men

of

soldiers

recognised the advantages of freedom.

The advantage

to be derived

of the hardest things

it

the ordinary negro slave.

from freedom

is

one

possible to explain to

is

His powers of reason-

ing never seem to get beyond this


free

few of

many

them were promoted, and became good

when they

men

sixty-three

away, but

afterwards ran

The

them.

for

two cups of white beads each.

these

we

but eventually said

and don't get work, who

is

" If I

going to feed

am
me ?

CONGO LUTETE

79

have a master, he has to find

me

VISIT TO
Whereas,

if I

work, and when there

is

no work he has

to

still

feed me."

On

crossing the Sankuru

we marched through

deserted district for five days, in which

was very

had, how-

women

been forewarned, the men, and the

ever,

who accompanied them, had


them
the

As we

the caravan.

difficult to feed

it

as they could carry,

desert

in

as

much

food with

and we got through

comparative comfort, arriving

at

Mono

Kialo's

Mono

Kialo was a sub-chief of the Baluba race,

village

on the 1st of September.

the great chief being Lupungu, four days' march

southward,

to the

The Balubas are

whom we

afterwards visited.

a fine, healthy, industrious race,

the products of whose industries are to be found

own

immense

distances

They

agriculturists,

iron-workers, and cloth-

made

in this district being the

are

makers

the cloth

money used by

outside

their

a great portion of the

ments to the westward.

Arab

their

enemies who

settle-

Until quite lately they

were not cannibals, and even now the


eat

district.

fall

in

battle.

men
All

only
the

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

8o

Balubas, both

and

filed

pointed
a

considered
I

have

men and women, have

peculiar

habit

noticed

invariable custom

that

it

tribes

and the women more


the

cannibal

races,

means an

no

do

make

not

They

have

though even

this is

very

The

races.

Most

of the

is

lips are thin

the face oval, and

of the Baluba

many European women, though


them

alone,

but

is

Arab influence has penetrated


Nearly

all

this

brilliant.

race

use

lids, as

custom

is

do
not

common wherever

in the

Congo Basin.

the natives of this region are brown

or dark yellow in colour, a

being very

is

and well formed,

pigment to blacken the upper and lower

peculiar to

which

common amongst

the eyes large and

women

good

more prominent, and has

a more pronounced bridge, than

negro

race,

no darker

are

especially,

Egyptians.

are graceful, lively,

features, with the exception of the nose,


flat

it

The whole Baluba

and industrious.

than

often

by

is

The Baluba women

practice.

gay,

to

is

this

amongst them, and that many-

cannibal

inveterate

though

but

their teeth

rare.

really black

The front teeth

are

all

person
filed,

TO GONGO LUTETE

VISIT

though, strange to say, this

Their

ment.

standard

many good

much sought

hardly a disfigure-

is

qualities

make them very

8i

and high moral

valuable,

and they are

by Arab and even native

after

chiefs

for their harems.

Another

point

that

struck

me among

the

Balubas within the Arab sphere of influence was


their

extreme personal cleanliness.

thorough

bath half a dozen times a day was the rule rather

than the exception.

Amongst most
it is

customary for

of the natives in these districts


girls

and boys

to

marry at the

ages of seven and eight or nine respectively, yet


it is

an indisputable

fact that the negroes are both

a healthy and prolific race.

The women

aged at fourteen or

and the men, with the

fifteen,

are middle-

exception of the chiefs, do not live to old age, the


accidents of
so
is

common

life

among

that a

man

these savage tribes being


is

usually killed before he

out of his prime.

While resting a couple of days at Mono Kialo's


village,

two

large

presents

arrived,

one

from

Gongo Lutete and one from Lupungu, each

of

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

82

whom

begged us to

visit

liim

Commandant

Lutete's present was the larger, the

turned north-east to pay him the

march

and

for

some days lay through

here, for the first time, I

As Gongo

first.

tracts of forest,

saw the Batwa, the

interesting "little people of the forest."

the influence of a guide,

Our

first visit.

who was on

Through

friendly terms

with them, they did not disappear from sight as


they usually do at the approach of a caravan, and
I

had therefore opportunities of observing them

more

would otherwise

than

closely

have

been

possible.

What

me was

impressed

first

fact that their

average height

is

that, despite the

under four

They

they are both sturdy and independent.


as a rule, nomadic,

who

them

has seen

ment.
small

and

numbers

in a settle-

Being hunters, they follow the game in


parties,

real hunters
all

are,

have never met anyone

in large

changing their locality with the

migration of the game.

in

feet,

the

traveller

in the

science

Since they are the only

Congo Basin, and are versed


of

woodcraft,

(European or native)

may

the

ordinary

pass within a

THE LITTLE PEOPLE OF THE FOREST

83

few yards of them and be utterly unaware of their


presence, though they meanwhile

him.

may

be watching

Their short stature enables them

to run

along a game-path with perfect ease, which to an

man would

ordinary

In

nearly double.

man

ordinary
as it

fact, it

is

to find, or to see,

as difficult for

them

an

in the forest

town-bred person in this country to

for a

is

be impassable unless bent

discover mice

a cornfield.

in

can

remember

on more than one occasion, while marching in a


shower of

rain,

which were

walking over their

still

little footprints,

dry but which in a few moments

became wet, thus showing that the small people

must have passed within a few


though

yards of

had seen and heard nothing

me,

the silence

of the great forest seeming, from the presence of

human

beings,

though

man may

proximity

of

more unbroken than

his

usual.

frequently be unaware of the


fellow-man,

nature,

whether

animal or insect, seems often instinctively to

when the arch-enemy


The pygmies
poisons,

and

For

is

know

in the vicinity.

possess an intimate knowledge of

their

bows and arrows, which have

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

84

the appearance of harmless toys that children in

Europe would disdain as playthings, are as deadly


engines in hunting or war as have ever been in-

The action of some of these poisons

vented.

man

so rapid that a

from three to ten

will die in

minutes after having been scratched.

the haunch by a poisoned spear,

going a hundred yards


poisoned

occasion

through

my

in

about

two

forest people

fell

elephant

coat

down dead

and on another

which

arrow,

corduroy

thirty yards, killed

An

which was scratched on

in one of our stations,

before

is

at

had

passed

distance

of

fowl I scratched with

One

minutes.

trick

the

it

little

have in common with the bushman

(which though often mentioned by travellers yet


stated

in

and white sounds impossible),

black

namely, the shooting of three, or even four, arrows


so rapidly that the last
first

reaches

its

a lance so that

mark.
it

is

They

discharged before the


are also able to

goes in at one side of a

out at the other.

The Arab

throw

man and

slave-raiders

and

ivory-hunters have often sent expeditions into the


great forest, which have suffered to such an extent

THE LITTLE PEOPLE OF THE FOREST


at the

hands of these small demons, that few, and

sometimes none, have returned to

how they
them.

85

died, without

Occasionally

the tale of

tell

even seeing who smote

dwarf people attack a

the

caravan in the openings of the forest, and so agile


are they in their

movements that defence

On

cally impossible.

practi-

seeing the flash of the firing

gun, they drop, and running


grass, spear their

is

in,

hidden by the

opponent while he

is

in the act

This system, though answering very

of reloading.

well with ordinary expeditions

armed with muzzle-

loading guns, did not succeed against us and our


breechloaders.

Many

of us were, however, scared

by the seemingly magical appearance

of

these

gnome-like beings within three or four yards of us,

with their murderous

little

And, indeed,

destruction.

extraordinary enough to
their being

their success

was often

make one almost doubt

human.

Our march from here


capital

spears pointed for our

to

N'Gandu, Gongo's

on the Lomami River, was

through

country devastated by the slave-raiders in Tippu


Tib's employ.

Ever since we

left

Pania Mutum-

86

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

ba's,

with the exception of the small district in

Mono

which

men and

vacancy, devoid alike of

Every height was

us.

palm plantations

was

village

Kialo's

situated,

this

food, surrounded

with splendid

covered

and the remains of

villages,

whose precise extent was indicated by the bomas,


or

palisade

and grown into ring

every

who

fences.

hunger, for the

suff'er

man

which had taken root

fortifications,

Our caravan did not

Commandant had

to take at least one

acted as transport, and

commissary's

woman and

who looked

On

arrangements.

allowed

the

a boy,

after the

13th

of

September we arrived at N'Gandu, and received


a splendid reception by

Gongo Lutete

of his people turned out to

guns, and dancing and

thousands

welcome

us,

firing

as if

they were

in Malela,

and was by

yelling

possessed.

Gongo Lutete was born


blood a Bakussu.

He had

himself been a slave,

having as a child fallen into the hands of the


Arabs.

While

still

a youth, as a reward for his

distinguished conduct and pluck on raiding


peditions,

he was given his freedom.

ex-

Starting

AT N'GANDU

87

with one gun, at eighteen years of age, he gradually collected a

band of brigands round him,

he ruled with a rod of

iron,

whom

and before long became

Tippu Tib's chief slave and ivory-hunter.

He

himself

established

Lomami, holding part

N'Gandu

at

of Malela

by raiding gradually extended

for

on

the

Sefu,

and

his influence to the

westward, which brought him into conflict with


the

Captain Descamps

State.

first,

Dhanis afterwards, defeated him.


feat

by Dhanis,

conclusion that

in

time

past

After the de-

April 1892, he came to the

was no use fighting any longer

it

against the State

and Baron

and since the Arabs

had paid him neither

for

for

some

his

work

nor for the ivory he sent them, he determined


possible to

account.

make peace with

the State on his

This was a wise decision, as there

if

own

is

no

doubt that the Arabs were both afraid and jealous


power,

of his

and would probably before long

have assassinated him.

At

this time

years of age.

looking

man

Gongo Lutete was perhaps

He was
of about 5

a well-built
ft.

thirty

intelligent-

9 in. in height, with

88

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

a brown skin, large brown eyes with very long


lashes,

small

mouth

with

remarkable

and a

lips,

narrow nose.

straight, comparatively

were his most

thin

His hands

characteristic

they

were curiously supple, with long narrow fingers,

which when outstretched had always the top joint


slightly turned

in constant

rest-

His features meanwhile remained ab-

friendly with

some of

Though very
us,

man on

familiar

and

he had a way of never

anyone forget that he was a

manners were extremely


see this

were

when he was under any strong

solutely immovable.

letting

or both hands

movement, opening and shutting

lessly, especially

influence.

One

back.

chief,

and

his

One had

dignified.

to

the warpath to realise the different

aspects of his character.

The calm haughty

or the genial and friendly companion,

chief,

became on

the battlefield an enthusiastic individual with

highly nervous organisation,

who

hissed out his

orders one after another without a moment's hesitation.

fatigue,

He was

capable of

and would lead

sustaining

his warriors

country at a run for hours together.

intense

through the

AT N'GANDU

89

The band of brigands with which Gongo had


rounded himself were mostly of the Batetela

sur-

race.

These Batetela, and more particularly one tribe


called the Bakussu, are, as far as I could ascertain

from making inquiries in every direction, the most


inveterate

During excursions

cannibals.

neighbourhood of their towns,

on more than one

When

occasion saw a public execution.

town

of the

who

He

and disappears

the chief

of course an absolute monarch

is

decides that a man must


to the people.

the

in

die,

he hands him over

immediately torn to pieces,

is

as quickly as a hare

is

broken up

by a pack of hounds.

Every man lays hold of him

at once with one hand,

and with the other whips

the piece with his knife


first,

for

once, after a

when a spy

or deserter

have said to

us,

"

Why

when you are

him up."

Hanging

for fear of magic,

him

piece.

drum-head court-martial,
was

shot,

the

onlookers

do you bury him

gone,

we

It's

shall of course dig

fetishes over the grave, with

a view to preventing the people


it

kill

he would by doing so lose his

More than

no use

no one stops to

off

had no

efi'ect.

from touching
These people

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

90

seem
no

have no form of religion whatever, and

to

of death or

fecar

Through the

evil spirits.

whole of the Batetela country, extending from the

Lubefu to the Luiki, and from the Lurimbi north-

wards
grey

for

hairs,

eaten

by

some

five days'

march, one sees neither

Even parents

nor halt, nor blind.


their

on

children

approaching decrepitude.

the

It

easy

is

sign

first

to

are
of

under-

stand that, under the circumstances, the Batetela

have the appearance of a splendid


cannibals do not, as a rule,

nor do they tattoo the


I

explored the

The

of

river

six

in a

or eight

about two

is

many

in

and navigation even

difficult.

some

for

hundred yards wide, rapid


rocky,

their front teeth,

file

face.

Lomami

hours above N'Gandu.

These

race.

places,

canoe

is

and
very

Northwards, eastwards, and southwards

N'Gandu extends

a vast

palm

forest,

containing

great patches of indiarubber creepers.

N'Gandu

itself,

as I first

saw

it,

was situated on

an open plain, one side of which was separated

from the

left

swamp and

bank of the Lomami by a


forest one or

strip of

two hundred yards in

AT N'GANDU
width.

This village

thousand
strongly

containing from ten to

inhabitants
fortified

91

was

oval

in

fifteen

form,

and

by a double ditch and loop-

holed earthwork, the whole being surrounded by


a palisade.

The top of every

was crowned with a human


defended the village
each gate,

it

tree in this palisade

skull.

and, after passing through

was necessary to traverse a tunnel,

some thirty yards

long,

made out

timber, and loopholed throughout

On

Six gateways

of piles of large
its

whole length.

the top of this tunnel was a guardhouse, the

floor of

which was honeycombed into

which the guard

holes,

above could spear

through

an unsus-

The ap-

pecting passenger on the road below.

proach to each of these six gates was ornamented

by a pavement of human
the

skulls, the

bregma being

only part that showed above the

This pavement was

of a

ground.

snowy whiteness, and

polished to the smoothness of ivory by the daily

passage

of hundreds

of naked

more than two thousand


of one of the gates alone.

feet.

skulls in

counted

the pavement

CHAPTER V
GONGO LUTETE FINALLY LEAVES THE ARABS AND
ALLIES

HIMSELF WITH THE STATE

FORCES

ARRIVAL AT KABINDA, CAPITAL OF LUPUNGU,


BALUBAS

GREAT CHIEF OF THE

MOVEMENTS

OF THE ENEMY HEADED BY TIPPU TIB'S SON,

SEFU

For
at

PREPARATIONS

a whole

N'Gandu.

present,

and

hundreds

FOR AN ENCOUNTER

month we were

Almost every day Gongo sent us a


as he

seemed to count everything by

hundred sheep one day, a hundred

goats another, a hundred

baskets of corn, or a

hundred bunches of bananas


wards

the

regally entertained

end

of

the

we fared

month

well.

Gongo

To-

Lutete

announced that he would leave the Arabs and come


over to

us,

providing

we would keep

faith with

him, and, in the event of his being attacked by


the Arabs, help
of his

own

him

fidelity

to defend himself.

In proof

he gave a large present of


02

GONGO LUTETE ALLIES HIMSELF


ivory,

and obtained leave from the Commandant

was estab-

to remain in the territory in which he


lished,

93

and which, according

by Mr. Stanley

to a treaty arranged

Congo Free

State,

at

Zanzibar,

was outside the Arabs' sphere of

in-

fluence.

Gongo

" white

from the East,"

Pasha

had murdered the

two

had

know

it,

officers

whom we

also told us that they

Stairs

and Delcommune ex-

peditions in the south

left

Arabs

He

guessed to be Emin.

not then

the

that

us

told

M. Hodister's whole expedition, and

massacred
the

the

for

but

though we did

this,

was of course

incorrect.

We

with a guard at N'Gandu, and

resumed our march towards Katanga, following


the ridge of the watershed between the

and the Lubefu.


across

During

this

hundreds of human

Lomami

march we came

skeletons

according

to our Batetela guides, the victims of a smallpox

epidemic.

But there were

bullet-holes in

some of

the skulls, and the epidemic had probably been


a Batetela slave-raid.

After six days' march

Lupungu's

capital.

we

arrived at Kabinda,

Lupungu was

the great chief

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

94

an

with

Balubas,

the

of

extending

influence

northwards to Lulua, and southwards to Katanga.

The people

in this district are olive-coloured, with

and, even from a European point of view,

thin

lips,

are

good - looking.

resident,

De Heusch was

and immediately

appointed

work

set to

to build

a station at Kabinda.

At

this point

Dhanis was obliged to return to

Lusambo.

There were

to arrange,

and

it

was the

this

was possible

many

affairs in

the district

last place

from which

communicate with Lusambo,

to

before resuming our

march

to Katanga.

In the neighbourhood of Kabinda


healthy country

constantly

shooting expeditions during

good

fine, rich,

made exploring and

my

stay,

and had very

sport.

On
to

the 16tli October Scherlink and I decided

start

River.

Our

were several
there,

Kolomoni's town on the Lurimbi

for

and

reasons
:

for

food was,

our

host

we

making

this

decision

heard, very plentiful

Lupungu

either

had

supplies or was unwilling to give us any.

men,

too,

were complaining

and de

no

The

Heusch,

ARRIVAL AT KABINDA
having finished the big
but

all

bring

the

into

dug sandy

camp

house he was making,

and

floor

large

clay for this

we were

of the

blacks,

fever.

The

is

all

with

had

walls,

quantities

purpose.

quence of the newly-turned


vicinity,

95

soil

begun
of

to

freshly-

As

being

consein

our

out of health, and several

and Cerkel, had

Scherlink

injurious effect of newly-turned soil

probably due in a large measure to the fact

that

it

light,

has not been exposed to the influence of


this

being

apparently

instrumental

in

destroying the bacilli with which untilled earth


teems.

In support of

this

theory, the outbreak

of malaria in Antwerp, which followed

excavations
of the

new

sandy

clay,

made

in that city during the building

fortifications,

which,

may

found

at a depth of from one to

took eighty

be

cited.

when wet and

as hard as a brick, is

We

upon the

men with

day arrived at Kolomoni's.

all

This red

dry, becomes

over the district

two yards.
us,

and on the fourth

At about an

hour's

distance from the town, two fine straightforward-

looking young chiefs, Kolomoni and Makipula by

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

96

many

name, met us with a thousand men,


were

round

armed with

whom

danced

people

guns and giving vent to

firing their

us,

These

guns.

of

extravagant expressions of delight at seeing

was hard

It

but

it

us.

imagine what prompted them,

to

spoke well for the Delcommune expedition,

which passed about a


talk with the chiefs,

year

During

before.

who had given

us,

amongst

other things, presents of pigs and goats and forty

we

baskets of flour,
personal

good

friend

of

agriculturist,

learnt that Makipula

and,

Kolomoni's,

no

was a

though

They had,

warrior.

a
it

appeared, decided to live in the same town and

make

common

cause,

only for fighting.

as

Kolomoni

good

This arrangement seemed to

have worked well, for the whole


cultivated,

was

and the large town

country was

itself

one of the

best built I had seen.

On

the

22nd October a

letter

Sub-Lieutenant Debruyne, a Belgian

arrived
officer,

from
who,

with Commandant Lippens, was resident at Sefu's


court at Kasongo.
prisoner,

and Tippu

In

it

he told us that he was a

Tib's son, Sefu,

accompanied by

MOVEMENTS OF THE ENEMY

97

men armed with guns and

swords,

ten thousand

had marched from Kasongo with the intention


of destroying us.

This was, however, only part of

a general Arab rising, the Arabs having already

murdered the Hodister - Emin expeditions.

went on

letter

The

to say that Sefu's plan was, after

killing us, to take all the country as far as Leopoldville

and that the only thing to save us and pro-

pitiate Sefu

Gongo

would

Lutete,

present,

or

be, either to give


else

up our friend
head as a

send his

to

and then depart out of the country, which

Sefu maintained was

his.

Unless these two con-

would

ditions were immediately complied with, Sefu


cross the

Lomami River and

temporising

letter,

started, broke

wrote a

and, as soon as the carriers had

camp and followed them, hoping

arrive at Goimuyasso's

Arabs

We

fight us.

to

on the Lomami before the

Arab

to reach the river before the

forces

succeeded in crossing, being our only chance of

checking their advance.

The

first

day's

march

nearly wore out the energies of the caravan.


crossed
streams,

no
all

fewer

than

twenty-five

rivers

We
and

running into the Lurimbi, glimpses

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

98

of which river

we sometimes caught

Unluckily for

ward.

to the north-

there had been several

us,

storms during the previous week, and every stream

had become a
tired out,

torrent.

At

5 p.m.

we camped,

quite

having marched without stopping for

ten hours.

Goimuyasso's town, which we reached on 26th


October 1892, has a grand situation on the

banks

of

the

Lomami

here

River,

fertile

two

about

hundred yards wide, with the current running


After great difficulty

at about three knots.

found a

fairly

good place

and

river for about a mile above

and

below our position.


chief,

camp, with plantaus,

tions belonging to

commanding the

for a

we

Goimuyasso

all

round

Goimuyasso, a great greasy

brought us a quantity of flour and goats, but

gave us

little or

no information, either from the

usual African apathy, or else incredulous that the

Arabs were within four hours' march of

us,

and

that at any hour of the day or night he might

have to run

for his

life.

Possibly, the

solution of his incommunicativeness

most

likely

was that he had

then not decided whether he would join us or the

MOVEMENTS OF THE ENEMY


The following day our

Arabs.

Sefu had ordered

two

march

six hours'

spies reported that

Gongo Muchufa and Nyar Gongo

on opposite sides of the

chiefs

99

to the

northward

river, five or

to hold their

canoes in readiness to ferry his forces over, as in a

few days he intended to cross the river in their


neighbourhood.

named

We

also heard that a big chief

Dibui, though unwilling to fight, had been

compelled by Sefu to join his

The same

forces.

afternoon a niece of Goi's, a chieftainess from up

me news

the river, brought

that

Mahomedi and

Dibui were trying to cross the river opposite to


her village, but that she had driven back the
canoes.

On

hearing

this.

decided to march

first

Lieutenant Scherlink

and

who

has not experienced a night-march through

at

To anyone

night.

an unknown part of tropical Africa,


impossible
entails.

to

explain

forest,

is

almost

that

trail

this

through

which, without warning, leads

the traveller up and


ravines,

the difiiculties

The ordinary ten-inch-wide

swamp and

it

down

ant-hills or rocks,

and into streams and game-traps,

is

down
in the

daytime, with plenty of light, trying enough to

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

lOO

temper and physique.


trails in

and

But

to follow one of these

the dead of night, dodging thorn-bushes

with the risk of being strangled by

ant-hills,

"monkey-ropes"

or tripped

turn, verges almost

upon

up by roots at every

impossibility.

After three hours of stumbling about in the forest,


it

was a great

relief to

friendly princess,

who

meet a messenger from our


told us that her people

crossed the river in the dark, and

had

had

lifted all the

canoes from the right bank, so that there was no

immediate danger of the enemy crossing.

We

thereupon retraced our steps, heartily glad to get

back to camp.
in

The next few days were occupied

constructing a

boma

thorn fence with a


the whole camp.

which

consisted

double ditch

to

surround

This was a very poor defence

compared with those contact with the enemy

As

wards taught us to build.


tions

of

after-

these Arab fortifica-

formed an important element in our subsequent

dealings with the enemy,

one in

it

may

be well to describe

detail.

An Arab
number

force

on the march employs a large

of its slaves in cutting down, and carrying

PREPARATIONS FOR AN ENCOUNTER

loi

with them, trees and saplings from about twelve to


fifteen feet in length

As soon

and up to

six feet in diameter.

as a halting-place has

been fixed on, the

slaves plant this timber in a circle of about

fifty-

yards in diameter, inside which the chiefs and


ofiicers establish

themselves.

trench

and the earth thrown up against the


which banana
tions, are laid.

stalks, pointing in

Round the

is

then dug

palisades, in

difi"erent

centre,

direc-

and following

the inequalities of the ground, a second line of


stakes

is

planted, this second circle being perhaps

three or four hundred yards in diameter.

trench

is

then dug in the same way, with bananas

planted, as before,
terval

the

in

between the two

occupied by the troops.

usually done to

it

longer stay, a trench

The
is

lines

is

if it

boma

is

is

five

that

intended for a

dug outside the

Within four or

is

only to

is all

palisades.

object of using banana stalks in this

ingenious.

in-

of fortification

If the

but

The

earthwork.

be occupied for two or three days, this


is

Another

manner

hours they shrink,

and on being withdrawn from the earth leave


loopholes,

through which the defenders can

fire

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

102

themselves.

without exposing

built all over the interior of the fort,

huts

are

huts

Little

and these

also very ingeniously devised,

They

furthermore bomb-proof.

are

and are

consist of a hole

dug a yard and a half deep, and covered with


wood.

This wood forms a ceiling, over which the

earth from the interior

couple of

feet,

placed to the depth of a

is

and a thatched roof placed over

to keep off the rain.

many

In

of the

all

bomas we

found that the defenders had dug holes from the

main trenches outwards,

them with

lined

straw.

in

which they

lived,

The whole

fort

having

is

often

divided into four or more sections by a palisade

and trenches, so that

if

one part of

it

is

the storming party finds itself in a cross

stormed
fire

worse position than when actually trying to

an entrance.
7 '5

We

Krupps did

effect

found that the shells from the


little

or

no damage to these

forts.

On

the 29th October

we

received another letter

from Debruyne, saying that the Arabs had divided


forces

with the intention of crossing the river

in three places at the

same time, and thus com-

PREPARATIONS FOR AN ENCOUNTER


pelling us

In the event of this

to divide up.

succeeding,

they

in

difficulty

Debruyne begged us

destroying us in detail.

was hopeless, and,

no

anticipated

abandon the idea of

103

fighting,

to

which he maintained

and

instead, to cross the river

hold a friendly palaver with

He

Sefu.

added,

as a warning, that Sefu, although not anxious to

had told him the night before that

fight,

his

patience was nearly exhausted, and that he would

spare none of us

The

men

first

if

we

did not give in at once.

he intended to

and the writer of the

kill

We

letter.

were Lippens
naturally de-

cided not to throw ourselves on Arab generosity,

and sent

to say so, at the

more than half our

same time despatching


That

Debruyne.

stores to

evening we had a letter from de Heusch, saying

and forty men would arrive next day

that he

from Lupungu.

On

the 2nd

November

definite information con-

cerning

Gongo Muchufa reached

canoes

in

forces.

arrive, I

readiness

for

the

us.

He

passage

held his

of

Sefu's

As we knew that de Heusch must soon


took forty

men and marched down

the

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

104

my

river bank,

out the canoes

object being, if possible, to cut

not, to

if

attempt to check the

forces while in the act of crossing the river.

Arab

marching brought

Six hours'

me

to

the

river

bank, which the high ground, however, compelled

me

to

again,

leave

dry and open space a

the

mile or two from the river affording


walking.
all

much

better

found the ferry village deserted, and

As

the canoes gone.

there was no open space

near the river, and the forest was dangerously


thick,

mile

to

retired

I
off.

some high ground about a

tornado

was

being nothing else to do,

raging,

we

and

there

lay down, hungry,

wet, and cold, and waited for the wind and rain to
stop.

My men

built

little

house

palm

of

branches for me, and grass ones for themselves.

With the

additional luxury of a fire I felt

and comfortable, and,


quietly until roused

the
of

camp and
their

honoured

by

muscular

man

in spite of the storm, slept

by a leopard sneaking

scaring

The

wits.

warm

visit

about

the

sentries

following

from
six

feet

nearly out

morning

Nyan
two

into

was

Gongo,
inches

a
in

PREPARATIONS FOR AN ENCOUNTER


and one of the

height,

His

met.

ever

district,

was near

and

natives

finest -built

the

village,

capital

he

showed

customs

requested him to bring food for

which he
that

we bought very
offer

to

It was,

little.

buy

food,

being to supply travellers with

in

sale,

for

it

however, a

the Arab custom


it gratis.

Nyan Gongo showed no

days after this


life,

with

but asked so high a price

did,

mistake to

familiarity

Arab

which

his

the

of

the usual talk

after

105

For two
signs of

end of which time, our supplies being

at the

completely exhausted,

an

requesting

him,

sent a native to

interview.

swaggering into

harem and a

my camp

He
at

responded

by

the head of his

large following of his people, preceded

by a band composed

of girls

men

singing and

beating tum-tums, and with several hundred armed

men.

He

for him.

insolently
I

before

to feed on if he

had

had brought us no

which he replied that he could not

to feed us,

temporised by asking what he supposed

we were going
food, to

demanded what present

as

we began

we paid him
to talk I

too

little,

must give him

afi'ord

and that

my

coat

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

io6

and

The Arabs, he

boots.

and presents
pleasant,
true.

the more

The Arabs

the river and

on

him than

for

anxious to cross, whereas

us,

and

in a

that

was

It was,

gain.

we should

whistled

therefore

was probably

it

were on the other side of

also

however, imperative

somehow.

had, which was un-

and had nothing to

side

his

because

so

had more cloth

said,

food

get

my men

round

moment, before they knew what was

happening, we had disarmed and taken prisoner


the unaccommodating chief and half a dozen of
his

head men.

would

then explained to him that

be better to send away

men, as

if

be

to

his

disadvantage,

had

no

starvation unless he

and

since

some

food the

of

dying of

men

died too.

time he

sent for food, which


quantities the
at

liberty,

ruffled

intention
his chief

appeared

convinced,

came into camp

same evening.

and

me

that the sooner his people brought

After

armed

one of them forgot himself the con-

sequences would

better,

his

all

it

in

He was

and

enormous
then set

with a small present to soothe his

dignity.

He seemed more

surprised at

PREPARATIONS FOR AN ENCOUNTER

107

the idea of a man, in whose power he was, giving

him

and a present, than he was at

liberty

his

being disarmed and kidnapped while he thought


himself

monarch

Gongo and
Months
vidual

of

he

Nyan

surveyed.

were from that time always

afterwards,
in

all

friends.

when he was only an

indi-

who

were

crowd of petty

chiefs

indebted to us for their very existence, and

who

were not expected to pay tribute in any shape

form except through Lupungu

or

bring

me

little

he

used

to

presents himself; I suppose from

the same instinct which

causes

dog

to

fawn

on the person who has punished him.

For three or four days


the river,
actually

At
at

my

spies told

trying to cross in

this time I

this

up and down

me,

Sefu

was

neighbourhood.

received a letter from Duchesne,

N'Gandu, enjoining us to be very careful

spies

to

which,

I patrolled

his

having discovered that Sefu really meant

attack

called

us where w^e were, and that our so-

friendly natives

had arranged

to

Arabs.

Lieutenant Scherlink arrived in

on the

7tli

November, having

left

assist the

dc

my camp
Heusch

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

io8

in

charge of Goimuyasso's.

see him, as

had had

was delighted to

or no rest, night or

little

day, sifting false news and marching on " reliable

who had never

information" to meet an enemy

even crossed the

and who,

river,

discovered (knowing that

On

intention of crossing.

we

as

was

afterwards

there),

had no

the evening of the 9th

November we got a hurried note from de Heusch,


saying that by the time

probably be cut

off

it

from

struck
and,

A prisoner

us.

taken, gratuitously informed

make an

reached us he would

he had

him that Sefu would

attack on the morning of the 11th.

camp when the moon gave

We

light enough,

without finding any signs of the enemy,

arrived

Goimuyasso's.

at

our arrival,

number

Simultaneously with

caught by

of prisoners,

Goi's people in the act of stealing canoes, were

brought

in.

They

said that Sefu

across the river to get

him

canoes,

had sent them


and

this

seemed

to have been the whole source of the alarm.

One

of these prisoners, a " witch-doctor," calmly told us


that he changed himself into a duck whenever he

wanted to

cross a river.

This

man was

afterwards

PREPARATIONS FOR AN ENCOUNTER


caught in our camp and shot as a spy.
native,

and even some of our own

109

Every

regulars, firmly

believed he had passed the sentry changed into

the form of some animal, and told us


useless to try

and

him.

kill

He

would be

it

was, however,

given ample warning, and we demonstrated that


his witchcraft

was not proof against

lead.

In preparation for the reported attack on the

11th we put up some rests for the

them

command

in a position to

the camp.

rifles,

the chief roads round

Our men, who were mostly Hausas,

were such appallingly bad shots, that,


selves,

man

and placed

left to

them-

they would not have been likely to hit a


Letters from

at thirty yards.

Dhanis reached

on

us

the

11th,

Commandant
saying

that

he hoped to arrive on the 14th with about ten

thousand native

allies,

to cross the river

then.

and giving us orders not

on any pretext whatever until

Hearing that there were a number of canoes

higher up the river, which the Arabs were trying


to get hold

of,

Heusch up the
us

if

possible,

we

sent a detachment under de

river
or,

bank

to bring

failing this,

them down

to destroy

to

them.

no THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS


De Heusch, who was known

as the

most reckless

of dare-devils, had been told not to cross the river.

He

surprised the

town where the canoes had been

found, and discovered that the Arab forces had


already taken

come

them

to the

Having

other side.

across one half of an old canoe, he patched

this with clay, and, taking

two men with him in

this apology for a boat, crossed the river

and

set

about to hunt for the canoes, which were hidden in


the long grass.

The Arab

by hundreds, and amid

allies lined

the bank

shower of

balls

and

arrows de Heusch beat a retreat, strange to say


unhurt, and

left,

prunneaux"

" apres les avoir envoyes quelques

as he expressed it to me.

During

his

absence Sefu had despatched Debruyne with a strong


escort to the river, his object being to persuade

us to cross over and visit him, escorted by not

more than

half a dozen men.

Our own

spies

had

warned us that Sefu intended by some pretext to


persuade us to cross over, and then either to
us or

make

refused,

us prisoners.

and explained

kill

Being forewarned we
that

we had the Com-

mandant's orders not to pass the Lomami, at the

PREPARATIONS FOR AN ENCOUNTER

iii

same time mentioning that we expected the Com-

mandant Dhanis
two.

swim over
refused

my

did

to

to

be with

best to

but as things then stood he

us,

opened the poor

day or

in

persuade Debruyne to

Some months

to.

us

fellow's

afterwards,

when we

grave at Kasongo, we

found that he had been cut into pieces about a


foot long,

though happily, as we discovered from

his

murderers and from independent witnesses,

this

was post-mortem mutilation.

