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Polytechnic University of the Philippines

Department of Elementary and Secondary Education
Sta. Mesa, Manila


A Report on:
Definition and Purposes of Measurement and Evaluation
Submitted by:
Amoyo, Shekinah F.
Boyo, Jy Allyra S.
Dolot, Dyea C.
Flores, Jacqueline S.
Libron, Maricris P.
Monderin, Camille P.
Patrolla, Danilo B.
Submitted to:
Prof. Jay-R A. Manamtam

June 22, 2015

In this unit, the meaning of assessment, test and testing measurement and evaluation
will be given. The purpose of carrying out measurement and evaluation will also be given
since the primary purpose of educationally measuring and evaluating the learner is to utilize
the results for the improvement of teaching-learning.
At the end of this unit the learner will be able to explain the terms test and testing,
define the term assessment, clarify the terms measurement and evaluation, list the purposes of
measurement and evaluation and explain the types of evaluation.
Meaning of Terms
Test and testing
Simply put a test is a measuring tool or instrument in education. More
specifically, a test is considered to be a kind or class of measurement device typically
used to find out something about a person. This test is an instrument given to you by
the teacher in order to obtain data on which you are judged. It is an educationally
common type of device which an individual completes himself or herself, the intent is
to determine changes or gains resulting from such instruments as inventory,
questionnaire, opinionnaire, scale etc.
Testing on the other hand, is the process of administering the test on the
pupils. In other words the process of making you or letting you take the test in order
to obtain a quantitative representation of the cognitive or non-cognitive traits you
possess is called testing. So the instrument or tool is the test and the process of
administering the test is testing.
The term assess is derived from a Latin word asoidere meaning to sit by in
judgment. There are many definitions and explanations of assessment in education.
Let us look at few of them.


Freeman and Lewis (1998) to assess is to judge the extent of students


Rowntree (1977): Assessment in education can be thought of as occurring
whenever one person, in some kind of interaction, direct or indirect, with
another, is conscious of obtaining and interpreting information about the
knowledge and understanding of abilities and attitudes of that other person. To


some extent or other, it is an attempt to know the person.

Erwin, in Brown and Knight, (1994). Assessment is a systematic basis for
making inference about the learning and development of students the
process of defining, selecting, designing, collecting, analyzing, interpreting
and using information to increase students learning and development.

You will have to note from these definitions that

Assessment is a human activity.

Assessment involves interaction, which aims at seeking to understand what the

learners have achieved.

Assessment can be formal or informal.
Assessment may be descriptive rather than judgment in nature.
Its role is to increase students learning and development
It helps learners to diagnose their problems and to improve the quality of their
subsequent learning.

This is a broad term that refers to the systematic determination of outcomes or
characteristics by means of some sort of assessment device. It is a systematic process
of obtaining the quantified degree to which a trait or an attribute is present in an
individual or object. In other words it is a systematic assignment of numerical values
or figures to a trait or an attribute in a person or object.
In education, the numerical value of scholastics ability, aptitude, achievement
etc can be measured and obtained using instruments such as paper and pencil test. It
means that the values of the attribute are translated into numbers by measurement.


According to Tuckman (1975) evaluation is a process wherein the parts,

processes, or outcomes of a programme are examined to see whether they are
satisfactory, particularly with reference to the stated objectives of the programme,

our own expectations, or our own standards of excellence.

According to Cronbach et al (1980) evaluation means the systematic examination
of events occurring in and consequent on a contemporary programme. It is an
examination conducted to assist in improving this programme and other

programmes having the same general purpose.

For Thorpe (1993) evaluation is the collection analysis and interpretation of
information about training as part of a recognized process of judging its
effectiveness, its efficiency and any other outcomes it may have.
If you study these definitions very well, you will note that evaluation as an

integral part of the instructional process involves three steps. These are

Identifying and defining the intended outcomes.

