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Subhasis Nan&

Hamid 'A. Toliyat

Student Member, IEEE

Senior Member. IEEE

Electric Machines and Motor Drives Laboratory

Department of Electrical Engineering
Texas ABM University
College Station, TX,77843-3 128

Fax: (409) 845-6259


Abslroct Detection of rotor slot and other eccentricity related harmonics are given in a compact form by

related harmonics in the line current of a three phase

induction motor is important both fiom the viewpoint
of sensorless speed estimation as well as eccentricity
related fault detection. However, it is now clear that
not all three phase induction motors are capable of
generating such harmonics in the line current. Recent
research has shown that the presence of these
harmonics is primarily dependent on the number of
rotor slots and the
pole pair of
the machine. While the number of fundamental pole
pairs of a three phase induction motor usually is
between one to four fiigher pole p a ~ sare generally
avoided due to increased
current), the
number of rotor slots can vary widely. Tbe present
paper investigates this phenomenon further and obtains
a hitherto unexplored theoretical b,asis for the
experimentally verified results. Detailed coupled
magnetic circuit simulation results are presented for a
four pole, three phase induction motor
q 4 3 , and
42 rotor slots under healthy, static, dynamic and mixed
eccentricity conditions. The simulation is flexible
enough to accommodate other pole, numbers also.
These simulations are helpful in quantifying the
predicted harmonics under different combinations of
load, pole Pi numbem, rotor Slots and eccentricity
conditions, thus making the problem oasier for drive
designers or diagnostic tools' develope&.

I. Introduction



where n,j = 0 in case of static eccentricity, and

n,, = I in case of dynamic eccentricity (nd is
known as eccentricity
supply frequency, R is the number of rotor slots, s
IS the slip, p is the number of fundamental pole
pain, k is any positive integer, and v is the
order of the stator time harmonics that are present
in the power supply driving the motor ( v =
f 1, f 3, f 5 , etc.). The principal slot harmonics
are also
bv the above eauation
w i t h n d = O , v = l , k = l .W h e n o n e o f t h e s e
harmonics is a multiple of three, it may not exist
theoretically in the line Current of a balanced
three phase three wire machine.
However, the harmonics as described by (1)
are not present in the machine for all combination
of p and R. This is due to the fact that the only
flux which can produce voltage in a three phase
stator winding is one that has a number of pole
oairs that the winding itself may
- Droduce
However, in a s q u i i i cage a flux with any
number of pole pairs can induce a voltage. To be
precise, for a
machine to produce a
spectrum of principal slot
the pole
pair number R f n p (n the
number) should be equal to the pole pair number

The presence rotor slot harmonics (also called

the principle slot harmonics or PSH) and the other
eccentricity related harmonics is absolutely
essential for most of the sensorless adjustable
speed induction motor drive schr:mes [l] and
diagnosis of eccentricity related faults [2]. The Of the 'pace harmonics produced by a phase Of
PSH, and the static and dynmi,: eccenhicity the stator winding. For example, with 36 stator

0-78034879-6/98/$10.00 8 1998 IEEE


slots and full pitch three phase concentric winding

p pi Po
and R = 44, p = 2; one principal slot harmonic
can be seen. The same winding with R 4 3 or R These MMFs acting on Po, PrOduw air-gaP flux
4 2 should not ideally give any principal slot components given by,
A Po cos(p,x f ot)
harmonics. However, in presence of static or
dynamic eccentricity the pole pair number
changes from R f np to R f np f 1 . This will with respect to stator, or,
then introduce additional harmonics as given by
(1) With only R 4 3 and not With R 4 4 Or R 4 2
for the Same fundamental pole pair. In fact, with
R 4 2 (this condition is similar to the case in [I]
where R =58); the speed detection algorithms
using principal slot harmonics are likely to fail.
When both static and dynamic eccentricitv are
components given by [5-61


f W,I,

(k = 1 2 3 . . 1


with respect to rotor. These components produce

(R- p n ) ,,,,le pair rotor MMF harmonics [71
which acting upon Po produce air-gap flux
components of the type