On the
having

20th November the Commandant arrived,

him

with

accompanied

by

one

Captain

7 '5

de

Krupp gun,
Wouters,

Cerkel,

Lupungu, Kolomoni, and a great following.


the way,

lower

and

On

hearing that the Arabs had appeared

down

the river opposite N'Gandu, Dhanis

had sent Captain Michaux with eighty men to


reinforce

Lieutenant

Congo Lutete

at

Duchesne,

N'Gandu.

became eventually a second of

who was with


This

attack.

detachment

CHAPTER
FIRST

VI

ENCOUNTER WITH THE ARABS

CAPTURE

OF

TWO OF THEIR FORTS


The day
the

following

Lomami we heard

had crossed the


below

sergeant

river

about eight hours' march


it

a very serious matter,

a detachment of forty

men under

named Albert Frees and

Benga, together with

arrival at

that some of Sefu's people

Not thinking

us.

we sent

Commandant's

tlie

a black

a corporal called

Lupungu, Kolomoni, and

their people, to reconnoitre and, if necessary, fight.

Albert Frees,

wiry

little

man

a Monorovian by birth, was a


of about five feet six,

who spoke

English with a strong American twang and


volubility.

much

His energy and intelligence were ex-

traordinary in a

man who had had no

Benga was a native of


heavy-faced negro,

education.

Sierra Leone, a thick-set

who seldom spoke

something very important to say.

unless he

had

His reticence

FIRST

ENCOUNTER WITH THE ARABS

was most remarkable, and

would not open


friends

113

for hours together

he

These two were sworn

his lips.

and as each of them had more pluck in

body than

the other blacks I have ever

all

his

met

with put together, and both were capital shots,

they succeeded during the campaign in successfully


accomplishing the most daring exploits possible
for

anyone to undertake.

they

got

habitually

their

followed the retreating

How

After a day's fighting

men

enemy

and

together,

far into the night.

they came out alive from some of their

undertakings was always a marvel to

The next evening a man rushed

into the

camp

an Arab gun, and bringing a message

carrying
to the

us.

that the Arabs were in force, and

eflfect

that after severe fighting the position had not

The

Commandant immediately

started for the scene

of action, Scherlink and I

been

carried.

accompanying him with a detachment of


best

men.

We

the

marched half the night, when,

getting into a dense forest, where

and dangerous

all

to

move

on,

tracks and waited for dawn.

we

We

it

lay

was too dark

down

in our

were only about

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

114

three hours on the road next morning

met

number

when we

of natives sent to us with a letter

Tliey were carrying several

from Michaux.
chester repeating

and escorting prisoners

rifles,

tokens of a victory over the Arab forces.


Lutete,

it

Win-

Gongo

seems, had found that the Arabs were

already across the river


people, ahead of

whereupon he and

all his

Michaux and Duchesne, together

with the regulars, had marched to find the Arabs,

and had arrived

went down.

at the

two

forts just as the

Albert Frees, meanwhile, had been

skirmishing round

these

Arriving at dark,

Michaux and

withdrew
hour's

ungu,

sun

forts

for

some hours.

Gongo Lutete

men and encamped about an

their

march distance from Albert Frees and Lup-

who

lay

down

in front of the smaller fort.

[The diagram on page opposite shows the position.]

tornado came on, followed by rain, which

lasted all night,

The Arabs charged out

in

but very few of their cap guns (which

re-

menced
force,

and at dawn Albert Frees recom-

to

attack.

presented the great bulk of their armament) went


off,

the night's rain having thoroughly soaked the

FIRST

ENCOUNTER WITH THE ARABS

115

was

the

powder.

Albert Frees

dilemma they were

in,

quick

to

see

and, taking advantage of

it,

charged them home with Lupungu, and carried


the smaller fort just as Michaux and

came

up.

The Arabs retreated

Gongo Lutete

to the larger fort,

**

"ta*

which did not long

resist

panic, of which no one

the

combined

knows the

among

the

jumped

into the river, here about a

Arab

forces,

cause, started

and the whole crowd

wide, with a four-mile current.


friendly natives killed

attack.

hundred yards

The regulars and

them by hundreds

in

the

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

ii6

Sefu

water.

himself

fighting began,

Arab

On

and so escaped.

we found

loss,

had recrossed before the

it

to be over

counting the

600 on the

field

of battle, and between 2000 and 3000 killed or

drowned

in the river.

repeating

We

took about 30 good

and upwards of 2000 cap guns,

rifles

with large quantities of powder and cartridges.


Sergeant Albert Frees and Corporal Benga were
the

first to

get to the palisades of the

being three times touched by

was a great

athlete,

fort,

Benga,

balls.

this

he and Albert,

managed

quickly followed by their men,

his

thigh

bullets, yet

Here we took three

one of whom, Sadi by name, had

served with Stanley.

and

two or

gave an opening, through which

to efiect an entry.

chiefs prisoners,

who

managed, by running hard and

flinging himself against the palisade, to start

three posts

Albert

Both

his

arms were broken

and scalp were ripped open by

he lingered on in this state for three

weeks.

The Commandant now decided


Arabs into their country.
do

this,

since they,

to

He was

follow

the

at liberty to

by crossing the Lomami and

CAPTURE OF TWO OF THEIR FORTS

117

attacking us, with Sefu, an officer of the State,


at their head,

had broken the Treaty of Zanzibar.

Scherlink and
guard.

We

were

the

crossed

advance-

in charofe
'&' of the

Lomami River on

the

26th of November and camped in a plain about


After two days of

half a mile from the river bank.


inactivity, while waiting for the

the river, we, to satisfy the

contented

rushed a
tastefully

hungry

and

men

started

fortified village

built

main body

named

were

dis-

We

foraging.
Chile, the

most

and beautifully planted town

on platforms raised about two

ground, and were

made

the ordinary grass.

On

The houses were

have seen in Central Africa.


built

who

to cross

feet

from the

of wood, thatched with

the inside, the walls were

plastered with white clay, grotesquely ornamented


in

yellow, black,

and

red.

Nearly

all

of these

houses were furnished with regular-made fireplaces

and

seats.

Windows

or openings of

any form

in

the sides of his hut are things the African native

never dreams of arranging.


roof

is

occasionally left for the

by, though even

this is

small hole in the

smoke

to escape

by no means a general

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

ii8

practice,

and,

doorway

is

more often than

the only

means

not,

a small low

of ventilation, with

may have

the exception of any stray chinks that

been

left

through careless thatching of the

certain brown,

the

among

frequently noticed

roof.

African natives a

and often bloodshot, condition of

conjunctiva,

though, on opening the lid

wider than normal, the white of the eye

little

not usually exposed was found to be clean and


This condition of things was,

clear.

the conclusion, produced


easily

by smoke.

smoke

with

unused to the

earliest

days,

life,

that

and when

the

attacks

sitting

is

it,

so

suffocated.
it

by

The

from their
fire

in the

choose to place themselves to

smoke being
of

in

an ordinary European,

would be almost

air generally

leeward,

the

be

will

It

fire

natives are, however, accustomed to

open

came to

understood that the atmosphere inside a

hut of this description, with a


thick

mosquitoes

protection

and

other

against

noxious

insects.

It

was

here

of our friendlies

that

the

cannibal

propensities

and camp followers were

first

CAPTURE OF TWO OF THEIR FORTS

119

On

returning through

the

after following the inhabitants a mile or

two

brought before me.

town

beyond,
all

found that the killed and wounded had

my men

disappeared, and some of

volunteered

the information that the friendlies had cut

up and

carried

believe.

On

them

The

friendlies,

amongst the other

human

men whose

reason.

me

posted

was

mounted
going,

curious,

an

and

ant-hill

how

for

to

had not
another
see

how

enemy were

the

straight in front of me, on another hill

about sixty yards


his staff

road,

had doubted took care

as proof that they

skirmish

were

things

leaving

loot scattered about the

information

This

fled,

arms, legs, and heads, which the

to point out to
lied.

did not

who were dancing

along in front, promptly broke and

several

way home, however, we were

our

again attacked.

This

off for food.

them

was posted.

commenced
direction,

till

On

emptying
I

opponent chief with

the

off",

seeing

a Mauser bullet in his chest.

man and
;

he promptly

Winchester

his

knocked him

Scherlink met this

me

off his

in

my

perch with

year afterwards

the chief, quite proud

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

I20

of them, showed

had
it

him the

that

scars

the bullet

breast-bone and back, after which

left in his

had passed through the abdomen of one of

men, who died some days

My brother
had become
chest,

officers

his

from the wound.

after

used to suggest that the bullet

septic in passing through the chiefs

and that the second man had probably died

of blood-poisoning.

After

much

experience with different patterns

of the newest small-bore


in their killing

to

rifles,

the Franco-Prussian

our

all

lost

faith

and stopping power, and preferred

arm our men with the

On

we

War

way back from

old chassepots used in

of 1870.

the skirmish

we met

the

Commandant, with de Wouters, the white sergeant


Cerkel,

We

and

all

the available force he could muster.

immediately camped, and that evening the

Commandant

repeated what he had before told us

when he asked who would go with him

namely,

that he had no intention of returning alive from


the
if

campaign

if

it

any of us were

were unsuccessful, and that


unfortunate

enough

to

be

taken prisoners by the enemy he would consider

CAPTURE OF TWO OF THEIR FORTS

121

man

to save

The next day we took Kitenge's town.

Albert

us

dead, and would

as

not risk a

us.

Frees had been sent on in front to reassure the


chief

and

had

no intention

As they were

his people.

of

fig-hting

we

natives,

with

them, our

quarrel being, of course, only with the Arab slave-

and

raiders
lising

their allies.

He

succeeded in tranquil-

them, and was quietly talking to the chief

when our

on the

forces appeared

hill

above the

town, at the sight of which the entire population

was seized with panic and


dodged through the crowd

fled.

Kitenge himself

but Albert, realising his

intention, gave chase into the jungle,

him back

to

of the town.

us just as

and brought

we had taken

Upon being asked by

possession

Com-

the

mandant what had happened, Albert vouchsafed


answer, "

before."

We

catched

took

man

plenty wild passed him

our whole

town and gave them quarters


which he had emptied.

as

It

force

into

in Kitenge's

the

harem,

contained about two

hundred separate houses, and was surrounded by a


strong palisade, the whole forming a very efiicient

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

122

camp

The

for our people.

situation possessed the

additional advantage of being separated from the

natives and the town, and thus lessened the chance

The country

of collision between the two parties.

round

town

this

exceedingly

is

rich.

Our people

brought in prodigious quantities of bananas,

differ-

ent kinds

sugar-

cane,

On

of

pineapples, potatoes,

corn,

and other

food.

the 3rd of December

ing in a N.N.E. direction.

we commenced marchThough our way lay

through swamps, there were fortunately no

We

forests.

arrived at Kabamba's on the 5th, and were

met by the

chief,

who

assured us that he had no

quarrel with us, and that he had already refused


to join the Arabs against us, though he

intention of joining

us against the

had no

Arabs.

He

boasted that he had never yet been drawn into


war.

Living

as

he did amongst almost inter-

minable swamps,

it

Arabs had found

it

He

is

probable that

even

useless to try to coerce him.

presented us with a splendid bullock

his charge

the

by Wissmann four years

before,

left in

but he

brought us no other present, nor did he ask for

CAPTURE OF TWO OF THEIR FORTS

123

any.

After a week's stay there news reached us

that

Michaux and Gongo Lutete were advancing

to
ful

meet

us,

which made the Commandant doubt-

whether to meet them at Dibui's or at Lusuna.

After some days' waiting, during which our

camp

was fixed on a small space of dry ground about


a foot above the level of the surrounding morass,

we heard

that Michaux's column was advancing on

Lusuna, whereupon, to the great delight of everyone, the

morrow.

Commandant gave

On

the 11th

there found Michaux,

we

orders to start on the

arrived at Lusuna, and

who had taken

the town by

He

storm three or four days before.


sugar, tobacco,
after three
flesh

and

salt,

gave us

which were great luxuries

weeks with no other food than the

of the tough goats taken in

some of the

skirmishes, and rice boiled in the stinking

water.

during

Of
the

the

many

expedition,

encountered

hardships
I

think

we

that the worst was the deprivation of


the whole time spent in these

swamp

all

salt.

swamps the

agreed

During
health

of the caravan was excellent, although the water

drunk by everyone varied

in

colour

from red,

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

124

green, and

The

yellow to black.

of the

officer

day who had the rearguard, and more

particularly

the gunguard, under supervision, was invariably

ten or twelve hours on his

feet, often

without food,

and working the greater part of the day up


waist, or even neck,

in the

swamps.

to his

can only

attribute the absence of fever in the caravan to

the effect

swamps were open

there were no forests

since

neighbourhood,

immediate

the

in

of light,

and

the

all

to the sun's direct rays.

At Lusuna we found that Michaux had brought


Gongo

Lutete,

with

auxiliaries

between 5000 and 10,000

with

him

and

as

we were accom-

panied by Lupungu, Kolomoni, and Goimuyasso,


our camp at this time numbered about
natives,

old

400 regulars, and

Lusuna

had died

or

Rusuna

a few

his successor

as

white

25,000

The

officers.

calls

him

arrival,

and

Cameron

months before our

was a mild man of very

different

stamp.

The

fact

rather

that

train,

that

both

sides

both sides had

proved a

great

were

cannibals,

cannibals

element in

our

in

or

their

success.

CAPTURE OF TWO OF THEIR FORTS


The teaching of the Mohammedan
allow

not

mutilated

that

can

enter

into

where only perfect men are admitted.


sequence of this

belief,

been

has

heaven,

highest

the

does

religion

man whose body

125

As

a con-

the white Arabs and other

faithful followers of Islam

would, after a rebuff,

instead of trying to retrieve the fortunes of the

day, fly from the field with


so

much

fear

lest

falling,
this,

all

possible speed

not

in order to save their lives, as through


their

carcasses,

in

the

should be torn to pieces.

however,

Notwithstanding

on the occasions on which they

were practically cornered,


generally attributed to
in full force.

event of their

the

desperate

valour

the Arabs showed itself

CHAPTER

VII

SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY

RETURN

OF SEFU

TO THE ATTACK

The Commandant

good system

instituted a very

which we afterwards often

the benefit of, namely,

felt

the supplying of every white man, at the State


expense, with as

employ.

chiefs.

boy-servants as he chose to

These were generally savage

lately -freed

prisoners

many

slaves,

of war,

or

and either the


presents

little rascals,

children

sent from

of

native

Their business being to attend to the

personal comfort of the whites, they rapidly ac-

quired a certain amount of civilisation, and an


absolute

confidence in white

While

men.

still

quite small, they acted as interpreters in the ordi-

nary business with natives.


old

enough

and

As soon

sufficiently

strong

as they

were

often, with

good feeding, a matter of only a few months

they

were given guns, and taught how to use them


126

SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY


thus

forming

masters

when

Very quickly

sort

visiting

after

bodyguard

of

friendly

formed, and

we

it

called

" boy

was to go through

Eventu-

company " was


set of soldiers

when

off

they used to

drilling

them, and

soldiers.

drill

many

prisoners,

who had

for

of

One great advantage

these boys was, that,

when

duty

corporals

been given into their charge to look after


recruits

and

The boy

their drill.

had generally a few natives, or

soldiers,

force.

became the smartest

Their chief amusement

had.

chiefs.

having arms in their hands

were then drafted into the regular

what was

their

for

native

they asked to be allowed to become

ally,

127

these

the pleasure

them

also

of

became

in connection with

in action they got into

trouble or retreated, they invariably rallied round

the nearest white man, their sole idea of safety

being to be somewhere in the neighbourhood of


the whites.
It

having been decided that we should count the

auxiliary forces, in order that

much powder
be arrived

at,

some idea of how

to give to the different chiefs

we proceeded

might

to do so in the usual

128

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS


A

Arab manner.

wild animal's skin was placed

on the ground, and the whole number of forces to


be counted walked over
that

Gongo Lutete had

guns

Lupungu and the

thousand.

enemies

it

over two thousand

little

tribes with him, over three

having

Lutete

represented

Lupungu was grand


Lupungu

native powers.

and smallpox were

Lualaba, and that

As the question
had
sent

all

considered,

Lupungu with

out that

would

to

advance any

we had

all

his

if

he did

so,

towards the

rife

die if they advanced.

of feeding this

also to be

Arab

the

chief of the

that his people would desert

as dysentery

old

at this juncture coolly-

announced that he was afraid


;

found

Gongo Lutete and Lupungu were

power, whereas

farther

We

one by one.

enormous multitude

Commandant Dhanis
people

home, giving

a large enough force at our dis-

posal without him.

This was a bluff which rather

scared the Arabs advancing against us.

While

at

Lusuna's we heard that Delcommune and Frankie

had returned from their expedition

to

Katanga,

and the Commandant requisitioned them


to us or to send

what help they

could.

to

come

News

also

SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY


reached

us here of the murder of Lippens and

Debruyne, two

officers

representing the Free State

Government, resident at

We

found out

Sefu's court in

in the death of

and several other noted

cousin

Kasongo.

later that, after the defeat of Sefu

on the Lomami (which resulted


his

129

an

chiefs),

advance party of the retreating Arabs arrived at

Kasongo, and, by way of individual revenge, murdered the two Residents.

It is probable, since

we

have no actual proof to the contrary, that this

was done without


people,

armed with knives hidden

made some

Twelve of these

Sefu's orders.

in their clothing,

trivial pretext for visiting

Lippens at

the Residency, who, however, refused to come out

and interview them.


of a big battle had

They then
come

to

news

said that

them from Sefu

on

hearing which Lippens came out, and, while talking


in the verandah,

Some

of

the

was promptly and

silently stabbed.

murderers entering the adjoining

room, found Debruyne writing,

and

killed

before he had learned the fate of his chief.

him

When

Sefu returned to Kasongo, a day or two afterwards,

he gave orders that the pieces of Debruyne's body

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

130

should be collected and buried with Lippens, whose


body, with the exception of the hands (which had

been sent to Sefu and Mohara of


tokens),

Nyangwe

as

The strong

was otherwise unmutilated.

innate respect for a chief had protected Lippens'

while

body,

hacked to

that

of

pieces.

these twelve murderers.

had been

subordinate

his

curious

The

fatality

followed

chief of the band,

Kabwarri by name, was killed by us in the battle


of the

26 th of February with Lippens* Martini

express in his hand.

were the sons of


tant

men on

Of the

chiefs,

their

others

all

of

whom

and some of them impor-

own account

four

died

of

smallpox, one was killed at Nyangwe, one in the

storming of Kasongo, and the remaining six


took prisoners at Kasongo.

During the

trial

we

they

one day, though in a chained gang, succeeded


in

overpowering the sentry, and thus

One was drowned


were

in crossing a river

killed, either fighting or

by

to

me

a curious point.

three more

accident, within

a month or two of their escape

remaining we retook and hanged

escaped.

and the two

which

Of the many men

brings
I

have

SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY


seen hanged nearly
not

died by strangulation, and

all

As compared

by having the neck broken.

me

with shooting, hanging seems to


ful

death

the less pain-

the wretched being becomes insensible

man

in a very few seconds, whereas a

shot will

how

often require a coup de grdce, no matter


fully the firing party

During

131

this

time

is

placed.

made

several

care-

excursions

through the country in search of game, and also as


a

means of getting

struck

number

me most
of

to

in

know

partially

cut-up

bodies

were minus the hands and

feet,

steaks cut from the thighs or


entrails or the

the

found in

Some

every direction for miles around.

had the

was

expeditions

these

What

the district

them

of

and some with

elsewhere

others

head removed, according to

the taste of the individual savage, though, as

afterwards discovered,

taste

more

is

Neither old nor young,

than individual.
or children, are

this

exempt from the

tribal

women

possibility

of

serving as food for their conquerors or neighbours.

Many rumours

reached

Nyangwe was advancing

us

that

against

us.

Mohara

We

of

had

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

132

several

false

alarms of night attacks, and were

very glad when, on the 29th of December, these

rumours became so
oftered to bet the

Gongo Lutete

definite that

Commandant

that

if

we marched

on the morrow we should meet the Arabs.

was

still

Dhanis

unbelieving, and took up the bet for ten

bales of cloth, hoping that he

uncertainty

and

false

would

lose

it,

as the

alarms were wearing out

the temper of our caravan.

At

five

marched,

o'clock

with

on the morning of the 30th we

Gongo and

severe marchino;

The Commandant and

thousand

guns

After six hours and a

scouting in front of us.


half's

his

we heard
I

in front.

firino'

raced on,

and emerged

on a plain covered with short grass in time to see

Gongo and

his

men

in full flight before the vic-

torious Arabs, not four

of us.

hundred yards

Michaux soon came up with

ofi"

his

in front

company,

and the Commandant gave orders to charge.

we

started he ordered

me

to

draw

ofi"

my

As
men,

and to stay behind to guard the women and baggage.

He

also charged

me

to send

on the other

companies with the Krupp as soon as they arrived.

SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY


At

moment

this

the Haiisas started their war-cry.

My men

were

heard

than they bolted into the

me

it

Hausas, and no sooner had they

all

had certainly

as

my

fight,

leaving

Perched on the

alone with the chief corporal.

top of an ant-hill, with


I

133

corporal at

my

side,

good a view of a battle

any man could wish

for.

as

saw the Commandant

and Michaux disappear apparently into the ground

the
till

cause being, what neither they nor

they were in

it,

knew

that a swamp, some hundred

yards wide, intervened between us and the enemy.


It

was a most curious

their necks in

effect to see

mud and

As they advanced

men up

to

water firing on the Arabs.

the Arabs retired, and Gongo,

seeing that help had arrived,


forces,

our

i-allied his retreating-

and, in conjunction with

our

own

forces,

drove the Arabs across the plain and into their


entrenched camp, which the regular troops then
stormed.

our

wing,

left

troops nor

horror

large

body of Arabs were gathered on

though

apparently

Gongo had noticed

this,

neither

and to

our

my

saw our forces commence driving the main

body into the

scrub,

and following them out of

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

134

Soon the crack of the

sight.

inaudible,

and

rifles

became almost

was left as a target for the four or five

hundred Arabs who were now between

Commandant,

my ant-hill.
me

is,

at less than four

me and

the

hundred yards from

The only thing I can think of that saved

that these

Arab troops must have mistaken

the baggage and

women by whom

for a reserve.

After about twenty minutes Scher-

link

arrived,

and, proceeding

mandant, was

We

Com-

the

to join

by Captain de

quickly followed

Wouters with the gun.

was surrounded,

then

followed

rapidly as possible, skirting the swamp.


this battlefield the only case I can

saw on

remember of a
In a

native putting love before fear or danger.

bare spot

passed a
chief,

my

as

comrades had just swept over,

woman

seated on the ground

quietly crying with

his

by a dead

head in her

lap,

while the bullets whizzed round her, sometimes

only missing her by inches.

when
left

recrossing

were

the

battlefield,

bloodstained

spots

little

the

here

later

only signs

and

marking the place where the victims of the


had been cut up

to furnish a

on,

there,

fight

banquet in the even-

SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY

Our disgust may

ing to the victorious survivors.

be better imagined than expressed, for

camp

that the

and

followers

difference in this respect

wounded on

Gongo

of

their

own

135

we found
made no

friendlies

between the killed and

One

side or the enemy's.

Lutete's wives

was

killed

during the

progress of the battle, and was cut up and eaten


his

by

own men, on whom, however, he took summary

vengeance the day following by handing them over


to form a repast for their comrades.

Several of

our people had been taken prisoners during the

Arab

successes earlier in the day,

and when the

Arabs were retreating they killed some of them,

and

frightfully mutilated

others without

them, leaving them on the road.


a wise proceeding, as

it

killing

This was not

did not tend to

make our

dealings

with the

people more tender in

their

retreating perpetrators of these outrages.

The Arab camp which we took was situated on


a

rising

Kasongo

ground in and
Luakilla.

around the village

Being a strong position,

served us well for headquarters.

we

took

powder,

cartridges,

In the

rifles,

and

of
it

camp
other

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

136

ammunition

and we

also

paraphernalia, with a tent

found Arab tents and

made by

Edison, which

had probably belonged to a member of Hodister's


unfortunate
prisoners

We

expedition.

and some of the papers taken

camp, that Muni Pembe

(the

difficult

to estimate, but

amounted to eighty-two

On

food.

for
it

to

the 1st of January

fearful

the

Their loss

we imagined must
Our own

have amounted to over two hundred killed.


loss

in

son of Mohara)

and Mahomedi commanded the Arabs.

was

from

discovered

killed

and wounded.

we broke camp

storm overtook

to look

us, and,

as

showed no signs of abating, we were forced

camp

miserable

on a

and

hillside.

bad-tempered, food was

cooking impossible, and

all

scarce,

things were wet and

The next day we advanced under a hot

cold.

sun,

Everybody was very

and found the heat delightful

after the cold

and wet of the previous day and night.


of hours brought us to the

with

its

Mwadi

couple

Eiver, which,

rapid current and twenty-five feet depth of

water, was a difficult obstacle for the caravan to cross.

With

four hours' hard

work we succeeded

in

making

SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY

137

a bridge, and everyone crossed in safety, with the

exception of some half a dozen of

who were drowned.

people,
hours'

march we camped

Gongo

Lutete's

After another two

on

plateau

called

Goio Kapopa, about three hundred feet above the


surrounding plain, in which the courses of three

moderately large rivers could be easily made out.


Opposite us, to the eastward, was a high range of
hills.

One evening, while

lying in

camp at Goio Kapopa,

some of the superstitious among our men came


deputation to the
a favour to

Commandant and begged him

"make

The Arabs, they

form of
were

fetish

dumb

practised

is,

said,

known

(the

as

medicine," to show what the

result of the next conflict with the


be.

as a

to

Arab

after certain

have been gone through,

enemy would

had been trying every


them, but their oracles

method

most

usually

forms and ceremonies


to kill a goat

or fowl,

from the appearance of whose entrails the witchdoctor pretends to be able to read the future).

They had never seen the white man experiment,


and were very anxious that we should comply with

138

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

their request.

would

The Commandant gave out that he

test the fates at eight o'clock that evening,

and told them that


paration,
battle

became

medicine, after due pre-

if his

red, the

Arab

would be annihilated

the battle would be

the colour,

drawn

forces in the next


if it

but

we should have

if

became white,
green should be

to avoid battle for a

couple of months, as the result would be uncertain.

By

the evening every soul in our and the native

camps around had turned out to

see

what would

happen, and Sefu's hosts on the opposite

We

were also eagerly watching.

hills

had a few dozen

signal rockets with us, of which, however, only a

dozen were in good order, and which had been


kept in the event of a great emergency.
the

Commandant ordered

rockets to

be

fired,

When

three of the red signal

the

yell

of joy

that rang

through the camp was perfectly appalling.


the

onlookers

realised that the

red, three times repeated,

"medicine" was

they danced round us in

a perfect frenzy of joy, and

demanded that powder

should be given to them to make a night of


It is a characteristic of

As

it.

Arab followers and natives

SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY


to let off their guns at every opportunity

139

^joy

or

sorrow, arrival or departure, serving as an excuse

Even

for the discharge of firearms.

a shower of

rain causes a reckless waste of powder,

man

fires his

gun

" for fear the

and every

powder should get

wet."

When

he

another charge "to make sure that the gun

fires

the rain stops and the sun reappears,

On

has not got damp."

this special occasion

they

asked for powder, and were made happy with a


couple of barrels,

when with

yells

and dances and

the constant discharge of firearms they


hideous.

made night

corresponding silence reigned in the

enemy's camp, who,

I believe,

had we been able to

attack them, would have stampeded then and there.

On

the 5th of January three or four hundred

women, who had been


River with the
us,

left

behind at the

soldiers' private

baggage, came to

and there was great rejoicing

men having been without


not having had their

also

saying that

in

camp.

their extra blankets,

women

had been out of condition and

women

Lomami

The
and

to look after them,


ill-nourished.

The

brought a note from the Lomami,

Delcommune had responded

to

the

I40

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

Commandant's

named

officer
rifles

by sending

requisition

some

Cassar,

soldiers,

a white

and

all

his

and ammunition, but that he could not send

They would, he

the bulk of his soldiers.

said,

have to be re-engaged at Lusambo, so that we


could not expect

From

months.

to

fires

rolling

them

for

on the

of

That same evening we saw

hills opposite,

and great shouting.

and heard drums

The next day we

could see, with glasses, a very large

upwards of a

a couple

Frankie's expedition there was no

response whatever.

camp

see

mile.

with the other

camp covering

This turned out to be Sefu,

princes

of

Kasongo, who had

returned to the attack in spite of his overwhelming defeat at the

determined to

let

Lomami.

them

The Commandant

cross the river, or at all

events to land part of their force on


before attackinoj them.

our side,

CHAPTER
MORE ARAB DEFEATS

THE

VIII
COMMANDANT DECIDES

THE INITIATIVE AND TO LEAD AN

TO TAKE

ATTACK UPON SEFU's FORCES

On

the morning of the 9 th of January, at about

6 o'clock,

we heard

inquiring from

some of

firing

Gongo

his people

On

behind our camp.

Lutete, he suggested that

might have become involved

a quarrel with the natives.

in

After a few minutes,

however, we distinctly heard volley -firing, and,


since

it

natives,

Wouters

was not possible that


the

Commandant

later

man rushed

sent

from

Michaux and de

They returned without

to reconnoitre.

having discovered what

this could be

it

was.

breathless

few minutes

into

the camp,

and, holding up a breechloader and half a dozen


cartridges, shouted, "

and wants help," and

The white man


fell

down

is

fainting.

attacked

When

he could give a coherent account of himself, he


141

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

142

man was

said that the white

but was

fighting,

still

very hard pressed, and had sent for help.

Michaux,

de Wouters, and Scherlink promptly started

off

with their companies and a contingent of Gongo


Lutete's,

Commandant, with myself

the

leaving

and Cerkel, in a horrid


the

camp ready

to resist an attack

being camped in front of


report

we had

us, and,

just received,

scarcely credible, though

it

got

Sefu's force

according to the

Mohara of Nyangwe
seemed

This, at the time,

fighting in our rear.

At midday the

We

state of suspense.

turned out to be true.

commenced a few hundred

firing

Just as

yards from our camp, in the grass.

we

thought the fight would begin, Cassar marched into

camp with

the

all

his

baggage

wounded,

but

having extricated himself from the dilemma he

was

in without

to help him.

even seeing the force we had sent

His

mandant," said

he,

first

" I was

have burnt an awful


said the

main

Commandant,

thing.

words amused us
all

"

Com-

but taken, and

lot of cartridges."

" Oh,"

" you're alive, and that's the

suppose you've lost

and ammunition you were bringing

all

the baggage

us,"

But the

MORE ARAB ATTACKS


plucky

little

man had

account he gave us,

He

not; and

this,

what had taken

is

had, the evening before,

143

from the

place.

camped about two

hours and a half's march in our rear, and, suspect-

He was

ing nothing, had slept well.

us

about

rounds

50,000

40 chassepot

rifles

tied

up

of

bringing

and

ammunition,

in bundles;

and his

caravan consisted of 26 regular soldiers, and 250


of

Gongo

Lutete's

men

as porters.

While washing

himself at his tent door at a quarter to six in

the morning, he was astonished by a volley fired


into the

camp from the surrounding

He

scrub.

found that the bush on every side of him was


of turbaned

forces.

Getting his

in

hand

fire.

Those of his

who were not armed with

muzzleloaders,

immediately, he returned the


porters

men

full

broke open the ammunition boxes, and, taking the


chassepots, kept

up an

erratic fire in every direction

but the one most necessary.

This

ill

-directed fire

was, however, enough to prevent the Arabs from

rushing the camp, and Cassar charged out with his


soldiers at

any point where the enemy approached

too closely.

This continued for over four hours,

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

144

when,

for a reason

unknown

Arabs withdrew

the

The

minutes.

by

and

an hour

for

explanation,

discovered, was
in the leg

to Cassar at the time,

we

as

afterwards

that Mohara had been

a chance shot.

twenty

During

wounded

this

pause

Cassar dismounted his tent, got his loads

wounded on the

road,

The bush was very


followed

check

him

retired in our direction.

thick,

in force he

his

till all

and

own

and when the Arabs

managed

force

and

to hold

them

had crossed a deep

river,

which, fortunately for him, was on his road.


the only means of crossing the river was
single
it,

enormous

tree,

which had been

As
by

felled across

he had no difficulty in keeping the Arabs at


the main part of his caravan had got a

bay

till

long

start.

He

camp

at our

then raced after them, and arrived

as I

While we were

have described.
still

talking, firing

again almost in the same direction as


it

in

in

the

soldiers

morning.

came

head, and

in,

commenced

we had heard

In the evening one of our


bringing with

him Mohara's

a note from de Wouters saying that

they had fought the Arabs' main body, which they

MORE ARAB ATTACKS


had defeated, and had

killed

he was sending for

145

Mohara, whose head

Our troops

identification.

them

arrived in the early morning, bringing with

great

of food, donkeys,

quantities

and a large

bundle of Arab despatches, in addition to prisoners

and

De

tents.

Wouters'

report

said

that

on

taking the Arab camp they had found enormous

numbers

of

many

wounded, and

freshly-made

graves, which testified to the severity of Cassar's

He

fighting in the morning.


cessfully

carried the position through the

having mistaken

our

Sefu and his guard,

Through

had, he said, suc-

this

for

force

whom

mistake,

Arabs

an envoy from

they were expecting.

they

had

allowed

Wouters' party to march through the

de

swampy

valley which defended one side of their position,

and to gain the high ground on which the camp


stood, without molestation.

crossed the

cassada
the

as they

had

swamp, they got into high grass and

fields,

enemy

As soon

which hid their

until they

real character

had formed

line

from

and broken

cover within a hundred yards of the nearest Arab


line.

Though the Arabs had seen the


.10

arrival of

146

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

our people, they were to

morning, was, luckily for

early in the fight


as

is

intents

and purposes

Mohara, who had been wounded in

surprised.

the

all

and the

us,

loss

of their chief,

usual with any but European soldiers, spread

dismay among the ranks.

The nearest
Lufubu.

why we

and

After our

people,

On

that there was

no reason

who were

the 11th, therefore, Michaux

company were

sent as a guard to Lutete's

who were ordered

the Lufubu.

was the

on the 9th, the

successes

should not attack Sefu's forces,

in front.
his

'
.

river to us to the eastward

Commandant decided

still

very

killed

to build a bridge over

This they accomplished in about

three hours, at a point where the river was only


forty yards wide

and about ten

feet deep.

