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Course Code: 28117

INSTITUTE OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING


HERIOT-WATT UNIVERSITY

DEGREE OF MSc / DIPLOMA IN PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY - Module G11PT


Thursday 2x April 20xx, (3 hours 15 minutes)
This is a closed book examination
1.

This is a Closed Book Examination.

2. Examination Papers will be marked anonymously. See separate instructions for


completion of Script Book front covers and attachment of loose pages. Do not write

your name on any loose pages which are submitted as part of your answer.
3. This Paper consists of 1 Section:-

Attempt 4 numbered Questions from 6
4. Marks for Questions and parts are indicated in brackets
5. This Examination represents 80% of the Class assessment.
6. State clearly any assumptions used and intermediate calculations made in numerical

questions. No marks can be given for an incorrect answer if the method of calculation

is not presented.

Question 1
(a) You are the Production Technologist responsible for completion of a well in a new field.

Briefly list what techniques you would use to help you in the decision as to whether sand

control measures need to be installed.

N.B. A core has been taken across the pay zone.

[6]
(b) This field has been declared marginal and can only be economically developed with
subsea wells. Briefly describe how this will affect your decision:

(i)
On the need for the installation of sand control measures and

(ii)
Type of sand control measures installed.

[4]
(c) The field is developed with an oil well producing through a gravel pack. The (Darcy)
skin due to presence of the gravel pack and the resulting pressure drop (Ps) may be
calculated from:

S=

96 k / k g L
2

d n

and
Ps =

Dq
141.2 qB
S + 4 2 or

KL
d n

Dq
Ps = 0.00539 q S + 4 2

d n
(see Table 2 for definition of the parameters and numerical values)

Calculate the (Darcy) skin value (S) and the resulting pressure drop for a perforation density of 4
shots/ft.

[3]
This is the target, allowable pressure drop in the well.
(d) Well testing found that the turbulent (non-Darcy) resulted in an unacceptably high

pressure drop of 374 psi. You are required to advise management as to whether the next

well should be completed with:
Case
A
B

Cost
Low
High

Shot Density Diameter


12 shots/ft
0.5 in
4 shots/ft
1.0 in

and whether it will meet the target, allowable pressure drop.


[4]

(e) Briefly comment on which case you would have expected to give the better inflow, and why.

[3]

Table 2
Well Production (q)
Total Production Height (h)
Reservoir Permeability (k)
Oil Viscosity (o)
Formation Volume Factor (Bo)
20-40 Mesh Gravel Permeability
Perforation Penetration (L)
Perforation Diameter (d)
Perforation Density (n)
Non-Darcy (turbulance factor) (D)

2500 STB/D
23 ft
578 mD
0.310 cp
1.636 bbl/STB
120,000 mD
6 in
0.5 in
4 shots/ft
0.01

Question 2
2(a) Advanced wells and in particular horizontal and multi-lateral wells, can enhance the

business case of a field development by any of 3 primary techno-economic drivers. What

are these?

[3]

2(b) Draw a simple sketch of the Composite Production System, indicating clearly the systems

start and end points

[4]
2(c) Write one or two basic equations to quantify the Total System Pressure Drop

[4]

2(d) Wells producing from :



i)
a solution gas drive reservoir and

ii)
a water drive reservoir where there is a large aquifer present the Production

Technologist with differing challenges when he manages the wells performance.

Draw a simple sketch to compare and contrast reservoir performance of these two drive

mechanism types

[4]
2(e) For each of the above reservoir types, list 2 of the resulting Production Technology

challenges that will control the well design and Production operations Policy.

[5]

Question 3
3(a) A recommendation is required to choose a perforating system for a completion in a

formation with a variable rock strength ranging from a weak Unconfined Compressive

Strength (Cf = 2,000 psi) to a strong value (Cf = 18000 psi).

Calculate the expected perforation lengths for the following perforating guns to be run in
a 9 5/8 in. OD casing placed inside a 12 1/4 in. drilled hole.

Gun Type
31/2 in. Wireline through tubing gun
7 in. Tubing conveyed perforating gun

API RP 19B Test


Penetration
10 in.
43 in.

N.B. API RP 19B data available for these guns can be converted to downhole performance using
the equation:

Pf = Pt * e0.086*(Ct Cf)/1000

Where Pf is the expected penetration (inches) in formations with an Unconfined

Compressive Strength, Cf (psi) and Pt is the API RP19B test penetration in the test

formation (Unconfined Compressive Strength, Ct = 6,500 psi)

[3]
3(b) Drilling of the strong formation (Cf = 18,000 psi) results in a hole with the same diameter

as the drill bit. By contrast, drilling of the weak (Cf = 2,000 psi) formation resulted in an

enlarged hole (or washout). The hole diameter has increased by 8 inches.

Which perforating guns do you recommend and why?

3(c)



[3]

A new drilling mud with a low leak-off rate is chosen for the weak formation. This mud
creates a zone 2 in. deep around the wellbore of Formation Damage or reduced
permeability (permeability is reduced to 5% of the original value). Also, a better quality
hole is drilled; the washout (hole enlargement) is now only 3 in. greater than the drilled
hole diameter.


Does this alter the perforating gun you recommend?

Explain the reasoning behind your answer.

[3]

3(d) Briefly list 4 major advantages & 3 disadvantages of using a tubing conveyed perforating

system.