A,. Po2
. WS[(R

- p,)X - p p , t T U t ) - 4 ,I (7)

with respect to rotor, or,

A, :P COS[(R- p , ) ( ~- U, t ) - p p , t T o t ) -

4 ,]

will be present in the stator current spectrum of
any three phase irrespective of p and R, where with respect to stator.
f, is the rotational frequency of the machine. The above expression can be simplified by
However, these additional components will give substituting ", by (1 - 4
w as
rise to other additional current spectrums at the
same frequency points as described by (1) for
dynamic eccentricity related components.
11. Mechanism of PSH and other

The relevant rotor space MMF harmonics also

Eccentricity Related Harmonic Generation generate air-gap flux components similar to (9).
Finally comparing (8) with (1) shows that the
in the Motor Line Current
In the following analysis, the well known
transformation is applied. Stator frame of
reference is transformed into rotor frame of
reference by addingw, t ( U , = rotor speed) to the
stator angular position. Similarly, rotor frame of
reference is transformed into stator frame of
reference by subtracting o,t from the rotor
angular position.

PSH components given by

only present when at least one element of the set
(R- p n ) also belongs to the set pn .Now for a
balanced three phase winding n is usually given
by (other than 1 which implies fundamental)

n = 6 k f 1 , k=1,2,3,....


Thus in order to observe the PSH, R is given by

a) Healthy machine:

mfq=0,1,2,3 ,....r = O or 1.(11)

MMFs due to stator currents are ofthe form

(3) Clearly, in our case only R = 44 satisfies (1 1).

Pn = "P ;
= number of space b) Mmhine with static eccenhicity :
harmonic;w=line frequency in radsec and x the
this case, the permeance function c m be
angular position from the stator frame of expressedas
reference. The permeance function, without
p po+qcoSx
approximately expressed as



The air-gap flux components produced by (3) described in (a) these components again generate
acting on (12) is given by
[a] air-gap flux of type
AP,cos(p,xiwt)+-~~s[(p, - I ) x f ~ t ]






These components then produce (R- pn)pole

pair rotor h4MF harmonics as dascribed earlier.
The harmonics containing the 4 term now
combines with the eccentric part of the permeance
function and those containing'the 4 term
combines with the average part. This results in
air-gap flux of the form,



The following combinations of


P,,P, ,d,,dz are

I ) P , = P , , = P ~ , d l = l , d 2 = 0 , k l = l , 2 , 3 ...
2 ) P , = & , P , = q o r & , d , =2,d2 = I , kl =0,1,2,3 ...

reasoning as in the earliercBse, Combination 1) and combination 3) with d2 = 0

the value of R in order to observe static only applicable for machines described by (11).
eccentricity related components is given by:
Combination 2 ) is only applicable for those
described by (15). For other types of machine
R = 2p[3(mfq) f r ] f 1
(15) (for example R = 4 2 , p = 2 in our case)
combination 3 ) with dz = 2 is possible. Since
where, m f g = 0,1,2,3 ,... and r == Oor 1
values of 4 ,Pz are usually small and d, = 4 ,
Thus, only R=43 in our case will give rise to static
these components of the air-gap flux will induce
eccentricity components.
very weak signal in the line current, thus making
detection difficult in presence of inherent noise in
c) Machine with dynamic eccenhiciw :
the line current spectrum. Combination 1) will
With dynamic eccentricity the air -gap function
give rise to dynamic eccentricity like components
can be expressed as
while combinations 2 ) and 3 ) will give rise to
both static and dynamic eccentricity like
P = Po+P2cos(x-wr)
('6) components.
Trigonometric manipulations as described in h)
show that the air-gap flux contains components of 111. Induction Motor Analysis under
the form
Healthv and Eccentric Conditions usine
(17) The Winding Function Approach &


