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220 KV GRID is located in Devigarh, Patiala .The grid receives 220 KV lines and steps down
further into 66 KV and 11 KV lines .The 66KV Grid was setup in the year 1973 and it is
modified to 220KV up to Feb 2014The various components used for stepping down the
voltage and protection are installed in the grid like transformers , circuit breakers, relays ,
current transformers ,potential transformers ,battery bank, busbar, lightning arrestor ,
insulators ,capacitor banks and various other sensors and devices.

Incoming Feeder:

220KV Bhateri(Bhadurgarh)

Outgoing Feeder:

66 KV

1. Bhunerheri
2. Magar Sahib
3. Rohar Jagir

11 K.V.

1. Jhawalapur

10. S.S.Wala

2. Mehon

11. Dudhan

3. Bangra

12. UPS-01

4. Kisanpur

13. UPS-02

5. Partapgarh

14. UPS-03

6. Hasanpur

15. Binjal

7. Masingan

16. Julkhan

8. Shekhupur

17. Gagrola

9. Bhunerheri

18. Waliyan


was carried out to have deep and sound knowledge of what are the various components used
in the grid , how are the various components installed , what is the use of the various
components , how do these components work etc . It also gave a knowledge of how the
power transformer operate, its protection, maintenance and lot of other things related to
transformer. This project made me aware of all these things.
Our main purpose for this visit is to be familiar with industrial environment and to get
practical knowledge of electrical power transmission and distribution Students of 3rd
semester will get the idea of electrical power transmission and distribution.

An electrical sub-station is an assemblage of electrical components including busbars,
switchgear, power transformers, auxiliaries etc.
These components are connected in a definite sequence such that a circuit can be switched off
during normal operation by manual command and also automatically during abnormal
conditions such as short-circuit. Basically an electrical substation consists of No. of incoming
circuits and outgoing circuits connected to a common Bus-bar systems. A substation receives
electrical power from generating station via incoming transmission lines and delivers elect.
power via the outgoing transmission lines.
Sub-station are integral parts of a power system and form important links between the
generating station, transmission systems, distribution systems and the load points.

Fig 2.1 Graphical view of 220 KV Grid

Associated with major sub-stations in the transmission and distribution system include the

Protection of transmission system.


Controlling the Exchange of Energy.



Ensure steady State & Transient stability.


Load shedding and prevention of loss of synchronism. Maintaining the system

frequency within targeted limits.


Voltage Control; reducing the reactive power flow by compensation of reactive power,


Securing the supply by proving adequate line capacity.


Data transmission via power line carrier for the purpose of network monitoring;
control and protection.


Fault analysis and pin-pointing the cause and subsequent improvement in that area of


Determining the energy transfer through transmission lines.


Reliable supply by feeding the network at various points.


Establishment of economic load distribution and several associated functions.


The substations can be classified in several ways including the following :


Classification based on voltage levels, e.g. : A.C. Substation : EHV, HV, MV, LV;
HVDC Substation.


Classification based on Outdoor or Indoor : Outdor substation is under open skv.

Indoor substation is inside a building.



Classification based on configuration, e.g. :

Conventional air insulated outdoor substation or

SF6 Gas Insulated Substation (GIS)

Composite substations having combination of the above two

Classification based on application

Step Up Substation : Associated with generating station as the generating

voltage is low.

Primary Grid Substation : Created at suitable load centre along Primary

transmission lines.

Secondary Substation : Along Secondary Transmission Line.

Distribution Substation : Created where the transmission line voltage is Step

Down to supply voltage.

Bulk supply and industrial substation : Similar to distribution sub-station but

created separately for each consumer.

Mining Substation : Needs special design consideration because of extra

precaution for safety needed in the operation of electric supply.

Mobile Substation Temporary requirement.

Primary Substations receive power from EHV lines at 400KV, 220KV, 132KV
and transform the voltage to 66KV, 33KV or 22KV (22KV is uncommon) to suit
the local requirements in respect of both load and distance of ultimate consumers.
These are also referred to EHV Substations.

