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WORK ON THE LAND AND THE CONSTELLATIONS

By

Maria Thun

Authorised translation of
Hinweise aus der Konstellationsforschung
fr Bauern, Grtner und Kleingrtner

Copyright 1979
The Lanthorn Press
Peredur
East Grinstead
West Sussex, ENGLAND
ISBN 0 906155 10 X

Contents
Translators Preface
Foreword to Third Edition
Introduction
The plant in relation to cosmic rhythms
a. The sidereal Moon
b. Perigee and Apogee
c. Nodes and Eclipses
d. The ascending and descending Moon
e. Oppositions
f. Conjunctions
g. Trines (Triangles)
h. The Sun in the Zodiac
i. Summary
Weather Observations
a. The Zodiac and the Planets
b. The Zodiac and the Moon
c. Oppositions

4
6
7
8
8
9
11
13
15
15
16
16
17
18
18
21
21

a. Conjunctions
b. Trines (Triangles)
c. The Sextile
d. The Quadratures
e. The Quintile
f. Summary
The Soil
Compost
Green Manuring
Crop Rotation
Manuring
Sowing and Cultivation Times
The Hornmanure Preparation
The Hornsilica Preparation
Harvesting
The Weed Problem
Plant Diseases
Animal Pests
Use of the Stinging Nettle
A special Manure Concentrate
Appendix : About Ringall
Further Reading

21
22
22
22
23
23
25
26
27
28
31
31
32
32
32
33
34
35
38
40
43
44

TRANSLATORS PREFACE
A striking coincidence: while this booklet, which explains
current research into planetary influences on plant growth and
weather formation, was being prepared for publication, the
planet Jupiter was being photographed from Voyager I, which had
been launched from Cape Canaveral 18 months before that.
Television cameras all over the world showed to millions of
viewers close-up photographs of Jupiter and its four
satellites, and will presumably engage the attention of these
millions again when that space probe will fly past Saturn in
November 1980, as another is scheduled to do in August 1981,
i.e. Voyager II, which was launched earlier. In the meantime,
and having started a quarter of a century earlier, Maria Thuns
research into cosmic influences on plant growth has been quietly
and consistently carried on and statistically recorded at her
Research Institute, which is known only to relatively few people.
It is perhaps hard to decide what is more awe-inspiring, the
conquest of those vast distances by modern technology which
succeeds in reaching out to them for the first time in human
history, or the research results of differentiated influences of
far-away planetary constellations on process of nature here on
earth.

One thing is certain, that over the last few years interest has
been steadily growing on the part of farmers and gardeners in
this type of research which links their practical work on the
land in a real, and profitable, way with the ever-changing events
in the earths wider environment. This is witnessed not only by
the fact that Maria Thuns annual Sowing and Planting Calendar is
gaining in popularity, but also by the occasional publication of
informed articles in the press.1*
On the whole,
valuable work
of it as yet.
knowledge. It
May 1979

1*

however, too little is known of Maria Thuns


and consequently not sufficient use is being made
It blazes a trail into hitherto uncharted fields of
is a space probe of a rather different kind.
SIEGFRIED RUDEL

e.g. in Farmers Weekly 22.12.1978

FOREWARD to the third enlarged edition


This little book is intended as a supplement to the Sowing
and Planting Calendar.2* It is a summary of the indications
contained in the Introduction to the 16 years publication of
the Calendar, based on 25 years research work. The second
edition took the study of rhythms further by including the
problems of weed and pest control. This third edition adds to
that and contains further advice for the practical grower. We do
incorporate new material from our research in the Calendars, but
it is not possible to include all new observations within the
framework of that annual publication.
Practical problems can often not be given sufficient
consideration in the more scientific publications and copious
statistics tend to discourage the practical person. It is hoped
therefore that this little booklet will fulfil a need which has
been felt for some time.

Maria Thun
Dexbach, October 1977

2*

Published annually by The Lanthorn Press under the


title Working with the Stars.

INTRODUCTION
The subject matter of this little book is based on The
Agricultural Course which was given by Rudolf Steiner in 1924,
and the Bio-Dynamic methods of agriculture which have been
developed from that Course. Studying Anthrosophy and taking
account of he results of scientific research have helped to
further an understanding of the problems involved. The practical
background for the advice given here is the authors experience
of having grown up on a farm and having spent many years in
research work with soil and plants and observation of weather
formation and the stars. To begin with, an attempt will be
made to explain some cosmic rhythms which, from many years of
experimentation, have shown themselves to have some importance
for practical men.

THE PLANT IN RELATION TO COSMIC RHYTHMS


a.