Constructing or selecting tests and other evaluation tools relevant to the


specified outcomes, and

Using the evaluation results to improve learning and teaching

Types of Evaluation
The different types of evaluation are: placement, formative, diagnostic and
summative evaluations.
a. Placement Evaluation
This is a type of evaluations carried out in order to fix the students in the
appropriate group or class. In some schools for instance, students are assigned to
classes according to their subject combinations, such as science, technical, arts,
commercial etc. before this is done an examination will be carried out. This is in form
of pretest or aptitude test. It can also be a type of evaluation made by the teacher to
find out the entry behaviour of his students before he starts teaching. This may help
the teacher to adjust his lesson plan. Tests like readiness tests, ability tests, aptitude
tests and achievement tests can be used.
b. Formative Evaluation
This is a type of evaluation designed to help both the student and teacher to
pinpoint areas where the student has failed to learn so that this failure may be

rectified. It provides a feedback to the teacher and the student and thus estimating
teaching success e.g. weekly tests, terminal examinations etc.
c. Diagnostic Evaluation
This type of evaluation is carried out most of the time as a follow up
evaluation to formative evaluation. As a teacher, you have used formative evaluation
to identify some weaknesses in your students. You have also applied some corrective
measures which have not showed success. What you will now do is to design a type
of diagnostic test, which is applied during instruction to find out the underlying cause
of students persistent learning difficulties. These diagnostic tests can be in the form of
achievement tests, performance test, self rating, interviews observations, etc.
d. Summative evaluation:
This is the type of evaluation carried out at the end of the course of instruction
to determine the extent to which the objectives have been achieved. It is called a
summarizing evaluation because it looks at the entire course of instruction or
programme and can pass judgment on the teacher and students, the curriculum and the
entire system. It is used for certification.
The Purpose of Measurement and Evaluation
The main purposes of measurement and evaluation are:

Placement of student, which involves bringing students appropriately in the

learning sequence and classification or streaming of students according to


ability or subjects.
Selecting the students for courses general, professional, technical,


commercial etc.
Certification: This helps to certify that a student has achieved a particular


level of performance.
Stimulating learning: this can be motivation of the student or teacher,


providing feedback, suggesting suitable practice etc.

Improving teaching: by helping to review the effectiveness of teaching


For research purposes.
For guidance and counseling services.
For modification of the curriculum purposes.


For the purpose of selecting students for employment


For modification of teaching methods.

For the purposes of promotions to the student.
For reporting students progress to their parents.
For the awards of scholarship and merit awards.
For the admission of students into educational institutions.


For the maintenance of students.

Now that you have gone through the descriptions of the major terms used in
measurement and evaluation and you can give the purposes of measurement and evaluation
as well as explain the types of evaluation, you have placed yourself on a good footing for the
study of this all important course which you can not do without as a teacher.
In general, those practitioners in the educational system are most of the times
interested in ascertaining the outputs of the educational programme. Output is counted in
terms of test results which are naturally expressed in quantitative indices such as scores or
marks. Test, which is a device, an instrument or a tool consisting of a set of tasks or
questions, is used to obtain the results. Test can be in the form of pen and paper examination,
assignments, practical etc. The process of administering this test is called testing. But an act
of measurement is done when we award marks to an answer paper or assignment.
So measurement gives the individuals ability in numerical indices of scores i.e.
measurement is quantitative. Assessment can be seen as the engine that drives and shapes
learning, rather than simply an end of term examination that grades and reports performance.
Evaluation is expressed in qualitative indices such as good, excellent pass or fail. Value
judgment is therefore attached to the measurement. Evaluation can be placement, formative,
diagnostic or summative.

Obimba, F.U. (1989) Fundamental of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and
Psychology. Owerri, Totan Pub. Ltd.

Ohuche, R.O. and Akeju, S.A. (1977) Testing and Evaluation in Education. Lagos: African
Educational Resources (AER)
STRAIDE Handbook (2002) Assessment and Evaluation in Distance Education. New Delhi:
A Publication of Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU).
Tuchman, B.W. (1975) Measuring Educational Outcomes Fundamental of Testing. Atlanta:
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich inc.