[7]
3(e) Briefly list 3 different techniques used to detonate a tubing conveyed perforating gun.

[4]

Question 4
4(a) Seal assemblies, surface controlled, sub-surface safety valves, side pocket mandrels,

sliding side doors, perforated joints and landing nipples and among completion string

components. Briefly explain them and their roles.

[6]
4(b) Tubing flow without annular seal is one of the options available for flow conduit selection.

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this technique (use sketches).

[4]
4(c) A well is drilled in an unconsolidated formation. Sand production is expected in

particular after water breakthrough. The reservoir produced 15,000 bbl/day during DST

with a drawdown of 500 psi. The reservoir and well data are as followings:
Oil gravity
Bottom hole temperature
Top of the reservoir
Thickness of the pay-zone
GOR
H 2S
CO2
Total Depth Drilled
Reservoir pressure
Bubble point pressure
Kv/Kh

35o API
100o C
6,500 ft
200 ft
500 scf/bbl
30 ppm
1 mole%
6,800 ft
4,500 psia
3,000 psia
0.15

Identify the available options for completion.


I.
What will you select for the bottom hole completion and flow conduit and why?

[4]

II.
After 2 years of production, the reservoir pressure has dropped to 3,500 psia and

the water cut has increased to 30%, resulting in significant reduction in the well

flow rate. Well test analysis shows that the aquifer is not very active and reservoir

pressure drop is likely to continue. Suggest a workover strategy and justify your

answer.

[3]

III.

Is it possible to avoid/delay this workover by modifying initial tubing design?


How?


Question 5

[3]

5(a) Describe the role of packers and their components (use sketches where necessary) and

their various setting mechanisms.

[6]
5(b) Describe the available options for completion configuration in a dual zone reservoir (use

sketches), assuming no fluid mixture. Mention their advantages and disadvantages.

[6]
5(c) Field A is an offshore field in approximately 1,000 ft water. The exploration wells

proved the existence two reservoirs with similar fluid compositions. The top of the two

reservoirs have been identified at 6,000 and 7,500 ft.


Gas injection is required for achieving optimum production rate from both reservoirs.
However, due to a low burst pressure rating of the top 1,000 ft of the casing, it is not
possible to inject gas through annulus.


I. Your task is to develop an outline completion string for the oil production wells,

producing from both reservoirs. It is necessary to have flexibility in selective

production and/or stimulation of individual reservoirs. Identify key design

features and the reasons for their selection.

[4]

II. Identify the components required for the completion configuration. Draw a sketch

of your proposed completion configuration.

[4]

Question 6
The Alpha oil reservoir is a small offshore field which is currently being considered for
development. It is likely that the field will require 3-5 production wells. Currently the use of a
small fixed jacket is preferred with the possible use of a subsea template/completion if further
delineation causes a significant downsizing in reserves.
The general conditions for the field are shown in Table 1 with the fluid and reservoir
characteristics shown in Table 2 and 3 respectively. A projected casing schedule is shown in
Table 4.
The reservoir consists of a consolidated to friable, heterogeneous, fine grained sandstone with
limited clay content. It is slightly overpressured and overlain by a thin (150 ft) shale layer. It
is anticipated that the well deliverability will require the use of 41/2 OD tubing. The reservoir
is expected to be produced by depletion drive; hence well deliverability will decline almost
immediately.
Use short notes and sketches to answer the following questions.
State all assumptions and give reasons where possible.
1.
For this particular development, discuss the options for the bottomhole completion

technique; namely, cemented and perforated liner; screen or openhole.

Discuss briefly what you recommend and why?

[5]
2.
What would be your objectives when selecting a drill-in fluid for the 6 inch hole when

drilling the reservoir section

[5]
3.
Provide a sketch of a conceptual configuration for the completion of the oil production wells.

Specify:

a) Key components and your reasons for their selection


b) Approximate setting depths

[7]

4.
The wells are to be drilled overbalanced.

How would you lower the bottomhole pressure to initiate flow?

[3]

Table 1 - Field Location and General Data


Water depth
180 ft
Location
100 miles offshore NE Scotland
Adjacent existing platform is
8 miles to the SW
No. of wells projected
3-5
Reserve estimate
47 x 106 STB
Aquifer
None
Gas cap at initial reservoir pressure None
Table 2 - Reservoir Fluid Data
Oil density
Oil viscosity at reservoir conditions
GOR
H2S concentration
CO2 concentration
Bubble point of crude oil
Table 3 - Reservoir Data
Top of oil column
Thickness of reservoir sand
Bottom hole temperature
Permeability
Average permeability
Initial reservoir pressure
kV/kH = 1.0 (approx)

31 API
7 cp
420 scf/bbl
5 ppm
8%
2,800 psia

5,900 ft TVDSS
140 ft
180F
80-270 md
170 md
2,900 psia at 5,900 ft

Table 4 - Provisional Casing Schedule


Hole Size
26
17 1/2
12 1/4
8 1/2
6

option 1.
option 2.
option 3.

Casing Size
20
13 3/8
9 5/8
7
4 1/2
4 screen
Open hole

Setting Depth (TVDSS)


From
To
Surface
1,000 ft
Surface
2,600 ft
Surface
4,700 ft
4,200 ft
5,950 ft
5,500 ft
6,150 ft