The sidereal Moon

We will first direct our attention to the sidereal rhythm of


the Moon. Cultivated plants which do not become woody live in
close relationship to this rhythm, both as regards their growth
forces in their various organs, such as root, leaf, flower, fruit
and seed. Long observation has shown that forces coming from
the fixed stars beyond the Moons orbit work in differentiated
ways upon the Earth and into the soil and through this have also
an influence on the plant. When we speak of the Zodiac we refer
to the belt of constellations which form the background of the
ecliptic, that is the path of the Sun as we experience it in the
course of the seasons, and in front of which the planets too
move in their own rhythms. The different regions of the Zodiac
engender favourable conditions for the development of particular
plant organs as the Moon passes in front of the particular
constellation, that is if cultivation, sowing and planting are
carried out at the corresponding period. These effects are
differentiated in the following manner:
Moon in the Bull, the Virgin
and the Goat3*

- Root development

Moon in the Twins, the Scales


and the Water Carrier - Formation of the Flower

3*

The English names are used for the Zodiacal


constellations as they are seen in the night sky, to
distinguish these from the Signs which denote equal
segments of 30 . For a fuller explanation of the
difference between signs and constellations see Foreword to
1978 Calendar.
Translator

Moon in Crab, Scorpion and


the Fishes

- Leaf region

Moon in the Lion, the Archer


and the Ram
- Fruit/Seed region

The last group shows clearly that as the Moon passes through
the region of the Lion, not only is the formation of fruit and
seed furthered, but we also find that under this influence the
quality of the seeds is definitely enhanced. We experience four
formative trends which appear in the sequence root, flower, leaf,
fruit/seed, and which are repeated three times in the course of
27 days. The period of the time during which each impulse is
active varies in length between one and a half and four days.
As regards the health and yield of the plants, there is hardly
any difference to be found between the three related impulses.
The inner quality, however, is individual to each constellation;
it seems that here the Moon becomes the reflector of the everchanging quality of the Sun throughout the course of the yea, and
this fact can at times be observed in the analyses.
b.

Perigee and Apogee of the Moon

Since the Moons orbit is elliptical, its distance from the


Earth is not always the same. The Moon landings, for instance
were always undertaken when the Moon was nearest to the Earth,
for then it is nearer to the Earth by 40,000 km than when it is
at the apogee.
When the Moon recedes from the Earth in the course of its monthly
cycle, the effect on plant growth can in some ways be compared
with that time of year when the Earth is furthest away from the
Sun, i.e. midsummer; the tendency in the plant-world is then to
run to see, whereas the growth forces decrease. Thus the effect
of the Moons apogee on seed plants can still be comparatively
beneficial. For the sowing of leaf crops, however, this time

10

is definitely unfavourable. Carrots sown during these days easily


become woody. The only plant to react positively to being planted
at apogee is the potato.
The Moons perigee, which can be compared to midwinter when the
Earth is nearer to the Sun, has a very different effect. If we
prepare a seed bed on this day and sow our seeds, germination is
poor. Most of these plants are somewhat inhibited in their growth
and are also more subject to attacks from fungus diseases and
pests. Apogee-days are mainly clear and bright, while those at
perigree are mostly dull, heavy or rainy.
Plant-life develops in the harmonious interplay between Earth
and Sun. With its roots the plant is drawndown into the earthly
realm, above the soil it gives itself up to the Sun. This
harmonious balance is altered through the forces of the Moon at
perigee and apogee. This can also be clearly seen in follow-up
experiments plants sown at apogee are drawn away from their
earthly hold, while those sown at perigee do not properly manage
to place themselves into their own Sun-impulse. The question
arose and had to be solved by new experiments: How far can
these hindrances be overcome by applying the horn-manure4* and
the horn-silica preparations ? Previous experiences, however,
were confirmed, viz. that the Bio-Dynamic sprays do, in fact,
strengthen the cosmic effect of any particular day.

4*

These are the Bio-Dynamic preparations 500 and


501 described in the Handbook and in Bio-Dynamic
Agriculture.

11

c.

Nodes and Eclipses

Other constellations which recur rhythmically and strongly


interfere with plant growth are the so-called nodes. All the
planets move in their orbits against the same background of
the stars, and we refer to this belt of constellations as the
Zodiac. The inclinations of the various orbits differ from one
another, thus causing the orbits to intersect. These points
of intersection are called nodes. For instance, when the Sun
stands where its orbit intersects that of the Moon, and the
Moon passes the same point on the same day, then we have an
eclipse of the Sun. If the Sun is at one of the nodes and the
Moon eclipse occurs. Sowings, as well as plantings, which were
made during these hours often produced variations in the habit
of the planets; indeed, even when sowings are made with only
one of the planets or the Moon at the node, it is likely that
future growth will be adversely affected. It appears that the
effect which these intersections or nodes have would make it
advisable to avoid these particular times when working with
plants. They have, therefore, been taken into account in the
compilation of the Sowing Calendar. Repeated observations have
shown that certain plants are strongly inhibited in their
development, viz. those which, for example, had been sown on
days when Mercury, Venus or Mars were crossing the ecliptic,
or on days when the Moon was obscuring other planets referred
to astronomically as occultations. The effets can be noticed
partly during the planting season, but often they are even
more noticeable in the following year. The dire result is a
serious decline in the quality of the seed, even going as far
as a breakdown of regenerative powers. Occultations of Uranus
repeatedly had such extreme effects.

