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ContinuousTimeFourierTransform

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ContinuousTimeFourierTransform
TheFourierexpansioncoefficient

inOWN)ofaperiodicsignal

is

andtheFourierexpansionofthesignalis:

whichcanalsobewrittenas:

where

isdefinedas

Whentheperiodof
periodicsignal

approachesinfinity

,theperiodicsignal

becomesanon

andthefollowingwillresult:

Intervalbetweentwoneighboringfrequencycomponentsbecomeszero:

Discretefrequencybecomescontinuousfrequency:

SummationoftheFourierexpansioninequation(a)becomesanintegral:
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ContinuousTimeFourierTransform

thesecondequalsignisduetothegeneralfact:

Timeintegralover

inequation(b)becomesovertheentiretimeaxis:

Insummary,whenthesignalisnonperiodic

,theFourierexpansion

becomesFouriertransform.Theforwardtransform(analysis)is:

andtheinversetransform(synthesis)is:

Notethat

isdenotedby

inOWN.

ComparingFouriercoefficientofaperiodicsignal
periodicsignal

withwithFourierspectrumofanon

weseethatthedimensionof

isdifferentfromthatof

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If

ContinuousTimeFourierTransform

representstheenergycontainedinthekthfrequencycomponentofaperiodicsignal
,then

representstheenergydensityofanonperiodicsignal

distributedalong

thefrequencyaxis.Wecanonlyspeakoftheenergycontainedinaparticularfrequencyband
:

Noteonnotations:
Thespectrumofatimesignalcanbedenotedby

or

toemphasizethefactthatthe

spectrumrepresentshowtheenergycontainedinthesignalisdistributedasafunctionoffrequency
or .Moreover,if
isused,thefactor
infrontoftheinversetransformisdropped
sothatthetransformpairtakesamoresymmetricform.Ontheotherhand,asFouriertransformcan
beconsideredasaspecialcaseofLaplacetransformwhentherealpart ofthecomplexargument
iszero:

itisalsonaturaltodenotethespectrumof

by

(inOWN).

Example0:
Considertheunitimpulsefunction:

Example1:
Ifthespectrumofasignal

isadeltafunctioninfrequencydomain

,the

signalcanbefoundtobe:

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ContinuousTimeFourierTransform

i.e.,

Example2:

Thespectrumis

Thisisthesincfunctionwithaparameter ,asshowninthefigure.

Notethattheheightofthemainpeakis

When approachesinfinity,

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anditgetstallerandnarroweras getslarger.Alsonote

forall ,andthespectrumbecomes

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ContinuousTimeFourierTransform

RecallthattheFouriercoefficientof

is

whichrepresentstheenergycontainedinthesignalat
(DCcomponentatzerofrequency),and
thespectrum
istheenergydensityordistributionwhichisinfinityatzero
frequency.
Theintegralintheabovetransformisanimportantformulatobeusedfrequentlylater:

whichcanalsobewrittenas

Switching and

intheequationabove,wealsohave

representingasuperpositionofaninfinitenumberofcosinefunctionsofallfrequencies,whichcancel
eachotheranywherealongthetimeaxisexceptat
wheretheyadduptoinfinity,animpulse.
Example3:

Thespectrumofthecosinefunctionis

Thespectrumofthesinefunction
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ContinuousTimeFourierTransform

canbesimilarlyobtainedtobe

Again,thesespectrarepresenttheenergydensitydistributionofthesinusoids,whilethe
correspondingFouriercoefficients

and

representtheenergycontainedatfrequency

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RuyeWang20090705

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