Modified Windine Function Amroach

Thus, in this case also R is giveln by (15) and
Analysis of three phase induction machine

R=43 only will give rise to dynamic eccentricity using winding function approach (WFA) is well
documented in literature [S-91. However, in

d) Machine with mixed eccentrici~~:

The permeance function for the
eccentricity case is given by



presence of air-gap eccentricity those equations

are not valid as the average value of the winding
mixed function no longer remains zero[~o]. Using
the modified winding function approach
(I8) (MWFA), the self inductances of the rotor


used to describe the stator and rotor circuit 460V, 60 Hz ac source. The simulations were
equations. Using the modified winding function carried out assuming dynamometer load of 8.6 Napproach expressions for these inductances under m. at a slip of around 0.029. The spectral
static and dynamic eccentricity conditions can be estimates of the line currents have been
developed as described in [ll]. These inductance normalized with respect to their respective
values have been verified using finite element [6]. fundamental components. The simulation results
In the presence of mixed eccentricity the air- presented show excellent match with the
theoretically predicted harmonic components.
gap can be modeled as
ge((,Orm)=go -al cos(-a, cos((-@,)
Fig.1 shows the power spectral density
(PSD) of the phase a current of healthy
where., ai,a7
. - are the amount of static and machines having 44.43and 42 bars. It can be
dynamic eccentricity respectively, go the easily seen that the PSH is only present for the 44
The other PSH is missing as it is
- .
average air-gap and @ a particular position
along the stator inner surface. Then, the inverse



air-gap function , g(6,,(

), is replaced with




a3 = Ju12+ 2a,a2 cose,, + U ,

a2 sinsrm
6,,, = arctan
nl + a2 coser,,,

4 + A 2 cos(h%,)
A, =

g ao

The inverse air-gap function

approximately expressed as
















g ao


2 nm





Fig.I PSD of phase acurrent ofhealthy machine.

From top to boftom R=44,43, 42. PSH is Principle
Slot Harmonic.
The modified equations for only static and only
goJiqiA2 =

dynamic conditions can be obtained by setting

a, ,or a, equal to zero respectively in (20-25).

IV. Simulation Results

Detailed description of the modeling of three
phase induction motor using the coupled magnetic
approach is given in [12]. Similar approach was
followed here. The simulated machine has 36
stator slots with full pitch 3 phase concentric
winding, 4 poles and a rated Power o f 3 HF. The
stator windings are connected in star. Simulation
results were obtained using balanced 3 phase,

Fig.2 show the PSD for these motors with

38.46% static eccentricity. As predicted, only the
43 bar machine generates an exclusive signal in
presence of static eccentricity. Same is the case in
the presence of dynamic eccentricity of 20% (Fig.
3). It is to be noted that only the pole pairs given
by R - pn+ 1 will be able induce voltage in the
stator. Hence only one line can
Seen in the
corresponding to dynamic eccentricity.
The PSH of the 44 bar machine does not change
much with either kind ofeccenhicity.


(38.46% static and 20% dynamic). Though the

* v,(

B -100





.,. ,



Fig2 PSD of phase 'a' current of static eccentric

machine. From top to bottom R=44, 43, 42. SEC is
Static Eccentricily Compo,wnt.

componeqts are present for a11 the
machines, the high frequency components for the
42 bar machine is almost submerged by the noise
floor as was predicted by the theoretical analysis.
The actual line c k n t spectrum of such a
machine is likely to be even worse and hence will
not bo suitable for speed estimation or fault
diagnostic purposes by using the higher order
From the theoretical and simulation analysis
it is clear that machines of the class given by (11)
(in our case the 44 bar machine) is better for
sensorless speed estimation purpose as the PSH is
always present.
The machines of the class given by (15) (the
43 bar machine in this case) are better from fault
diagnosis view point as they give different
signatures under static, dynamic and mixed
eccentricity conditions.