12

The observations and experience in connection with eclipses


of the Sun and Moon were followed up with further experiments
investigating the same kind of constellation, but in respect
of other planets. These confirmed over and over again that any
planetary occultations, or conjunctions which come close to
being occultations, have a similar effect to that of eclipses
or nodal days. We had always to be on the look-out for
disturbances which had as yet had not been explained and found
new aspects which so far had not been tested; for instance,
when an eclipse of the Sun (when the Moon is in opposition
to the Sun at the opposite noe), or when it precedes it by
two weeks. When any two planets are on the same plane, with
the Earth between them, the same kind of constellation can
occur between them. This means, however, that there is not
only an interruption of planetary influence when a planet is
covered by another planet, but the effect is also interrupted
when the planet approaches the node in opposition and the
Earth is between them. But it is not clear whether this can
also be regarded as a direct effect of the Earths shadow.
All the same, it should be emphasised once more that there
is definitely a loss of forces which can be observed when
cultivation, sowing and planting are carried out on these
particular days, in the same way as positive cosmic forces are
active at other times which stimulate plant growth, improve
health and increase the yield.

13

d.

The Ascending and Descending Moon

This rhythm is not to be confused with that of perigee


and apogee or with the waxing and waning of the Moon. In
the latter rhythm of the Moon phases we see the Moon in
relationship to the Sun. When these two planets are in
opposition we have the Full Moon; when they are together, that
is in conjunction, we have a New Moon. When the Moon is waning
its illuminated part grows less every day, which when the Moon
is waxing it steadily gains in light. In order to understand
the ascending and descending Moon it will be best if we make
use of the annual course of the Sun by way of comparison.
About Christmas-time the Sun stands at its lowest point
against the background of the Archer. Then its ascent begins;
the point at which the Sun rises in the morning moves from the
South-East every day a little further Eastwards. Its arches
rise daily higher above the horizon until at Easter-time the
Sun reaches its middle arch in the region of the Fishes day
and night are equal (Spring Equinox). During the following
weeks the point of Sunrise moves further North-Eastwards
and the midday climax of the Sun gets higher and higher. At
Midsummer it has attained its highest point and the day its
maximum length. This is the summer solstice. For a few days
it is as if the Sun held its breath, and then the days begin
to get a little shorter. The point of Sunrise moves Eastwards
again and the point of Sunset which was in the North-West
moves back towards the West. The position of the Sun at noon
gets ever lower, the Sun descends. At Michaelmas the daily
curve is again at its mid-level, that is, the Sun rises in
the East and sets in the West, and again day and night are
equal (Autumn Equinox). Thereafter we approach the dark season
of the year and by Christmas-time have only eight hours of
daylight (in the temperate zone) when the Sun has reached its
lowest point again, which we call the winter solstice.

14

The Moon describes the same kind of rising and falling arches
as the Sun does during its yearly cycle, but it does so every
27 days in the course of its monthly orbit around the Earth.
As it passes in front of the constellation of the Archer it
is at the lowest point of its course. It is then beginning
to rise. What we described for the Sun during the first half
of the year, we could now more or less repeat for the Moon.
Indeed, plant growth shows that with the ascending Moon the
plant forces and sap flow upwards more strongly and fill the
plant with vitality. But when the Moon has reached its highest
point in the region of the Twins and begins to go down again
then the plant orientates itself more towards the root. These
times are favourable for transplanting because the plant
quickly forms rootlets again and anchors itself in its new
position. Since the sap flow is weaker at this time this is
also a suitable period, if the season is right, for pruning
trees and cutting hedges. If possible, notice should also be
taken of the Moons position in the Zodiac when carrying out
these activities. Thus a Flower-day in the planting time
could be chosen for pruning hedges of flowering shrubs or
roses. The same applies to espaliers, soft fruit bushes and
fruit trees. In that case Fruit/Seed days should be chosen
which occur during the period of the descending Moon.
IF you are taking cuttings for grafting, it is good to do
this at the time of the ascending Moon so that the scions do
not wilt so easily. You should paint the cut with suitable
dressing, such as Arbrex, to prevent loss of sap.
As regards the rhythm of the day, we also find an alternation
of these two tendencies depending on the daily movement of
the Earth. The ascending phase is from about 3 oclock in the
morning until about midday and the descending phase from 3
oclock in the afternoon until well into the night.