Secondary Substations receive power at 66/33KV which is stepped down

usually to 11KV.

Distribution Substations receive power at 11KV, 6.6 KV and step down to a

volt suitable for LV distribution purposes, normally at 415 volts.

Lighting arrestor is a device, which protects the overhead lines and other electrical apparatus
viz , transformer from overhead voltages and lighting When the positively charged cloud
produce negative charge on the overhead line by electrostatic induction then the negative
charge is however presented right under the cloud and portion of the line away from the cloud
becomes positively charged This charge on the line does not flow
Every instrument must be protected from the damage of lighting stroke. The three protection
sin a substation is essential:

Protection for transmission line from direct strokes

Protections of power station or substation from direct strokes

Protection of electrical apparatus against traveling waves

Effective protection of equipment against direct strokes requires a shield to prevent lighting
from striking the electrical conductor together with adequate drainage facilities over insulated
Installation Location :Install arrester electrically as close as possible to the appearatus being protected Line and
ground connections should be short and direct

Fig 3.1 Lightning Arresters

Grounding:The arrester ground should be connected to the apparatus grounds and the main station
ground utilizing a reliable common ground network of low resistance. The efficient operation
of the lightning arrester requires permanent low resistance grounds : Station class arresters
should be provided with a ground of a value not exceeding five ohms.
Clearances:- These are given on the drawings. These are the maximum recommended. The
term clearance means the actual distance between any part of the arrester or disconnecting
device at line potential, and any object at ground potential or other phase potential.
It consist of a isolator in series and connected in such a way that long isolator is in upward
and short isolator is in downward so that initially large potential up to earth is decreased to
An ideal arrestor must therefore have the following properties:
1. It should be able to drain the surge energy from the line in a minimum time
2. Should offer high resistance to the flow of power current
3. Performance of the arresters should be such that no system disturbances are
introduced by its operation
4. Should be always in perfect from to perform the function assigned to it

5. After allowing the surge to pass, it should close up so as not to permit power current
to flow to ground

Fig 3.2 Lightning Arresters

Working:Lightning, is a form of visible discharge of electricity between rain clouds or between a rain
cloud and the earth The electric discharge is seen in the form of a brilliant arc, sometimes
several kilometres long, stretching between the discharge points How thunderclouds become
charged is not fully understood, but most thunderclouds are negatively charged at the base
and positively charged at the top However formed, the negative charge at the base of the
cloud induces a positive charge on the earth beneath it, which acts as the second plate of a
huge capacitor
When the electrical potential between two clouds or between a cloud and the earth reaches a
sufficiently high value (about 10,000 V per cm or about 25,000 V per in), the air becomes

ionized along a narrow path and a lightning flash results.

It is used to trap the communication signals & send PLCC room through CVT. Rejection
filters are known as the line traps consisting of a parallel resonant circuit ( L and C in
parallel) tuned to the carrier frequency are connected in series at each and of the protected
line such a circuit offer high impedance to the flow of carrier frequency current thus
preventing the dissipation. The carrier current used for PLC Communication have to be
prevented from entering the power equipments such as attenuation or even complete loss of
communication signals. For this purpose wave trap or line trap are used between transmission
line and power station equipment to avoid carrier power dissipation in the power plant reduce

cross talks with other PLC Circuits connected to the same power station. Ensure proper
operating conditions and signal levels at the PLC transmit receive equipment irrespective of
switching conditions of the power circuit and equipments in the stations.
Line matching filter and protective equipment:For matching the transmitter and receiver unit to coupling capacitor and power line matching
filters are provided. These flitters normally have air corral transformers with capacitor
The matching transformer is insulated for 7-10 KV between the two windings and perform
two functions. Firstly, it isolates the communication equipment from the power line.
Secondly, it serves to match .
Transmitter:The transmitter consists of an oscillator and a amplifier. The oscillator generates a frequency
signal with in 50 to 500 HZ frequency bands the transmitter is provided so that it modulates
the carrier with protective signal. The modulation process usually involves taking one half
cycle of 50 HZ signal and using this to create block to carrier.