' 4


Fig.3 PSD of phase 'a' current of &mmic eccentric

machine. From top to bottom R=44,,43,42. DEC is
Dynamic Eccentricity Component.


Fig.4 PSD of phase 'a'currenf of mixed eccenlric

machine aroundfundamental. From top to bottom
R=44, 43, 42.

V. Conclusions

The effects of pole pair and rotor slot numbers

Figs. 4 and 5 show the line current spectnun
of the machines around the fundamental and the on the presence of different harmonics under
PSH region respectively with mixed eccentricity healthy and eccentric conditions are presented.


pp. 128-135, New Orleans, Louisiana, Oct. 5-8,


2. J. R Cameron, W. T. Thomson, and A. B. Dow,

Vibration and current monitoring for detecting
air gap eccentricity in large induction motors,
IEE Proceedings, pp. 155-163, Vol ,133, Pt. B,
N0.3, May 1986.
3. P. Vas, Parameter Estimation, Condition
Monitoring, and Diagnosis of Electrical Machines,
Press, Oxford, 1993.
circuits of electric machinery,
John Wiley & Sons.inc. ,New York, 1951.
5. D. G. Dorrell, W.T. Thomson and S . Roach,
Analysis of airgap flux, current, vibration signals
as a function of the combination of static and
dynamic airgap eccentricity in 3-phase induction
mofors, IEEE Trans. Ind Appln., vol. 33, No.1,
I 1250
pp. 24-34, 1997.
6. S. Nandi , RajMohan Bharadwaj, H.A. Toliyat,
A.G. Parlos, Performance analysis of a three
phase induction motor under incipient mixed
eccentricity condition, to appear in IEEE
Fig.5 PSD of phase acurrent of mixed eccentric
machine around PSH, SEC. From top to bottom
R=44,43, 42.
7. P. L. Alger, The nature of induction machines,
Gordon and Breach, New York, 1965.
8. X. Lou, Y. Liao, H. A. Toliyat, A. El-Antably,
presented. Simple and concise theory leading
T.A. Lipo, Multiple coupled circuit modeling of
induction machines, Proceedings of the IEEE to equations that describes the necessary
IAS Annual Meeting Conference, pp. 203-210,
relationship between the pole pair and rotor slot
Vol. 1,Toronto. Canada, 1993.
numbers required for the presence of PSH and
eccentricity related harmonics, has been 9. H. A. Toliyat , M. S. Arefeen, A. G. Parlos, A
method for dynamic simulation of air-gap
eccentricity in induction machines, IEEE Trans.
- the developed theory are included.
Ind. Appln, pp. 910-918, Vol. 32, No. 4,
These results clearly set up the norm in selecting
JulvIAue.. 1996.
motors for sensorless speed estimation and 10. H.A. Toliyat, N. A. AI-Nuaim, A novel method
eccentricity related fault diagnosis purposes.
for modeling dynamic air-gap eccentricity in
synchronous machines based on modified winding
function theory, presented in IEEE-PES Summer
Meeting, July, 1997.
This material is based in part upon work
supported by the Texas Advanced Research 11. S. Nandi, H.A. Toliyat and A.G. Parlos,
Performance analysis of a single phase Induction
Program under Grant No. 95-PO83 and by the
motor under eccentric condition, IEEE-IAS
Department of Energy under Grant No. DEAnnual Meeting Conference, 1997.
12. S . Nandi and H.A.Toliyat, Performance analysis
of a three phase induction motor under abnormal
operating conditions, IEEE-SDEMED, France,
1. A. Ferrah, P.J. Hozhen-Liang, K. J. Bradley, G.M.
Asher, M. S. WGlfson, The effect of rotor
design of sensorless speed estimation using rotor
slot harmonics identified by adaptive digital
filtering using the maximum likelihood approach,
IEEE-IAS annual meeting conference recordings,