15

e.

Oppositions

When planets enter into opposition at 180 , be it with the


Sun or another planet, it can often be found beginning several
days before the actual event that the life forces of the
plant are increasingly intensified. The forces of both planets
interpenetrate, they fructify and augment one another within the
earthly realm, influenced by the impulse of their respective
Zodiacal constellations. Thus the effect of the Moon in the
Zodiac can sometimes be enhanced through oppositions, but on
other occasions be diminished.
f.

Conjunctions

The effects of planter conjunctions, that is when two or more


planets stand together in the same cosmic direction, are quite
different. Sowings were made simultaneously on different
experimental plots with various kinds of plants and under
different soil and climatic conditions, but all when there were a
number of conjunctions occurring at the same time. Unfortunately,
it was not possible to evaluate the results in the usual way as
the plants all died from fungus disease at the two or three leaf
stage. But this means that in such a case the planets do not
mutually enhance each others influences, but rather cancel each
other out. When only two planets are in conjunction this effect
is not so strong, but when several conjunctions occur together it
is most marked.

16

g.

Triangles or Trines

We refer to triangular positions when two of the planets


are positioned in such a way that, as viewed from the earth,
they form an angle of 120 . In most cases we find that related
forces are involved. The planets do not appear to have their own
characteristic influences on plant-growth and weather formation,
but what can be observed is an enhanced effect of the starry
constellations behind them. Thus for a certain span of time,
depending on the distances of the planets involved, we can
expect a one-sided influence which overlays that of the sidereal
Moon. For example, if there is a 120 -position of Uranus in the
Scales and Jupiter in the Twins, we will get an enhanced light
effect which in the plant, via the sowing time, will give rise to
flowering processes. If the Moon on that day stands in front of a
constellation which stimulates the plant in the leaf region, we
will not notice this effect in the plant because of the triangle
position of the two planets overlays the Moon influence.
h.

The Sun in the Zodiac

As the Earth takes its course around the Sun in the course of
one year, the Sun shines towards us from the twelve different
regions of the Zodiac. Rudolf Steiner points out in his course
on Agriculture that the effect of the Sun is thereby varied.
We have found through a number of test series that this SunZodiac differentiation can be shown in its effect on plants.
It is a similar influence to that of the sidereal Moon rhythm.
Thus, generally speaking, leaf development in plants which have
been sown when the Sun was in the Fishes is stronger than in
those which were sown when the Sun was in the Water Carrier or
in the Ram. On the other hand, spinach and salad to be sown in
the summer will do better if one waits until the Sun shines from
the Crab region and a leaf-day is chosen as well. In plants whose
roots develop

17

Nutritious substance, such as carrots, beetroots and turnips,


an intensified sugar formation sets in when the Sun shines from
the region of the Virgin. These few examples may suffice to
illustrate the underlying principle. Readers can arrive at their
own combinations from the indications of the Sowing Calendar.
i.

Summary

In the Agricultural Course Rudolf Steiner describes how the


upper planets, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, radiate right down
below the ground, and how the silicious rocks of the earth
reflect these forces back to the soil, also how the forces of
the lower planets, Venus, Mercury and Moon, are drawn into the
soil through all that is of the nature of limestone in the earth,
and furthermore how cay has the ability to combine these two
kinds of forces to make them accessible to the plant once the
humus situation is right. If only half of these substances were
present in the earth we would get grotesque plant forms. Clay
is described as carrying Sun impulses within it. Thus earthly
material and cosmic forces are brought into relationship with one
another. Grotesque plant forms, on the other hand, come about
also at times of one-sided cosmic constellations. We, therefore,
conclude that it needs a harmonious working together of the
heavenly bodies if the plant is to develop in a balanced way both
as regards disturbances occur we observe growth checks, fungus
disease and pest attacks.

18

WEATHER OBSERVATIONS
a. The Zodiac and the Planets
We have noticed quite early on in our experimental work with
plants that it was necessary to take weather observations into
account. It was soon found, for instance, that the sowing days
for plants that produced good leaves always tended to be damp;
in fact, they were mostly the wettest days of the month. Over
the years, observations of the weather has led to the following
results:
The general weather situation is connected with the rhythms of
the planets and the Zodiacal constellations which, at any given
time, form their cosmic background. At the same time, therefore,
a certain degree of Zodiacal influence on the weather is to be
noticed, as well as the effect of the planets. The third factor
that comes into play are the four Elements, which we will call
here: earth, water, air/light and warmth. These can probably
be seen as also having a connection with the atmosphere which
surrounds the Earth. Observations lead us to conclude that there
is a certain fourfold pattern in the inter-play of these various
factors.
As regards the fixed stars, it is not so much the question of
the ones which remain unaffected, as it were, in cosmic space,
but rather of those which are continually disturbed by the
planets. Once again we are concerned with that belt of fixed
stars which we referred to at the beginning of the Zodiac. The
influence which these constellations, or Zodiac regions, exert
works through the above-mentioned elements of earth, water, air
and warmth, and in this way can be identified and observed. For
the sake of clarity, we will set out the various planets with
corresponding elements.