Fig 4.1 Wave Trap

Receivers:The receivers usually consist of and alternate matching transformer band pass filter and
amplifier detector.
The amplifier detector converts a small incoming signal in to a signal capable of operating a
relatively intensive carrier receiver relay. The transmitter and receiver at the two ends of
protected each corresponds to local as far as transmitting.


When carrying out inspection or maintains work in substation ,it is essential to disconnect
reliability the unit of other station on which the work is done from all other parts on
installation in order to ensure full safety of working staff .So guard against mistake it is
desirable that should be done by an apparatus is called ISOLATOR. In other words a device
which is used to open or close the circuit either when negligible current is interrupted or
when no significant change in voltage across the terminal of each pole of the isolator will
result from operation .they must only be opened or closed when current is zero. There is
single ear thing Isolator used .
Isolator is switching device used to open (or close) a circuit either when a negligible current
exists or when no significant change in voltage across the terminal of each pole of the
isolator, will result from the operation. Broadly speaking isolator are the switches whichs
operate under "No current condition.


Fig 5.1 View of Isolator

Isolators are file with earthing blades as an integral part of it. They may be isolators with
single ear thing blades or two earthling blades on either side of it.They must only be opened
or closed when current is zero. Isolators are classified into following categories.

Bus isolator


Line isolator


Transformer isolating switch

From constructional point of view the isolator may be classified as1.The post- centre post rotating part, double post break type.
2.Two post single type.
3.Base: - Each pipe phase isolator is mounted on a robust base of steal construction.

There are two types of instrument transformer:1. Potential Transformer
2. Current Transformer


Potential Transformer:Similar to CT it is another type of instrument type of instrument transformer .Transformer

used for voltage measurements are called voltage transformer or Potential transformer. it may
be of 1 phase or 3 phase
These transformers make the instruments suitable for measurement of high voltage and
isolating then from high voltage. these TX. Are connected in parallel and secondary winding
is always open ckt.
The primary has large no of turn in secondary,which provided step down of voltage , and
then the voltmeter is connected across secondary terminal the high voltage line.Some terms
related to PT :-

1. Rated voltage :- the capacity voltage of the PT which it can stand

2. Rated transformer ratio:- The ratio of the rated primary voltage to the rated second voltage.
3. Rated secondary voltage:- 130 / root (3) = 63.3 VAR.
Voltage transformer which step down system voltage to sufficient form high value to low
value are necessary in every system for
Induction of d.c supply voltage conduction.
Metering of the supply of energy.
Design and ranges are selected according to the secondary size of potential transformer for
indicating instruments, meter and relays. But calibration of these instruments is done
according to the primary voltage


Fig 6.1 Potential Transformer



The current transformers are kept in the category of the instrument transformer. The C.T. are
used to reduce/ stepping down A.C form high value to lower value for measurement /
protection / control.
They are usually installed in the outdoor switch. The primary conductor at high voltage with
respect to earth. The secondary of C.T. is just like the ring type C.T. the primary winding
consists of a very few turns , and therefore there is no. appreciation volt drop across injection
Current is transformed by C.T. the current transformer is used with primary winding ,
connected in series with the line carrying the current to be measured and therefore primary
current is dependent upon load connected in the system.

Fig 7.1 Current Transformer


Measurement of alternating current is one of the most frequent operation not only because of
its inheriant but a also because it is necessary in determining other parameters of electrical
circuit. A current transformer value of current is used for
1. Indication of current
2. kwh and kw meters
3. Telementry
4. Protective relay etc
A current transformer is intended to operate normally with rated current of the system
flowing through the primary winding which is increased in the series with the network
Secondary winding of current transformer connected to measuring instruments and relay
supplies currents circulating in the design of current transformer.



There are two power transformers of 160 MVA and 100 MVA . They are used convert 220
KV/66KV.And two power transformers are used of 20 MVA and 16/20 MVA which convert
66KV/11KV. Which transforms e/e energy from one voltage level to another desired level
with corresponding change in current value and without any change in frequency value.
The physical basis of a transformer is mutual induction between the circuits linked by a
common magnitude pulse voltage supplied to one set of winding called primary switch builds
up a magnitude flux through the iron.
A transformer in simplest form consist of two magnetic coil, which are electrically separated
from each other but magnetically linked through path of reluctance .