When

the bridge was finished Michaux crossed over, and


after a couple of hours'

march found himself on

the banks of the Kipango, not a mile from Sefu's

camp, which was pitched on a height about threequarters of a mile from the river.

The enemy, on

discovering our troops so near them, came

down

in force to prevent our people crossing the river

THE COMMANDANT LEADS AN ATTACK

147

Kipango, which they naturally supposed was our

There seems to have been a sharp

intention.

Wordy

skirmish across the river.

had more

raged,

Mahomedi and Sefu

even

than

effect

war, which also

our

who were

the Arabs,

led

rifles.

jeering and taunting Lutete's people, saying that

they were in a bad

who was

white man,

Mohara with
camped
*'

case,

all

his

in

Oh, we know

ignorant

the

rear.

all

people

Lutete's

that

fact

Nyangwe was

of

we

ate

replied

him the

The news of Mohara's

had not then reached Sefu,

lay between, and


before

forces

of the

about Mohara

day before yesterday."


defeat

and had better desert the

as our

camp

Mohara was defeated and

slain

communication had been established be-

tween the Arab armies.

Michaux

by the

retired, leaving Lutete's people,

forest

and unknown

to the

masked

enemy, to build

a bridge across the river higher

up.

On

the

12th we crossed the Lufubu, and coming to the

Kipango found that the bridge, made

by our

allies,

had been carried away.

in the night

Three hours'

steady work enabled us to build another, strong

148

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

enough to bear the passage of our regulars and


Lutete's

of

part

baggage,

having crossed

force

the river before the bridge was carried away.


great

many

in passing

of the remainder of his force succeeded

by climbing the

on the bank, and

trees

Though

swinging across by the creepers.

some

in

places the boughs of the trees were interlocked, the

most

who were working lower down


face,

We,

frightful scenes nevertheless occurred.

stream, saw

many

arm, or leg in the boiling flood, which was

tearing

like

past

mill-race

impossible to render.

us.

Help

was

it

Our own men had many

narrow escapes, and one was carried away and


Just as the sun went

drowned.
crossed,

and

after

forty

down our

forces

minutes' marching

we

rushed into the Arab camp, and were surprised


to find it deserted.
as the baggage
to find their

We

spent a miserable night,

and provision porters were unable

way into

the

camp

in the dark.

From

information

volunteered by some prisoners the

next day,

appeared that Sefu had been some-

it

what perturbed

one of his favourite wives had

been killed by a stray shot

fired

during Michaux's

THE COMMANDANT LEADS AN ATTACK


on the river bank,

skirmisli

wliile sitting

149

in his

tent with

him a mile away from the scene of

combat.

Shortly after Michaux had retired, a

messenger confirmed what our


told

them

namely,

allies

had already

Mohara was

that

killed

and

his forces dispersed.

The

hill

on which the Arabs had made their

camp, and which we now occupied, rose abruptly


out of the plain, and formed a plateau about a
mile and a half square, surrounded on every side

by nearly perpendicular grassy


position

for

Had

found.

doubt

if

could

defence

better

have been

possibly

Sefu only defended this position,

we should ever have been

but he was

No

slopes.

still

able to take

I
it

smarting after his rout at the

Lomami, and was much alarmed by hearing of


the death of Mohara,

who was known

to be the

grandest old warrior west of Lake Tanganyika.

saying of Mohara's was

country

" I

have never

personally conducted
field

than go home after

well

lost

known

in

the

a battle which

would rather die on the


it

help admiring this grand

was

lost."

One cannot

old slave-raider, who,

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

I50

after years of victory, preferred to die rather

leave the scene of his

On

than

first defeat.

the 20th January the

Commandant

struck

camp, having suggested the night before that we

might have a look at the Lualaba,

we might be

in order that

we had seen

able to say that

it

having received definite information that

we

all

the

Arab forces had retired to the right bank of the river.

Our caravan was heavily laden with

who pretended
to agree that

to

food,

know anything about

everybody
it

seeming

between us and the river there was

only a desert, and that

it

would be impossible to

nourish the caravan for more than a day or two.

While
ness

in this

chiefly

camp we had had


colic

and

a great deal of sick-

slight fevers

which

I attri-

buted to the exposed position of the plateau.


nights were really cold

from 100"

to about 50

with a

fall

The

in temperature

though we were only some

three hundred feet above the surrounding plain.

Notwithstanding
in

this,

however, our caravan was

a great state of jubilation, as

we were now

in

the Salt District, several large saline marshes being

within an

hour's

march.

These

salt

marshes

THE COMMANDANT LEADS AN ATTACK

151

extend from tte Lufubu to the westward, to the

The

Lualaba to the eastward.


district

supplies

whole

the

ganyika to Kasai.

I visited,

from

salt

others, a rather

curious salt-pit at the bottom of a dark

Through

gorge of triangular shape.

Tan-

country from

among

this

narrow

this marsh,

hot black brine was bubbling out of the ground


over almost the whole

surface

down

yet

the

middle ran a stream of pure cold water, which

had been banked up by the natives

to prevent

the fresh water diluting the brine.

Two

on the

eagles

were stuffed
even the

cliff

above looked as

everything was hot and

men spoke

still

only in whispers.

they

if
;

and

In the

middle of the silence half a dozen bullets suddenly


hissed round,

and the

far side of the gorge filled

In a

almost instantaneously with Arabs.


the most

terrific

was shouting and


of the

eagles

din

filled

firing.

shrieked.

the

place

moment

everyone

noticed that even one

The

echoes were tre-

mendous, and caught up and doubled the confusion.

When we
rested.

had cleared the gorge

The whole

place,

sat

down and

pervaded with the smell

152

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

of sulphur and

hung with clouds

of smoke, sug-

gested the gateway to the Inferno.

men, an American nigger from


quietly hacking the

simplest

"

hand

off

One

Liberia,

of

my

who was

a dead body as the

method of removing the

bracelets, said,

guess they ain't had such a dust up in this hole

since creation."

At

this I

the

blew the retreat

echo of which went on sounding for over two

minutes

and

left.

CHAPTER
THE STATE

IX

CAMP OPPOSITE THE TOWN OF

FOPwCES

NYANGWE ON THE OTHER

SIDE OP THE RIVER

DESCRIPTION OF THE WATERPEOPLE SURPRISE ENCOUNTER WITH TWO


LUALABA

COLUMNS OF ADVANCING ARABS

At midday on

the 21st of January 1893, on coming

out of a dense belt of


spread out before us.
plain

forest,

we saw Nyangwe

Between us and

some two miles wide and the

it

was a

river Lualaba,

which we knew to be about a thousand yards


across

yet so clear was the air that

were within rifle-range of the


been

many minutes

in the

we

had been

seen.

We

city.

we

had not

open before we could

detect with our glasses tremendous

the streets of Nyangwe.

felt as if

It

commotion

in

was evident that we

The Commandant

halted

our

forces in order to get the different divisions into


position.

At

this point
153

a tornado commenced,

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

154

but the line being formed we advanced


as

we had descended from

soon as

forces, and,

the heights,

the long grass with which the plain was covered

prevented any individual from being able to see

more than ten

or

When

yards ahead.

fifteen

nearly opposite to the south end of Nyangwe, and,


as it proved, at least a mile

bank

river

nearer

though

we

half-dry

From

marching.
of

swamp

this

in

situation

men advancing towards


not more

grass,

at the time

it

seemed much

came upon a knoll of ground

out of the

line

and a half from the

rising

which we were

we saw a long
us

through the

than half a mile away.

We

promptly laagered, and the Commandant ordered


off

two companies to check the supposed advance

of the

enemy.

distance,

it

When we

was discovered

were within hailing


that

they

detachment of Lutete's force who had

were

lost their

way, and had, to their great surprise, struck the

Lualaba just in front of the town.


two, fired at
sent
legs

them

them from the opposite

volley or

river bank,

flying in our direction as fast as their

could carry

them.

This

precipitance

was

CAMP OPPOSITE NYANGWE

155

within an ace of costing them dearly, and, had

they not been in open order, we should certainly

have shelled them before finding out who they

On and by this

were.

knoll

we camped,

the highest

part of which was only a few inches above the

swamp

surrounding

and daily

for

five

or

six

weeks some part of our force waded through the

swamp,
the

in the latter

way

days having to swim part of

bank of the Lualaba.

to the

Nyangwe was an

the main part of the town of


island

Opposite

about three-quarters of a mile long, and

strongly fortified by the Arabs.

some

It took us

time every morning to silence the trenches com-

manding our favourite


the

river

for

annoying

the daily interchange of


interesting

ruses

Arab

moments' quiet
the white
officer

officers

believing

while

in
;

the

town

civilities

One

incidents.

of the

on the bank of

position

chiefs

itself.

there were

of

the

was to ask

which to

talk

In

many

favourite
for

a few

with one of

and on several occasions an

in the

good

faith of the

enemy

holding conversation with the chief, and

thoroughly exposed, was,

without warning, fired

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

156

on simultaneously by a dozen or two of men.


It

seemed to us curious that the Arab

muzzleloaders
side

the

of

made good

hammered round,

bullets

inch long and nearly half an inch

were

first,

for

the

were not

fired

iron,

in diameter.

men

These pieces of copper scared our


ably at

being

of copper about an

pieces

or

using

practice from the other

their

river,

allies

consider-

muskets from which they

rifles,

and the

bullets arrived

on our side of the river with a horrid

shriek.

From

the island, which was only four hundred yards


these bolts were very
fired

from the town

among
river

us,

efi'ective

off,

and some of them

itself occasionally

dropped in

though the nearest point across the

was over nine hundred yards.


large herd of cattle

sometimes

afi'orded

we

could see in

us sport.

when they were brought down

On

Nyangwe

one occasion

to the river

bank

to drink (their herdsmen being unaware that

we

were lying in the reeds opposite them), we killed


or

wounded a number

of them.

The herd became

enraged,

and seemed further annoyed by

masters,

who were

returning our

fire

their

from the

DESCRIPTION OF THE WATER-PEOPLE


trenches in

their neighbourhood.

157

They charged

into them,

and

in a very few seconds emptied the

trenches.

The

flying soldiers, turning

round and

on the infuriated beasts, were quickly

firing

persed by one or two volleys from

some hours afterwards we could

But

us.

see

dis-

for

the cattle

racing after terror-stricken wretches through the


streets of the town.

We

should have done

siege

with smokeless

Arab

soldiers

first

much

hit.

As

powder.

was,

it

the

dropped down in the trenches at

sight of a puff of smoke,

not be

better during the

and could of course

Our marksmen made big

behind them, and,

firing

in

grass fires

front of the thick

smoke, bettered their chance of getting the shot

home

unperceived.

During the whole of

and who do

are the water-people,

on the

river,

were constant

The Waginia
race.

no
are

are

Though they

slaves,

and

curiously

this time, the

in

in

all

Waginia, who
the transport

visitors in our

every respect

are all free

most of

men

camp.

peculiar

they have

their characteristics they

contradictory.

They never walk.

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

IS8

yet
I

water-people

came

as they are

those with whom

were very bad swimmers.

in contact

the ferrying and up and

down

All

transport, both for

us and for the Arabs, was done by them, without

any other payment than


time they worked.

their

food during the

Their villages are

made

grass only, and change position almost daily.

know

the Waginia

each other.

of
All

When any member

of the tribe happens to want a canoe, he helps

himself to any he chances to come across, and


returns

perhaps

it

months

canoes are dug out of the

hold from one to

men

fifty

These

afterwards.

trunks of trees, and


;

but,

though always

used by the Waginia, they are unable to make

them themselves, and buy them from the


forest people

they

fight,

with

and pottery.

fish

and, at the

first

little

Neither do

sign of disturbance in

a district near to them, they drop

down

the river

one or two hundred miles, and are within an hour


hopelessly beyond chase.

us

information

They constantly brought

about the doings of the Arabs

we paid

them), and then

(for which,

of course,

went

from us back to the town, and told

direct

DESCRIPTION OF THE WATER-PEOPLE


the Arabs

about

all

Though we knew

us.

159
this,

and taunted them with double-dealing, they were


quite unconcerned.

After

we had been some time

in camp,

ordered Lutete to build a canoe.


this a boat

was on the road

Dhanis

In addition to

to us

from Lusambo,

and with these two we hoped to be able

to get

together some of the canoes from the other side


of the

The boat was, however,

river.

crossing the

in

Lufubu River, and the canoe when

would only hold

finished

lost

six

men.

Before

we

could build another, circumstances were so changed


that

we had no need

of them.

The Commandant

despatched Lutete and his people to fight to the


northward, with instructions to be back in a fortnight.

Lutete departed, leaving behind him, as a

guard for over


in his camp,

men who

five

thousand

left

two hundred muzzleloaders and the

carried them.

the Waginia,

women whom he

who were

Shortly after his departure,


as usual spying about the

camp, had an interview with the Commandant, in

which they told him that provisions were very


scarce

in

Nyangwe.

In the course of the con-

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

i6o

versation they inquired

be

back,

which

to

that he expected

Commandant

the

him

furthermore added

how soon Lutete would


replied

He

in a fortnight or so.

that

it

would

be

grand

chance for the Arabs to attack him then, and


suggested that they should inform
" Give

opportunity.

Dhanis,

am

"and

him

my

When we

hear he

is

And

we

seem

faithfully
its

to

have

reported

see

we

the food

shall cross over to


last

half

The Waginia, howconversation

this

on the other side of the

effect.

all

he gave them the

dozen fowls we had in camp.


ever,

hungry, so

You

have eaten

this side of the river,

the other."

had

compliments," said

sending him half a dozen fowls.

have plenty.

on

tell

him

Sefu of his

river,

and

it

few days later we heard that

the Arabs had crossed the river, a couple of hours*

march below

us.

This information

we

treated

with the contempt that rumours in Africa ordinarily merit.

came
across

Next day, however, a runaway

to us, declaring that he

the river by

engaged for the

last

his

slave

had been brought

master,

and had been

two days in building bomas

:;

SURPRISE ENCOUNTER
whole

the

free

population

the ordinary Arab

us in a day or two.

forces

i6i

Nyangwe with

of

would, he said, attack

That same evening eight of

our people, while fetching water from a

spring

within two hundred yards of the camp, were carried


off

by an Arab scouting

to

be

thickening,

As the

party.

everyone was

plot seemed

on

the

alert.

Towards midnight a tremendous uproar took place


the

women

camp stampeded and

of Lutete's

over-

ran the corner of our camp in which Michaux's


lines

were situated.

With great

difficulty

we got

rid of them, but in less than an hour they again

were panic-stricken, by the accidental discharge


of a

rifle,

and a second time spread confusion

We

throughout our camp.

down on

then made them

lie

the ground, and put sentries over them,

with orders

to shoot if

anyone stood up.

however, happened during the night

Nothing,

and

as the

Arabs, contrary to their custom, did not attack


at

dawn, the Commandant decided to take the

initiative.

De Wouters and

advance-guard, with which


the

camp being

left in

were

we had

charge of two

given the

Krupp gun
officers

and

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

i62

After three-quarters of an hour's

half the men.

march the road forked

the right-hand

branch,

the guides told us, led direct to the Arab bomas


the

we

branch

left-hand

followed,

the

guides

explaining that by so doing we should take the

Arab

now

On

force in the rear.

a strip of forest which

which sounded

like a large

separated us from

hum

Hearing a

the other road.

we had

our right,

at this point,

body of men

in our

immediate neighbourhood, we mounted the Krupp

gun and advanced.

on our right flank

firing

we came

tion,

the

Before very long


rear.

After a consulta-

to the conclusion that it

Commandant, who had taken the

to the

bomas with the

in front,

must be

direct road

object of attacking

them

and who was to have followed us within

half an hour.

back,

we heard

It

being then too late to turn

we advanced

at the double, hoping to arrive

in time to attack the rear of the force before he

had

effected

an entry.

To our astonishment, how-

ever, on arriving in a sort of cul

ground

at

de sac of open

no point more than four hundred yards

wide, and surrounded on three sides

by

forest

we

SURPRISE ENCOUNTER

163

were hailed by volleys on both flanks and in front


at the

We

same time.

between two

in

advancing Arabs, who, hearing

columns of
arrive, or

had run

warned by

had formed in

their scouts,

open order, and had posted large bodies of

wood on each

in the

were arriving.

side of the road

These

being fired at

first volleys,

How

de Wouters

six feet

five

it is

others

all

who

On

riflemen.

served as a

this

hard

inches in height, and

nearly always dressed in white, he was the


of

did

most of the

escaped on this and subsequent occasions


:

line,

to each other than to us,

bullets passing over our heads.

to imagine

men

by which we

from thirty to one hundred yards from our

more damage

us

occasion,

mark
a

for the

man
Arab

body of Arabs

charged into our line between de Wouters and


me, in the hope of taking Kirongo
as he

was

called both

" the Heron,"

by our men and the enemy.

Their orders were to take "the Heron," alive or


dead, and to use their knives, since bullets were
useless

against

his

fetish's

witchcraft.

was

lucky enough to be able to stop this rush before

they had effected their object.

The

left-hand

i64

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

column of Arabs broke and


hour's fighting.
to attack the
stronger.

fled

De Wouters and

about an

after
I

then turned

right-hand column, which was the

Just as the

movement was completed, we

were delighted to find Michaux on our right


he having come up at
the firing in front.

It

full

flank,

speed upon hearing

was fortunate

he

for us that

decided on this line of action, instead of returning


to find out

what the

noticed in the rear.

firing was,

This was

which he had

now

the position

ihri

The

grass

was certainly twelve

also

AH

the

blank Spares

feet high,

rendered our charge most rafjged and

and

irreo;ular.

SURPRISE ENCOUNTER

165

however, was of small consequence, as the

This,

Arabs broke and

some

retired.

De Wouters, owing

inequalities in the ground,

men from

the smoke, led his


to the right flank,

to

and confused by

the left flank across

where he and Michaux attacked

small numbers of

themselves in the

the

enemy, who had posted

forest.

followed

the main

body, and found myself suddenly on the enemy's


rear,
I

posted in a belt of

forest.

Making

a charge,

found that the only way through this belt was

by a path not

five feet wide.

The sensation of

going through this undergrowth, with the enemy


all

the

time firing apparently from out of the

ground, from the tree tops and in every direction,

was not a pleasant


through the

one.

I,

however, got safely

forest, and, halting

my men

on the

other side, tried to get them into something like

There

order.

was rejoined by de Wouters and

Michaux, who had hardly found an Arab in the

wood

as

they had not succeeded in stopping

me, they realised

that

caught between two

fires

they would have been

had they remained.

soon as we had collected sufficient

men we

As
again

i66

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

charged the main body of Arabs, and were surstubborn

their

at

prised

generally easy to

who have once


part

attacked.

steady

keep a body of

our

for

it

is

During

right

this

was

flank

The enemy kept up a well-sustained


which

fire,

approached

advance on our front obliquely

body, which

on

yet
;

we were attacking

way, and we continued to


advancing

men moving

started retreating.

engagement

the

of

resistance

the

right

fire

flank.

seemed

to

then the main

in

on

front,

the

gave
troops

Presently

we

heard a drum, which we recognised as belongingr


to our allies,

and immediately ceased

fire.

[The

diagram shown above explains what happened.]

SURPRISE ENCOUNTER

167

The Commandant had taken the other

in

and

with the enemy,

whom

some severe fighting he drove back.

We,

had immediately
after

road,

fallen in

making our way through the

driven the

enemy

belt of forest,

had

in front of us across his column,

which checked them, and we advanced at a right

When

angle.

left firing

and

long

the Arab forces dispersed,

we were

into each other, the grass being very

neither

of

our

Fortunately, only one of our


three or four

wounded by

columns

numerous.

men was

killed

and

this unpleasant accident.

Our

buglers,

best,

but could of course not be heard more than

on both

twenty yards distant


the

drum

soon as

men

we could

and came upon


two

in the din of battle, whereas

we

get a large enough

their

their

minutes'

defeat

to rally, and their

As

number of

followed the retreating Arabs,

advanced

in

fort,

sharp work,

The Arabs, not having had


after

were blowing their

could be heard above everything.

into order

about

sides,

the

time

open,

which, after

we

stormed.

to

organise

seemed unable

other holds quickly

fell.

As

they commenced to re-form on the plain between

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

i68

the

forts

and the Lualaba, we again advanced

and they retreated

against

them,

bank.

At about an hour and a

from the

the

to

half's

and

is

here about one hundred

The enemy gathered

yards wide and very deep.

in solid masses in the angle formed

of the two rivers.

On

by the junction

our approach something

started a panic in the re-formed lines of the


as Sefu

(filling

rank and

enemy

and Miserera were crossing the Lufubu


the canoes with their

all

march

the Lufubu River empties itself

forts,

into the Lualaba,

and

river

file

swim

tried to

across

own

staff),

the

by hundreds

at

a time, and great numbers were drowned.

On

this occasion

we might

tentionally surprised the

they
left

in

left their

Arab

forts at the

claim to have uninforces.

same hour

It

seems that

at

which we

our camp, with the intention of attacking us

camp on

three sides at once.

The three columns,

taking different roads, were intended to arrive at


the

same time

but two of them, owing to the

bad state of the ground, were forced within two

hundred yards of each

other, just at the

when de Wouters and

marched

moment

in between.

CHAPTER X
ACCOUNT OF THE PALL OF NYANGWE

On

March the Waginia

the 1st of

us their canoes,

if

offered to give

we, in return, would give

them

an escort past the Arab camps on the islands

down

The impression made on them

the river.

by our victory was

so great that they

were quite

confident in the result of our attack on

and were even willing

to lend us their canoes to

cross the river.

Their hope was,

to be able to do

some looting

the other hand,

if

Commandant

if

in the

by chance we

amount of booty

a considerable

Nyangwe,

we

succeeded,

town

and on

failed, to

gather

The

in our camp.

sent Scherlink and Cerkel

down

the

river bank, and, after a smart skirmish or two, they

succeeded in arriving at our landing-place opposite


the

camp with

On
great

a hundred large canoes.

the 3rd of March letters and despatches of


interest

reached

us

from

Inspector

Fivd

170

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

and

others.

We

had heard nothing of what had

been going on outside our own

The Inspector gave us good news

months.

and

informed

despatches

his

Commandant

ordered

us

Chalian of Basoko to form

Commandant

supplies.

soon

join as

men from

as

possible

Gillian,

with

all

him
he

the

that with these forces arrayed against

talking affairs over,

artillery

said,

the Sankuru-Kasai districts.

enemy would not be

would

available

He hoped
them the

able to hold out long.

it

too,

had

he

that

junction with us, and to bring with

and

world for

little

On

occurred to us that Chaltin

might take Nyangwe by marching up on the right

bank of the
and we
to

all

make

river.

rushed out from mess with our glasses,

sure that the

over Nyangwe.

It

ment

all

if,

somebody
Nyangwe.
to

This idea took hold of us,

after
else

Arab

flag

was

still

flying

would have been a disappointour

trouble

had had the

This notion had,

and discomfort,

honour
I

of

taking

think, a great deal

do with Commandant Dhanis' prompt attack

on the town within an hour of our having the


canoes which

made

it possible.

THE FALL OF NYANGWE

171

During the morning of the 4th March we struck

camp and immediately formed on the


The canoes

river bank.

started loaded with soldiers, each white

officer

having in his charge about thirty or forty

men.

It

was certainly a grand sight to see over

a hundred canoes in open order, full of yelling

demons, dashing down the stream on the doomed

We

city.

succeeded in landing and in taking

the greater part of the town, scarcely firing a


shot.

By

ten o'clock that evening

ourselves in

fortified

the higher part of the town.

Waginia withdrew

was not

we had

as soon as

we

The

landed, and

it

until they were assured of our success

that they consented to continue ferrying over the

camp

We

followers,

women, baggage, and

were established in a not altogether enviable

position,

with

hardly a footing

on the hostile

bank of the Lualaba, an enormous


us,

friendlies.

no means of

retreat,

and no

river behind
possibility

of

receiving either a reinforcement or a fresh supply


of ammunition.

All,

however, went well.

The

following day Albert Frees was sent off with a

detachment and some of Lutete's people to attack

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

172

the

camp which Muni Pembi

to have

who was

supposed

two of Hodister's children as prisoners

had formed at a few hours' march from Nyangwe.


After marching

all

night in a storm, the expedition

succeeded in surprising the Arab camp, and brought

back Hodister's children. Muni Pembi's harem, and


large quantities of powder, arms,

An

envoy from Sefu

come

Lutete's

two

make no

children,

were returned to

loot.

Kasongo had meanwhile

at

to us with ofTers of peace.

that he could

see

and other

Dhanis replied

conditions whatever until

whom

Sefu held as hostages,

us, after which,

what could be done.

he

said,

he would

The envoy, who had

been Lippens' body-servant, had since the death


of his master been an Arab slave
afraid to return to Sefu, and,

naively remarked, "


till

he sends

me

I will lie

he

was not

on being questioned,
to

him

if

necessary,

here on another mission, and then

need not return."

took place.

This was what eventually

Large numbers of splendid-looking

came

in offering their submission to the

Commandant.

Many were men who acknowledged

natives

themselves to be defeated Arab

soldiers,

and many

THE FALL OF NYANGWE

173

were chiefs with large followers, but they


the same story ready

"

had

all

They would give up

their

arms and become the white man's men."

On the

9 th of

March Nyangwe was discovered

be overrun by armed men.


in

some gardens

the town,

when

was

at a distance

came

strolling

about

from our part of

across hundreds of people

Our men became uneasy, and

gathered together.
flocked round

to

Suddenly the

us.

whole

town

seemed to wake up at once, and several of our


people were seized upon and murdered by the

Mohammedans.

The Commandant sent

and told him that there was treachery


Lutete,

who was camped

of the

town,

arriving

from

fancied

the

for

Lutete

in the town.

outside the south end

that the

north

side

Arabs must
;

he

be

therefore

followed the river bank to the northward

till

he

reached the outside of the town, when, steady


firing

having commenced inside, he turned, and,

coming across the town towards our quarters, took


the

Mohammedans

in the rear.

When

the attack

commenced, every man, white or black, fought where


he stood.

It

was so sudden that there was no

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

174

time for any plan of action, and


a couple of hours that

we had any

the tide of battle was turning.


accord, the masses of the

They continued

up.

it

to

was not
idea of

how

Then, with one

enemy seemed
fight

for

to break

only in isolated

knots in the squares, or defended individual houses


After another hour

in different parts of the town.

or two of patrolling the streets, and occasionally

engaging in small

Our

greater,

casualties

and many of our own and Lutete's

had been caused by wild shooting on the

part of our

own men.

several places,

The town was

On

the following day the whole

was sent out with instructions to bury the

dead, or rather to throw

them

into the river, it

being impossible to deal otherwise

Matters were,

food.

the

with them.

however, simplified for

few hundred heads

only a
all

set fire to in

and hundreds of houses were burnt

during the night.


force

the town was cleared.

was very heavy, but might have been

loss

much

fights,

bodies

having

us,

since

were to be found,

been

carried

off

for

The Commandant then ordered the greater

part of what remained of the town to be burned,

THE FALL OF NYANGWE


as

it

was impossible

keep

for our small force to

such an enormous number


proper supervision, and
against a second

175

we were

outbreak

might be said to be the

under

buildings

of

guarded

also thus

This

treachery.

of

last stand of

Mohara's

army, the few who escaped being entirely

For three days we saw nothing of

organised.

when

Lutete, and I learned afterwards,

over

affairs

had not

He

own

quarters

way

in the

All the

for all the

wards.

them unneces-

told us that everyone of the cannibals


at least one

camp

for the

to

whole of his force

followers for

volunteer

many days

killed.

after-

drummer who had been with

us for some time disappeared, and

had been

body

meat was cooked and smoke-dried,

and formed provisions


and

the sights in his

of seeing

who accompanied him had


eat.

so appalling that even he did not care

put himself

sarily.

talking

with him, that during this time he

left his

camp were
to

dis-

we imagined

day or two afterwards he was

discovered dead in a hut by the side of a half-

consumed corpse
himself,

he

and had died

had apparently over-eaten


in consequence.

176

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

Now

began the worst time we had known during

the campaign.

very virulent form of influenza

broke out in the camp.


thirty cases of

On the first day

there were

on the day following nearly

it,

seventy, and before the end of the week almost


all

our

men were down

the few who were

still fit

having double duty, both mounting guard and


attending the

spent

my

For the ensuing fortnight

sick.

time going round the camp and insisting

on the survivors burying the dead.

The great

bulk of the dead or dying were thrown out on


to the

open

each hut.

At about

their friends

the town

by the other inhabitants of

street

this time, also, the

Arabs and

began sending into what was

all

left

of

the smallpox cases in the district.

This ruse succeeded, and influenza was followed by

an epidemic of smallpox.

In connection with the

smallpox outbreaks during the whole expedition


there are some curious facts.

with one exception,

all

the only one in the

and he died of

it.

were only two

men

Our Hausas were,

vaccinated, and this

man was

company who caught smallpox,


In the Elmina company there
unvaccinated, both of

whom

THE FALL OF NYANGWE


got smallpox, and one of

Lower Congo

whom

died of

porters very few had

177

Of our

it.

had smallpox,

and only some half dozen had been vaccinated.

Among

this

body of two hundred men rather over

two-thirds took smallpox, and there were sixty-

deaths amongst them.

five

from

smallpox

people

and

The mortality both

among

influenza

and the other

friendlies

lowers was frightful.

Lutete's

and camp

great deal of

it

is

fol-

easily

accounted for by the fact that, in spite of the

most stringent orders

to the contrary, after the

day of the

when they were beginning

third
to

feel

fever,

a little better, they insisted on bathing.

The Mohammedans and Manyema natives


learnt from the Arabs

(who had not got vaccine)

to inoculate with smallpox.

Though on

occasions vaccine was sent to

and packed in a dozen


instance could I get

unfortunate, since,
successful

case,

me from

different ways, in
it

if I

to take.

several

Europe,

no single

This was most

could have got but

we should have been

vaccinate the whole population.

iz

had

able

one
to

CHAPTER
ARRIVAL

AMBASSADORS

OF

PEACE

OF

OFFERS

THE

XI
FROM

COMMANDANT

PONES HIS MARCH ON KASONGO

MENT OF THE STATE


KASONGO:

ITS

LUXURIES

FOUND

EMIN PASHA

WITH

SEFU

FORCES

POST-

REINFORCE-

MARCH

ON

DESCRIPTION OF THE
IN THE TOWN RELICS OF

FALL

INSUBORDINATION

THE CON-

IN

QUERED TOWN OF NYANGWE

While we were

in

this

predicament Sefu sent

ambassadors to us from Kasongo, bringing with


Lutete's son and daughter,

them

had held
After
to

as hostages,

much

and making

palavering, the

march on Kasongo

that Sefu sent


his servants,
five

him

all

whom

offers of peace.

Commandant agreed not

for five days,

Lippens'

who had been made

on condition

effects,

slaves.

days the ambassadors reappeared

that was demanded, and the


178

the Arabs

and

also

Within
with

all

Commandant granted

MARCH ON KASONGO POSTPONED


Kasongo another
that

all

been

Lippens should be delivered up to


also

on condition

respite of five days,

the ivory that had

179

from

taken

This they

us.

and brought an additional

complied with,

present of some thirty magnificent tusks, praying

The Com-

us to wait another four or five days.

mandant assumed a magnanimous pose and gave

way

to their supplications, casually remarking that

he supposed Sefu wanted to finish the

To

tions of Kasongo.

this,

he

fortifica-

he had no

said,

how

objection, as he wished to teach his soldiers

to take a properly-fortified town.

the

more amusing

as,

during

negotiations were proceeding,


thirty or forty available
this afiair Omari,

men

All this was

time

the

these

we had not more than


at our disposal.

In

an old soldier of Stanley's, was

the chief ambassador

he protested

all

the time

that he loved the white man, and that he intended


to throw in his lot with us, but

fighting

again he joined

when

it

our enemies.

23rd of March we again received

came

On

to

the

letters repeating

that the Inspector Five had ordered the

camp of

Basoko, with guns and at least five hundred men,

i8o

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

march

to

to our support (thus confirming

had heard on the other


also stating

that the

what we

side of the river)

Commandant

and

was

Gillian

coming to our support with reinforcements from

Lusambo, and might be expected

to arrive a

day

or two after the despatches.

We

allowed for an African day or two, which

usually

means a fortnight

far out

for

at least

and were not

though Commandant Gillian arrived

on the 5th of April, the whole of

his caravan did

not reach us until the 13th, which gave our people


a chance of recovering from the effects of their
sickness.

By

the 14th of April

ing order and in very good

we were

in march-

a large supply

spirits,

of ammunition and reinforcements making every

one

On

feel confident that better

the 17th

days were in

Commandant Dhanis gave

store.

orders to

march towards Kasongo, leaving de Wouters with


a white sergeant and

Nyangwe, which

in

fifty

six

men

short

in

command

weeks had

of

been

reduced from a well-built town of about thirty

thousand inhabitants to one large


with a

soldiers'

camp round

it.

fortified

house

Commandant

MARCH ON KASONGO

i8i

and Lieutenant Doorme with

Gillian

formed

the

Dhanis,

Lieutenant

main body

advance-guard;

and myself the

Scherlink,

marched very slowly, and

anything to be done had


The Commandant

there was

body and was well

in sight of

when

as w^as usual

advance,

in

We

rear.

was not until the

it

morning of the 22nd that we came


Kasongo.

men

Commandant

the

and Sergeant Cerkel the

their

attacked by Sefu's skirmishers,

left

the main

when he was

whom

he drove

in.

Meanwhile Doorme charged Said - ben - a - Bedi's


This fort defended the end of the town at

fort.

which we entered, and was by a great piece of


fortune carried in the

first

rush by Doorme, though

his

men had

He

then followed the retreating garrison through

never engaged an Arab force before.

Kasongo was

the town.

built in a valley

the hill-slopes on two sides of

went across the

charge,

the opposite

hill just as

it.

valley,

and on

Doorme,

in his

and appeared on

our whole force deployed.