19

The following order results:


Ram, Lion, Archer

- Warmth

Bull, Virgin, Goat

- Earth

Twins, Scales, Water


Carrier

Saturn, Mercury, Pluto


- Sun, Earth, Ringall5*

- Air/Light Jupiter, Venus, Uranus

Crab, Scorpion, Fishes Water

- Mars, Moon, Neptune.

There seem to be special laws governing the new planets; at


any rate, the effects of particular constellations show up
additional factors which come into play here. We find Uranus has
a connection with electricity, Neptune with magnetism, Pluto with
volcanic activity, and Ringall with cold-producing forces.
If one of the classical planets stands in front of a Zodiacal
constellation which has the same effect, as regards the four
Elements, as is characteristic of that particular planet,
then that effect is intensified. But if the planet passes a
constellation which has a different effect, then its own is
diminished or even altogether suppressed. For instance, if a warm
planet, such as Mercury, is in the Ram, then its influence is
strengthened, but if, on the other hand, it is in the Bull, then
its warmth effect is not noticeable. Again, if it moves into a
Water constellation, such as the Crab, then its warmth effect
produces a tendency to rainfall. Let us take another example:
When Venus is in a Light/Air constellation, we have blue sky and
sunshine and a very clear atmosphere; if Venus moves into an
Earth constellation, then the effect can be very similar, except
that there is a greater danger of night frost. If it stands in
front of a Water constellation, then we notice hardly any effect
at all. There are similar examples that could be quoted with
regard to the other planets in relation to their background
constellations at any given time.

5*

See Appendix

20

For instance, if one of the planets which itself works


through the watery elements is standing in one of the Water
constellations of the Zodiac, then rainy periods are to be
expected.
Another factor which also influences the weather is to be
found in the relationship of the planets to the Sun. Whenever
the planets are in retrograde motion the so-called loops are
formed. A planets own characteristic effect can most clearly be
identified during this time. For Venus and Mercury these times
occur during their inferior conjunctions with the Sun when these
planets are moving on their orbits between the Sun and the Earth.
In the case of all the planets whose orbit lies further out from
the earth than that of the Sun, both retrograde motion and loops
occur at opposition. In both cases the planets are near to the
Earth.
The overall weather condition is brought about by the rhythms we
have described so far. It is affected, however, still further
by the Earth itself, or rather by the etheric-climatic zones
surrounding the Earth. These, too, are differentiated into
warmer, colder, light or watery zones. And here, also, there
seems to be a relation with the Zodiac as the individual regions
span the Earth like a girdle. The tropics of Cancer and of
Capricorn should be taken into account in this connection. The
individual planetary forces show an affinity to the different
zones through their respective characteristics in terms of the
four Elements. Keplers saying can perhaps be understood in this
context when he says: An image of the Zodiac is imprinted upon
the Earth.

21

b. The Zodiac and the Moon


Changes in regional climate are further occasioned by the
sidereal rhythm of the Moon. Every two days when the Moon moves
into a new constellation of the Zodiac it becomes associated
with another aspect of the Elements. It is interesting in this
connection to note the weather reports which are issued by
Offenbach Meteorological office. There is always to begin with
an overall forecast for the month in which very often two days,
sometimes three, are characterised as one.
c. Oppositions
Besides the rhythm already described there are other
constellations in which the planets enter into some kind of
relationship with each other. From our vantage point, which is
the Earth, angles are formed between planets which are expressed
in different qualities. To begin with there are oppositions.
In the case of the Sun and the Moon this is called Full Moon.
Whenever two planets stand opposite to each other at 180 we
on the Earth are between them. The forces of these two planets
penetrate in the earth sphere. Something like a cosmic tension is
created, and the weather picture is characterised by a High.
d. Conjunctions
If, on the other hand, two or more planets are close together,
i.e. in conjunction, then we can expect a Low. When opposition
and conjunction occur close together in time, then areas of high
and low pressure are often very close together. We then speak of
weather boundaries which were already mentioned earlier. These
come about through the etheric-meteorological zones.
When a High occurs we have to do with have a more cosmic origin
and express themselves in warmth and cold; in a Low we are more
concerned with earthly influences which work through water and
air, that is in mist, rain, showers and storms.