Fig 8.1 Power Transformer


Transformer parts are:1. BUCHHOLZ RELAY: It is a very sensitive gas and oil operated instrument which safely
detect the formation of gas or sudden pressure inside the oil transformer.
2. CONSERVATOR: It is used to provide adequate space for the expansion of oil when
transformer is loaded or when ambient temprature changes.
3. SILICA GEL BREATHER: It sucks the moisture from the air which is taken by
transformer so that dry air is taken by transformer.
4. DOUBLE DIAPHRAGM EXPLOSION VENT: It is used to discharge excess pressure in
the atmosphere when excess pressure is developed inside the transformer during loading.
5. OIL LEVEL INDICATOR: It is used to show the oil level in the transformer.
6. Winding temperature indicator: used to show the temperature of transformer winding.
7. RADIATORS: These are used for cooling of the transformer oil.

Fig 8.2 Various Parts of Transformer



Transmission line insulators are devices used to contain, separate or support electrical
conductors on high voltage electricity supply networks. Transmission insulators come in
various shapes and types, including individual or strings of disks, line posts or long rods.
They are made of polymers, glass and porcelain--each with different densities, tensile
strengths and performing properties in adverse conditions.
Pin Type Insulators
Pin type insulators are used for the transmission of lower voltages. A single pin type insulator
is used to transmit voltages up to 11 kV (kilovolts) and higher voltages require two-, three- or
four-piece pin insulators. They are not economically feasible for 33 kV and higher
transmission lines. Pin type insulators are secured with steel or lead bolts onto transmission
poles. These are typically used for straight-running transmission lines.

Fig 9.1 Pin type insulator

Suspension Type Insulators:Suspension type transmission line insulators suspend and support high voltage transmission
lines. They are cost effective for higher voltage transmission, typically replacing multiple pin
type insulators. Suspension type insulators have a number of interconnected porcelain discs,
with each individual unit designed to support a particular voltage. Together, a system of these

discs is capable of effectively supporting high voltages. There are three types of suspension
insulators: cemented cap suspension insulators; interlinking or Hewlett suspension insulators;
and link or core suspension insulators.

Fig 9.2 Suspension type insulator

Strain Type Insulators
Strain type insulators are horizontally suspended suspension insulators. They are used to
handle mechanical stresses and take the pressure off a conductor at the end of a transmission
line, at a sharp corner or curve or over long river crossings. Strain insulators are typically
used for higher voltage transmissions.


Fig 9.3 Strain type insulator

Shackle Type Insulators:Shackle type insulators, similar to strain type insulators, are used on sharp curves, end poles
and in section poles. However, unlike strain insulators, shackle insulators are designed to
support lower voltages. These insulators are single, round porcelain parts that are mounted
horizontally or vertically.

Fig 9.4 Shackle type insulator


A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an
electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit Its basic function is to
detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical
flow Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced, a circuit breaker can be
reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation Circuit breakers are
made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up
to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.
In any circuit, carrying a large amount of current, if a contact is opened then normally a spark
is produced due to fact that current traverses its path through air gap Arcing is harmful as it
can damage precious equipment media are provided between contacts.
This is one of the important equipment in power system It protects the system by isolating
the faulty section while the healthy one is keep on working Every system is susceptible to

fault or damages while can be caused due to overloading, short-circuiting, earth fault etc thus
to protect the system and isolate the faulty section C B are required Apart from breaking and
making contacts, a C B should be capable of doing
1. Continuously carry the maximum current at point of installation
2. Make and break the circuit under abnormal and normal condition
Close or open the faulty section only where fault exists
There are different arc quenching media:1)