This altogether upset the calculations of the defenders

that

in

we had

the

first

lost our

instance,

owing to the

fact

way, we arrived by a detour

i82

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

instead of

by the

defences in
fighting

and took

direct road,

the

Ten

rear.

their

minutes after

had commenced, Doorme

appeared

the other side of the town, and the

thus caught between two

all

fires.

the

on

enemy were

As we advanced

through the maze of streets the Arabs steadily


retreated before us,

impeded

in their

by enormous numbers of unarmed


the crowd of

women and

movements

slaves

and by

After a while

children.

the non-combatants became panic-stricken, and in


their flight spread further confusion

We

Arab ranks.

among the

allowed them no time to steady

themselves again, and within an hour and a half

were masters of
fortified places

and camp

the main points

all

in the city.

followers,

Our

and chief

auxiliary forces

encouraged by the position,

became very brave, and followed the retreating


Arabs through the open country
that nothing

easier

is

body on the move.


became

drowned
in

greater,
in

well

than to keep a retreating

With the

and

knowing

retreat the panic

enormous

numbers

were

trying to cross the rivers which lay

their road.

One

large

body of men was driven

THE FALL OF KASONGO


by Lutete

Here

distant.

about three

Lualaba,

the

to

they

183

were

cornered

hours

and

the

Waginia, under pretence of ferrying them over


the river, either carried them off as prisoners or

threw them overboard, and the whole


the exception of the
of

whom
Soon

women and

also suffered

was

after the chars^e

force,

children

with

many

annihilated.

through the town

all

the

companies were separated, and the Com-

different

mandant, with four men, was not only separated


but also from his own company.

from everyone

else,

While looking

for his

men he was

all

but shot from

the watch-tower of one of the finest houses in the

town, which he supposed to be vacant

and on

approaching the loopholed wall he again narrowly


escaped being killed.
lated

when

He had
of

The

place, however, capitu-

came up with about a dozen men.

just taken five white

whom

Zanzibar,

was,

named

believe, a

Arab

very large merchant at

Said-ben-Halfan.

Kasongo was a much

finer

town than even the

grand old slave capital Nyangwe.


siege of

prisoners, one

During the

Nyangwe, the taking of which was more

i84

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

or less expected, the inhabitants had time to carry

and even

off all valuables,

At Kasongo, however,

safety.

We

was

it

different.

rushed into the town so suddenly that every-

thing was
outfits,

silk

furniture, to places of

left

Our whole

in situ.

and even the common

and

force found

soldiers

slept

new
on

satin mattresses, in carved beds with silk

The room

mosquito curtains.

was eighty feet long and fifteen

took possession of

feet wide, with a door

leading into an orange garden, beyond which was

a view extending over five miles.

waking, to realise that

but a glance at

and

shutters,

was

the bullet

in

many European

Central Africa,

stain

and

glass goblets

We

also

ten

or

candles, sugar,

the doors

on the wall,

Here we found

reality.

luxuries, the use of

almost forgotten

was hard, on

holes in

and a big dark red

soon brought back the

which we had

matches, silver

and decanters were

in profusion.

took about twenty-five tons of ivory

eleven tons of powder

cartridges for every kind of

perhaps ever
flag,

It

made

some

rifle,

shells

millions of caps

gun, and revolver


;

and a German

taken by the Arabs in German East Africa.

LUXURIES FOUND

IN

THE TOWN

185

The granaries throughout the town were stocked


with enormous quantities of

and other food


well planted

guava,

and oranges, both sweet and

pomegranates,

one

of the

was

pineapples,

we paid

first visits

ambassadors

poor

our
at

maize,

and

bitter,

bananas

turn.

and

to the house occupied

Debruyne,

coffee,

the gardens were luxurious and

abounded at every

One

rice,

brother

Sefu's

it

was a sad

by Lippens and
sometime

officers,

Strange to say

court

(though they had been murdered and mutilated),

they were buried opposite their own front door,


with a neat

little

murderers.

On

that,

tomb

built over

them by

disinterring their bodies

owing to the nature of the

soil

their

we found
in

which

they had been buried seven months before, they

were not decomposed.

We

re-buried

them with

military honours.

Our men brought

in,

among

the other spoils,

several ten-bore double breechloaders, sixteen-bores,

twelve-bores, about fifteen Winchester expresses,

and the same number of ordinary Winchesters.

They

also

found

dozens

of

Martini

ordinary

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

i86

and express

and

forty watches

or

nickel

innumerable cap guns

and chains in

thirty

silver, gold,

and several of Emin Pasha's

relics,

and
in-

cluding his diary from January to October 1892,

and two decorations

the Crown Royal of Prussia


Even our Arab

and Francis Joseph of Austria.

sive

man

inojQfen-

that was ever seen in Africa.

They

had, according to

their

reason for murdering

massacre of white

coming into a

men had

Emin was

the most

prisoners told us that

own

accounts, no other

him except that a general

men had been


in

district

which

all

the white

already been killed, he shared their

The herd of

cattle

we found

large-humped, and

fate.

Kasongo was com-

in

posed of three distinct breeds


cattle

decided on, and,

the small Indian

extremely docile

gave

the best milk, though for eating purposes the half-

Portuguese long-horned variety was best.

Where

the third variety originally came from I have not

been able to find out.

They were weedy medium-

sized cattle, usually white or piebald in colour,

and

not very good either for fattening or as milkers.

We

also took

two

fine

breeds of donkeys

the

STATE FORCES AT KASONGO


large white Syrian ass,

and the small donkey,


coster's

donkey of

though a

and the

187

between

cross

this

in appearance very like the

this country.

The Syrian

ass,

with one or two exceptions,

fine animal,

did not turn out so useful as either of the other

The

varieties.

cross

and the Syrian

ass

between the common kind

was enormously strong, and,

though often bad-tempered, was certainly the most


useful animal of the

When

donkey

class I

have ever seen.

many

running away, the Arabs shot

best asses and

some of the

falling into our

hands

cattle, to

prevent their

alive.

During the time spent at Kasongo


point of getting to

of their

know

made

the surrounding country,

and was constantly astonished by the splendid

work which had been done

Kasongo was

by the Arabs.
of a

virgin

forest,

and

neighbourhood

in the

built in the corner

round

for miles

brushwood and the great majority of


been cleared away.

Certain

trees,

all

trees

the

had

such as the

gigantic wild cotton-tree, had been left at regular


intervals,

whether as landmarks or for the shade

they afforded

do not know.

In

the

forest-

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

i88

clearing splendid crops of sugar-cane, rice, maize,

and
this

fruits

grew

and some idea of the extent of

may

cultivation

be gathered from the fact

that I have ridden through a single rice-field for

an hour and a

When

half.

placing groups of

people about this country to form villages, these


villages

became self-supporting within three or four

months.

Rice yielded two or three crops between

the planting in October and the


the dry season in

May and
;

commencement

of

maize could often be

Game

eaten six or seven weeks after planting.

had naturally been driven out of the neighbourhood

except

on the Lualaba, where

on small shooting expeditions.


fowl and small
of the

river

quantities

during the wet season

went

All kinds of water-

game might be
in

I often

in

shot on the banks


greatest

number

though on the Lower Congo,

Kasai, and other rivers the best shooting season


is

the

May

dry (from

to

October),

when

the

sandbanks are bare, and the swamps and streams


of the interior are

all

however, when the

dried up.

river

is

On

the Lualaba,

low, during

a long

day's canoeing one rarely sees even a duck or a

STATE FORCES AT KASONGO


and never a wader.

goose,

189

Hippopotami, for a

hundred miles or so above and below Kasongo,


are scarce

and very

vicious, constantly attacking

unprovoked either canoes or people who approach

The natives

them.

here that

it is

are so afraid of the hippos

a matter of difficulty to get a crew

to approach a herd

the most extravagant pro-

mises of unlimited meat having no

with

even

men who have

already been present at a

hunt.

was while on the road from

successful

Kasongo
Wouters
often as

to

air fifty

my

It

Nyangwe, on

which was
possible that

in

have ever seen.

ing

effect,

The

my way

to

de

visit

the habit of doing as

shot the largest hippo

sight of his four feet in the

yards from the canoe, instead of reassur-

crew, so scared

overboard and

swam

them that they

ashore.

or four soldiers with me,


to secure him.

Luckily,

by whose help

all

I
I

jumped

had three

managed

His curved teeth, measured on the

convex, were thirty-two and a half inches long, and

one of his straight lower teeth eighteen and a half


inches

the

somewhat

other,

less.

which was broken, measuring

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

IQO

The best way of securing a hippo

to approach

as near as possible in the canoe directly he

him

is

Provided with a long sounding pole and

wounded.
in

is

deep water, he can be approached without danger,

and a cord made

What

fast to

still

struggling.

not generally recognised with regard to

is

the hippopotamus
feet,

him while

is

that his short legs and small

compared with the enormous bulk of

render him a very indifferent swimmer

his body,

in fact, he

can only just swim enough to keep his head above


breathing or looking

water while
usual

mode

of progression, owing to the fact that

he displaces a weight of water


weight,

is

less

to run along the bottom.

than his own


I

remember

seeing a herd of hippopotami trying to

stream in ten fathoms of water


see

to

His

round.

the

bound

it

and explosion

work up

was comical
with

which

they arrived at the surface after each dive

the

greater part of which was spent in getting a footing


at the
five

It

bottom

having

gained only some four or

yards during the whole time.

was on

this occasion of visiting

July 1893 that

Nyangwe

in

found de Wouters somewhat


INSUBORDINATION
awkwardly

IN

NYANGWE

191

Within the town a number

situated.

of small Arab chiefs and vassals,

who had

sub-

mitted and sworn fidelity to us, were established.

Of

these, a

desperate

Wouters a great deal of


acts

of

matters

named

rascal

Ali gave de

After

trouble.

insubordination

and

petty

culminated

the

discovery

in

many

treacheries,

by

de

Wouters' faithfuls of a plot arranged by Ali to

murder the entire garrison

in

swamp and

the

long grass within a hundred yards of de Wouters'


Ali

house.

whom

had intended to post

his

men

of

he had three or four hundred in the town

close to the

garrison

and hidden

the

in

grass,

when, by raising an alarm, he hoped to draw de

Wouters and some of


Wouters'

energetic

his

way

men
of

into the snare

looking

question himself being well known.

into

On

de

every

hearing of

the plot, de Wouters despatched his interpreter,


Selimani, alone to All's camp, which was situated
at the

end of the swamp above mentioned.

mani's business was to inquire into the


to tax Ali with

it,

who

it

affair,

Seli-

and

was thought, knowing

that his trick was discovered, would be afraid to

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

192

carry

it

out.

Selimani had hardly started

when

de Wouters repented of having sent him alone.


Fearing

lest Ali

might take

Selimani was the only

it

into his head that

man who knew

and might murder him on the

of the plot,

spot, he

quickly

sent a corporal with five-and-twenty Hausas into

the

The Hausas, passing the

after him.

grass

word round in their own language (which even


their wives could not understand), slipped into the

grass on different sides of the town, and, completely

hidden by

it,

joined the corporal one

by one

in

the swamp, from which they were able, unobserved,


to approach All's

camp

to within twenty-five yards.

Selimani meanwhile, accompanied only by his boy,

When

approached the camp by the main road.


Selimani

was within

Ali called out to

him

fifty

to remain where he

not to enter his camp


deliver,

yards of the

if

Ali himself would

camp,

was and

he had a message to

come

to him.

without any warning, Ali ordered his

men

Then,
to fire

a volley on Selimani, who, strange to say, was

untouched, though his boy was

killed.

The Hausas

immediately realised the position, and, running

INSUBORDINATION

IN

NYANGWE

193

into the camp, fired a volley into the rear of All's


force,

who were

rushing out to catch Selimani.

This created such confusion amongst them that


the Hausas

managed

long knives
force

who

drove

had heard the

his

own with

their

de Wouters and the rest of his

till

All's force

and a few of

to hold their

firing

arrived,

Ali himself

into the Lualaba.

men

and

succeeded in swimming across

the river, and thus escaped.

Some time

afterwards,

having collected together a fresh band of men, he


attacked another party of our people, but was

taken prisoner and shot, after a drum-head courtmartial.

13

CHAPTER

XII

THE STATE FORCES SETTLE DOWN AT KASONGO


SUPERSTITIONS OP THE NATIVES

THEIR HABITS

AND MODE OP LIVING

While
settled

down

make use

at

of

Kasongo, we found

teaching the

brickmakers,

and

armourers,

after
it

having

advisable to

those native and Arab slaves

were capable of
masons,

country

the

arranging

others.

found

the

carpenters,

agriculturists,

ironworkers

All

who

among the

prisoners were given charge of the intelligent lads

among
tribes,

the prisoners or volunteers from the native

and

set to work,

with the intention of event-

ually forming colonies in suitable districts for these


trades.

We

even employed their elephant-hunters,

who had been taken

fighting,

and

left

arms on condition that they hunted


taught everyone
to do.

who

them

for us,

their

and

chose to go with them what

The elephant-hunters were very super194

THE STATE FORCES AT KASONGO


stitious,

moon

195

and used to spend a week before the new

rose in "

making medicine

cess of the ensuing expedition.

" to

ensure the suc-

As a consequence

they could only be induced to go hunting every

new moon, and nothing would persuade

second

them

to start on an

lasted a

expedition (which generally

month) under any other conditions.

They

were armed with old long ten-bore muskets, and


refused to use either lead or iron as bullets, saying

that copper

buy

all

made

the best missile.

We

used to

the copper bracelets and anklets obtainable

from the women, and hammer them into

my

had always

balls.

suspicions, however, that copper,

being very valuable throughout the country, was

found a convenient form of money.

was sorry

never to have had time to accompany one of these


expeditions.

Their

mode

of procedure seems to

have been to set up a camp in a

district

where

elephants were common, and for the slaves, in the


first instance, to

phants.

watch and follow a troop of

ele-

The head hunter, accompanied by a

dozen or so armed freemen, was then sent

for,

and,

choosing his elephant, approached quite close and

196

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

fired a shot.

If

he was lucky enough to

the

kill

animal, which rarely happened, matters were simplified

if not,

he returned to camp, and the

re-

mainder of the detachment followed the wounded


animal

might

for

be,

till

day

or

week,

they succeeded

The tusks were handed over

in

the

case

killing

him.

as

to us, the sale of the

meat alone making these hunters the wealthiest


people in the

We

district.

were at this time having a good deal of

trouble with the natives to the westward of the neigh-

bourhood of Kasongo, who had been attacking our


friendlies,

and even our own people, whenever they

went out to look

The caravans of

for food.

natives bringing food to

stopped and dispersed.

friendly

the town had been

sell in

Lieutenant Doorme and

Sub-Lieutenant Cerkel were sent by the

mandant

to punish them,

explore the country.

and at the same time to

Within

six hours'

march of

Kasongo the expedition entered a virgin


in

Com-

which they wandered about

for a week.

forest,

The

undergrowth was very dense, forming a kind of


wall on

each side of the path

and

in this dense

THE STATE FORCES AT KASONGO

197

bush paths had been cut at right angles to the

main

road,

which was hidden by a single bush on

The natives

each side at the point of intersection.

stationed themselves on one side of the

and

as the caravan passed (in Indian

sional long gaps between the

the road,

hold

seized

first

with occa-

men) jumped

man

across

they could lay

and disappeared with him into the dense

of,

bush on the other

happen

the

file,

main road,

In this way

side.

it

would often

anyone knowing what had

that, without

taken place, every straggler would be killed.

Spears

were launched out of the dense jungle, and transfixed the

men without

warning.

The by-paths and

game-paths were known only to the natives, and they

were thus enabled to accompany the caravan and


to watch their opportunity for attack.

On

several

occasions the assailants fired from trees, within ten


or fifteen yards of the path, and, dropping

down

iminediately, were safe from pursuit with ten or


fifteen

yards of impenetrable jungle between them

and our
all

people.

fortified,

forest,

The

villages in this district

and were

practically hidden

which had only been cleared

were

by the

sufficiently to

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

198

Most of the

allow the necessary building space.

were burnt before Doorme

villages in this district

When camping

arrived.

managed

to surprise, he

surrounding

the

and returned

prisoners,

which

to

it

was

He, however, succeeded

some twenty-five

taking

in

and bullets

spears,

forest,

even to reply.

useless

which he

was subjected the whole

night to volleys of arrows,

from

few

the

in

to

or thirty important

Kasongo

after perhaps

the most unpleasant ten days he had ever spent.

From

the time that

we

the Lualaba

crossed

we were continuously worried by the native and


Arab
"

superstition

Kim

nothing
often

die.

"

more

than a

had one brought

people,
bit

putu

who always

what

concerning

" Kim

putu

"

being

common
for

my

they
in

tick.

declared that

if

reality
I

inspection

call

have

by the

this insect

an individual he was sure to waste away and

As a consequence

of this belief,

all cases

of

poisoning, tubercular disease, or indeed any form


of death for which their ignorance could not see

an exact cause, were attributed to "Kim-putu."


So strong

is

this feeling, that once a native

(and

SUPERSTITIONS OF THE NATIVES


even some of our own

men became

made up

the superstition) had

his

199

infected with

mind

was in the clutches of the " Kim-putu

that he

" fiend, it

was practically impossible to save him.


In Kasongo and
ants,

both Arab and native, have a firm belief in

They

ghosts.

believe that the spirits of the dead

haunt not only certain


also,

places,

and that one of these

man and

living

call

but individual people

may

spirits

appear to a

him, after which he

This belief had,

to die.

own

neighbourhood the inhabit-

its

we

is

certain

found, influenced our

people to such an extent that even intelligent

men from

well-educated
to

move about

to

me

with

attacked by
in especial

with

his

declared

with

of

an invisible

coast were

afraid

Several people came

night.

stories

been called or

havins;

being

and one case

remember, of a soldier who came

sergeant,
that,

three

" thing "

at

the

or

Albert

towards
four

evening,

people

This

Frees.

while

round

man

sitting
fire,

which he could not see had come up

behind him and had smacked his face and boxed


his

ears.

He wanted

to

know

if I

could catch

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

200

the spirit

him, for

for

he would surely

if

of his belief, expecting


sergeant,

that

me

if I

man would

die.

could think

The

belief.

me

begged

me by

told
in

and

did not do something for

him

Though
of, I

sergeant,

used every argu-

was unable to shake their


however, came back and

explained that

them both

called

man

to take things seriously, as the

to

lose

could do nothing, and


talk

over

it

The following evening

man,

the

to

afford

come up and

to

a couple of days.

was

requesting

lightly,

was valuable and we could not


him.

him out

be supported by the

astonished

that

ment

to

would not treat the matter

assured
the

he

but

could not, he said,

tried to laugh

die.

who was

in

very

weak condition and apparently dying.

He was

convinced that he would have to

and the

next day was dead.

man makes up

his

When

mind

the

die,

average black

to die, die he will,

and

almost impossible to do anything for him.

it

is

mention

recorded in

Both

in

this

my

as

one out of

many

instances

diary of similar cases.

Kasongo and

Nyangwe every

large

HABITS AND MODE OF LIVING

201

house was fitted with one or more bathrooms,


the arrangements of which were very ingenious.

large hollow log, or an old canoe with a small

hole drilled through

the

bottom and closed by

plug when not in use, was suspended from

When

the roof.

filled

with water,

it

formed a

most convenient shower-bath, and half a dozen


logs,

side

laid

by

side

in

a depression

in

the

ground, made a clean platform for the bather.

The water was conveyed away by a


which a hollowed

log,

trench, in

carrying the waste water

through the wall of the house to the exterior,

was placed.

Every house or hut, however

had an enclosure attached

same arrangements
ception

to it containing the

for cleanliness,

only of the

small,

with the ex-

The Arabs

shower-bath.

have also introduced soap-making, and, as a consequence, in every large establishment or market,

soap of a coarse but useful kind can be bought.


This soap

is

made by mixing potash

generally

obtained by burning banana stalks and leaves


with palm

During

oil.

the

first

few

months

we

occupied

202

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

Kasongo, we were constantly worried by alarming


fires,

We

which always occurred at night.

found

that the conflagrations on the far side of the river

were due to Lutete's people, who were in the


habit of setting
of driving out

the rats,

by

to

manner.

Lutete

After
the

side of

in

this,

several

were

they

that

our camp

seen

left

who were

occasions

we had very narrow

of about

all

fires

rushed

surrounded

out

the houses

It

men on

an alarm was given,


to

find

myself

had

yards wide

ceased.

curious to notice the attitude of our

When

escapes,

When we

two hundred

in

On

friendly to the Arabs.

round our headquarters the

occasions.

dis-

by people

caused

immediate neighbourhood.

a ring

often

our

we concluded

quarters,

and eventually decided to pull down


in our

on

was treachery somewhere, and

there

covered

were

they always started

and, as

river,

eventually put a

somewhat summary

fires

up - wind from our own


that

which they were very

This was

fond of as food.
stop

the houses as a means

to

fire

was

these

have

immediately

by a voluntary guard of

dozen

HABITS AND MODE OF LIVING


who refused

or

more armed

me

to approach the crowd, or indeed to

soldiers,

were,

as the

men

believe, treated in the

explained that

a knife even into a white

allow

move

same way,

was easy to

it

man

The other

yard in any direction unaccompanied.


officers

to

203

stick

at night or in a

crowd.

During these months we had great


in

separating,

and

arranging,

enormous numbers of people

male

and female

slaves,

and who,

Arabs had been driven out, were

like

Thousands of Arab

sheep without a shepherd.


slaves,

the

organising

who considered themselves our


since the

difficulty

and native freemen and slaves with

their

herds of women, were daily coming to ask what

We

they were to do.

who

still

had been

selected the petty chiefs

existed (and in cases where the


killed,

made new

turn, selected their

own people

marched

this

party out

country,

and,

choosing

them,

gave

village

and

orders
start

ones),

into

that

planting.

and

chiefs

these, in

one of us then
the

surrounding

convenient place

they should

build

for

AVe supplied these

204

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS


and other seeds

colonies with maize, rice,

so successful
or four
later

method that within three

this

months they became

on

hour's

march

and

self-supporting,

our whole

supplied

At about an
I

was

and

forces

with food.

to the north of Kasongo,

found a splendidly rich country, with beautiful

clearings in the forest

and a good water supply.

Traces of former villages abounded, and I should

much have

liked

to

raise

in so convenient a district.
I

established villages, witli

Two

or three times

invariably the

same

the whole population decamped, and either

result

took

up

their

abode elsewhere, or arrived

Kasongo clamouring
district.

up a thriving colony

to be placed in

The leopards

they said, were so


courageous, that any
after five in the

in

some other

their neighbourhood,

numerous, and so big

man

in

and

going out of his hut

evening or before seven in the

morning was certain

to

be carried off by them.

These people never seemed to have the pluck


or energy either to hunt or trap the leopards.

While at Kasongo a

flight

of locusts passed

over the country in a south-south-easterly direc-

HABITS AND MODE OF LIVING


tion,

and continued to pass

upwards of a

The Arabs and natives told us that

month.

was the
pest,

for

205

first

this

time they had ever seen a locust

though they had heard of them many years

before.

It

would be interesting to know

if

the

cause of this might not be looked for in the fact


that the greater part of the Central African Basin

had been, owing to war,


nearly three years.

Congo Basin

for

in a disturbed state for

It is

a custom

all

over the

the natives to burn the grass

during the dry season

when occupied by war

they naturally did not continue to do so


there

is

no doubt that other

and snakes,

in consequence of

become a plague except

May
plain

it

in

not be that the locust


fires,

are

under

and

pests, such as rats

habit,

this

never

the forest districts.


larvae,

ordinary

never allowed to come to maturity

owing to the
circumstances
?

CHAPTER

XIII

OUR ALLY, GONGO LUTETE, ACCUSED OF TREACHERY

AND

EXECUTED

n'gANDU

AT

ARRIVAL

AT

KASONGO OF FIVE OFFICERS FROM EUROPE


CONTINUED ENCOUNTERS WITH THE ENEMY

THE

DECAMP

ARABS

FROM

STANLEY FALLS, LEAVING


OP THE STATE TROOPS

THE

IT

TOWN OF

THE

AT THE MERCY

STATE FORCES ARE

JOINED BY CAPTAIN LOTHAIRE FROM BANGALA,

AND

FOLLOW

THE

ARABS UP THE RIVER

AFTER SEVERE FIGHTING, THE RIVER CLEARED


OF ARABS

NYANGWE

AND

THEIR HORDES

REVERSES

AS

FAR

AS

OF THE STATE FORCES

ATTACK BY COMMANDANT DHANIS ON RUMALIZA's fort,

EIGHT HOURS* MARCH FROM KAS-

ONGO
In the

last

started for

week

in

August

tlie

Commandant

Nyangwe from Kasongo.

For some

time previously rumours had been arriving from


206

CONGO LUTETE ACCUSED


the Malela and

Lomami

Duchesne's

was

rule

The natives were


state,

and our

back to his

As

ally,

capital,

in

districts,

showing that

not

altogether

quarrelsome

Gongo

207

successful.

turbulent

Lutete, had been sent

N'Gandu,

to arrange matters.

there seemed no chance of active service,

or

any immediate prospects of an expedition to Lake


Tanganyika,
of

district

went down
mandant.

determined to volunteer for the

N'Gandu, and
to

Nyangwe

with

this

intention

to interview the

Com-

While at Nyangwe despatches arrived

from Duchesne, saying that he had discovered,

among
traitor,

Gongo Lutete was a

other charges, that

and that he had made him a prisoner.

This seemed to us a most extraordinary proceeding,

and the rumour that Gongo was plotting to

assassinate the

Commandant Dhanis himself we

placed no faith in whatever.

Taking twelve men and two hundred of Lutete's


people

under a petty chief named Kitenge,

started at five o'clock on the


11th.

My

morning of September

interview with the

lasted the whole night.

Commandant had

Six days' rapid marching,

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

2o8

with an average of eight hours a day, brought

N'Gandu

us to

too

brave and faithful

late,

ally,

however, to save our

who had been

eight hours before our arrival.

shot forty-

was perhaps the

to feel the effects of this ill-conceived policy.

first

While yet two days from Lomami, and only a


few hours after the death of Gongo Lutete, the

by means of the drum

natives,

of

what

as

their great chief

had

taken

it

was

N'Gandu,

and,

at

was dead, considered them-

and outposts.

men

seven of Gongo's

duty

knew

murder and eat

selves at liberty to

followers

place

telegraph, all

personal

all his

This particular tribe had


billeted

on them, whose

to forward all communications

the Lualaba and the capital N'Gandu.

between

After the

news of Gongo's death, these seven men were

upon and
of

the

Wembe,
attacked

killed

town

belonging

he,

all

to

the

his

chief

forces

Wembe.
together,

camp, under the impression that

was a party of

home

and eaten by the inhabitants

collecting

my

Gongo

however,

discovering that

set

Lutete's

soldiers

going

immediately withdrew

was present.

it

on

The following

CONGO LUTETE ACCUSED


men from

some

morning

the

209

came

capital

in

with news that Congo Lutete had been shot by


the white

men

and

that

later

same day we

heard that, after the death of their

Bakussu had attacked the State


then besieging

This was

it.

assuring news, as I

chief,

the

and were

station,

anything but

re-

had made a forced march,

hoping to arrive before the

fall

of the

station.

Later in the day we heard that the station had


fallen.

since

it

This report, however,

did not believe,

seemed impossible that

it

should not have

been able to hold out a week or two at

we approached
noticed

that

the

my

Lomami

River,

As

least.

however,

dozen Hausas kept very

close.

They had given everything, with the exception

to

and would not allow any of Kitenge's people

come within

futile

have

fallen,

moment

an
14

me

a somewhat

even supposing the station to

since,

our position

been

thirty yards of

precaution,

for the
us,

of

and ammunition, to their women to

their rifles
carry,

though we might have routed

the body of Congo's people with

six

absolutely

days from help


hopeless

one.

would have
This

was

2IO

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

another instance of what

have often noticed,

that the Hausas always meant to die game, and

would

their

to

stick

white

officers

as

long

as

they were able to stand.

On surmounting

the hills on the east side of

the Lomami, I was delighted to see by the help


of

my

was

glasses that the State flag

three miles

across

off"

still

flying,

Arriving in

the valley.

the station, the cause of the disquieting rumours

me became

which had reached

apparent.

The

whole population of N'Gandu and the surrounding


districts

had

split

(deprived as they were of their head)

up into

amongst each

factions,

which were fighting

other, raiding each other's quarters,

and murdering whoever they came


few shots had even been
probably by

across.

fired at the State station,

drunkards

or

men

in

fighting

frenzy.

my

During the ten days following

arrival, the

unfriendly attitude of the white officers and the

anarchy in the

district

thing but an enviable one

when, ten days

after,

made my
;

and

position

any-

was very pleased

Commandant

Gillian arrived

GONGO LUTETE ACCUSED


He

to hold an inquiry.

settled

211

himself in the

town, at about a mile's distance from the station


(in

which

remained), and

we soon had Lupungu

established in place of his father,

and

his authority

fully recognised.

Gongo Lutete exceeded


and

it is

his

compact with

due in a great measure to

his care

pluck that we were successful during the


half of the

More than

campaign.

us,

and
first

half of our

transport department was under his charge, and

with everything entrusted to his care he was so

we never

successful that

lost a single load.

After

we had conquered Malela and Samba he


them

for us,

tion between

held

and established regular communica-

Nyangwe and Lusambo.

All letters

and loads were simply handed to him, without


even one of our own

men accompanying them, and

were always safely delivered at their destination.

One thing ought not


to him.

two of
hostages,

to be forgotten with regard

When war
his

children

broke out the Arabs held

son and a daughter

and when he threw

in his lot with

as

us

he thought that he could never hope to see them

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

212

The Commandant, however,

again.

may

as

be

remembered, ransomed them from Sefu, in exchange for postponing our attack on Kasongo for

When

five days.

presented to

the children arrived and were

Lutete,

transports

his

of

Though

were quite affecting to everyone present.


this

was

his eldest son, since

he had been

delight

five years

with the Arabs, Gongo would not allow him to


succeed him, but
his

made

his second son,

and sent him to

heir,

stations to be educated

court-martial, poor

by

When,

us.

Gongo was

one of our

in

live

Lupungu,

after the

told that he

be shot the following morning at eight

would

o'clock,

he appointed Lupungu his successor, and when


in

his

cell

left

hanged himself with a rope plaited

from part of his clothing, to avoid the disgrace


of a public execution.

covered

before

down and

life

Dhanis

discipline,

who

was

extinct,

resuscitated, and,

sufficiently recovered,

At

Unfortunately, he was dis-

as

and was cut

soon as he was

marched out and

suggestion

he

had

shot.

relaxed

his

and had pardoned so many offenders

before his alliance with us would have been

GONGO LUTETE EXECUTED


handed over to the others

for food

213

that

at one

time his power was in danger, and we had to

His great idea was to

on his behalf.

interfere

Europe, and before his death he had made

visit

arrangements to send his eldest son, N'Zigi, to

Europe to undo the

The lad

ing.

is

evil effects of his

now

Arab

teach-

at school in Belgium.

This was perhaps the hardest-worked month


I

had known during the expedition,

there

were

palavers to be arranged, cases to be tried,

much
fro

and

galloping about the neighbourhood, to and

between the town and

donkeys

(a

station, as fast as

magnificent pair, imported into

my
the

country by the Arabs from Muscat) could carry


me.

The sight of a white man riding seemed

to be an unfailing source of interest to the natives

of this district,

the kind.

who had seldom

On

one occasion,

going fast across an

seen anything of

remember,

was

open space in the town,

where two large expeditions, just having returned


from a foray, were drawn up and had formed a
line

to

see

me

pass.

As we went about un-

guarded, not to appear afraid of them,

always

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

214

rode

as

as

fast

took

content

so

his

was more

that, if

head to

any malfire

or

my

put his foot in a hole, and turning a complete

me

somersault sent
carrying

spare

laughing at

my

flying.

My

boy,

seeing

revolver,

who was
everybody

discomfiture, promptly emptied

though

in their faces, which,

it

stampeded the

whole mass, luckily did not touch anybody.

my

noticed that in

the

to

likely to be missed.

was just returning the chiefs salute when

ass

it

into

it

throw a spear,

could,

subsequent gallops through

town everyone seemed

get out

to

of

my

neighbourhood, having apparently urgent business


inside the houses or behind the trees.

Just as things had begun to settle down, five


officers

arrived

join the

from Europe

Commandant

supposed

to

Rumaliza,

who had

be

and proceeded to

Kasongo, where he was

at

preparing
left

for

Ujiji

an

attack

on

and had crossed

Tanganyika, and established himself with Sefu,

and what was

left

of his forces, at Kabambari.

During the preceding month, rather

movements had taken

place

to

important

the northward.

FIVE OFFICERS FROM EUROPE


In March

1893,

by order of the Inspector of

State (Fiv^), Captain Chaltin,

camp

military

with

He was

at Basoko,

his available

all

215

commander

of the

was ordered to join us

forces at the seat of war.

in a particularly

good position to give us

every succour, as the camp at Basoko had been

by the Free State

established

as a precaution, in

the event of a quarrel with the Arabs at Stanley

He, with

Falls.

two

steamers,

went up

Lomami, and occupied the former Arab

From

Kamba.

this point

post,

the

Bena

he had only three days'

march to the large Arab town, Riba Riba, on the


Lualaba
layed,

but owing to bad weather he was de-

and when he arrived

had been burnt

and

at

Riba Riba the town

deserted

by the

the Arab governors,

Miserera

and Boina

had

the town with their forces

left

previously,

and

at the very

in fighting us at

Basoko,
caravan.
of

as

He

Loisi,

Nyangwe.

smallpox

had

natives.

some time

moment were engaged


Chaltin returned to

broken

out

in

his

arrived at Stanley Falls on the 18th

May, where Captain Tobback and Lieutenant

Van Lint had

for five

days been resisting the

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

2i6

attacks

of the

Arabs under Raschid, the rebel

governor and State

officer

On

of Stanley Falls.

the landing of the troops from Basoko at Stanley


Falls, the

riches,

its

all

After

Arabs decamped, leaving the town, with

this

at the

mercy of the State

everything

remained

quiet

troops.

the

till

25th of June 1893, when Commandant Ponthier


arrived

at

He imme-

the Falls from Europe.

diately collected

Commandant

all

the troops he could, and, taking

Lothaire and some

with him, followed the Arabs,


the Falls up the river.

men from Bangala

who had

from

fled

After some severe fighting

and many skirmishes, he cleared the

river,

and

its

neighbourhood, of Arabs and their hordes as far


as

Nyangwe, where he arrived a day

for

N'Gandu.