22

e. Trines (Triangles)
There are also other characteristic angles between the
positions of the planets as seen from the Earth which play a
strong part in the formation of weather. To begin with, there are
the triangles which arise when two or more planets stand at an
angle of 120 apart. Their effect is always positive as regards
the element of the Zodiacal constellation which forms their
background. These positions always fall into the same realm of
forces, that is, they are subject either to a warmth impulse or a
watery one, an influence of light, or an earthly one, and the day
in question will show the corresponding tendency in the weather.
f. The Sextile
With the 60 position, on the other hand, it has been
repeatedly confirmed that there is a connection to the watery
element, and depending on the type of the planets involved and
their Zodiacal background, this 60 position manifests itself
either in mist, rain or merely short showers. At any rate, there
is always the tendency to precipitation.
g. Quadratures
The situation is different when the planets stand at an angle
of 90 to one another forming two sides of a square, as it were.
This aspect occurs at the quarter phases of the waning or waxing
Moon. These particular positions have the strongest influence
when one or even both partners concerned are new planets,
that is, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto or Ringall. 90 positions of
the classical planets are hardly ever factors affecting
weather formation. But with Uranus at right angles with another
planet, we must expect thundery conditions, often accompanied
by storms and showers. Neptune in such a position mostly gives
rise to earthquakes and in earthquake-free regions often natural
catastrophes which are caused by severe storms and violent rain.
Pluto in that position causes volcanic eruptions and in regions
with no volcanic activity there will be storms and tempests. 45
and 135 positions show the same tendencies but in diminished
intensity.

23

h. The Quintile
The most severe natural catastrophes have been produced when
the new planets are in what might be called the pentagonal
aspect with other planets, that is, at an angle of 72. In
diminished form we find similar effects at 144 and 36. Whenever
we have more than five or six mm. of rain, planetary angles
of 90 or 72, or those related to them, are there as causal
factors.
i. Summary
Not all the constellations of course could be observed during
the course of the 21 years since weather observations commenced,
as they depend on the time it takes the planets to orbit the
Earth. The more distant planets take quite a number of years to
pass through the whole Zodiac: Saturn takes 30 years, Uranus 84,
Neptune 164, Pluto 248, and Ringall about 350 years. In the case
of the latter, measurements have been determined by recording the
movements of certain phenomena since 1957. With these distant
planets it is sometimes only possible to draw conclusions on the
basis of certain relationships and then to wait and see whether
they are later confirmed.
We also find the nodal times, that is, the times when the planets
are at the points of orbital intersection, reflected in the
weather formation. The fact that Saturn has been active from
the immediate vicinity of a node ever since the Autumn of 1974
has resulted, first of all, in two winters which were too warm
and this had an unfavourable effect on the kingdoms of nature.
Especially the opposition to the Sun, with Saturn still at
the node with the ecliptic, turned out to be a problematical
constellation. If any of the outermost planets stand at 90
or 72 to Saturn at the same time then a number of natural
catastrophes may occur, such as, for instance, extreme high ties
of the North Sea.

24

Looking up earlier astronomical records, we find that in February


1962 Saturn was at its other node with similar accompanying
constellations, which was the time of the severe flood damage
along the shores of the North Sea. Saturn nodes also rendered the
roots of certain plants liable to pest attacks. It is interesting
to remember in this connection that the eruption of the volcano
in Iceland occurred at the time when Pluto stood at 72 to Saturn
and that the earthquake in Guatemala happened at the time of a
difficult constellation of Neptune and Saturn.
While we will always have to be prepared for new and unexpected
phenomena, it can, nevertheless, be said that weather forecasts
made on the basis outlined above have so far proved to be 70-80%
correct.
These notes are intended primarily to stimulate the practical
worker to make his own observations. It is advisable to start
with the simpler rhythms, perhaps with the Moons sidereal
rhythm, that is, the rhythm which forms the basis of the Sowing
Calendar and affects the local climate. Brief notes of special
events should be made on the blank pages of the Sowing Calendar
and then perused on quiet winter evenings and related to the
astronomical events of the days concerned. It is surprising to
notice that already after a few years some degree of certainty of
judgment can be achieved. But it is always a good thing to assist
ones memory with short notes made at the time.

25

THE SOIL
The basic mineral substance of the soil which we cultivate
derives from the weathering of rocks and stones. If this has
resulted in one-sided conditions, then these have to be balanced
through certain mineral additives. This is then not a question
of manuring, but of harmonizing the basic mineral components.
Through the process of weathering the formation of secondary
clay minerals is always possible. Powdered basalt sand can be
recommended for this purpose. It is added to the manure or
compost in small quantities as the heaps are built up. The
process of weathering or decomposition releases the dormant
forces in the rock which strengthen the life processes in the
soil and make for a better co-ordination of mineral and organic
substances in the soil. Rudolf Steiner points this out in his
Course on Agriculture when he says: Manuring means enlivening
the soil ..... Life must be brought close to the soil, the
earth itself ........