Air blast




SF6 gas


In 220 kV Grid Devigarh , SF6 gas circuit breaker are used, as for greater capacity SF6 type
breakers are very efficient .
The outstanding physical and chemical properties of SF6 gas makes it an ideal dielectric
media for use in power switchgear.These properties of SF6 gas makes it an ideal dielectric
media for use in power switchgear,these properties are included:
1) High dielectric strength
2) unique arc quenching ability
3) Excellent thermal stability
4) Good thermal conductivity
In addition, at normal temperature SF6 is chemically inert,inflammable,noncorrosive and
non-condensable at low temperatures.
SF6 versus oil :SF6 is not flammable and toxic like oil.It is easier to handle,maintain and repair equipment
filled with SF6.
In case of breakdown of oil strong surges of pressure may occur due to sudden development
of gaseous products.In case of breakdown of SF6,the only pressure rise will result from the
thermal expansion of gas.


Fig 10.1 SF6 Circuit Breaker

Earthing is the provision of a surface under the substation, which has a uniform potential as
nearly as zero or equal to Absolute Earth potential. The provision of an earthing system for an
electric system is necessary by the following reason.
1. In the event of over voltage on the system due to lighting discharge or other system fault.
These parts of equipment which are normally dead as for as voltage, are concerned do not
attain dangerously high potential.
2. In a three phase, circuit the neutral of the system is earthed in order to stabilize the
potential of circuit with respect to earth.
The resistance of earthing system is depending on shape and material of earth electrode
the earthing is of two principal types :-


1. Neutral Earthing
2. Equipment Body Earthing
Neutral Earthing:Neutral Earthing also known as System Neutral Earthing (or Grounding) means connecting
the neutral point i.e. the star point of generator,transformer etc. to earth. In rotating machines,
generator, transformer circuit etc., the neutral point is always connected to earth either
directly or through a reactance. The neutral point is usually available at every voltage level
from generator or transformer neutral. If neutral point is not available, then the most common
method used is using a Zigzag transformer. Such a transformer has no secondary. Each phase
of primary has two equal parts. There are 3 limbs and each limb has two winding, providing
flux density under normal condition. Since the fluxes are opposite, the transformer takes very
small magnetizing current under normal conditions. During fault, the circuit is primary side,
which provides very less impedance to the current. The grounding transformers are short time
rating. Their size is almost one tenth as compared to power transformer.
Electrical Earthing:electrical Earthing is different from neutral earthing. During fault condition, the metallic parts
of an electrical installation which do not carry current under normal conditions, may attain
high potential with respect to ground. As human body can tolerate only I=0.165A/T current
for a given time t so to ensure safety we connect such metallic parts to earth by means of
Earthing system ,which comprises of electrical conductor to send fault current to earth. The
conductor used is generally in the form of rods, plates, pipes etc.
Earthing system ensures safety in following ways :1. The potential of earthen body does not reach dangerously high value about earth,
since it is connected to earth.

Earth fault current flows through earthing and readily causes the operation of fuse or
an earth relay.

Connection of Electrical Equipment to Substation:S.No. Apparatus

Supporting of bus

Path to be connected
Base plate


High voltage circuit

Operating mechanism frame

Potential transformer
Power transformer

Operating mechanism frame bed

Transformer tank LV
Core tank

Merits of neutral Earthing:1. Arcing grounding is reduced.

2. Voltage of heating with respect to earth remains at harmless value they don't increase to
root 3 times of normal value.
3. Suitable neutral point.
4. The earth fault relaying is relatively simple useful amount of earth fault current is available
to operate earth fault relay.
5. The over voltage due to lightening are discharged to earth.
6. Improved service reliability due to limitation of arcing ground and improved of
unnecessary fringing of CB.
At Devigarh the neutral point of power transformer is connected solidly to earth generally the
earth connection are provided which leads reliability.