Meanwhile we

at

N'Gandu had

after I left

received several

despatches from the front at the same time


sum-total of which amounted to

this

that the

attacks on the forts of Rumaliza had failed

during a fortnight's severe fighting


Ponthier had been killed
of

the

that

Commandant

and that the supplies

ammunition had nearly run

out.

powerful

REVERSES OF THE STATE FORCES


auxiliary

named Kitumba Moya,

chief,

217

half an

hour after hearing of the execution of Gongo, had

gone over to the Arabs with

example was

His

We

with

possible speed, bringing

and men with

tion

days
less

old,

despatches

were, the

The

us.

all

the

join

ammuniwas ten

and we could not hope to reach Kasongo

we should be

too late.

of November, four
Gillian

to be carried in

forces

all

We

officers,

human

of

hammocks.

all

probability

ComAugustin had

whom two
Our

force consisted

that was left of

thousand

in

started on the 4th

and Lieutenant

of fifty soldiers, and


Lutete's

to

said,

latest despatch

than ten days, when in

mandant

by many

followed

naturally

others.
all

hundred guns.

six

Gongo

indifferently-armed

men.
This was a most trying time, and at times

almost despaired of getting the two sick


alive to

Kasongo.

We

had

(now without a leader)

taken

it

officers

infinite trouble, too,

and

their petty

in hand.

They had

in trying to keep Gongo's people


chiefs

into their heads that they were at liberty

to plunder the

whole country through which we

2i8

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS


under

passed,

the

impression

sufficiently

strong to enforce

contrary.

We

arrived at

of November, to

find

was

that I

my

orders

not
the

to

Kasongo on the 14th

that, the

day

before, the

Arabs had abandoned their bomas and had com-

menced what appeared


the east.

On

This

is

to be

a retreat

what had taken place

towards

the 13th of October 1893, there being

now

no further doubt that Rumaliza had formed a

camp not more than

eight

hours'

march from

Kasongo, the State troops, under the command of

Baron Dhanis, commenced the advance


this

new enemy.

follows

reserve

against

The troops were divided

as

under Commandant Dhanis,

and another under Commandant Ponthier;

six

companies under Lieutenants Lange, Doorme, and

Hambursin, and Sergeants Collet and Van Kiel


the whole force of regulars,

hundred men

and a

had only forty-four


canister

left.

7*5

shells

consisting

Krupp,

for

which we

and a dozen rounds of

They were accompanied by

troops armed with muzzleloaders, to the


of over three hundred.

of four

The

first

irregular

number

march of ten

ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT


miles was

made

to the village of Piani

219

Mayenge.

The next day a dozen miles brought the column

Mwana Mkwanga, when

to

the

enemy

were

supposed to be within a couple of hours' march.

On

the

15th

scouting in

of

front,

October,
the

with the auxiliaries

column started with the

intention of getting a position in the rear of the

Arab positions
several forts,

Arab

Luama

were very

defended.

enemy being

established

in

two of which were situated between

the Lulindi and

and

the

tributaries of the

large, splendidly built,

Lualaba

and well

Our experience had taught us that the

fortifications

were generally weaker in what

they considered their

rear,

and the Commandant,

moreover, wished to be on the enemy's natural


line of retreat in the event of a successful attack.

In spite of the severe lessons we had already


taught them, the Arabs seemed unable to grasp
the fact that

we were

as likely as not to

make

detour before attacking.

Having completely turned the enemy's


at about

two

o'clock in the afternoon the

approached a large

fort,

flank,

column

hidden by the high grass.

220

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

and not

visible until within a quarter of a mile

The

of the enemy.

having been formed, the

line

companies of Doorme and Lange advanced slowly


in skirmishing order, the signal to

a shell thrown into the

They charged up

fort.

within twenty yards of the


a shot, the enemy's

When

fire

boma without

to

firing

not doing material damage.

twenty

within

charge being

yards,

enemy's

the

fire

became so hot that the rush was checked, and


the

men commenced

to

return the

The

fire.

supports arrived almost immediately, and the


lay

down within

a few yards of the fort.

some time before the


cease firing.

officers

efi'ective

fire,

Luckily, the enemy's loopholes were

fire,

men were under

and the enemy,

this his first battle,

in directing his

first

few minutes of

but he nevertheless succeeded

company

until the

end of the day.

Despite the reckless energy of the


the

ensure an

Lieutenant Lange was

badly wounded during the

all

to

had to expose themselves over the

top of their earthworks.

and

was

make the men

could

placed at such an angle that our

the line of

It

men

officers,

it

Commandant

was found impossible to

ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT


induce the

men

to climb the obstacles, in the face

of such a well-sustained

gun was ordered


fire

221

with canister

fire,

The

into the fort.

up, to try to stop the enemy's


;

but so

many

of the porters on

the drag ropes were hit that a panic started, and

they bolted precipitately, leaving the gun in the


hottest

the

of

Commandant

fire.

Ponthier,

Hambursin, and Collet dragged the gun nearly


into position themselves, and, with the timely help
afi'orded

by Doorme and a few of

gun was got


of the

fort.

piece,

the

walls

At

into position within a

his

hundred yards

Protected by the effective

fire

of the

men were withdrawn from under

of the fort with comparatively

this

men, the

very

moment

little

a large body of the

the
loss.

enemy

appeared on the right flank, having come out of


a

much

larger fort, so

masked by the bush that

until the appearance of their troops

noticed

its

existence.

troops faced this

The great bulk of the

new enemy,

leaving only sufiicient

forces in front of fort No. 1 to check


at a sortie that

no one had

any attempt

might be made by the

garrison.

The main body had a much pleasanter time now

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

222

with the enemy in the open, and soon drove them

back to their

shelter, their return being consider-

ably more rapid than

plateau, about a mile from the big fort

mile from the lesser

fort,

advance.

their

small

and half a

was then chosen, and, with

the exception of a skirmish in the morning, the


After a good deal of re-

night passed quietly.


connoitring,

Commandant Ponthier found

position for the


his absence

come out

camp

closer to the forts.

Doorme drove

in the

enemy

a better

During

who had

of the lesser fort to attack the

Krupp

keeping, meanwhile, the larger fort quiet with a

few

As soon

shells.

up the

take

camp,

enemy

new

position

was

thrown up

for the

the

several

repulsed,

the

to

prior

on

to their forts.

days

position,

attacked

the

directly
shelter

as the troops

commenced

to

forming a new
sides,

but,

occupied

and

all

men, they withdrew

During the following two or three


small attacks

and the remaining

on

the

shells

camp were
thrown into

forts.

Captain de Wouters, meanwhile, joined us from

Kasongo with seventy men, leaving a young Ger-

ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT


man

named Mercus, with twenty men

sergeant

and the
later,

sick, as a

the

223

guard at Kasongo.

Commandant

few days

sent an order to Mercus to

send every cartridge that could be spared vid the


Lualaba and Luama Rivers, and thus to his camp

by the

rear, the

forces being

What was

and Kasongo.
days

Arab

later, to see

his horror, a couple of

Mercus himself arriving with the

ammunition, having

left

Kasongo absolutely unde-

fended, and knowing that,

and

spies,

between him

by the means of drums

Rumaliza would instantly be aware of

the position

De Wouters immediately

started with a detach-

ment, hoping to be able to get between Rumaliza

and Kasongo before


terrific

tornado,

it

was too

which

late.

stopped the

Thanks

to a

Arabs

but

which did not check de Wouters, who knew


be a case of

life

them on the
them

in front.

or death, he

managed

it

to

to get before

road, and, turning round, attacked

Finding that they had been out-

manoeuvred, the Arabs retired to their

fort,

and

de Wouters entrenched himself in the position he

had taken up.

De Heusch, who

arrived a few days

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

224
later,

was ordered to take up a position to the

As

eastward of de Wouters.

will

be seen from

the accompanying sketch-map, the Arabs were in

an awkward position

the

Commandant Dhanis

cutting off their retreat, de Wouters and de Heusch

on each side of their advanced

fort in front, the

Lualaba, a mile wide, to the westward, and almost


inaccessible

The whole

and arid mountains

to the eastward.

neighbourhood of de Wou-

plain, in the

and de Heusch, and from there to Kasongo,

ters

was cultivated

immense

and cassada being

ripe

fields

of rice, plantains,

and ready

for food, so that

our forces had plenty to eat; whereas the Arabs


could only draw their supplies from the narrow
strip
all

between their

forts

and the Lualaba.

Nearly

the skirmishes during the following ten days

took place in this

district,

and innumerable Arab

foraging parties were cut up.

who

As the Arab

of course felt the famine first

slaves

were begin-

ning to die of hunger, Rumaliza made a tremendous


attack on Dhanis' position, which he nearly suc-

ceeded in turning.

At one time he

actually suc-

ceeded in occupying a portion of the camp, and

ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT


brave

our

here

Ponthier was

Captain

killed.

Doorme, whose part of the camp

it

225

was, had been

surrounded, whereupon Ponthier, seeing his posi-

mouth

tion from a distance, with his pipe in his

and not even a revolver


dozen

men who were

The enemy
they would

left

standing near to follow him.

tried to take

him

shot him.

He

fail,

or four days,

was

in his hand, called on a

fearing

alive, but,

lingered for three

and was buried under

which

his tent,

standing, food being carried in regularly,

and a confidential guard placed over the

The morale of our

force

would have

suflfered

they known of the death of so important an

and Rumaliza would have been

tent.

had

officer,

in a corresponding

degree elated.

Five hours' heavy fighting saw the Arabs


pulsed

all

along the

line,

the

re-

Commandant Dhanis

himself leading the last and most successful charge


of the day right

up

to Rumaliza's gates.

ing our position that night,


able one

we found

for besides the large

Review-

it

a deplor-

number

of killed

and wounded, there were only forty rounds per


head for the regular troops
15

left,

and no powder or

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

226

caps for the auxiliaries and friendlies, and, what

was worse, they could not expect us to arrive from


1^'Gandu with supplies in

But the Arabs had

also

less

than a fortnight.

had enough fighting

for

the time being, and remained quiet in their bomas

next few days.

for the

Spies informed us that a

caravan from Ujiji was expected by the Arabs, with

powder and other

supplies,

and small expeditions

were sent out to try and discover

An

auxiliary

retreat, it

was out

them

chief

surprised

it,

its

whereabouts.

and, beating a

came on our sergeant Albert

in the

Frees,

who

same neighbourhood, and between

they cut the caravan to pieces.

Albert

marched proudly into the camp the same evening


with over 2^ tons of splendid German powder

and 60,000

caps,

the greater part of which was

immediately distributed among the auxiliaries and


friendlies.

These

latter,

day and night, prowled

round the whole neighbourhood, and attacked any


small parties of the

enemy who ventured out

their fortifications in search of food.

of

During these

times Captain Doorme selected numbers of natives

and Arab slaves from among the

prisoners,

and

ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT


them

drilled

as soldiers with

most successful

227
results.

In the subsequent fighting he frequently led a

hundred of them himself into

The idea

action.

occurred to him in a somewhat singular manner.

He had

an intense objection to writing reports,

and whenever a man was


the

reported
place

death,

killed in his

and

by one of these

immediately

filled

his

recruits, giving the recruit

the dead man's name, number,

rifle,

and accoutre-

This was not discovered for a long time,

ments.
the

till

company he

Commandant one

day, on looking over the

reports of effectives, found that Captain Doorme,

though he had had 50 per

company

rently his

and numbers,

On
had
all

as

it

the 16th of
suffered

had appa-

identically the same, in

names

was three or four months

before.

November the Arab

severely

their positions

cent, killed,

and

from

famine,

forces,

who

abandoned

fled to the eastward,

with

our irregular forces and auxiliaries following on


their trail.

The Commandant returned

to

Kasongo

with his own guard and Ponthier's men, leaving


all

the rest with de Wouters at

light

column was

Mwana Mkwanga.

immediately organised by

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

228

Captain de Wouters, with which he followed the

two

For

march

the

road was strewn with dead bodies, showing

how

retreating

precipitate

Arabs.

had been the

hours'

flight of the Arabs,

what destruction had been worked by the


and other natives

irregulars

De Wouters

in their rear.

and

heard

from the natives that the Arabs were entrenched


not very far in front of him,

so,

leaving

and irregulars to follow in the rear


inevitable recoil

when

all

natives

(to avoid the

face to face with the Arabs),

he advanced with the regulars, hoping to take the


position in the first rush.

The route was bad

there were no roads, and only the broad trail left

by the

flying

through the

enemy

forest,

could hear the

wood

to follow.

While advancing

which lay across their route, they

enemy

in

every direction cutting

for their fortifications.

They were, however,

lucky enough to approach the enemy's position

without being discovered, and the advance-guard

was

only fired upon after holding conversation

with the enemy in camp,


for

natives.

enemy

to be

The

whom

irregulars

encamped on a

they had mistaken

had

reported

the

large plain, whereas

ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT

229

they had taken possession of an opening in the


forest

this

which, as
places

it

they had surrounded by a palisade,


subsequently turned out, was in some

Outside the palisade were

unfinished.

still

many grass

huts,

showing that the enemy had only

formed the inner

circle of the fort (see description,

Many

p. 101).

of the

enemy thus

into the surrounding forest,

and the

numbers of guns and

other loot

up

and

caps, bales of cloth,

The other com-

into our hands.

became successively engaged, taking up

panies
their

fell

rest took

Outside the fort

their position inside the fort.

large

surprised fled

position

Heusch

led

attacked

it

his

by

their

right.

company round

in the rear,

Lieutenant
the

fort

hoping to find a weak

In this he was successful

de

and
place.

the palisade not having

been finished, there were openings of two or three


yards wide in several places, and de Heusch, finding that he could

probably effect an

entrance

before the Arabs had recovered from their surprise,


led his
fell,

company up

to the very ditch,

where he

men

retreated,

shot through the breast.

leaving their gallant leader

His

and many of

their

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

230

number on the ground, marking the

position they

The black sergeant Albert Frees

had occupied.

and a native corporal named Badilonga saw him


fall,

and alone rushed up to try to save him from


hands of the enemy.

falling into the


fall

De Heusch's
who

courage to some of the enemy,

gave

charged out of the gap in the palisade a few yards


distant,

but were driven back by the two blacks,

who kept up
body.

a steady fire across their

Albert sent the corporal for help, and, upon

his return with

Captain de Wouters and half a

dozen men, they found the sergeant

He had

leader's

still

in position.

not only prevented the enemy from getting

the body, but, though exposed to a

himself untouched.

comrade,

had time

who was

De Wouters

already dead.

terrific fire,

was

off his

carried

When de Wouters

to review the position, he found that de

Heusch's company and all the irregulars and auxiliary


troops had disappeared, the white man's

had such an

effect

on their morale.

fall

Only

troops can stand the strain of a leader's

the regular troops had

dead and wounded

having

civilised
fall.

As

themselves to carry the

and they were

numerous

de

ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT


Wouters decided

to beat

No

retreat.

231

sooner,

however, was the movement understood by the

enemy than they took


only with the greatest

the offensive, and

difficulty,

and by a

it

was

series of

attacks and retreats, that he succeeded in burying

the dead and

in

getting

the wounded, together

with the guns and ammunition taken in the early


part of the engagement, safely out of action.

During one of the Arab charges, Sefu (Tippu


Tib's

son,

and the

attacked us on the

first

who

great Arab chief

Lomami) was mortally wounded,

and died a few days afterwards.

The Arabs con-

tinued to attack the retreating column until

it

was

within a couple of miles' march of our position at

Mwana Mkwanga.

Commandant Dhanis never

decided whether this was a victory or a defeat


for

though we

Heusch, the Arabs

lost

Sefu,

and

lost

de

many men, and

failed to take the fort

quantity of guns and ammunition.

For ten days no further operations were undertaken, when, Rumaliza having crossed the Lulindi
(in

reality

another

advance

Wouters, with Doorme

on

Kasongo),

and Hambursin

de

estab-

232

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

lished

himself

at

Bena

Musua,

on

the

road

between Rumaliza's new position and Kasongo.


Lange, whose wound was
left at

By

Mwana Mkwanga

now

nearly healed, was

with two other

the 4th of December

we had been

officers.

reinforced

by one hundred and eighty men, under the com-

mand

of Captains Collignon

other

officers,

and Rom, and two

and a good supply of ammunition

with three hundred new breechloading

Commandant thus found


to assume the offensive.

rifles.

The

himself again in position

CHAPTER XIV
TRANSFERENCE OF THE STATE FORCES FROM KASONGO

THE COMMANDANT DIVIDES

TO BENA MUSUA
HIS

FORCES IN ORDER TO CUT OFF THE ARAB

EXTRA

COMMUNICATION

STATIONED

FORCES

AT BENA GUIA, ON THE MAIN ROAD TO KABAM-

BENA

KALUNGA,

BARI,

AT

MUSUA

REINFORCEMENT

OF

AND

AT

THE

BENA

ENEMY

THE STATE TROOPS FORM A SEMICIRCLE ROUND


THE ARAB FORTS, AND CUT OFF THEIR FOOD
ARRIVAL

SUPPLY

CAPTAIN

OF

LOTHAIRE

WITH CONTINGENT OF SOLDIERS FROM BANGALA

EXPLOSION

IN THE

TION OF THE

ENEMY

ARAB

BARI

ARAB CAMP

THE

CHIEFS

CAPITULA-

TAKING OF KABAM-

MADE

PRISONERS

BY

LOTHAIRE

By

the 20tli of December the Commaiidant had

transferred

Kasongo

to

all

the available officers and

men from

Bena Musua, and himself joined us on

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

234

Rumaliza,

who had

also

was in a very strong

position,

having a large and

the 23rd.

well-built fort

Kiver,

on the right bank of the Lulindi

and three smaller advanced

He

direction of Kasongo.

cation

been reinforced,

by

in the

forts

had direct communi-

a small bridge (which he

in building over the Lulindi)

had succeeded

with the

fort

where

de Heusch was killed, and had thus a safe line of

communication with the large

Kabambari was

Kabambari.

by Bwana

N'Zigi,

commanded the

who,

it

fortified

at this

may

town of

time held

be remembered,

attack on Stanley Falls station,

which ended in Deane and Dubois being driven


out,

and the establishment of the Arab dominion

on the Congo proper.

wards

ratified

This Arab success was after-

by Mr. Stanley, who placed Tippu

Tib, the greatest

Arab

slave-raider, there as gover-

nor with almost absolute power.

On
held,

the 23rd of

December

as a result of

a council of

war was

which Commandant Dhanis

decided to divide his forces in order to cut off the

Arab communications
had

as

much

as possible.

fairly authentic information that

He

Raschid and

THE STATE FORCES DIVIDE


the other Arabs from Stanley Falls,
driven south by the

campaign

at

235

who had been

Commandant Ponthier

(in his

Kirundu and on the Lowa River)

before he joined us, were

now

reunited and march-

Every

ing from the north-east to join Rumaliza.


effort

was to be made

whole

district to co-operate

to turn the natives of the

with us and to supply

us with food, and thus starve out Rumaliza's forces.

Many

of the natives

had informed us that certain

who had

already joined Rumaliza were

of the tribes
willing to

come over

Commandant

Rom

Gillian

to us to carry out this policy.

and Captains Collignon and

were detached with a strong force of the new

troops,

and started on the 24th of December

Bena Guia, on the main road

to Kabambari.

same day Captain de Wouters and other


with two hundred and

hundred
selves at

irregulars,

fifty

regulars

for

The

officers,

and four

departed to establish them-

Bena Kaluuga, an hour

to the south-east-

ward and about three thousand yards from the


main

fort of Rumaliza.

The Commandant and

meanwhile held Bena Musua, on the main road to


Kasongo, which

was the intermediate

position

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

236

We

between the other two.

had been joined

by-

Mr. Mohun, the United States commercial agent,

who had

day before our departure

the

arrived

He had

from Kasongo.

taken part in the

also

march by Captain Chaltin on Riba Eiba, eight

months
of

before,

and had very kindly taken charge

some supplies

which he brought through

for us

Our

from Lusambo to Kasongo.

now

as

follows

Nyangwe, and

Lemery

was

in

position

was

command

at

in a very dangerous position, since

Raschid and his forces from the north might at

any moment, instead of attempting to form a


junction with

Nyangwe
Middagh

Rumaliza, turn

Kasongo

and attack

by

Lieutenant

held

on our extreme right Lange was at

Mwana Mkwanga
men and

was

aside

with one hundred and twenty

Krupp gun,

in a very strong position

de Wouters and the Commandant Dhanis and myself

were in the centre

occupied the extreme

and Commandant Gillian

left at

Bena Guia.

We,

in

the centre, had two 7*5 Krupps, and, for thefirst time

during the war, plenty of ammunition.

De Wouters found

that,

owing to the nature

^/

'^

Sj

THE STATE FORCES DIVIDE

237

of the ground and a very thick bush, he could

approach one of Rumaliza's forts to within three

hundred yards, without the enemy being able


see them.

He

therefore determined to try to

a breach, and hoped to carry the


o'clock on the

make

At

fort.

to

six

morning of the 28th he commenced.

Having nothing

in

to the top of a

mountain which commanded a

particular

to

do,

climbed

view of the scene of operations, and was in the


tantalising position of seeing the fight going on,

though unable to know" with what

result.

After

steady cannonading

till

nine

there

was

very heavy musketry

fire

on two sides of the

fort,

and

this ceasing led

me

to suppose that the fort

been carried, whereas the


quite
in

diflferent.

o'clock

real state of affairs

De Wouters had

had
was

only succeeded

making a breach of not more than a yard square,

although he had advanced the gun to within a

hundred yards of the

fort.

While thus engaged,

Commandant Gillian had, unknown to him,

attacked

the main fort in the rear, and after twenty minutes'

hard fighting had been repulsed with very heavy


loss.

De Wouters and Doorme

then led the

men

238

up

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS


to the fort, but nothing they could do could

men

persuade the

mount the

to

breach, though

some of them followed actually into the

De Wouters
the fort

When we

eventually retired.

we found

ditch.

took

that the Arab loss on this day

had not been more than a dozen men


well protected were they

by

killed, so

their earthworks

and

the holes in the ground beneath their huts.

The Commandant had now

fresh difficulties to

contend with, as we had definite information that

Bwana

N'Zigi, with

reinforcement from

large

Tanganyika and quantities of ammunition, was


marching from Kabambari to join Rumaliza, and
that he was

then situated

Kitumba Moyo.

at

Lieutenant Hambursin was detached with as strong


a column as could be spared to cut
oflf

or

detour,

Lulindi

to

him

drive

country on

the

with

by the Arabs.
hostile

fighting

to

with

He had

the

that

of

us.

N'Zigi

make

on our

being

held

in the district

were

Mwana Mkwanga

The natives

to

N'Zigi

bank of the

left

the exception

extreme right at

also

back.

Bwana

After a week's continuous

who

was

entrenched at

STATE FORCES FORM A SEMICIRCLE


Kitumba Moyo

He had

Hambursin was

many men

lost

239

forced to retire.

as the result of the fight-

ing and of a bad epidemic of smallpox which broke

out in his troop.


so

severely

N'Zigi had, however, suffered


instead of trying

that,

and join Rumaliza,

as

Hambursin was

returned to Kabambari, and shortly

recalled he

afterwards,

soon

as

advance

to

when Kabambari was

taken,

fled

to

Zanzibar.

On

the 30th of December, despatches, in answer

to the

Commandant's demand

arrived from
also

from the

Commandant

ever

river to

Mr.

Mohun

he

reinforcements

8th,

Gillian

none would

volunteered to go

Basoko and bring us up what-

accordingly left us on

the

Chaltin at Basoko, and

Falls, to the effect that

be forthcoming.

down the

for reinforcements,

could

and

raise,

the 1st of January.

Captain Collignon was detached

and established at Bena Bwesse,

of the Arabs' two advanced forts.

was thus completed

and

as patrols could

with comparative safety between


positions, the

Our

our

he

On
from

in front

semicircle

now

pass

different

Arabs could only draw their supplies

240

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

of food from the left

bank of the Lulindi.

They

soon began to find difficulty in feeding their men,


as, in

accordance with their usual practice, they had

devastated most of the

On

they had marched.

country through which


the 8th of January

we

were surprised and delighted by the arrival of

Commandant Lothaire with


soldiers

a strong contingent of

from Bangala and two smart

had outrun the courier

in fact,

He

officers.

Dhanis had not

even hoped to get an answer to the requisition he

had sent to him

for another fortnight.

One need

hardly emphasise the contrast between Chaltin's


action

and

Lothaire's, the

same demand having

been sent to both.

Lothaire immediately departed

with two hundred

men

to join de Wouters,

and

within two days they had established themselves


in a position three

hundred yards from Rumaliza's

own boma and between

it

and

his first

advanced

boma, our men being thus in a position to annoy


both.

Rumaliza, under the impression that they

were simply reconnoitring, did not attack them


until their
fied,

camp was

established,

and partly

forti-

in a deserted village, the huts of which, being

EXPLOSION
made with
from

THE ARAB CAMP

IN

241

clay walls, were a very useful protection

rifle fire.

On

Hambursin, having

the 14th of January,

returned from his expedition against N'Zigi, joined

him

Lothaire, bringing with

was placed

position,

and Hambursin

fired

measure the distance, in order that

to

shell

in

The gun

a Krupp.

a
all

should be ready for the bombardment, which was

intended to take place on the morrow.


however,

shot,

intended

Arab

fort

other

results

fire.

huts, trenches,

than were

and

Being the wet season,

all

few rounds of canister

prevented the enemy from extinguishing the


in a

few minutes the whole

or four acres,

the

retiring holes in the fort were

very heavily thatched.

and

trial

blew up the magazine and set the

it

on

efi'ected

This

was a roaring

ammunition exploding

in

fort,

fire,

covering three

fiery furnace,

every direction.

with

Our

troops were not idle, and, taking advantage of the


disorder that prevailed

among

the enemy, climbed

the fortifications in every direction and poured in


a most destructive
inside
16

became

fire

with their

rifles.

so intense that the

The heat

Arabs heaved

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

242

immense

and caps

quantities of cartridges, powder,

prevent them exploding.

over their defences to

They broke out of the

fort

and

fled precipitately

by the

to the river, being forced into this direction

of our

position

On

bomas.

other

between them and their

forces

arriving

the

at

they

river,

crowded on to the bridge in such numbers that


broke

the irregulars, natives, and even their

complete they jumped into the

drowned each

falling of the bridge,

those

The

"Enemy's

loss

What

trying

with the

crammed with humanity, and

losses at the river alone

hundreds.

river, and, in

other.

by native arrows

killed

own

them, and as the panic became

auxiliaries, harassed

to cross,

it

official

or drowned, their

must have been


report for

over a thousand."

most of

several

the day was

Our gain

in

having exploded

ammunition was

small,

during the

and the greater number of guns

fire,

and repeating

rifles

it

were so badly burned as to be

Without following the

useless.

flying

enemy,

Lothaire turned his attention to the other fort in


his

immediate neighbourhood, and partially

vested

it.

in-

The following day Commandant Dhanis,

CAPITULATION OF THE ENEMY


leaving

me

in

command

was advanced

so that our

positions

men were

water

their

enemy during

well-sustained

fire,

Commandant

These

days

three

which our men did not return

sortie.

Arab

On

when the enemy

third day, under a

the

guns

for a

The Commandant ordered a bowl


brought to him, and poured

it

men

to the

bowl of water.

of water to be

on the ground before

them, after which he sent them back into the


This ruse succeeded.

hour the fort capitulated

the

water, there was no holding them.


in our camp, after which the fort
fear of

and nights hardly a

chiefs sent ten

offering ten

with their guns.

and

keeping up a

this time

shot was fired on our side, except

flag of truce, the

established

supply.

for

in fact, for these three days

attempted a

line

enemy and the brook from

were maintained

nights, the

The

round the boma.

circle

they drew

taking command,

and,

completed the

which

Bena

of the centre at

Musua, joined Lothaire,

actually between the

243

In half an

men having
They

fort

piled

seen

arms

was searched,

for

treachery, and the thirsty wretches were

allowed to rush down to the brook, into which they

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

244

This

plunged.

affair

was liardly finished when a

and rain enough

tornado came on,

in

fell

ten

minutes to have supplied the garrison with water

month had they

for a

capitulation

ing

this

fell

time Commandant Gillian had

two advanced

having

been

forts,

rather

both of

severely

left

in attacking

these

handled

officers

by

the

fort

having now

our troops marched with

Commandant

The intermediate

defenders.
fallen, all

our hands.

into

Bena Guia and had joined Collignon


the

this

600 guns, 20 repeat-

prisoners,

and ammunition

rifles

During

2000

With

held out.

still

Dhanis to invest the remaining positions of the

enemy

but

before

forts capitulated.

this

Captain

was

accomplished the

Rom

did a plucky but

(with our knowledge of the Arab character) foolish


thing.
forts,

Bwana

N'Zigi, the

commander

sent a messenger into

Commandant

camp carrying a Koran, who

man would come


in his

of the

Arab

Gillian's

said that if a white

to the fort with the

hand no harm should happen

same Koran
to him,

and

Bwana N'Zigi would himself arrange terms with him.


While discussing the question, Captain

Rom

seized

THE TAKING OF KABAMBARI


the

Koran and

started off with

it,

saying that this

He went

to the

arranged the terms of capitulation with

Bwana

would probably save bloodshed.


fort,

245

N'Zigi,

and

at the

a State flag with

On

end of the palaver exchanged

Bwana

N'Zigi for his standard.

the 18th of January a column was despatched

after Rumaliza,

under Commandant Lothaire and

Captains de Wouters and Doorme.

By

a forced

march they surprised Kabambari on the

25th

of January, arriving at the outskirts of the

town

at four o'clock in the afternoon,


it

before the Arabs had

The natives and

gates.
fields

were,

and rushing into

time even to shut the

slaves in the surrounding

meanwhile, looking on in apathetic

indifference at their arrival.

This easily achieved

success

may

be attributed to the excellent policy

which

the

Commandant

Dhanis

had

pursued

throughout the whole campaign, in never allowing


the

natives

unless they
flag.

to

be interfered with or molested,

actually attacked us under the

Arab

The natives throughout the whole country

had got to know

this,

and, on Lothaire's approach,

instead of flying terror-stricken into the town, they

246

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

simply watched with curiosity our troops passing.

Rumaliza
forest,

and

is

said to have escaped into the great

De Wouters

accompanied by only four men.

his

company marched

to Tanganyika, to open

communication with the forces of the Anti-Slavery


Society,

who had

lain inactive

He met

of our campaign.

during the whole

Captain Descamps on

Descamps

the road, twenty miles from Albertville.

had just taken command


troops,

of

the Anti- Slavery

and immediately organised an expedition

and took the

De Wouters

field.

him, and they joined

returned with

Commandant Loth aire, who

was marching towards the north-east on the

Ujiji

road, this being the direction in which the relics of

the Arab force had

They took

fled.

the road, which the defenders

deserted as

soon as our

without firing a shot.


station

on each occasion

troops

came

in

sight,

Arriving at the Lake, a

was formed at Bakari on Burton's Gulf, of

which Lieutenant Lange was


the

four forts on

troops

left

in

command

meanwhile returning to Kabambari,

camp was immediately

where

formed

in the event of a return of the

large

fortified

Arabs from

ARAB CHIEFS MADE PRISONERS


the south

or

east.

the natives,

All

detached bands of Arabs, submitted

247

and small

and Lothaire

took Raschid, Said-ben-a-Bedi, Miserera, and Amici


Said-ben-a-Bedi had conducted

prisoners.

Emin

Pasha from the Equatorial province to the neighbourhood of Kabungi, where Emin was murdered

by the Chief Kibungi, and was accused of being


himself concerned in the murder.
court-martial he was acquitted,

came

On

to

Europe with

After

trial

and afterwards

us.

the 12th of March, Mr. Mohun, the American

Consul, returned

from Basoko, having collected

about a hundred men,

who were

following

under the command of Lieutenant Baldwin.


will

by

him
It

be remembered that after the refusal of Com-

mandant Chaltin

to

send us help, on the 1st of

January, the Consul had offered to go down the


river

and get together what men he could, we being

very hard pressed at the time.

He

returned hav-

ing successfully accomplished this voluntary work,

though, fortunately for us, the danger was then


already averted.

the

men

in

Lieutenant Baldwin arrived with

due course.

CHAPTER Xy
DESCRIPTION OF EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE THE

UPPER WATERS OF THE LUALABA RIVER

The country being


quiet,

for

On

moment

practically

and a road open to Tanganyika, the Com-

mandant was anxious

way

the

to the Great

the

old

everything

to

find

Lake were

caravan

road

out

if

a water-

possible to discover.

through Kabambari

had to be carried on men's heads,

which was naturally a very expensive method, and


a water-way for even part of the road would

enormous advantages.
take over Baldwin's

received

men and

to

mean

an order to

form a caravan

to explore the upper waters of the Lualaba, which


till

then were unknown to Europeans.

My

instructions were in the following terms


Kasongo,

Monsieur le Docteur,J'ai
je vous charge de conduire
le

Tanganyika.

le

16 Mars, 1894.

I'hoiineur de vous faire savoir

que

une expedition de reconnaissance vers

EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE
M.

Consul Mohiin exprime

le

vous lui rendrez tous

Vous

les services

le dosir

249

de vous accompagner

que vous pouvez.

partirez avec le detachement de Basoko.

Votre but sera de suivre

le

Lualaba

et le

Lukuga, et d'examiner

Vous devez surtout

la navigabilite de ces cours d'eau jusqu'au Lac.

marquer

noms

les

des villages, des chefs, indiquer leur importance,

dire le cas echeant de quels Arabes

ils

dependaient, indiquer le plus

exactement possible jusqu'ou s'etendait I'influence Arabe.

une instruction concernant

d'ailleurs h cette lettre

Vous

M'pala ou

jusqu'a

irez

Si vous

Albertville.

Je joins

les itineraires.
le

jugez

necessaire vous pouvez aller en tout autre endroit ou se trouve le

Comt. de

la

Si ce n'est pas trop loin.

Region Administrative.

Dans tous

les cas, 11

faudra lui donner communication de votre

rapport et de votre carte de Kasongo au Lac.

Lac que

le

ou pour achever vos


II

ne faudra rester au

relations officielles.

faudra rapporter

d'Europe

II

temps strictement necessaire pour reposer votre troupe

et des

si

possible

semences de ble

du Lac

des

pommes de

terre

vous en donnez une petite partie

a Kabambari.
J'enverrai votre correspondance k Albertville et vos colis postaux

a Kabambari.