26

COMPOST
Organic substances, such as vegetable refuse, manure and
animal matter are made into compost heaps. Care must be taken to
ensure that the four Elements earth, water, air and warmth
work harmoniously together so that neither putrefaction nor peat
formation, nor overheating takes place. Experience shows that
the heaps are often too dry. If, however, all compost material
is well moistened from the start so that some warming-up sets
in provided for a fungal process of decomposition to begin. The
heap becomes a living organism in which further decomposition
through bacteria and later through earth-worms etc., can proceed
organically and the loss of valuable substances is avoided. It
is important to give the whole heap a covering sheath to hold
it well together. Special herbal preparations are added for the
purpose of decomposition and the conversion of organic substance
into something more earth-like, so that the end product is new
humus which we can add to the soil. Unrotted manure prevents
cosmic forces from taking effect in the soil and the plants.

27

GREEN MANURING
Since there is never sufficient manure from the farm
itself to cover the requirements of farm, garden and orchards
for organic material, we can resort to growing certain catchcrops for the purpose of turning the plant into the soil as
green manure. In this way the soil organisms, such as bacteria,
worms, etc., are provided with sufficient nourishment to ensure
their propagation and fungal activity is stimulated, too.
In the excrement of these soil organisms we find converted
organic substances and certain newly isolated minerals, so
that by this means we are able to achieve part of the manuring
programme. These organisms bring about both aeration and organic
transformation of the soil.
The question of when to sow green manure crops will depend on the
use to which they are to be put. If the growing foliage is meant
to serve as animal fodder, then you sow on a Leaf Day. If there
is no need for that, then legumes in particular should be sown on
a Root Day because they will then develop nodules more profusely
and thus increase nodules more profusely and thus increase the
nitrogen in the soil to an even greater extent. The best time for
turning the green manure into the ground is during the descending
Moon, that is the planting time, because transplanting is also
more successful during this period. This is also the right time
for spreading compost and liquid manure. If, for instance, you
spread manure on fields and pastures during the ascending Moon,
it tends to get carried up by the growing plant and be left
hanging on the grass. If, however, you do your spreading during
the descending Moon, the manure is carried down onto the soil by
the descending forces and drawn into it by the earth-worms.

28

CROP ROTATION
A picture of the ideal crop rotation is to be found in the
plant itself. It lives in a kind of fivefoldness which would
want to come to expression in the course of years through all
the possibilities of fruiting; in root, blossom, leaf, seed,
fruit. Within one single growing season, on the other hand,
this fivefold existence is spread out over the garden, or farm.
In other words, on one and the same plot, or field, all five
tendencies can come to fruition in the course of five years.
While, shared out over the individual fields, the whole of each
spectrum, as it were, is there within the compass of each single
farming year.
During the last few decades the farming trend has been to go over
to cereal-dominated rotations because there are fewer and very
often no animals on the farm. As a result, various diseases have
appeared affecting leaf and root which call for chemical means of
control.
The rotation of farm crops depends also upon soil conditions,
the climatic situation, animal population and the extent to
which machinery can be used, and has, therefore, to be worked
out for every farm on an individual basis. For the gardener
and smallholder it has often been a problem to achieve a good
rotation. Some of the plants which he grows have a growing
season of only a few weeks; so one plant chases the other on the
same plot. If the gardener has not written down his rotation
beforehand, he is likely to lose sight of his overall scheme and
in the course of the year he will get into rather a muddle.
The soil becomes exhausted in a one-sided kind of way when plants
of the same kind follow each other too son in the same place. It
causes deficiency symptoms to appear in the plant which weaken
it. Nature will step in with other organisms which come along and
do away with weaklings.

29

We may complain then of insect and fungus attacks which we


ourselves have caused through our inconsistencies. These pests
are often very troublesome to get rid of by biological means. And
even if we are successful in restoring the plants to some sort of
healthy balance, the quality is, nevertheless, often impaired.
If we look, for instance, at the vegetable members of Cruciferae
family we realise that they appear in the most varied forms.
All the cabbages hold back the stem forces in their leaves; leaf
by leaf is folded over and remains on this level until harvest
time. With others the neck of the root expands to produce a
fleshy swelling, such as with radishes and swedes. Sprouts set
their fruit all along the stem in the leaf axils. Kohlrabi
enlarges its stem to a truly delicious vegetable; the flavour
is even intensified when the cruciferous plant is transformed
into a cauliflower. Different forces are necessary for each of
these various developments which, on the one hand, make definite
demands on the soil, but, on the other hand, also leave residues
in the soil which can become troublesome.
At the end of the season it is not only the natural tendencies of
brassicas as such which are exhausted, but also the forces of the
particular fruiting organ as described here. In the following
season, apart from choosing a different plant family, a different
plant organ has also to be developed on that particular piece
of ground. If in one year a leaf plant has been on a plot, then
the following year a plant should be chosen which especially
develops the root system. And if in the third year the soil is
allowed to carry the forces which have been held back in the
lower parts in the previous years up into the realm of the fruitand-seed activity, then this will provide a kind of healthy
exhaling for the soil.