A relay is an electrically operated switch Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates
a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts The coil current can
be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover)
Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the
first For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains
circuit There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits, the link is
magnetic and mechanical.
The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay, but it can
be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips)
cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to


the larger value required for the relay coil The maximum output current for the popular 555
timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification
Types of Relays
These are called normally opened, normally closed in GSS control room there is panel in
which the relays are set and there are many types of relays
1. Over voltage relays
2. Over current relays
3. I D M T fault relay
4. Earth fault relay
5. Buchelozs relay
6. Differential relay
OVER VOLTAGE RELAY: - This protection is required to avoid damage of system in case
line becomes open circuited at one end These fault would trip the local circuit breaker thus
block the local and remote ends This relay is operated i e , energized by CVT connected to
OVER CURRENT RELAY: -This relay has the upper electromagnet of non-directional relay
connected in series with lower non-directional electromagnet When the fault current flow
through relay current coil which produces flux in lower magnet of directional element Thus
the directional relay has the winding over the electromagnets of non-directional element and
produces a flux in lower magnet and thus over current operates.
EARTH FAULT RELAY: -when a conductor breaks due to some reason and it is earthen then
earth fault occurs The fault current is very high thus, there is need to of over current relay
This relay has minimum operating time
DIRECTIONAL RELAY: - It allows flowing the current only in one direction then only this
relay operates It has a winding connected through the voltage coil of relay to lower magnet


winding called current coil Which is energized by C T if fault occurs This relay operates
when v/I is less than theoretical value The v/I is normally constant .

Fig 12.1 Over Current and Voltage Relays

DIFFERENTIAL RELAY: - This relay operates when phase difference of two electrical
quantities exceeds the predetermined value It has always two electrical quantities; hence in
400kv GSS for transformer differential relay is used
INVERSE TIME CHARACTERISTICS RELAY: - The relay using here having the inverse
time characteristics having the time delays dependent upon current value This characteristic
is being available in relay of special design There are:i.

Electromagnetic Induction type


Permanent magnetic moving coil type


Static type


BUCHHOLZS RELAY: - It is the protective device of the transformer When any fault
occurs in the transformer then it indicates about fault and we disconnect the transformer from
the circuit It is used in the power transformer It is connected between the tank and
conservator It has two floats on which two mercury switch are attached One float is used for
the bell indication and other float is used for the tripping In the normal position the relay is
filled with the oil and contacts of the mercury switch are opened When the earth fault occurs
in the transformer then it increases the temperature of oil and oil flows into the conservator
through relay On the way it makes the contacts of the tripping circuit short So in the we can
say that this relay works as circuit breaker.

Fig12.2 Buchholz Relay


To remote control of power switch gear requires the provision of suitable control plates
located at a suitable point remote from immediate vicinity of CB 's and other equipments.

At "220KV DEVIGARH" the separate control room provided for remote protection of
220KV switch yards transformer incoming feeder, outing feeders. Bus bar has their own
control plant in their control rooms. The control panel carrier the appropriate relays.
Necessary meters indicating lamp control switches and fuses. There are meters for reading
purpose. A circuit concerning the panel is shown on the panel with standard co lour.
On each panel a control switch is provided for remote operation of circuit breaker. There are
two indicators which show that weather circuit breaker is closed or open. A control switch for
each insulator is also provided. The position indicator of isolator is also done with the help of
single lamp and indicator. The co lour of signal lamps are as follows :RED :- For circuit breaker or isolator is close option
GREEN :- For CB or isolator in open position.

In addition to used indication an alarm is also providing for indicating abnormal condition
when any protective relay or tripping relay has operated. Its constants energies on auxiliary
alarm. Relay which on operation completes the alarm belt circuit.
Energy Meter:These are fitted on different panel to record transmitted energy and recorded in energy hours.
For this purpose MWH meter have been provided.
Watt Meter:This is mounted on each feeder panel to record import or export power.
Frequency Power:Provided to each feeder to measure frequency which analog or digital.
Volt Meter :Provided on each panel or the purpose of indication of voltage.

These are used to indication the line current.

MVAR Meter:Provided for indicating power factor of import and export.
Maximum Indicator Demand :Chief requirement of these indicators to record the minimum power factor taken by feeder
during a particular period. This record the average power successive predetermined period.