Le Commandt. de

la

Zone Arabe

Dhanis.
Monsieur

le

Docteur Hinde.

Thomson, Stanley, and others had


that the Lukuga,

emptied

itself

out

flowing

into

the

into the Lualaba through

Lualaba,

naturally,

or

indirectly
It

had

Lukuga flowed

into

and not out of

important

Tanganyika,

Lake Lanchi.

also been suggested that the

Tanganyika,

of

suggested

points

to

it.

These were,

be solved.

The

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

250

United States agent, Mohun, wished to accompany


me, and we started arranging the caravan.
carefully

win's

eliminating the worst

detachment,

found

fellows to take with me.

After

men from

sixty

Bald-

sturdy

five

They proved, however,

the most undisciplined disobedient set of thieves


I

had ever

general

to

In addition to their

deal with.

worthlessness, they could

nor paddle

an

exceptional

swim

neither

disadvantage in an

expedition by water, since, in the matter of transport,

it

left

us

natives

through

Among

these

entirely

whose

men were

in

hands of the

the

we

districts

passed.

Abyssinians,

the

only survivors out of a band of seventy-five

who

five

had started from Boma to join


died

us, the rest

on the way, unable to withstand the bad

climate,

bad feeding, and want of care to which

they had been subjected.

These

five

were in a wretched condition and


fever

when they

Abyssinians

sufi'ering

from

joined us, but

it

seemed to

made

of

them

that something might be


it

having

me

and so

proved, for with proper care and feeding they

became the most

useful, hard-working,

and

faith-

EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE
ful

men

in

occasions,

On

the whole detachment.

when

251

several

the detachment was on the verge

of mutiny, these Abyssinians kept close to

and myself, and,

in fact, usually insisted

Mohun

on

sleep-

ing within a yard or two of our tents.

On

the 14th of March

per head and a

cartridges

That night

man.

to each

alarm of

fire

distributed a hundred

new
I

suit of

uniform

was wakened by an

on our side of Kasongo, and rushing

out found that the section of the camp in which


the Kwangolas

was

(my new company) were quartered

in flames.

whirlwind, or small tornado,

had unluckily at that moment sprung up, and the


whole of that section of the camp was quickly in

My

a blaze.

soldiers for

men, though supposed to have been

more than

six

months, were absolutely

useless, and, as a consequence, I lost

and over seven hundred

cartridges,

three

and had

rifles

also

two very narrow escapes from cartridges exploding

when
ing

me

was trying to save them.


the

this,

Commandant

for the loss of

ing day

had

Notwithstand-

severely reprimanded

ammunition, and on the follow-

to start without being allowed to

252

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

replace

my

We

losses.

marclied

on the Lualaba, where we were


with canoes.

Mohim had

six

and a Hausa cook named


useful interpreter

to be

men

Philip,

supplied

of his own,

who was

and a good cook when he was

At Farrhagis we

not drunk.

Farrhagis

to

lost a

whole day

hunting up canoes which were supposed to be


ready for

us.

The Waginia, true

to their instincts,

had made away with, and hidden

and swamps,

all

in the lagoons

the best and biggest canoes they

We, however, eventually

could lay their hands on.

got together a dozen canoes, which were sufficient

These canoes, though

to carry our whole party.

simply dug out from a single

means of

transport.

The

tree, are

one,

largest

belonged to Mohun, carried sixty

men

which

to paddle

twelve soldiers with their kit and food


his

a grand

Mohun,

bed and luggage, in a house built on the canoe

the cook Philip and two or three other servants

together with a kitchen

fire

and a couple of milk

goats, besides half a ton of stores.

This canoe passed

through the most extraordinary adventures without

damage.

Coming down

rapids

at

the

rate

of

EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE
twenty miles

an

hour,

arrested in full career

it

by a

was

253

suddenly

often

rock, the shock send-

ing half the paddlers flying overboard.

men

region the

bow and

all

(In this

paddle standing up, both the

stern being flattened into a

platform,

three or four feet square, on which numbers of the

men

After some months

stand while at work.)

of the roughest work, which I do not think any

other kind of boat could have withstood,


this canoe at Stanley Falls, apparently as

left

good

as

new.

On

we

the 17th of March

started,

and within

an hour were poling and dragging the canoes up


the

first

or

When

work.

this

when

The whole day was spent

rapids.

there

the

current was

was an actual

three feet to be mounted,


of

monkey

ropes,

and,

we

in

this

too strong,
of

fall

two or

cut long creepers

them

attaching

canoes, set a couple of hundred

in

men

to

the

hauling, and

way dragged them up by main

force.

For a present of a few yards of cloth or a handful


or

two of beads, we generally got

as

we Wanted from the

as

much

help

fishing villages on the

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

254

river bank.

Occasionally, the only passable part

of a cataract or rapid was blocked

by enormously

strong weirs, some of which were

made

and had evidently been placed there by

trees,

the natives

two

or

when the water was

three

over

weirs,

feet

which

were

square,

made

The mouths of

were placed.

always placed down

river, in

Holes,

low.
in

left

formed

fish-traps,

ordinary lobster-pot and

fish

of whole

these

like

an

wicker-work,

of

these

traps were

order to catch the

mounting the stream while on the

feed.

In

one of these traps, which measured over eight


feet

in diameter,

twenty-five pounds

found a kind of carp about

golden brown colour, and


fish I

is

carp

is

of a

the most delicious

have tasted from Congo waters.

The rocks
brown

This

weight.

in

almost

these

black

rapids

were a very dark

streaked

with

apparently exceedingly rich in iron.


sequence,

we had

great difficulty in

red,

and

As a

con-

mapping

this

part of the river, our compasses being practically


useless,

rock.

and always pointing towards the nearest

Game was very

plentiful, especially in the

EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE
Herons,

rapids.

of

various

colours

255

and

sizes,

abounded, from flocks of snowy egrets to enormous

One

solitary birds.

measured eight
wing-tip,

and

of these latter, which I shot,

feet six

inches from wing-tip to

six feet nine inches

from the point

of his

bill

species of grey

plover,

and ducks of half a dozen

different colours

and

sizes,

to his toe-nails.

were to be seen in every direction.

many sperm-wing
of season, were

geese, which,

much

popotami were comparatively


having learnt how to

kill

shot

though rather out

by the caravan.

liked

Hip-

scarce, the natives

them by

with the ordinary hippo trap.

spearing, or

This consists of

a spear fixed in a beam, suspended in a likely


place near the river bank, the

suspending cord

being fastened to a trigger placed in the hippo's

way.

In the villages in which we camped w^e

often found the heads and teeth of hippos, wart


hogs, and wild pigs, and occasionally a buffalo or

antelope
are

horn.

numerous

Although elephants and


all

over

this

district,

buff'alo

they are

seldom molested, as the natives stand in great

awe of them.

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

256

On

the 20th of March, after a very hard day's

work, we arrived at

was situated on an

Mona Tambui's

It

village.

surrounded and inter-

island,

spersed by rapids and streams, with the main river


passing in front of the village
situation,

most beautiful

and one which completely commanded

Mohun and

the surrounding country.

sat

by

the front of the village and amused ourselves by


shooting duck, which were constantly passing and
repassing overhead,

grounds.

and from

to

The whole population turned

was possible

to kill birds

of which they were in

them every day

before

Whenever

it

was

hostile,

natives

and, under

only armed with


of

on the wing,

flocks

possible,

instead of sleeping

up our
of

tents,

these

we

slept in

were

villages

though throughout a great part of the

district the

was,

mani-

of their lives.

Most

villages.

out,

the habit of seeing pass

in the boats or putting

native

feeding-

and delight to find that

festing intense surprise


it

their

them were

did not

the

impression

clubs,

willing

know what
that

gun

we were

even twenty or thirty

to

attack

us

with their

EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE
arrows and spears.

257

found the best way of

approaching a village (the warriors of which were


usually

grouped

all

on

the

with

beach,

their

arrows on the string) was to leave the rest of the

my
I

some

at

flotilla

distance,

canoe, handkerchiefs

drew near

and to

and strings of beads

speak

could

languages

other

myself

If

Swahili,

known

to

anyone in the
one

or
us,

of

then

the

put

communication

with

him a

and promising a

into

giving

After

as

as soon as possible throwing a few

handfuls of beads on shore.


village

from

exhibit,

present,

the

chief.

bigger one the next day, I allowed

him half an

hour

the women,

clear

to

the

of

village

all

goods, and chattels, explaining that

my men

were

bad, and would probably take anything that he


left

behind.

In this

way

generally succeeded

through the country without disturb-

in passing

ances with

the

natives.

As soon

as

we took

possession of a village, and such food as was left


in

it,

we

started a market

more was necessary.


natives,
17

who always

and bought whatever

This greatly astonished the


consider that they

must feed

258

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

travellers

for

nothing,

enough

strong

to

the said travellers are

if

demand

it.

We

generally

brought our marketing transactions to a close by


scrambling a few handfuls of beads, handkerchiefs,
or wire

or

by

starting races, for which a handker-

chief or a small bell, fixed on the top of a tree or

a hut,
race

was the

and

The whole population would

prize.

fight for the prize, often bringing the

establishment, on the top

of which

pended, to the ground in their

efi'orts

was

it

sus-

to secure

it.

Having

established these relations with the natives,

we had

usually

little

paddle us on our

difficulty in getting

way

situated

among people

of the same tribe, or

a tribe friendly to our former host,

reputation had preceded us,

received with open arms.

the

other

and

all

side

to

to be

among

we found

that

and we were

Occasionally, however,

the question presented

itself,

did not proceed so smoothly, the trouble

usually arising through the disobedience of

men.

to

morning.

the following

camp the next evening happened

If our

our

men

On

one or two occasions when

my own
was on

shore arranging matters with the chief, and accom-

EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE

259

panied by only two or three of the Abyssinians,


canoes

several

sneaked

bank

the

into

down, and, led by the native paddlers

most natives, rob or murder


kin

without hesitation

and commenced

rear

many

their

took

lower

who,

own

like

kith and

the village in the

This placed

looting.

me

times in most uncomfortable and dangerous

positions, and,

though

made example

of several of

the worst blackguards, I had trouble almost to the

As soon

end of the chapter.


busi village

as

we got above Fam-

we found no more Waginia, the water

race here being called Waujabillio.


fine race

they are

tall,

And

a very

almost handsome, brown

men, w4th the most fantastic methods of dressing


the hair

though, curiously enough, the

pay attention to
I rarely

men only

this part of their appearance, "and

saw a woman who seemed to have taken

any trouble at
however,

all-

may have

we saw only

slaves

about her headdress.

This,

been owing to the fact that

the

free

women and

wives being kept out of the way.

chief's

The men wore

festoons of fetishes suspended round their necks

and

waists,

some of which, representing

figures of

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

26o

men and women, were

beautifully carved in ivory

or wart hogs' teeth.

They

all

wore round their

waists a piece of native cloth,

woven from palm

fibre,

fairly

called

They were armed with

madeba.

powerful

bows and

arrows,

the

arrows

being well made, barbed and tipped with iron, and


coated with poison.

This poison was not, however,

invariably fatal, probably owning to the fact that,

common with most

in

of the

have seen in the Congo Basin,

when not fresh.


transfixed

One

of

poisons I

it loses its

virulence

my men who had

his thigh

by an arrow, thickly coated with

called poison, did not die,


I

native

so-

though the only remedy

used was a drink of ammonia and water, with

a couple of drops of
of the wounds.

ammonia poured

into each

This pained him so much, and

stung his nose, throat, and eyes to such an extent


that he concluded the white man's medicine must

be more powerful than native poison, and so made

up

his

that

mind

to

live.

Almost every

"Waujabillio

saw carried a curious razor with a triangular

blade fixed on a handle, and stuck in a sheath

suspended from the waist-belt or neck.

These

EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE
razors were, for

some unaccountable reason, always

carried handle down, the blade being

tightly in the sheath that

it

Their carving in wood and ivory

and

some

was fortunate

ing-sticks,

curious

so

did not drop out.


is

really beautiful,

in beinsj able to o;et to

England

and axe handles, which are now

The houses of

Museum.
:

jammed

specimens in the shape of paddles, walk-

fine

British

261

this

in the

race

are

they are built of mud, and consist of two

rooms, the front one about seven feet square, and


the back one

which

is

the main part of the house

of

circular shape

The

entire hut is thatched, the circular portion

having a beehive
to.

and about ten

roof,

feet in diameter.

and the square part a

lean-

In the interior were always twenty or thirty

balks of timber thickly covered with soot.


of these

were evidently used as beds, but

the others served

Some

for

what

could never discover, though

the general idea in the caravan was that they were

used for forming platforms, on which to smoke


or flesh.

fish

This seems almost incredible, with the

far simpler alternative of using lighted sticks.

In

both the outer and inner rooms were placed raised

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

262

platforms of clay, about a yard long and two feet

On

wide, which served as fireplaces.

these hearths

three or four conical lumps of clay, shaped like an

and inverted, were

ordinary flower-pot

Three of these, placed close togetlier with

found.

the

fire

formed a capital stand

between,

This system

cooking-pot.

Lualaba and Lomami

is

shaped

ants' nests

and

b}^

for a

over the

all

In other parts of

common mushroomAll the

used for this purpose.

houses were infested


fearfully

common

districts.

the Concro I have seen the

were

always

myriads of

horribly

rats,

which

Enormous

tame.

numbers of them used, nightly, to swarm up and

down

the

more

than

sides

one

and descended

We

my

of

mosquito net, and

occasion

in a solid

broke

mass upon

the

me

eventually became so accustomed to

they ceased to disturb

musk

variety

the size of our

us, unless

is

they were of the

it

about

goes or whatever

infected with the stench of

days afterwards.

in bed.

drain rat, with the abominable

peculiarity that wherever

touches

strings

them that

grey long-nosed animal

own

on

One only

musk

it

for

of these rats in a hut,

EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE
I

if

did not succeed in catching

263

was

it,

sufficient

The

to necessitate a change of dwelling.

extra-

ordinary numbers of rats found in these districts


led

me

to suppose that the natives, unlike those of

other parts of the Congo Basin, do not

them

of

Once

use

as food.
free

increased

of the Waginias

and

that peoples and tribes

the Arabs are

our daily worries

with reason, for we were outside

the sphere of Arab influence.

civil

and

learned that the best

have always found

who have had

on their way.

One

to deal with

to

do with

obliging, having doubtless

way

get rid of both

to

pleasant and unpleasant visitors

we had

make

is

to help

them

of the most difficult people

was a chief named Kitenge,

a powerful and unruly vassal of a good-natured

timid old patriarch

named Kongolo, whom we

afterwards

Kitenge's headquarters were

visited.

on a large island

in the

middle of the

river.

The

greater part of this island was formed of a beautiful

white quartz, and the approach to

of the finest pieces of scenery

At the lower end

it

was one

have ever seen.

of the island were a series of

264
falls

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS


and rapids called Nyangi.

On

the left bank

of the river, at this point, a magnificent

quartz rose abruptly


blocks, piled

up into

cliflf

at the foot of which,

of

huge

fantastic shapes, stretched out

In the middle of the rapid a great

into the river.

cone-shaped block of quartz, thirty-five or forty

crowned with a

feet high, stood,

and two or three

trees,

and black eagles were


the

little

round which
circling.

grass plateau

flocks of white

On

the left side

rose sharply from the river bank,

hill -slope

forming almost perpendicular

cliff's

sparsely covered

with grass.

Kitenge promised us both food and


proceed on our journey, and
to starve

on the

island.

left

On

men

to

us without either,

the following day he

renewed his promises, but protested that he had


no

men handy

he had, he

said, sent for

some

to

the interior, but since he possessed neither boats

nor paddles we would have to lend him our


to bring the people from the mainland.
talking,

we saw

While so

three canoes quietly crossing over

to the lower end of the island.

engaged

own

Keeping the chief

in conversation, I despatched

some of

my

EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE
men with

265

orders to seize the canoes, which they

succeeded in doing and in bringing them up to

our end of the island,

much

to the chief's chagrin.

In one of the canoes was a fine


perhaps two
acceptable

hundred

canoes, Omarri the

weighing

pounds, which was very

hungry

the

to

cat-fish

With

troops.

interpreter

these

and a few men

crossed over to the mainland, the chief meanwhile

being detained by us on the island.


of hours they returned with

and we

started,

we

we wanted,

had, however, not seen the

Later in the day, as

of him.

passed a

that

under the impression that we had

done with Kitenge


last

all

After a couple

difficult piece

had just

of rapid, and was waiting

at the tail of the next one for

the

rest

of the

boats to come up, I saw the natives deliberately

overturn one canoe in the middle of the stream.

Though
as the
all

was

it

in

comparatively smooth water,

Kwangola were unable

The canoe fortunately contained

drowned.

only eight
Omarri,

men

one of whom was

who swam

suit of the

to swim, they were

natives.

the interpreter

ashore with his

From my

rifle

in pur-

perch on a rock

266
I

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

could of course do nothing, the roar of the cata-

ract above preventing

directions

The catastrophe occupied

shouted.

only a few seconds

anyone from hearing the

saw a head and two hands

appear, and the great river swept on, leaving no


sign of

what had taken

Omarri returned

place.

to me, but the native paddlers all disappeared into

the bush, and I saw none of

Towards evening we were


since there

was great

them
still

again.

in the rapids, and,

difficulty in getting

big canoe along, I joined

him

in

it.

Mohun's

At

dusk,

having only succeeded in getting half the canoe


over a ridge of rocks,

board and
in

the

swam

gloom.

all

the natives

jumped

to the shore half a mile

By an

away

unfortunate chance the

provisions and bedding had preceded us

other canoes, and

over-

we were

left

in

in

the

the unenvi-

able position of passing the night in a wet canoe,

worried by myriads of mosquitoes, hungry, and

drenched by a dense

fog.

The following morning

our servants, the interpreter, and the Abyssinians

returned and helped us out of the predicament


the remainder of our men, thinking themselves

EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE

267

quit of us, amusing themselves meanwhile to the

We

annoyance of the natives.

afterwards dis-

covered that Kongolo, to whose village we next

came

and who was grand chief of the whole


had given orders that we were not to be

district

His village was situated above

allowed to land.

the rapids, and when, in spite of his orders,

put

in our appearance, he

made the

best of

we

what

he considered to be a bad job, and treated us very


welh

From him we

tinue

paddling up the river for another three

learned that

we could

weeks without encountering any more


was probably not true, and
were unable to test

its

am

accuracy;

of March, four days afterwards,

mouth

of the Lukuga,

rapids.

con-

This

sorry that

for

we

on the 31st

we reached the

up which we turned.

Before

getting there I had rather an unpleasant experience.

At Kiembenema

village,

which was situated half a

mile from the shore on which


a

number

of

my men

broke loose and started

looting into the village.

complaining of

the

we were encamped,

The

chief

came

to

off

me

treatment his people were

receiving, but was pacified when, after following

268

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS


them the

the men, I took from

them

other things they had looted, and returned

One

to him.

of

my

rascals,

however, seeing the

position of affairs, bolted with his prey,


I

and

fowls, goats,

and when

came up with him dodged behind a bush.

breech-block snick as he opened

it.

heard

his

Springing through the bush with a revolver in


hand,

was just in time

him with the

to fell

butt-

end as he closed the breech and before he had

As he was

time to draw on me.


injured

by the blow,

rather badly

disarmed him and

let

him

continue the rest of the journey without further

The moral

punishment.
the

effect of this incident

men was very marked, and

there were never

afterwards any open signs of insubordination


I

on

when

was in the neighbourhood.

The Lukuga,
it,

or, as

the natives at

the Lumbridgi, was at this time

not

within

mark.

This

many
river

the Lualaba.

There

Lanchi, which

is

point.

Nor

is

feet

of

empties
is

the

its

mouth

call

early in April

highest

water-

itself directly

into

no sign whatever of Lake

marked

in so

there even

many maps

at this

a broadening of the

EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE
Lualaba which could be mistaken

269

for a lake either

We

above or below the mouth of the Lukuga.


found the mouth of the
partially blocked

river,

which here forked,

by a delta about

wide and a mile and a half long.

half a

The

mile

river above

the delta was about ten feet deep, with perfectly

and varied from a mile and a quarter

clear water,

to a mile in width, with the

Long

across.

portion of

about

its

it,

grass

was

same depth right

growing

in

great

and there were no signs of swamp

banks.

Some

miles

up the

river

we

were brought almost to a standstill by the grass,

which was
blocked

six or seven feet

all

being more

outlook.

above the water and

The water

at

this

point

than five or six feet deep, we had

great difficulty in paddling, poling, and pushing


the canoes through.

We

felt

absolutely lost in

this trackless wilderness of grass,

follow the course of the river

and could only

by going against

the current, the bank being completely hidden.

After several miles of this unpleasant travelling

we found an open

stretch

of water

yards wide, which led us up

to

the

about forty
village

of

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

270

has been suggested that,

Angoma.

It

growth of

this

rank grass and other vegetation,

together with the debris deposited in

dammed, and that

this

extraordinary

variation

been noticed

on

Winton

me

told

at Vivi, near the

rose over

Lukuga

the

water,

percolating

may

be a cause for the

the

of

level

mouth of the Congo, the


a single

feet in

bursting of a

the

great

down

dam

river

efifect

that a great

First,

this.

doubt

whether the

Lukuga would

the

sixteen

getting

hundred

miles

affect

lower

to the extent of raising its level fourteen

feet in a night
this

in

On

night.

in

with regard to

always open to

is

river

There are only two

lake had broken out above.


said

de

when he was

that in one year

report from Stanley Pool to the

it

which has
Francis

Sir

subsequent inquiry he succeeded

that

by the

it

sometimes

is

Tanganyika.

fourteen

things to be

by the

secondly, that

respect to Tanganyika

Lake Leopold

II.,

what applies

might

also

the latter lake

in

apply to

being

com-

paratively near to the coast.

When we

were in this neighbourhood the spur-

EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE
wing geese seemed

to be flocking preparatory to

For hours on end

migrating.

the largest flock of birds


river

and

271

paddled through

The

have ever seen.

river banks, islands,

and

plains, as far

as the eye could see, were literally covered with


geese,

and no other birds but geese were to be

seen.

We

reached M'Burri, or M'Bulli as the natives

(who cannot
it,

on the 4th of April.

point,

either
I

articulate the letter

am

This was the farthest

from the eastward on the Lukuga, to which

Thomson

or

Delcommune had

thankful to say that

until the exploration of the

river

" r ") pronounce

did not break

unknown

had been accomplished.

had been

feverish,

penetrated.

down

parts of the

For some days

and here became

delirious.

CHAPTER XVI
THE RETURN JOURNEY TO THE COAST

On

Mohun

the 11th of April Mr.

of the expedition, and returned

hoping to get

me

took

command

down

the river,

back to Kasongo

alive,

where

there was some chance of finding the necessary

The very

medicines and light food.

(when landing on a
clifi"

first

night

of sand under a high

strip

covered with bush) the natives attacked us,

under the impression

that

we were

afraid

to

proceed, and were not really so strong as they

had
I

first

thought us when going up the

was too weak to

sit

up,

the skirmish raged around

and

I could get

and lay

river.

helpless while

everyone was engaged,

no information as to what was

happening even on the sandbank, on the edge of

which

my

canoe was drawn up.

natives being driven

oft',

It

ended in the

leaving some prisoners, as

well as their dead and dying, in Mohun's hands.


272

THE RETURN JOURNEY


To each

of the prisoners he gave a present,

them

dismissed
explain to

and

the morning after trying to

in

them that we had not come there

When we

fight.

273

Lualaba we

got back to the

many

found that the waters had risen


a consequence, were

able

to

to

feet,

and, as

down many

shoot

of the rapids, which would otherwise have neces-

The journey

sitated disembarking to negotiate.

was not a pleasant one

to me, for besides being

and being unable to eat

ill

which was

goat's flesh,

the staple food, I was several times more than


half

drowned by the canoe

Of the

shooting the rapids.

have

little recollection.

filling

with water in

rest of the

journey

We reached Kasongo on the

25th of April, to find that Baron Dhanis had gone

down
and

the river to Stanley Falls on his

my

was

Tanganyika

carried

to

examination found that he was


abscess in his liver.

the next day,

when

This set
a

little

a dying

in

him,

and on

sufl'ering

from an

see

me

thinking

rested

after

journey, on examining myself as well as


18

great friend, the Chevalier de Wouters

d'Oplinter, arrived from

condition.

way home

and
the

could,

274
I

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

found that

complaint.

also

was suffering from the same

There was, however, nothing to be

we were without instruments

done, as

and even

had we possessed them, there was no one near us


of using

capable

two

days

three

or

Lothaire,

my

condition with me, decided

had better try

below Stanley
There was

Falls,

still

to get

my

keeping

down

to

Basoko,

where there was a doctor.

a chance that

in time to be operated on

on

Commandant

afterwards.

whose kindness nothing could exceed,

on talking over
that

Poor de Wouters died

them.

alive, in

could get there

but since

it

depended

the weak condition I had

been in for three weeks, the chance was a small one.


I,

however, agreed with him that

to take

it,

was better

together with the risks of the road.

Commandant
to

it

Rom

Lothaire despatched Captain

convoy me, and, notwithstanding

and worries of looking

all

after a sick

only say that he treated

me

as if I

the trials

man,

can

had been a

brother instead of a stranger and a foreigner.

On

the 29th of April, two days after the death

of poor de Wouters, I left Kasongo, comfortably

THE RETURN JOURNEY


installed in the big canoe I
I arrived at

have already mentioned.

Nyangwe on

on our remaining

the 1st of May.

who was

Lieutenant Lemerie,

for

275

in

command,

Here
insisted

two or three days, urging

that the cows' milk he had succeeded in obtaining

from the herd at Nyangwe would go a long way


towards giving

He

had, after

me

strength to bear the journey.

many

difficulties

was practically wild

cattle

for the

succeeded

herd of

in getting

sixteen cows that were possible to milk, and had

He was

established a dairy.

very proud of being

able to

make

butter,

sixteen

cows

gave him only enough cream to

make

though the milk from the

three or four ounces of butter a day.

had until then always been an accepted theory


the Congo, that, owing to the climate,
possible to

milk.

in

was im-

butter either from cows' or goats'

This idea had most probably originated

from the
climate

make

it

It

fact that the milk, partly

owing to the

and partly to the rank vegetation on

which the animals

feed, contains so little fat that

no one had before succeeded


quantity from

which

it

in getting a sufficient

was possible

to

extract

276

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

enough, cream, before


result at

became

get any

solid, to

all.

From Nyangwe
deal,

it

Riba Riba

to

suffered a great

my

but on arriving there the abscess in

my

burst successfully, and so saved

tenant

Rue was

on the

Lieu-

life.

and had

established at Riba Riba,

built three or four houses

liver

site of

the old

town, which was burnt by the natives after the

Arabs had

left,

Captain Chaltin
here

that

and

many months
and

Miserera

established as

Arab

chiefs,

the arrival of

before

just

before.

It

was

other Beloochies,

the

had flogged Noblesse and

Michels to death, afterwards cutting them up and


dividing

them among

were the only two


expedition

their slaves for food.

officers

who were

of Hodister's ill-fated

unfortunate enough to

into the hands of the Arabs alive.

only

relics

of the original town

pointed out to

me

These

as

the

identical

crusher to which these wretched

while being tortured to death.

left

One

fall

of the

intact

was

sugar-cane

men were bound

Of the

instigators

of the outrages, Mohara, the great chief of

Nyangwe

(who had ordered the extermination of the white

THE RETURN JOURNEY

277

men), was killed by us in battle on the 9th of

January
of

Riba

was

Riba,

of

battle

Boina Losa, one of the

1892;

the

Miserera and

26th
his

the 9th of

by

1892

district

trial

May we

in

and

were taken prisoners at

son

by Baron Dhanis.

arrived

Kirundu,

at

He had

where we found Dhanis established.


found the

the

in

us,

February

of

Kirundu, and hanged after

On

killed

also

chiefs

so disturbed

a state that,

instead of starting direct for Europe, he had re-

mained behind to

arranoje matters.

With him

spent a most delightful though painful evening,


for he,

should have one more

died,

gave such a ridiculous

determined that

good laugh before

description of his doings, and of the state of the


district,

that

evening.

have

It

been

he

kept

me

laughing

the

whole

proved the best thing that could

done,

for

the

constant

shaking,

appears, so effectively emptied the abscess that

it

got rapidly better from that day forward.


It

was

at

Kirundu that retribution overtook

most of the murderers of Emin Pasha and

Mohara

of

Nyangwe

had,

after

the

his

men.

murder of

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

273

Hodister
all

the

and

men

white

accompanied

orders

that

dominions were to

his

Arab

young

educated

in

an intelligent

Said-ben-a-Bedi,

be slaughtered.
well

company, given

his

(who

chief

Emin Pasha from

had

Equatorial

the

province, through the great forest, to within two


days'

march of the Lualaba,

in the neighbourhood

of Kirundu), received orders through Kibungi, the

murder the Pasha.

chief of Kirundu, to

of doing so, he immediately

went

to

begged of Mohara to spare Emin's

Instead

Nyangwe and
life.

The old

tyrant was, however, immovable in his determination,

and Said returned,

to save

Emin on

his

yet a day or two


his

still

own

hoping to be able

responsibility.

from Kirundu, Kibungi and

company took upon themselves

Mohara's orders.

When

to carry out

Emin Pasha and

his

soldiers

were shown every mark of friendship, and treated


with the greatest hospitality,
they

was

may have
lulled.

entertained

till

any suspicion

towards their host

After establishing relations of trust

between Emin and his caravan, each individual

being

surrounded by a

little

group of appar-

THE RETURN JOURNEY


ently the most friendly persons
signal, slaughtered

as I can

was, at

where he stood.

remember,

is

279

a given

This, so far

the story told

me by

to

two or three members of Emin's harem

we
was

At the

rescued.

Said-ben-a-Bedi

any participation

in

Emin's

he having apparently done

all

in

acquitted

murder,

tribunal,

whom

of

power to save him.

Eleven of those

his

actually

concerned in the massacre, together with Miserera

and

his son,

Kirundu

were hanged the same morning at

for the

murder of Noblesse and Michels.

Kibungi himself escaped into the great


it

was not

until nearly nine

months

forest,

and

later that

was caught by Captain Lothaire, and

tried

he

by

court-martial and shot.

We

reached Stanley Falls on the 15th of May,

and the same

day Captain Cock arrived from

With him

Stanley Pool in the Ville de Bruges.


I

went down to Basoko, where the doctor inclined

to think that, though out of danger,

able for

me

to return to

time, to recruit.

it

was advis-

Europe without

loss of

Captain Jasen arriving with his

ship a few days after, I took a passage with

him

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

28o

to Stanley Pool.

by the
river

that,

fact

from Stanley

was much struck on the way


the farther

Falls, the

we descended

more savage, uncouth,

and dirty the natives seemed to


on the main

though Bomba,

be,

the only place where the

river, is

Arriving at Leo-

natives are absolutely naked.


poldville

found myself so much

better,

since both doctors

had told me

the responsibility

might return to Stanley

decided to do

the

My

so.

that

chose to take

if I

Falls,

good friend Captain

Jasen was taking his ship up to the Falls again


so

after

him,

not

Dhanis,

few

days'

caring

campaign

and

some work to

go

to

who had

rest

also

embarked

home

been through the whole

Our voyage

do.

Baron

without

that

considered

still

with

he

had

to Stanley Falls

was, excepting for one small scrimmage with the

To

natives in Itimberie, uneventful.


disgust I

while

found, on

we were

arriving at

way home.

him awaited me with

orders

once, he having heard on his

A
to

immense

the Falls, that,

in the Itimberie River,

passed us on his

my

Dhanis had

despatch from
join

way down

him

at

that I

THE RETURN JOURNEY


had gone up

again.

This

281

was only too delighted

and we joined him at Stanley Pool

to do,

Jasen

having made a record passage from Stanley Pool


to the Falls

and back, including a

trip to

After a few days at Stanley Pool,

in thirty days.

spent in organising a caravan, the

and

Ibembo,

started

for the

coast,

in

Commandant

company with

Monseigneur van Aertzlaer, and Pere de Deken,


the celebrated Asiatic traveller of the Belgian-

Chinese African Mission.

On

arriving at

special

train

Congo de Lemba we found a

awaiting our arrival.

I,

however,

preferred to continue the march, rather than trust

myself to the railway in

its

then insecure state

and having arrived at Matadi a couple of days


later,

on the 1st of September 1894, a few weeks

afterwards took ship for Europe.

NOTES
Note on Cannibalism
Tlie

Manyema

country, which was

campaign,

of the Belgian

lies

the Arab centre at Zanzibar

settlement at the

mouth

the

scene

mid-way between
and

the

of the Congo.

Belgian
Living-

stone, in his endeavours to find the Great River

of which the Arabs brought


first

European to

cross

him word, was the


and it was

Many em aland

under the protection of a party of Arab slavetraders that he entered the country in the year

1869.

Travelling with the Arabs, and compelled

to follow their erratic course, he was enabled,

by

the delays this involved, to observe more closely

would otherwise have

than
habits

of the

people.

propensities of the

and

been

Though the

Manyema were

possible

the

cannibalistic

well

known,

a subject of great terror to his followers, it

was some time before Livingstone himself accepted


the fact, and

it

was with great reluctance that he

NOTES
became convinced that

283

was the

their cannibalism

outcome of gourmandise, and, from whatever cause


it

might originally have

resulted,

had then

little

to

do either with religious ceremony or with supersti-

The Manyema

tion.

of eating

human

flesh,

" saltish in flavour,

though certain

freely admitted their practice

which they described as

and requiring

little

parts, such as the heart,

condiment,"

were some-

times mixed up in a mess of goat's flesh

one occasion, after a

fight,

and on

Livingstone saw the

bodies " cut

In

up and cooked with bananas."


summing up the question of cannibalism,

Livingstone finally came to the conclusion that,

amongst the Manyema

at

any

rate,

a depraved

appetite could alone account for the custom, since

the country was rich and

and

farinaceous),

full

of foods (both animal

and starvation, or want of animal

matter, could not be urged as a defence.


yet," said

race

"

And

Livingstone, " they are a fine-looking

would back a company of Manyema men

to be far superior in shape of head, and generally


in physical
logical

form

Society.

light-coloured

The
less a

too, against the

Many

whole Anthropo-

women

of the

are very

and very pretty."

practice of cannibalism

would seem to be

matter connected with civilisation than the

result of a definite perversion of taste

and

it

is

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

284

frequently the case that cannibal races are less


cruel

and bloodthirsty than many

dicted to the practice.