Fig 13.1 Control Room



There is a battery room which has 55 batteries of 2 volt each for 132KV section and 110
batteries for 220KV section. Therefore D.C. power available is for functioning of the control
panels. A battery charger to charge the battery.
1. Various parts of lead acid batteries:1. Plates
2. Separators
3. Electrolyte
4. Container
5. Terminal port
6. Vent plugs

Fig 14.1 View of Battery Room



Initial charging
It is the first charging given to batteries by which the positive plates are converted to lead
peroxide, whereas the ve plates will converted to spongy lead. Also in a fully charged
battery the electrolyte specific gravity will be at its highest venue or 1.2 and its terminal
voltage will be 24 volts
Discharging:When a fully charged battery delivers its energy out by meeting a load the lead peroxide of
the +ve plates slowly gets converted to lead sulphate and the spongy lead of the ve plates
also gets converted into lead sulphate during this time the specific gravity of the electrolyte
also decreases the value around 1.00 and the terminal voltage also decreases from its initial to
a lower value which may be around 1.85 or 1.8.



A capacitor bank is a grouping of several identical capacitors interconnected in parallel or in

series with one another. These groups of capacitors are typically used to correct or counteract
undesirable characteristics, such as power factor lag or phase shifts inherent in alternating
current (AC) electrical power supplies. Capacitor banks may also be used in direct current
(DC) power supplies to increase stored energy and improve the ripple current capacity of the
power supply. Single capacitors are electrical or electronic components which store electrical
energy. Capacitors consist of two conductors that are separated by an insulating material or
dielectric. When an electrical current is passed through the conductor pair, a static electric
field develops in the dielectric which represents the stored energy. Unlike batteries, this
stored energy is not maintained indefinitely, as the dielectric allows for a certain amount of
current leakage which results in the gradual dissipation of the stored energy. The energy
storing characteristic of capacitors is known as capacitance and is expressed or measured by
the unit farads. This is usually a known, fixed value for each individual capacitor which
allows for considerable flexibility in a wide range of uses such as restricting DC current
while allowing AC current to pass, output smoothing in DC power supplies, and in the
construction of resonant circuits used in radio tuning. These characteristics also allow
capacitors to be used in a group or capacitor bank to absorb and correct AC power supply


Fig 15.1 Capicator Bank

The use of a capacitor bank to correct AC power supply anomalies is typically found in
heavy industrial environments that feature working loads made up of electric motors and
transformers. This type of working load is problematic from a power supply perspective as
electric motors and transformers represent inductive loads, which cause a phenomenon
known as phase shift or power factor lag in the power supply. The presence of this
undesirable phenomenon can cause serious losses in terms of overall system efficiency with
an associated increase in the cost of supplying the power. The use of a capacitor bank in the
power supply system effectively cancels out or counteracts these phase shift issues, making
the power supply far more efficient and cost effective. The installation of a capacitor bank is
also one of the cheapest methods of correcting power lag problems and maintaining a power
factor capacitor bank is simple and cost effective. One thing that should always be kept in
mind when working with any capacitor or capacitor bank is the fact that the stored energy, if

incorrectly discharged, can cause serious burns or electric shocks. The incorrect handling or
disposal of capacitors may also lead to explosions, so care should always be exercised when
dealing with capacitors of any sort.

The training at grid substation was very helpful. It has improved my theoretical concepts of
electrical power transmission and distribution. Protection of various apparatus was a great
thing. Maintenance of transformer, circuit breaker, isolator, insulator, bus bar etc was
I had a chance to see the remote control of the equipments from control room itself,
which was very interesting.
So the training was more than hope to me and helped me to understand about power
system more.
Now I have studied a lot about the electrical transmission system. One must have never
thought that so many things are required for just switching on a television or a refrigerator or
say an electric trimmer. The three wing of electrical system viz. Generation, transmission and
distribution are connected to each other and that too very perfectly. Here man and electricity
work as if they are a family. Lots of labour, capital and infrastructure is involved in the
system just to have a single phase,220V,50Hz power supply at our houses. At last I would




Power System by C.L.Wadhwa
Power System by V.K. Mehta
Electrical Machine by P.S. Bimbra
Thapar Library