Five Years

tribes not ad-

Mr. Herbert Ward, in his

Congo Cannibals, says

tvith the

must not be supposed that the cannibal

" It

tribes of

the interior are altogether brutal in every action


of

life.

On

the contrary,

have observed more

frequent traits of affection for wife and children

among them than are exhibited in the conduct of


domestic affairs among the people of the lower, or
Ba Congo, country, Avho are not cannibals, nor addicted to the shedding of blood, save in religious

matters."

note

on the " Origin and Distribution of

Cannibalism
July

"

Geographical Jouryial for

in the

1893 says, that while some writers have

attributed the origin of cannibalism to religious

motives,

others

consider

that " hunger was the

original incentive to the practice,

which was

after-

wards persisted in from choice, the superstitious

and

religious

aspects

being later

developments.

Cannibalism seems to have prevailed to a considerable extent

of Europe, and

among the
still

that no traces of

it

more

primitive inhabitants

in America.

The

fact

have been found dating back

to palaeolithic times, while the lower animals rarely

devour their own

species,

seems to show that a

NOTES

285

was

certain degree of intelligence

With

this

may

that the custom

is

attained.

most prevalent among

by a certain

distinguished

first

be compared the remark of Peschel,

While instances of

social

resort to

tribes

advance.

human

stition that

enemy
his

most

to be the well-known super-

by eating the heart or other part of an

to which

prowess

flesh as food

in times of famine are widely diff'used, the

common motive seems

the practice

Central America

Polynesia and

In

acquired.

is

often restricted

is

in

occurs most frequently in con-

it

nection with religious

rites.

In the former region,

special preference is given to the eye of the victim.

Human

sacrifices,

cannibalism.

however, do not always lead to

While

in

many cases the

relatives especially is eaten, this

abhorrence

human

among

women."

flesh to

was viewed with

who

the Maoris,

flesh of

also forbade

E, C.

M.

Note on Gongo Lutete's Bodyguard


Gongo

Lutete's bodyguard

consisted of about

600 men, who, as the only members of


people in
privileges.

whom

he could place

day or two

all

his

trust, held special

after the execution of

Gongo, these men, who were devoted to their

showed a disposition to avenge

his execution.

chief,

For

286
his

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS


own

safety,

and the greater security of the

Lieutenant Scherlink despatched them to

station,

Lusambo, and from thence on to Luluaburg, since


it

was thought that outside

would be

less likely to

I arrived at

their

own

cause trouble.

N'Gandu from Nyangwe on the day

on which they were ordered to leave


at their

people,

whom

man and

and, angry

they

had

the rest of Gongo's

with

ruled

As they marched out

severity.

few,

power being broken, they vowed vengeance

against the white

fired

they

district

of

brutal

N'Gandu they

on the townspeople, killing and wounding a

and shouting through the

streets that they

would come back some day and would

kill

and eat

everyone they found there.


Shortly after their arrival at Luluaburg, they

were enlisted as soldiers in the State

service,

and

in this capacity distinguished themselves for intelli-

gence, willingness, and pluck against a rebellious


slave-raiding tribe in the Kasai district.

Some two years


murdering their

later they revolted, and, after

officers

at

Luluaburg, marched

through the country, killing white


ing natives,

till

men and

raid-

eventually, having raised the whole

country against the Government, they arrived at

N'Gandu.

mandant

In the battles that followed,


Lothaire

and

Captain

Doorme

Comwere


NOTES
wounded, and many

287

officers,

including Lieuten-

ants Collet, Franken, Augustin, and Sandrad, and


also

Said-ben-a-Bedi

assistance

were

who

killed.

came

to

Lothaire's

Captain Collignon died

was drowned

of fever, and Captain Bauduin

Stanley Pool.

S.

L.

in

H.

Note on Exploration of Section of Lualaba


River by Captain Hinde
As the geographical aspect of Captain Hinde's
work has been somewhat hurriedly dealt with in
his account of the Belgian campaign, the follow-

ing epitome of a paper entitled

" Three

Years'

Travel in the Congo Free State," read before the

Royal Geographical Society on 11th March 1895,


is

given

Towards the

close

of the campaign I received

orders to survey the Lualaba

and Lukuga, from the

neighbourhood of Kasongo upwards.

was successfully accomplished as


6th March 1894.

It will

This mission

far as M'Bulli

on

be remembered that the

river below Kasongo had been explored by Stanley,

and that the Lukuga

and by others since

his time,

from Tanganyika as

far as M'Bulli

had been made

known by Thomson and Delcommune.


therefore,

My

was to connect the surveys of

work,

Thomson

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

288

and Delcommune with those of Stanley and

his

successors.

The United States commercial agent, Mr. Mohun,


obtained leave to accompany me.

The journey up the


Leopoldville to

river

from the

coast,

by

Lusambo on the

the station of

Sankuru, has been frequently described, and

need

only draw attention to one or two points concerning the path from Matadi up to Stanley Pool

way which

is

now

so far a

made road that

there are

bridges over most of the rivers, and the pathway


is

cleared

of trees

and

all

large

obstructions.

Shelters have been built at intervals of three hours

The

over the whole distance.


for the carriage of

and kindred

tribes.

There

is

between these people and the


Arabs

in

the

Manyema

slaves, forced to

diet

lb.

marked

difference

carriers used

district

the

by the

latter are

work, but fed on a sufficient meat

the former are free men, but indifferently

nourished.

90

porters employed

goods belong to the Manyanga

The Manyemas

without

much

are able to carry 80 or

difficulty,

while the

Man-

yangas are rarely equal to a burden of more than


60

lb.

After three months spent in the neighbourhood


of Stanley Pool, I received instructions to proceed
to the district of Lualaba on the Sankuru.

I left

NOTES

289

Stanley Pool in the Stanley, with 500 soldiers and

and

porters,

the

mouth

were now

bought

after four days'

steaming we reached

of the Kasai, up which

in the land of plenty.

we

We

turned.

Goats could be

for a handful of blue beads, or for cloth or

Wood

handkerchiefs if blue.
difficult

to obtain,

for the

steamer was

the edge of the forest being

from the river bank, and

usually a mile or so

we repeatedly steamed a whole day without being


able to replenish our stock.
The marshes and
grassy plains along the river border, and the sand-

banks and islands


with

game

there

pelicans, geese,

occasion

in its course, literally

were vast

of

flocks

and many other

species.

we counted 230 hippopotami

when we were passing

egrets,

On

one

in a line,

The Kasai

looking like a ridge of black rocks.


natives seem to be dangerous.

teemed

On several occasions

close to the land, at points

where the scrub on the banks was sufficiently thick


to hide them, the natives fired into the steamer
with arrows and muskets, apparently from pure
love of mischief

for,

at the time of

speaking, there had not been enough


river for steamers to

which

traffic

am

on the

have given general cause of

quarrel.

After twenty -two days' steaming

Benabendi
19

the

Belgian

we

arrived at

Commercial Company's

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

290

station,

where the Sankuru joins the Kasai.

Three

years ago this was the only station on the Kasai,

though at the present moment there

are, I believe,

fourteen belonging to different companies.

We

now turned from

the racing Kasai to the

whose banks,

placid Sankuru,

in

marked contrast

to those of the Kasai, are clothed with forest to the

water's edge.

At

a single station

this

time the Sankuru was without

there

are

now twelve

stations

engaged in the collection of large quantities of


indiarubber.

Ten days more

of steaming took us to Lusambo,

the capital of the Lualaba district, situated, according to Lemarinel, in 23 east longitude, latitude 4
south.

The

station

is

built

on a sandy

plain,

on

mouth
check the Arab

the right bank of the Sankuru, opposite the


of the Lubi, and was founded to

advance from the


of 13 white

having been

east.

It consisted of a garrison

men and 400


little

black soldiers.

fighting, the

There

whole station had

been occupied for two years in making large plantations of cassava,

maize, and

rice,

which were in

such splendid condition that the station was

self-

supporting.

The Stanley had brought up orders

for

the

despatch of an exploring expedition to Katanga,

and

was at once directed by the Commandant to

NOTES

291

join the caravan, which consisted of 7 officers (white

men), 300

and 200

porters, besides camp


The Commandant himself
Each of the seven officers had

soldiers,

and women.

followers

took command.

three trained bulls to ride, which eventually served

on the road.

for food

We

17th July for Pania Mutumba's

started on

village, three days'

the Sankuru,

we marched up

an extensive
wild

march from Lusambo.

forest, in

we

coflfee

every part of which were

Congo

is

so abundant,

and so

In

have

forest I

days south-eastwards to

excellent, that

Mona

found practically no food on the road


of this

district,

devoid alike of

all

visited,

For

our tins of imported coffee unopened.

left

five

bank through

its left

indiarubber, and elephants.

coffee,

parts of the virgin

wild

Crossing

Chellios

we

the vacancy

men and

food,

having been created by slave-raiders in Tippu Tib's


employ.

Two

or three hours

eastward,

beyond Mona

we came on two

freshly constructed,

Chellios, to the

villages in

clearings,

and inhabited by Baquas, or

pygmies, from the surrounding

Immediately beyond the

forest.

last

dwarf

village

we

came to the Lubefu, an extremely rapid stream 200


yards wide, which took the caravan two days to
cross.

The water was

at this time red, a small

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

292

higher

tributary

wliidi

up,

through red

flows

At this point, ambassadors


us from Gongo Lutete with proposals

clay, being in flood.

came

to

and

peace,

of

him

visit

requesting

at his capital,

Dhanis decided to do

man to
Commandant

white

the

N'Gandu.

at the cost of a long

so,

deviation north-north-east from the direct road to

Katanga.

Among

the

hills,

about four hours' march from

Mulenda on the Ludi, we found a small

This lake

lake of about a mile in diameter.

supposed by the natives to be haunted.


say, dangerous to sleep near

in

it,

drink of

and, thanks to this superstition,

by two

of the largest bull

a subsequent occasion

drank of

it,

and bathed

without any

We

It
it,

it is

is,

is

they

or bathe

inhabited

hippopotami

The water of the lake

ever seen.

On

it,

circular

have

perfectly pure.

is

many

of our people

in it for a couple of days,

ill eff'ects.

halted for a

month

at

N'Gandu, at the end

of which period, leaving a post with two ofiicers

behind

us,

we resumed our march towards Katanga,

following the ridge of the watershed between the

Lomami and

the Lubefu.

We

passed the

Two

Mountains, seen from a distance by Wissmann.

Seen from a point a mile away,


sible to believe that

it is

one of them

almost impos-

is

not a castle

NOTES

293

by human hands, the vast square blocks of

built

grey rock having


After six

days'

Lupungu's

all

the look of old masonry.

march we arrived

capital,

at

Kabinda,

at

which point Dhanis was

obliged to return to Lusambo.

Kabinda
built

on a

is

hill.

in 6 south

and 24 35'

east,

Its chief industry is the

native cloth out of palm

fibre.

and

is

making of

Pieces of this cloth,

about eighteen inches square, called Madebas, serve


as

money

at

Kasongo on the Lualaba, where there

are no palms.

Iron

also a source of riches to

is

these people, and some of their


ful,

especially

work

is

the axes and arrow

hunted and shot in

very beauti-

heads.

this neighbourhood,

We

and found

that the Lukassi, a tributary of the Lomami, dis-

covered by Wissmann, rises in a lake about twelve


miles south of Kabinda.

about two miles square,

For

six

This lake, though only

is full

of hippopotami.

weeks we encamped

described by

Cameron, on the

in
left

the

swamps

bank of the

Lualaba, opposite to Nyangwe.

On

returning to Kasongo

received instructions

to try to discover a road from Kasongo,

by water

if

Lake Tanganyika, the caravan road


by Kabambari being one full of difficulties. The
United States commercial agent, Mr. Mohun, had

possible, to

requested to accompany me, and

had orders

to

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

294
assist

him

any way

in

my

in

power, since he was

anxious to get through to Zanzibar.

We started on
at a

16th March and struck the Lualaba

commanding

Kasongo

bluff just below the first of the

Here we managed

rapids.

We

twelve canoes.

to

obtain

the rapids, and

pulled up

stopped at Luntumba's, on the

left

bank,

country we passed being low and

rich,

and

The

vated by the Arabs.

was very

fine,

running

river

the

culti-

above the rapids

like the tail of a mill-race

Twenty minutes' above Lunwe came to other rapids, through

several miles.

for

tumba's village

This they

which the natives dragged our canoes.

did by attaching creepers to the canoes, by which

means sixty

one up the rapids.


the

fall

men

or seventy

to be about

hauled them one by

one place

In

twenty

feet.

calculated

The rocks

second series of rapids are dark in

in this

tint, in places

nearly black, and streaked with deep red.


are very rich in iron

much

so

day our compasses were of no


twenty yards in a straight

line,

They

so that all this


use.

In going

with no rock visible

above the water, the needle would turn halfway

round the box.


Immediately

above

bank by the Lulindi.

second

the

Lualaba, here a mile wide,

is

rapids,

the

joined on the right

In the upper angle formed

NOTES

295

by the Lualaba and Lulindi

are fine mountains,

covered with forest, and called the Mountains of

Bena
is

Twiti.

Some

distance higher up, the Lualaba

joined by another tributary from the east

the

Between the Luama and the Lulindi the

Luama.
main

river describes a right angle, flowing west-

ward

to the village of Sekabudi, then northwards

We

to the confluence of the Lulindi.

the

left

bank of the Luama,

camped on

this river at its con-

fluence with the Lualaba being about

250 yards

On

wide, with a very rapid current.

the right

bank of the Luama the Mountains of Bena Twiti


seem

to be about ten miles distant.

more small

rivers

on the right bank

and the Kalambija

came

to

the Kasima

the rapids

of

These rapids were formed by a whitish

M'Toka.
rock,

we

two

Passino;

which broke up the river into small streams.

The main current was about 100 yards

wide,

churned into froth, and apparently not very deep.

The

difficulty of seeing the banks,

the course of the river,

what

its

made

exact width here was

it
;

and of following

impossible to say

but

should think

that from the mainland on the one hand to the

mainland on the other must be about two miles,

though
the

this would, to a great extent,

season.

We

some hippopotami

saw large
here.

depend on

flocks of geese

The mountains,

and
com-

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

296

mencing about a mile from the

river

the next

side, are, as far as

bank on
called

falls,

either

Simbi

they are not very high, and are thickly wooded.

we

After having ascended these rapids

Mutetele
the

here the Lualaba narrows, and just above

we could

mountains to the

see high blue

south-west, apparently about twenty miles

of these mountains,

now

was of a curious shape


with

From

not more than 100 yards across.

falls is

this point

arrived at

called

Mount

something

like

President,

an elephant

Enormous

head pointing eastwards.

the

quantities of geese

and duck were

One

off.

shot, with

which

Palm-trees were fairly

the entire caravan was fed.

common, though the natives refused to give us


palm wine, alleging, as the excuse, that it was
habitually stolen by the elephants.

At the

falls

of Simbi the

native chief

Tamwe

had a couple of hundred men ready, when we

The natives

arrived, to haul us up.

were

kind

very

anxious to get

narrowed
thickly

probably
rid

of

considerably

wooded, and

numbers of

because

the

there

river

a mile from the river side.

were

banks

were

seemed to be large

buffalo on the plains.

only 200 to 300 feet high,

they

The Lualaba here

us.

at this place

The

hills

were

and commenced about

The

from 100 to 200 yards wide,

is

river itself varies

very rapid, and

NOTES

297

When

has a rocky bottom.

fullest it is evidently at least

and deep enough to cover

the river

is

at its

400 yards in width,

Palm-

the rocks.

all

trees abound, but natives are scarce, this country

having frequently been raided in days gone by.

At the top

of the rapids

we came

of Fambusi, at which point there


it is

is

to the village

a sort of pool

The

not a lake, but a mere broad in the river.

mountains are wooded, and are covered with game,

and grassy plains run

for

about two or three miles

The natives here are


the Waujabillio, and speak a dialect

inland from the river banks.

new

of a

race,

of the Batetele language.

Here, at Fambusi,

we

saw the elephant-like Mount President, about twenty


miles

off,

For the next three hours

to the westward.

We

then

saw, for the

first

the river was not difficult of navigation.

came

to fresh rapids,

time,

a quantity of grey plover, and also

flocks of wild geese,

the

caravan.

We

where

large

which were very acceptable to


slept

in

the villages of the

Waujabillio.

The next

rapids were those of Lukalonga, formed

of dark-coloured rocks.

was a very large

In the middle of the river

island, thickly

settlement of a vassal of Sefu's.

populated by a

There we arrived

on 23rd March, and were told that


last point at

which the Arabs had

this

posts.

was the

We went

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

298

The country

on to Kinsali, and then to Kufi.

seemed very thickly populated in this

district,

having apparently never been raided.

Forests

came down to the river banks, in which enormous


To the east,
troops of monkeys were to be seen.
apparently about ten miles ofif, were some very fine
This stretch of the river

mountains.

is

about one

mile wide at high water, not improbably two miles


if

the grass islands be included.

of the river

The next reach

came from the westward, with very


left bank, and was free

high mountains on the

from rapids, very slow, and apparently very deep.


I

found no bottom at thirty-five

We

passed the

mouth

feet.

of the Mukalli, an appar-

ently insignificant tributary, on the

right

bank.

In the angle between the left bank of the Mukalli

and the Lualaba there was a high range of


and here the rapids again began.

up them
difficult

less

for

many

one called

than

we came
Nyangi. The fall
hours

fifteen feet.

hills,

After working
to a specially

here cannot be

curious cone-shaped rock,

about forty feet high, apparently of white quartz,


juts out in the middle of the river, on both sides of

which are enormous blocks of quartz, while on the


left

bank

We
solid

is

cliff"

of quartz about ninety feet high.

camped on an
block

island,

which seemed to be a

of quartz, with

only scrubby grass

NOTES
growing on
the chief

This island

it.

who owns

it,

and

is

299
called Kitenge, after

is

about three miles long,

and from half a mile to a mile wide.

We
after

had great trouble with the natives here, and,

working

all

day to make an advance of three-

quarters of a mile, Kitenge refused us food, and

was very

ferocious.

we should have

From our

position on an island

my men

starved, but that

were

fortunate enough to catch a cat-fish weighing 200

"We had further

difficulties

when we

left,

lb.

for the

chief

would

When

at last w^e got started, w^e found the country

find

us

canoes

neither

nor men.

very thickly populated, the people turning out in

thousands to see us
in this region,

off".

Kongolo, the great chief

had apparently given orders that we

were not to proceed.

Our paddlers

was impossible to mount the


the impossibility,
to

do

so.

it

rapids, but, despite

we succeeded

Kongolo's

told us that

in persuading

village

was

them

situated

at

the head of the rapids, where the river forms a

we were
told that there were no more rapids, and that we
could travel for three weeks or a month up the
pool,

and looks almost

like a lake

here

Lualaba without finding any obstruction.


sorry I could not verify this

but

it is

am

probably

not true.

We now paddled for a couple of days past islands.

300

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

the stream running only about two knots an hour.

As

far as

followed

we

could see into the interior, village


the

village,

river

banks being densely

covered with people, brought out by curiosity to


see the white

Jambulus,

They were

man.

a fine race called

fairly well clad in native cloth, the hair

men being arranged fantastically in various


Two splendid ranges of hills rose, one on

of the
forms.

each bank of the Lualaba

those on the right bank

Muambo, and those on the left bank


As the people speak a bastard Batetele,

are called

Kaloni.

which we could not understand,


these are not the

it is

names of the mountains

but only those of the chiefs of the

On

the 31st

we came

Lukuga, which form a


is

possible that

to

delta.

at

all,

districts.

the mouths of the

The northern mouth

about thirty yards wide, the southern about eighty

The

yards.

latter has a

The

very rapid current.

Lualaba, at the confluence with the Lukuga,

is

about

400 yards wide, and about half a mile higher must


be nearly a mile wide.

It runs in the direction

north 20 west for several miles, and there


sign whatever of
so

many

of the

maps.

Lake Lanchi, which

is

is

no

marked on

The Lualaba runs from the mouth

Lukuga southward, and

is

so straight that,

except for a few palm-tops, sky and water touch


at

the horizon.

As soon

as

we got

into

the

NOTES
Lukuga, the natives told us
water.

This

is

301

was Tanganyika

this

interesting, since I see Mr. H. H.

Johnston has said that he has never been able


to find

any natives who

Tanganyika by

call

its

name.

The Lukuga above the

delta

is

about ten

feet

deep, and was at this season perfectly clear, vary-

ing from one and a quarter to a mile wide, with the

same depth right

long grass growing in

swamp about

its

across.
it.

banks.

great part of

it

had

There was no sign of

Some

miles up

we were

blocked by grass, but were able to follow the


course of the river by going against the current,

though we could not see the banks.


or four miles through the grass

After three

we came

stretch of water forty yards wide.

to an open

The whole

ex-

panse of water from bank to bank was about a


mile.

We

stopped at a village called Angoma.

The country

is

very densely populated, but the

people did not seem to


Arabs.

They speak

language, which a

whom we

know anything about

a kind of patois of the Batetele

man from Lusuna,

had with

the

us,

in the Malela,

could understand.

We

reached M'Bulli (passed by Delcommune a year and


a half previously) on the 5th, and here I was taken
ill.

Opposite M'Bulli was a high range of hills, which

seemed

to

grow higher towards the

east.

M'Bulli

302

THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS

told

me

that he sent his ivory to be sold at Tan-

ganyika, a journey of six days.

Mr.
tion,

Mohun

here took

command

of the expedi-

and returned down the river to Kasongo.


S. L.

H.

INDEX
Anti-slavery Society, 246
Arab attacks upon the
forces, 143,

Baluba, people, 79, 80, 81, 94


Banana, town of, 28
State

144

Arab bomas, 100, 101, 102


Arab camp, explosion in, 241
Arab fortifications (see Bomas),

Basongo, people, 62, 63


Batetela, people, 89, 90
Bats, 56

Batwa, dwarf people, 82

100, 101, 102

Arab
Arab

Bangala, people, 51, 52, 53, 55


Basoko, camp at, 215

18

habits, 201

Belgians,

1, 5, 6,

prisoners, 183

Belgians,

King Leopold

Arabs, 7, 13, 216


Arabs, appearance of, at N'Ganda,

28

Benaljendi,

trading-station

of,

289

111

Arabs at Stanley Falls, 215


Arabs at Zanzibar, 1, 2
first encounter with, 113
Arabs, encounter with, at Kasongo Luakilla, 133, 134

Arabs,

Arabs, flight
Falls,

ii. of,

Belgians, erection of forts by, 18

of,

from Stanley

Bena Musua, 232, 233, 235, 243


Bena Twiti, Mountains of, 295
Benga, Corporal, 112, 113, 116
Berlin Congress, 21
Boina Loisi, Arab chief, 215
Boma, town of, 29

Bomas, Arab, 100, 101, 102

216

Arab rising at Nyangwe, 173


Arab soldiers, 24
Arab trade-routes, 3, 7
Arab usurpation, 18

Boy companies,

126, 127
Burton, Sir Richard, 4

Bwana, N'Zigi,

Augiistin, Lieutenant, 217, 287

B
Bagamoyo, 3
Bakuba, Sankuru water-people,
70
Baldwin, Lieutenant, 247

15, 16, 234, 238,

244, 245

C
Cameron, Commander,
124, 293

4, 11, 65,

Cannibalism, 65, 60, 67, 68, 69,


118,

119, 124, 131, 135,

283, 284, 285

175,

INDEX

304
Cannibals, Baluba, 79

Cannibals, Bangala, 52, 53, 54


Cannibals, Basongo, 62, 63, 64, 65

Cannibals, Batetela, 89, 90

Canoes, native, 70, 71, 252


Caravan, description of, 30, 31,
32, 33, 34,

35

Caravan road,

35, 36, 37

Cassar, Lieutenant, 140, 142, 143,

Dhanis Baron (Commandant),


at Kirundu, 277
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant),
attack on Nyangwe by, 1 70, 171
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant),
arrival at Lusuna, 123
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant),
Congo
against
campaign
Lutete by, 61
Dhanis, Baron

144
Cerkel,

Sergeant, 95, 111, 142,

officers by,

169, 181, 196

Chaltin,

Commandant,

170, 215,

Infernal, 30

of,

Congo

Forest, 291

Collet, Sergeant, 218, 221, 287

Captain,

146

(Commandant),
Congo Lutete by, 87
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant),
defeat of

Cock, Captain, 279

Collignon,

232,

235,

defeat of Rumaliza by, 225

Dhanis, Baron

Congo Free State, 1, 12, 21, 20


Congo River, 4, 12, 27, 29

Dhanis, Baron

encampment

we

Debruyne, Lieutenant,

murder

129

Delcommune Expedition, 93, 128,


139, 271, 287, 288
Descamps, Captain, 61, 87, 246
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant),

punishment

by, 46

(Commandant),
advance against Rumaliza by,
218

(Commandant),
Nyang-

opposite

153

Baron

(Commandant),

escape during the taking of

Kasongo of, 183


Baron (Commandant),

Dhanis,

interview with Sefu's envoy,

172

Debruyne, Lieutenant, disinterment of body at Kasongo, 185

Dhanis, Baron

of,

Dlianis,

Deane, the late Mr. Walter, 16, 234


Debruyne, Lieutenant, 96, 102,
103, 110

abolition of chain

(Commandant),

division of forces by, 234

239, 244, 287

of,

(Commandant),

Dhanis, Baron

Clothing, in tropics, 47
Coffee, wild, in

120

Dhanis, Baron

decision to attack Sefu's forces

236, 240, 247

Chaudron

(Commandant),
with his

made

conditions

(Commandant),
from Kasongo to
Nyangwe of, 206
Dlianis, Baron (Commandant),
makes "medicine," 137
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant),
march against Mohara of

Dhanis, Baron

journey

Nyangwe

by, 132, 133, 134

Dhanis, Baron

new

(Commandant),

departure

travelling by, 31

in

caravan

INDEX
Baron (Commandant),
march on Kasongo hy, 180
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant),

Dlianis,

305

Frees, Sergeant Albert, 112, 113,


114, 115, 116, 121, 171,

organisation of boy companies


Gillian,

by, 127

(Commandant),
position in attack on Ruma-

Dhanis, Baron
liza of,

236

(Commandant),

Dhanis, Baron
return to

Lusambo

of,

94

attack on Arabs of

Commandant,

170, 180,

181, 210, 217, 235, 237, 239,

244
Goio Kapopa, 137

Gongo

Lutete, 18, 19, 61, 70, 72,

75, 81, 82, 86, 87, 88, 89, 97,

(Commandant),

Dhanis, Baron

199,

226, 230

Nyangwe

by, 161-168
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant),
system of boy servants adopted

111, 114, 123, 124, 128,


133, 141, 173, 175,

208,

209, 210, 211, 212, 285,

286, 287, 292

Grant, Captain, 4

by, 126

Doorme, Captain (Lieutenant),


181, 182, 196, 198, 218, 220,

221, 222, 225, 227, 231, 237,

132,

183, 207,

Hambursin,

Lieutenant,

218,

221, 231, 238, 239, 241

Hanging, death by, 131

245, 286

Drum-signalling, 59, 60

Hausas, 109, 133, 176, 192, 193,

Dubois, Lieutenant, 234


Duchesne, Lieutenant, 107, 111,

210
Heusch, Lieutenant de,
103, 107, 108,

114

224, 229, 231, 234

E
Emin

Pacha,

Hippopotamus hunting,

16,

22,

93,

186,

247, 277

5,

14,

23,

27,

216
Falls Station, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16

Hodister Expedition, 22, 93


Hodister-Emin Expeditions, 97

Houses, native, 117

Fetishes, 73, 74, 89, 137, 138

Fivd, Inspector, 169, 179, 215


Forests, tropical, 26

Franken, Lieutenant, 287


Frankie, 128
Free State, Congo, 1, 7, 14, 16
Free State, defences of, at Stanley Falls, 17

20

42,

scribed species, 58

Fambusi, 297
Stanley,

41,

43, 44, 189, 190

Hippopotamus, Liberiau, 58
undesmall
Hippopotamus,

F
Falls,

60, 94,

109, 110, 223,

Imams, 2
Influenza epidemic, 176
Ivory,

3, 8,

4
J

Jambulas, race

of,

300

Jasen, Captain, 279, 280

INDEX

3o6
Jolmston, Sir H. H., 301

Lanchi, Lake, 249, 268, 300


Lange, Lieutenant, 218, 220, 232,

Junker, Dr., 15

K
Kabambari, 234, 235, 238, 239,
248, 293
Kabinda, 93, 94, 293
Kalarabija Kiver, 295
Kasai natives, 289
Kasai River, 5, 7, 289, 290

246
Lemery, Lieutenant, 236, 275
Lenz, Dr., 15

Leopold

II.,

Lake, 270

Leopoldville, 40, 48, 49, 53, 288

Liberian hippopotamus, 58
Lippens, Commandant, 96

Kasai River, stations on, 57


Kasima River, 295

Lippens, Commandant, murder

Kasongo,

Lippens,

6,

7,

11, 21, 217, 218,

223, 227, 234, 236, 287, 293,

of,

129

ment

Commandant,

of

body

302
Kasongo, fall of, 182, 183
Kasongo, life of State forces at,
194-205
Kasongo, luxuries found in town,

Livingstone, Dr.,

184
Kasongo,

Lothaire,

march

on,

by State

forces, 180, 181

Kasongo, murder of Lippens and


Debruyne at, 129, 130
Kasongo, postponement of attack
on, by Commandant Dhanis,
178, 179
Kasongo, spoils found by State
forces in, 185, 186
Kasongo, surrounding districts
of, 187, 188, 189
Katanga, 5, 23, 62, 75, 290,
292
Kibungi, Chief, 247, 278, 279
Kitenge, Chief, 299
Kitenge, village of, 299
Kirundu, 277, 278, 279
Kolomoni, Chief, 96, 112
Kolomoni, village of, 94, 95
Kongolo, Chief, 299
Kongolo, village of, 299

Locusts, flight

Lomami

disinter-

at Kasongo, 185

282, 283

4, 65,

of,

204, 205

River, 85, 90, 93, 97, 98,

112, 117, 129, 139,

140, 208,

210, 231

Commandant

(Major),

216, 240, 241, 242, 243, 245,

246, 286
Lualaba River,

5, 6, 7, 11,

154, 155,

168, 171, 188, 213, 248,

268,

287, 294, 295, 296, 299, 300

Luama

River, 295

Lubefu River, 5, 93, 291


Lufubu River, 168
Lukalonga, rapids of, 297
Lukassi River, 293

Lukuga

River, 267, 268, 269,270,

287, 301

Lukuga River, mouth


Lukungu, 38

of,

300

Lulindi River, 294, 295

Lupungu, Chief,

18, 75,

81, 82,

93, 94, 111, 112, 114, 124, 128

Lurimbi River, 97
Lusambo, 29, 38, 60,
288, 290, 291
Lusuna, 123, 124, 128

72, 73, 75,

INDEX
M
Malela,

7, 86,

Manyanga

Manyema
Manyema
of,

Nyangwe,
Nyangwe,

288

carriers,

country,

4, 5, 7,

21

cannibalism

people,

Micliaux, Captain, 111, 114, 123,


132, 133, 141, 142,

146, 147,

meeting

Arab

chief,

Bwana,

15,

O
P
Pania Mutumba, Chief, 78
Pania Mutumba, village of,
291

tion with cannibalism, 125

Nyangwe,

Ponthier,

of, 2,

130,

131,

agent, 236, 239, 247, 250, 251,


256, 272, 288, 293, 302

Portuguese, 2
President, Mount, 296, 297
Prisons, 46

R
Raschid, Arab chief, 15, 21, 216,
234, 236, 247

Kialo, 79, 81

Rats, 262

M'Toka, rapids of, 295


Mukalli River, 298
Muscat, Arabs from, 2

Riba Riba, 215, 236, 276

Rom, Captain,

227, 231, 232,

236, 238

232, 235, 244


Rue, Lieutenant, 276
Rumaliza, 214, 216, 218, 222,

223, 224, 225, 231, 234, 235,

N
85, 86, 87, 90, 91, 92,

238, 239, 246

207, 208, 216, 292

Nyangwe,

4,

of,

264, 298

5, 6, 7, 11, 13,

Said-ben-a-Bedi, 181, 247, 279


189,

190, 236

Nyangwe,

216, 218,

Pygmies, 82, 83, 84, 85

142, 144, 146, 147, 149

Mwana Mkwanga,

Commandant,

Mohun, Mr., U.S. commercial

Nyangi, rapids

71,

221, 222, 225, 235

Mohammedan religion, in connec-

N'Ganda,

16, 234, 238,

Oubangi River, 67

Peniba, island

168, 215,

247, 276, 277, 279

Mono

between

Park, Dr., 28

149, 164, 165

Middagh, Lieutenant, 236

of

in,

244, 245

porters, 288
Marriage amongst natives, 81
Matadi, 4, 29, 30, 288
M'Bulli or M'Burri, 271, 301
M'Bulli's village, 287

Mohara

Arabs

Stanley and Tippu Tib at, 12


Nyangwe, ruined condition of, 180
N'Zigi,

country, 282

Miserera,

battle with

174

87

182, 183

Manyema
Manyema

307

Salt,

deprivation

of,

123

Salt district, 151


arrival of State forces

at, 153, 154, 155,

156

Nyangwe, attack upon, by State


forces, 170, 171

Sankuru River,
Scherlink,
99,

107,

5, 29, 57, 58,

Lieutenant,
113,

94,

117, 119,

142, 169, 181, 186

270
95,

134,

INDEX

3o8

Sefu, 12, 19, 87, 96, 97, 99, 103,


110,

107, 108,

130,

116, 117, 129,

147, 148, 149, 168,

140,

172, 178, 214, 231


Simbi, Falls of, 296
Simbi Mountains, 296
Slaves, 8, 14

226

Ujiji, 4, 7, 13, 21, 214,

Ulcers, caused through deprivation of salt, 45

V
Vaccination, eftects

Slave-trade, 3

amongst

of,

natives, 176, 177

Van
Van

Smallpox epidemic, 176, 177


Speke, Captain, 4

Lint, Lieutenant, 215


Rial, Sergeant,

Stairs Expedition, 93

Stanley, Mr. H. M.,


14, 16, 65, 93,

4, 8, 12, 13,

116, 179, 234,

249, 287, 288

Stanley Falls,

5, 14, 23, 27
Stanley Falls, flight of Arabs
from, 216
Stanley Pool, 4, 7, 23, 27, 40

Superstitions, native, 198,

Waginia, water-people, 157, 158,


159, 169, 171, 183, 252
Waujabillio, race, 259, 297

WaujabiUio, carving of, 260


Winton, Sir Francis de, 270

Wissmann,

Dr., 13, 65, 122, 292,

293

199,

Witch

200
Sultan of Zanzibar, 14
Swamps, 123, 124

218

doctor, 108

"Wouters, Chevalier d' Oplinter


de,

60,

70,

111,

72,

134, 141, 142, 144, 163,

,120,

164,

165, 180, 189, 190, 191, 192,

Tabora,

4,

13

193, 222, 223, 224, 227, 228,

Tanganyika, Lake, 24, 26, 270,


293, 301, 302

Thomson, the

late

230, 231, 235, 236, 237, 238,


240, 245, 246, 273, 274

Mr. Joseph,

249, 271, 289

Tippu Tib,

7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,

234
Tobback, Captain, 215
Trade routes, 3, 7, 15
14, 15, 16, 17, 21,

Tropical forest, description of

a,

75, 76, 77

Two

Mountains, the, 292

PRINTED BY MORRISON AND

Zanzibar,

2,

8, 9,

13,

15,

16,

21 93,
Zanzibar, Arabs from,

1,

Zanzibar, Arab centre

at, 1, 2,

Zanzibar, British Consul


Zanzibar, Sultan

of,

Zanzibar, Treaty

of, 93,

C;IEB

LIMITED, EDINBURGH.

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117

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A BOOK OF FAIRY TALES

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anthology which, from

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History
THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN
A

EMPIRE. By Edward Gibbon.


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fessor
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edited as a classic should be edited, removing nothing, yet indicating


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Their History,

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work which will certainly be appealed to for


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THE HISTORY OF FLORENCE FROM

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1492.

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By Members

TO

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By F. T, Perrens.

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1434

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Crown

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1250-1409.
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1409- 1 530.
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Westminster Gazette.
labour and learning.'

Vol.
Vol.

I.

II.

'

THE

STORY OF IRELAND.
O'Grady.
O'Grady, Author of Finn and his Companions.'

By Standish

2s. 6d.
C7\ 8vo.
most stimulating. Its racy humour, its original imaginings,
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'

Most

'

delightful,

make

it

Biography
R. L. Stevenson. VAILIMA LETTERS. By Robert Louis
Stevenson. With an Etched Portrait by William Strang, and
Crown Svo. Buckram, ys.bd.
other Illustrations. Second Edition.
Letters are rich in all the varieties of that charm which have secured
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The Times.
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the first fruits of the correspondence of Robert LouisStevenson.
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'

'

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W. Joyce. THE LIFE OF SIR FREDERICK GORE

F.

OUSELEY.
tions.

Crown

By

F.

8vo.

W.
"js.

Joyce, M.A.

With

Portraits

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Illustra-

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All the materials have been well digested, and the book gives us a complete picture
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'

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'

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insight,

W.

and considerable

G. Collingwood.

W.

G.

'

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Portraits,

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THE LIFE OF JOHN RUSKIN.

Collingwood, M.A., Editor

numerous

'

in quite the right spirit,


literary skill.'
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of Mr. Ruskin's Poems.

and 13 Drawings by Mr.

Ruskin.

By
With

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Edition.
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Svo.
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noble monument of a noble subject.


of the noblest lives of our century.
'

One

of the most beautiful books about one

Glasgow Herald.

Messrs. Methuen's List

15

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JOHN RUSKIN a Study. By Charles
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0.

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Post

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THE LIFE OF

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of

SIR
'

THOMAS MORE.
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^s.

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even lovingly, written.' Scotsman.
An excellent monograph.' Tiines.
A most complete presentation.' Daily Chronicle.

'

'
'

CHARLES KINGSLEY.

M. Kaufmann.

It is excellently,

By M. Kaufmann,

M.A. Crozvn Svo. Btich'am. 55.


biography of Kingsley, especially dealing with his achievements in social reform.
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A
'

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THE EARLY PUBLIC LIFE OF WILLIAM


EWART GLADSTONE. By A. F. Robbins. With Portraits.

A. F. Robbing.

Crown
'

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skill

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of presentation have not

oeen unworthily

Times.

THE LIFE OF ADMIRAL LORD

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LINGWOOD.

'

'

every boy in the country.'

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really

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St.

fames' s Gazette.

Saturday Review.

ENGLISH SEAMEN

(Howard, Clifford, Hawkins,


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General Literature
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Baring Gould.
Gould, Author

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S.

S.

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'

Baring Gould.

S.

A GARLAND OF COUNTRY SONG

English Folk Songs with their Traditional Melodies. Collected and


arranged by S. BARING Gould and H. Fleetwood Sheppard.

Demy

,to.

(ys.

Baring Gould.

S.

SONGS OF THE WEST:

Traditional

Ballads and Songs of the West of England, with their Traditional


Melodies.
Collected by S. Baring Gould, M.A., and H. Fleetwood Sheppard, M. A. Arranged for Voice and Piano. In 4 Parts
Fart
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IV,, 5^-. In one Vol., French morocco, l^s.


'A rich collection of humour, pathos, grace, and poetic fancy.'

Baring Gould.

S.

EVENTS.

Saturday Revieiu.

YORKSHIRE ODDITIES AND STRANGE

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Crowji 8vo.

6s.

Baring Gould. STRANGE SURVIVALS AND SUPERSTITIONS. With Illustrations. By S. Baring Gould. Cro-cun

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Secoiid Edition.
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Szio.
'

We

Baring Gould.
THE DESERTS OF SOUTHERN
FRANCE. By S. Baring. Gould. With numerous Illustrations
by F. D. Bedford, S. Hutton, etc. 2 vols. De/fiy %vo. 325.

S.

This book is the first serious attempt to describe the great barren tableland that
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country of dolomite cliffs, and canons, and subterranean rivers. The region is
full of prehistoric and historic interest, relics of cave-dwellers, of mediaeval
robbers, and of the English domination and the Hundred Years' War.
' His
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Times.
'

R. S. Baden-Powell.

THE DOV^NFALL OF PREMPEH. A

Diary of Life with the Native Levy in Ashanti, 1895.

By

Lieut. -Col.

Baden-Powell.

With 21 Illustrations, a Map, and a Special


Chapter on the Political and Commercial Position of Ashanti by Sir

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'

compact,

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Demy

most readable record of the campaign.'


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\)QQ\i.'

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THE SPEECHES AND PUBLIC

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Edited by A.
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E.

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2>vo.

\y

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IX. and X.

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J.

Cohen, M.A.

ADM.P.
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An

'

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'

OXFORD AND OXFORD

Wells.

J.

LIFE.

By Members

of

Edited by J. Wells, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of


College.
Ci-own %vo.
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Dixon, M.A., Professor of English Literature at Mason
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W. M.

W. M.
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'

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SJ>eaker.
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graphy

W. A.

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Primer of Tennyson.'

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Times.

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An excellent short account. Pall Mall Gazette.
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Glohc.

GREEK OLIGARCHIES THEIR ORGANISA:

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THE PIANOFORTE SONATA:

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Crozvtt 8vo.

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'

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Universities

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T. H. GREEN.
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at

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'

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THE SCHOOL OF PLATO

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A clever and stimulating book, provocative of thought and deserving careful reading.'

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THE WORSHIP OF THE ROMANS.

F. S. Granger.
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Granger, M.A.,

sity College,

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Roman
Roman

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Theology
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THE XXXIX. ARTICLES OF THE

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S.

CHURCH OF ENGLAND.

Edited with an Introduction by E.


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definite, and loyal theology ought to be of great service.'
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By

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THE CHRISTIAN YEAR.


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'

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Anning Bell.

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The progress and circumstances of its composition are detailed in the
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Mr. Lock.

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BARABBAS A DREAM OF THE WORLD'S TRAGEDY.


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THE SORROWS OF SATAN.


'

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very powerful piece of work.


.
The conception is magnificent, and is likely
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This interesting and remarkable romance will live long after much of the ephemeral literature of the day
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.
.
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to

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Anthony Hope's Novels


Crown

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'

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sad, with an unmorose simplicity.' The World.
brilliant,

A CHANGE OF AIR.
'A

graceful, vivacious

Fourth Edition.

comedy, true

with a masterly hand.'

to

human

nature.

The

characters are traced

Times.

A MAN OF MARK.

Third Editio7i.
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same writer, and he possesses a style of narrative peculiarly seductive, piquant,
comprehensive, and his own.' National Observer.

Of

'

all

THE CHRONICLES OF COUNT ANTONIO.

Third

Edition.
enchanting story of love and chivalry, and pure romance. The
outlawed Count is the most constant, desperate, and withal modest and tender of
lovers, a peerless gentleman, an intrepid fighter, a very faithful friend, and a most
magnanimous foe. In short, he is an altogether admirable, lovable, and delightful hero.
There is not a word in the volume that can give offence to the most
fastidious taste of man or woman, and there is not, either, a dull paragraph in it.
The book is everywhere instinct with the most exhilarating spirit of adventure,
and delicately perfumed with the sentiment of all heroic and honourable deed.s of
history and romance.' Guardian.

'It is a perfectly

S.

Baring Gould's Novels


Crown

'

'

6s. each.

Sifo.

that a book is by the author of " Mehalah " is to imply that it contains a
story cast on strong lines, containing dramatic possibilities, vivid and sympathetic
descriptions of Nature, and a wealth of ingenious imagery.' Speaker.

To say

That whatever Mr. Baring Gould writes is well worth reading, is a conclusion that
may be very generally accepted. His views of life are fresh and vigorous, his
language pointed and characteristic, the incidents of which he makes u.se are
striking and original, his characters are life-like, and though somewhat exceptional people, are drawn and coloured with artistic force.
Add to this that his
descriptions of scenes and scenery are painted with the loving eyes and skilled
hands of a master of his art, that he is always fresh and never dull, and under
such conditions it is no wonder that readers have gained confidence both in his
power of amusing and satisfying them, and that year by year his popularity
widens.
Court Circular.
'

ARM NELL A
I

URITH A
:

'

The author

'

He

Social

Romance.

Story of Dartmoor.

Fourth

Editio7i.

Fourth Edition.

Times.
is at his best.'
has nearly reached the high water-mark of " Mehalah."

'

National Observer.

Messrs. Methuen's List

24

THE ROAR OF THE

IN

SEA.

Fifth Edition.

'One of the best imagined and most enthralling


Saturday Review.

MRS.

stories the author has produced.'

CURGENVEN OF CURGENVEN.

'

A novel

'

The

Fourth Edition.

of vigorous humour and sustained power.' Graphic.


swing ofthe narrative is splendid.' Sussex Daily News.

CHEAP JACK

ZITA. Third Edition.


A powerful drama of human -pViSiXon.' ^Westntinster Gazette.
A story worthy the author.' National Observer.

'

'

THE QUEEN OF LOVE.


The scenery

'

Strong, interesting, and clever.'

is

Fourth Edition.

admirable, and the dramatic incidents are most striking.'

'

Glasgmv

Herald.
Westminister Gazette.

You cannot put it down until you have finished it.' Punch.
Can be heartily recommended to all who care for cleanly, energetic, and

'

'

fiction.'

interesting

Sussex Daily News.

KITTY ALONE.

Fourth Edition.

strong and original story, teeming 'ith graphic description, stirring incident,
and, above all, with vivid and enthralling human interest.' Daily Telegraph.
Brisk, clever, keen, healthy, humorous, and interesting.' National Observer.
Full of quaint and delightful studies of character.' Bristol Mc7-ciiry.

'

'
'

NOEMI
R.

A Romance

Cave-Dwellers.
Third Edition.

of the

Caton Woodville.

Illustrated

by

No^mi " is as excellent a tale of fighting and adventure as one may wish to meet.
All the characters that interfere in this exciting tale are marked with properties
The narrative also runs clear and sharp as the Loire itself.'
of their own.
Pall Mall Gazette.
Mr. Baring Gould's powerful story is full of the strong lights and shadows and
vivid colouring to which he has accustomed us.' Standard.
"

'

'

THE BROOM -SQUIRE.

Illustrated

by

Frank

Dadd.

T/m-d Edition.
'

A strani

'

'

of tenderness is woven through the web of his tragic tale, and its atmosphere
sweetened by the nobility and sweetness of the heroine's character.' Daily News.
story of exceptional interest that seems to us to be better than anything he has
'A powerful and striking story.' Guardian.
written of late.' Speaker.
powerful piece of work.' Black and White.
is

pilbert Parker's Novels


Croiun 8vo.

PIERRE AND HIS PEOPLE.


'

Stories happily conceived

Parker's style.'

and

6s. each.

Third Editio7i.

finely executed.

Daily Telegraph.

There

is

strength and genius in Mr.

Messrs. Methuen's List

25

MRS. FALCHION.
'

'

Third Edition.
A splendid study of character.' Athetiaum.
But

little

behind anything that has been done by any writer of our time.

'

Pall

Mall Gazette.
'

very striking and admirable novel.'

St.

Javicss Gazette.

THE TRANSLATION OF A SAVAGE.


The

'

is original and one difficult to work out ; but Mr. Parker has done it with
The reader who is not interested in this original, fresh,
well-told tale must be a dull person indeed.' Daily Ckrcniclc.
strong and successful piece of workmanship. The portrait of Lali, strong,
dignified, and pure, is exceptionally well drawn.' Manchester Guardian.

plot

great skill and delicacy.

and
'

THE TRAIL OF THE SWORD.

Fourth Edition.

'Everybody with a

soul for romance will thoroughly enjoy "The Trail of the


James's Gazette.
A rousing and dramatic tale. A book like this, in which swords flash, great surprises are undertaken, and daring deeds done, in which men and women live and
love in the old straightforward passionate way, is a joy ine.xpressible to the reviewer, brain-weary of the domestic tragedies and psychological puzzles of everyday fiction and we cannot but believe that to the reader it will bring refreshment
as welcome and as keen.' Daily Chronicle.

Sword."

'

'

St.

WHEN VALMOND CAME TO


a Lost Napoleon.
Here we find romance

PONTIAC

The

Story of

Third Edition.

real, breathing, living romance, but it runs flush with our


times, level with our own feelings.
Not here can we complain of lack of
inevitableness or homogeneity. The character of Valmond is drawn unerringly
his career, brief as it is, is placed before us as convincingly as history itself.
The
book must be read, we may say re-read, for any one thoroughly to appreciate
Mr. Parker's delicate touch and innate sympathy with humanity.' Pall Mall
Gazette.
The one work of genius which 1895 has as yet produced.' New Age.

'

own

'

AN ADVENTURER OF THE NORTH:

The Last Adven-

Pretty Pierre.'
'The present book is full of fine and moving stories of the great North, and it will
add to Mr. Parker's already high reputation.' Glas^07u Herald.
The new book is very romantic and very entertaining full of that peculiarly
elegant spirit of adventure which is so characteristic of Mr. Parker, and of that
poetic thrill which has given him warmer, if less numerous, admirers than even
tures of

'

'

his

romantic story-telling

gift

has done.'

Sketch.

THE SEATS OF THE MIGHTY.

Illustrated.

Fourth

Edition.
'

'

best thing he has done one of the best things that any one has done lately.'
St. James's Gazette.
Mr. Parker seems to become stronger and easier with every serious novel that he
attempts.
In " The Seats of the Mighty " he shows the matured power which
his former novels have led us to expect, and has produced a really fine historical
His character is
novel.
The great creation of the book is Doltaire.

The

drawn with quite masterly strokes, for he is a villain who is not altogether a villain,
and who attracts the reader, as he did the other characters, by the extraordinary
brilliance of his gifts, and by the almost unconscious acts of nobility which he
performs.
Most sincerely is Mr. Parker to be congratulated on the finest
.

novel he has yet written.'

Athenxum.

Messrs. Methuen's List

26

"The
latest book places him in the front rank of living novelists.
Seats of the Mighty" is a great book.' Black and White.
of the strongest stories of historical interest and adventure that we have read
Through all Mr. Parker moves with an assured step, whilst
for many a day. .
in his treatment of his subject there is that happy blending of the poetical with the
prosaic which has characterised all his writings. A notable and successful book.'
Speaker.
The story is very finely and dramatically told. ... In none of his books has his
imaginative faculty appeared to such splendid purpose as here. Captain Moray,
Ali.xe, Gabord, Vauban above all, Doltaire
and, indeed, every person who takes
part in the action of the story are clearly conceived and finely drawn and indivi-

'Mr. Parker's

One

'

'

dualised.

Scotsman.

An

admirable romance. The glory of a romance is its plot, and this plot is crowded
with fine sensations, which have no rest until the fall of the famous old city and

'

Paii Mall Gazette.

the final restitution of love.'

ROUND THE RED

Conan Doyle.

LAMP.

By

A.

Conan

Doyle, Author

of 'The White Company,' 'The Adventures of


Sherlock Holmes,' etc. Fourth Edition.
Crown 8vo. 6s.
The book is, indeed, composed of leaves from life, and is far and away the best view

'

that has been vouchsafed us behind the scenes of the consulting-room.


It
superior to " The Diary of a late Physician.'" IIhistrated London News.

Stanley

UNDER THE RED

Weyman.

Weyman, Author

is

very

ROBE. By Stanley

Gentleman of France.' With Twelve IllusCaton Woodville. Eighth Edition. Crown %vo. bs.

trations by R.

of

'

'A book of which we have read every word for the sheer pleasure of reading, and
which we put down with a pang that we cannot forget it all and start again.'
Westminster Gazette.
Every one who reads books at all must read this thrilling romance, from the first
'

'

page of which to the last the breathless reader is haled along. An inspiration of
"manliness and courage." Daily Chronicle.
delightful tale of chivalry and adventure, vivid and dramatic, with a wholesome
modesty and reverence for the highest.' Globe.

Mrs. Clifford.

A FLASH OF SUMMER.

Clifford, Author of

'

Aunt Anne,'

etc.

By Mrs. W. K.

Second Editiott.

Crown

Svo.

'

'

6s.
The story is a very sad and a very beautiful one, exquisitely told, and enriched with
many subtle touches of wise and tender insight. It will, undoubtedly, add to its
author's reputation already high in the ranks of novelists.' Speaker.
must congratulate Mrs. Clifford upon a very successful and interesting story,
told throughout with finish and a delicate sense of proportion, qualities which,
indeed, have always distinguished the best work of this very able writer.'

We

ATanckester Guardian.

HURRISH.

Emily Lawless.
less, Author of

'

Maelcho,'

reissue of Miss Lawless'

Emily Lawless.
A

'

There

really great book.'

the Honble.

most popular novel, uniform with

MAELCHO

By the Honble. Emily


Edition.
Crown Svo.
'

By

Emily Law-

Crown

Fifth Edition.

etc.

'

Svo.

6s.

Maelcho.'

a Sixteenth Century Romance.


Second
of Grania,' etc.

Lawless, Author

'

6s.

Spectator.

no keener pleasure in life than the recognition of genius. Good work is


All the more
it used to be, but the best is as rare as ever.
gladly, therefore, do we welcome in " Maelcho " a piece of work of the first order,
which we do not hesitate to describe as one of the most remarkable literary
achievements of this generation. Miss Lawless is possessed of the very essence
of historical genius.' Manchester Guardian.
is

commoner than

Messrs. Methuen's List

27

H. Findlater. THE GREEN GRAVES OF BALGOWRIE.


By Jane H. FiNDLATER. Third Edition. Cro7vn 8vo. 6s.

J.

'A powerful and

vivid story."

Standard.

A beautiful story, sad and strange as truth itseWFaniiy Fair.


A work of remarkable interest and originality.' National Observer.
A really original nov^VJournal oj Education.

'
'

'

'A very charming and

pathetic tale.' Pall Mall Gazette.


singularly original, clever, and beautiful story." Guardian.
" The Green Graves of Balgowrie " reveals to us a new Scotch writer of undoubted
faculty and reserve force.' Spectator.
An exquisite idyll, delicate, affecting, and beautiful.' 5/n!c/t- and White.
Permeated with high and noble purpose. It is one of the most wholesome stories
we have met with, and cannot fail to leave a deep and lasting impression.'

'

'

'

'

Ne-Msagcnt.

DODO A DETAIL OF THE

E. F. Benson.

Benson.

Sixteenth Editiott.

Crow7i Svo.

DAY. By

E. F.

6s.

A delightfully witty sketch of society." Spectator.


A perpetual feast of epigram and paradox.' Speaker.
By a writer of quite exceptional ability.' A t/tenaum.

'

'

'

Brilliantly written.'

'Dodo.'

ll^'orld.

THE RUBICON.

E. F. Benson.

Crown

Fifth Edition.

By
%vo.

E. F.

Benson, Author

of

6s.

Well written, stimulating, unconventional, and, in a word, characteristic'


Birjuingliam Post.
An exceptional achievement a notable advance on his previous work.' National

'

'

Observer.

GALLIA. By M^nie Muriel Dowie, Author

M. M. Dowie.
of

'A

The

Girl in the Carpathians.'

Thij-d Edition.

Crown

8vo.

6s.

generally admirable, the dialogue not seldom brilliant, the situations


surprising in their freshness and originality, while the subsidiary as well as the
principal characters live and move, and the story itself is readable from title-page
to colophon." Saturday Review.
A very notable book ; a very sympathetically, at times delightfully written book.
Daily Graphic.

'

'

style

is

SIR ROBERT'S
Mrs. Oliphant.
Oliphant. Crown 8vo. 6s.
'

new

own

gift,

Mrs. Oliphant.

THE TWO MARYS.


Crown

Second Edition.

?>z'o.

By Mrs. Oliphant.

6s.

MATTHEW

AUSTIN. By W. E. Norris, Author


Mademoiselle de Mersac,' etc. Fourth Edition. Crown Sz'O. 6s.
"
"Matthew Austin may safely be pronounced one of the most intellectually satis-

W.E.Norris.
of

'

factory and morally bracing novels of the current year.'

W.

E.

Norris.

Editiott.
'

By Mrs.

peculiar charm of style and simple, subtle character-painting come


the delightful story before us. The scene mostly lies in the moors,
and at the touch of the authoress a Scotch moor becomes a living thing, strong
tender, beautiful, and changeful." Pall Mall Gazette.

Full of her

her

'

FORTUNE.

HIS GRACE.

Crown

8vo.

By W.

E.

Daily Telegraph.

Norris.

Third

6s.

Mr. Norris has drawn a really fine character in the Duke of Hurstbourne, at once
unconventional and very true to the conventionalities of life, weak and .strong ui
a breath, capable of inane follies and heroic decisions, yet not so definitely portrayed as to relieve a reader of the necessity of study.' A ihenaum.

Messrs. Methuen's List

28

W.

THE DESPOTIC LADY AND OTHERS.

E. Norris.
E. Norris.

By W.
'

Crow7t

?)Vo.

A budget of good

'An extremely

6s.

fiction of which no one will tire.'


Scotsman.
entertaining volume the sprightliest of holiday companions.'

Daily Telegraph

THE STOLEN BACILLUS,

H. G. Wells.
By II. G.
%vo.
'

Wells, Author

of

and other

Stories.

'The Time Machine.'

Crown

6s.

of fiction may be glad to know that these stories are eminently


readable from one cover to the other, but they are more than that ; they are the
impressions of a very striking imagination, which, it would seem, has a great deal
within its reach.' Saturday Revleiu.

The ordinary reader

TALES OF MEAN STREETS. By Arthur

Arthur Morrison.

Crown 8vo, 6s.


Fozirth Edition.
Told with consummate art and extraordinary detail. He tells a plain, unvarnished
In the true humanity of the book
tale, and the very truth of it makes for beauty.
lies its justification, the permanence of its interest, and its indubitable triumph.'
Morrison.

'

'

A tliefiiPum.
A great book. The author's

method is amazingly effective, and produces a thrilling


sense of reality. The writer lays upon us a master hand. The book is simply
appalling and irresistible in its interest.
It is humorous also ; without humour
World.
it would not make the mark it is certain to make.'

Maclaren Cobban.

J.

By

Saviour of Society.
'

THE KING OF ANDAMAN


J.

Maclaren Cobban.

Croivti Svo.

6s

An

unquestionably interesting book. It would not surprise us if it turns out to be


the most interesting novel of the season, for it contains one character, at least,
who has in him the root of immortality, and the book itself is ever exhaling the
sweet savour of the unexpected.
Plot is forgotten and incident fades, and
only the really human endures, and throughout this book there stands out in bold
.

and beautiful relief its high-souled and chivalric protagonist, James the Master
of Hutcheon, the King of Andaman himself.'' Pall Mall Gazette.
'A most original and refreshing story. James Hutcheon is a personage whom it is
good to know and impossible to forget. He is beautiful within and without,
whichever way we take him.' Spectator.
"The King of Andaman," is a book which does credit not less to the heart than
the head of its author.' AtliencEum.
The fact that Her Majesty the Queen has been pleased to gracefully express to the
author of " The King of Andaman " her interest in his work will doubtless find
'

'

for

it

many

H. Morrah.

readers.'

Crotvn Svo.
'

Vatiiiy Fair.

A SERIOUS COMEDY. By Herbert Morrah.


6s.

There are many delightful places in this volume, which is well worthy of
The theme has seldom been presented with more freshness or more

its title.

force.'

Scots>iian.

TO THE TITLE.

SUCCESSORS
L. B. Walford.
Walford, Author of 'Mr. Smith,'
2>vo.
'

The

etc.

By Mrs.

Second Edition.

Crown

6s.

story

is

fresh

simple people
in respect.'

'The book

is

and healthy from beginning

who

cellent reading.'

to be

and our liking for the two


mounts steadily, and ends almost

to finish

are the successors to the title

Scotsman.
quite worthy

ranked with many clever predecessors.

Glasgow Herald.

It is ex-

Messrs. Methuen's List

A HOME IN INVERESK.

Paton.
Crown hvo.

T. L.

29

By

T.

L Paton

os.

'A distinctly fresh and fascinating no\&\: Montrose Standard.


'A book which bears marks of considerable promisi^.' Scotsman.
'A pleasant and well-written s.\.ory.' Daily Chronicle.

MISS ARMSTRONG'S
CUMSTANCES.

John Davidson.
'

AND OTHER CIR-

By John Davidson. Crowtt 8w. bs.


Throughout the volume there is a strong vein of originality, a strength
in the
handhng, and a knowledge of human nature that are worthy of the highest
nraise
^
Scotsman.

B.

J.

'

IN

Burton.

THE DAY OF ADVERSITY.

Bloundelle Burton.
'

Unusually interesting and

'

A well-written

story,

drawn

Pall Mall Gazette.

'

DR. CONGALTON'S LEGACY.

H. Johnston.
Johnston.

Crown

By

CroixmZvo. bs.
of highly dramatic situations.' Guardian.
from that inexhaustible mine, the time of Louis

full

Svo.

XIV

By Henry

6s.

The story is redolent of humour, pathos, and tenderness, while it is not without a
touch of tragedy.' Scotsman.
A worthy and permanent contribution to Scottish creative literature.' C/^jp-^d

'

Herald.

Julian Corbett. A BUSINESS


Julian Corbett. Croiutt ^vo.
'

IN

GREAT WATERS.

By

6s.

In this stirring story Mr. Julian Corbett has done excellent work, welcome alike
for its distinctly literary flavour, and for the wholesome tone which pervades it.
Mr. Corbett writes with immense spirit, and the book is a thoroughly enjoyable
one in all respects. The salt of the ocean is in it, and the right heroic ring resounds through its gallant adventures.' Speaker.

C. Phillips

Woolley.

THE QUEENSBERRY

CUP.

Tale

By Clive Phillips Woolley, Author of ' Snap,'


of Adventure.
Editor of Big Game Shooting.' Illustrated.
Crown Svo. 6s,
A book which will delight boys a book which upholds the healthy schoolboy code
of morality.' Scotsman.
A brilliant book. Dick St. Clair, of Caithness, is an almost ideal character a combination of the mediaeval knight and the modern pugilist.' Admiralty and Horse'

'

'

guards Gazette.

Robert Barr.
Barr.
'
'

IN

THE MIDST OF ALARMS.

Third Edition.

Crown

Svo.

By Robert

6s.

book which has abundantly satisfied us by its capital humour.' Daily Chronicle.
Mr. Barr has achieved a triumph whereof he has every reason to be proud.' Pall

Mall Gazette.
L. Daintrey.
'

THE KING OF ALBERIA.

A Romance

of

By Laura Daintrey. Crown Svo. 6s.


the Balkans.
Miss Daintrey seems to have an intimate acquaintance with the people and politics
of the Balkan countries in which the scene of her lively and picturesque romance
is laid.
On almost every page we find clever touches of local colour which differentiate her book unmistakably from the ordinary novel of commerce.
The
story is briskly told, and well conceived,' Glasgow Herald.

Messrs. Methuen's List

30

CHILDREN OF THIS WORLD.

Mrs. Pinsent.

By Ellen

Crown 2>vo. 6s.


F. Pinsent, Author of Jenny's Case.'
Mrs. Pinsent's new novel has plenty of vigour, variety, and good writing. There
are certainty of purpose, strength of touch, and clearness of vision.' AtkencEUtii.
'

'

MY DANISH SWEETHEART.

Clark Russell.

Clark Russell, Author

of
Fourth Edition.

Illustrated.

'

The Wreck
Crown 8vo.

Crown

Fenn. Second Edition.


'A simple and wholesome

Svo.

AND THE WOMAN.

'

Affections,'

By Richard Pryce,

'The Quiet Mrs. Fleming,'

Crown Svo. 6s.


Seco7id Edition.
etc.
Mr. Pryce's work recalls the style of Octave Feuillet, by
Atkenceum.
its literary reserve.'

Mrs. Watson.
of A High
'

By G. Manville

6s.

Manchester Guardian.

story.'

R. Pryce. TIME
Author of Miss Maxwell's
'

6s.

AN ELECTRIC SPARK.

G. Manville Fenn.

its

THIS MAN'S DOMINION.


Little

World.

'

Second Edition.

clearness, conciseness,

By

Crown

the Author

Svo.

DIOGENES OF LONDON.
Marriott Watson.
Marriott Watson. Crown Svo. Buciram. 6s.

6s.

By H.

B.

all those who delight in the uses of words, who rate the exercise of prose above
the exercise of verse, who rejoice in all proofs of its delicacy and its strength, who
believe that English prose is chief among the moulds of thought, by these
Mr. Marriott Watson's book will be welcomed.' National Observer.

By

'

M.
'

THE STONE DRAGON.

By Murray GilGilchrist.
Crown Svo. Buckram. 6s.
christ.
The author's faults are atoned for by certain positive and admirable merits. The
romances have not their counterpart in modern
unique experience.' National Observer.

E. Dickinson.

Crown
E.

By W.

of the Grosvenor,' etc.

Svo.

M. Gray.

literature,

and

A VICAR'S WIFE. By Evelyn

to read

them

is

Dickinson.

6s.

ELSA.

By

E.

M'Queen Gray.

Cro'i07i Zvo.

THREE-AND-SIXPENNY NOVELS
Croiini Svo.

3/6

DERRICK VAUGHAN, NOVELIST. By Edna Lyall


MARGERY OF QUETHER. By S. Baring Gould
JACQUETTA. By S. Baring Gould.
SUBJECT TO VANITY. By Margaret Benson.
THE MOVING FINGER. By Mary Gaunt.
JACO TRELOAR. By J. H. Pearce.

6s.

Messrs. Methuen's List

31

aut diabolus aut nihil. by x. l.


THE COMING OF CUCULAIN. A Romance of the Heroic
Age of Ireland. By Standish O'Grady. Illustrated.
THE GODS GIVE MY DONKEY WINGS. By Angus
Evan Abbott.

THE
THE
THE
THE

STAR GAZERS. By G. Manville Fenn.


POISON OF ASPS. By R. Orton Prowse.
QUIET MRS. FLEMING. By R. Pryce.
PLAN OF CAMPAIGN. By F. Mabel Robinson.

DISENCHANTMENT. By F. Mabel Robinson.


MR. BUTLER'S WARD. By F. Mabel Robinson.
A LOST ILLUSION. By Leslie Keith.
A REVEREND GENTLEMAN. By J. M. Cobban.
A DEPLORABLE AFFAIR. By W. E. NORRis.
A CAVALIER'S LADYE. By Mrs. Dicker.
HALF-CROWN NOVELS
A
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

2/6

Series of Novels by popular Authors,

HOVENDEN,

By F. Mabel Robinson.
ELI'S CHILDREN. By G. Manville Fenn.
A DOUBLE KNOT. By G. Manville Fenn.
DISARMED. By M. Betham Edwards.
A MARRIAGE AT SEA. By W. Clark Russell.
IN TENT AND BUNGALOW. By the Author of
V.C.

'

6.

Indian

Idylls.'

MY STEWARDSHIP.

7.

8.
9.

JACK'S FATHER.
JIM B.

Lynn

Linton.

Christian and
Post %vo.
Edition.

Books
1.

2.

E.

M'Queen Gray.

E. NORRIS.

THE TRUE HISTORY OF JOSHUA DAVID-

SON,

By
By W.

Communist.

By

E.

Lynn Linton.

for

Boys and Girls

"^/^

Series of Books by well-known Authors, well illustrated.

THE ICELANDER'S SWORD. By S. Baring


LITTLE CHILDREN AND CHING.

TWO
E.

CUTHELL.

Eleventh

\s.

^~^l

Gould.
By Edith

Messrs. Methuen's List

32

5.

TODDLEBEN'S HERO. By M. M. Blake.


ONLY A GUARD ROOM DOG. By Edith E. Cuthell.
THE DOCTOR OF THE JULIET. By Harry Colling-

6.

MASTER ROCKAFELLAR'S VOYAGE.

3.

4.

WOOD.

By W. Clark

Russell.

SYD BELTON

7.

Or,

The Boy who would

not go to Sea.

By G. Manville Fenn.

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THE INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND.


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A HISTORY OF ENGLISH POLITICAL ECONOMY. By


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A. HoBSON, M.A.
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