30

The following may serve as an example of crop rotation for the


vegetable garden which has proved successful for a great many
years. Failing other neutral crops, old strawberry beds can be
taken as a good starting point. After cropping, the bed should
be broken up and sown down to rye mixed with Persian clover
(annual). Rye is beneficial as the soil needs to grow grass from
time to time. In the Autumn the vegetation is turned into the
ground. It goes without saying that different kinds of plants
have to be provided with special composts before sowing and
planting.
The plan for the first year is as follows:
Plot 1
Green
Cabbage

Plot 2
Carrots

Plot 3
Marrowfat
peas

Plot 4
Potatoes

Plot 5
Strawberrie
s

Red Cabbage
Savoy
Cabbage
Cauliflower

Parsnips
Scorzonera

Broad Beans
Sugar peas

Beetroot

Curly kale
Sprouts

Onions
Celeriac
Leeks
Mangold
Fennel
Parsley

Marrow

Jerusalem
artichoke

or
flowers
Flowers

Kohlrabi
Turnips
Radishes

French
beans
Sweet corn
Runner
beans
Paprika
Cucumber
Tomatoes

2nd year

3rd year

4th year

5th year

1st year

Spinach, lettuce, corn-salad, orach and endive can be growing


as catch-crops; they are not so dependent on crop rotation,
but, all the time, should not follow each other in the same
year. A light dressing of compost should always be given before
re-sowing. A few examples of crop rotation may be singled out
for consideration: Onions need leaf forces for their proper
development which give the possibility of forming tight folds;
this formation occurs at the neck of the root. The curly kale of
the previous year developed chiefly its stalk and an open loose
formation of leaves, so that this year the onions growing there
will not have the urge to form a stalk.

Kohlrabi which uses all its forces


stalk is suitable plant to precede
leafy sheaths from within, without
forming forces from the soil. Many

towards the swelling of the


leeks which increase their
being disturbed by stalkmore such examples could be

31

found, and it is hoped that the reader feels encouraged to make


his own observations and more and more to find his own way.
MANURING
Manure, which is meant to provide an enlivening element for
the soil in general, should be spread over whole areas in the
Autumn; while special manures for greedy feeders can be put into
the seed drills or planting holes.
SOWING AND CULTIVATION TIMES
Once again it should be emphasised when it is a question
of sowing an hoeing that cosmic forces enter the soil whenever
it is moved or worked and that they influence, for good or ill,
the results of what is done at the time of hoeing or cultivation.
If one is prevented by bad weather conditions from making use of
suitable times, matters can often be improved by later on tending
the plants under more favourable conditions.
The Bio-Dynamic cow-dung preparation (Prep. 500) works best when
it is sprayed during the soil preparation preceding sowing. It
should also be used when transplanting, particularly if this
cannot be done right at planting time.
With regard to hoeing, it is worth remembering that about every
nine days the Moon is again in the same triad of forces as it was
on the sowing day. So if one keeps to these rhythms the cosmic
forces continue to be strengthened.
The earth breathes out in the morning and in again during the
afternoon. During a wet weather period evaporation of the
moisture in the soil can be enhanced by hoeing in the morning
of Flower days and Fruit days. During a dry period the night
moisture and dew formation can be increased by hoeing in the
evening of Leaf and Root days, and by spraying with the cow-dung
preparation.
THE HORNMANURE PREPARATION
This preparation, also referred to as preparation 500,
is used a great deal in bio-dynamic farming and gardening and
has its best effect when it is sprayed at the time of the last
cultivation before sowing. It is particularly recommended if it
is not possible to use the appropriate Sowing Days for these
activities.
THE HORNSILICA PREPARATION
The Bio-Dynamic silica preparation (Prep. 501) works with
the cosmic powers that are active in the day time. The best
results are achieved when, in choosing the day, the favourable

32

rhythms of the plant concerned are observed. As regards the time


of day, it works more strongly in the upper plant when sprayed
in the morning, and in the afternoon more strongly in the root
region. The best times for using it are actually between 5.30 and
6.30 in the morning and between 6.30 and 7.15 in the evening.
HARVESTING
Harvesting is best undertaken on one of the favourable
sowing days of that plant. Leaf days are an exception to this
rule. Fruit gathered on these days will not keep, and either Root
or Fruit days should be chosen instead.

33

THE WEED PROBLEM


As regards the weed problem, we have the indication which
Rudolf Steiner gave that weed-growth could be regulated by
burning the seeds and scattering the ash.*6 The ash is ground
for an hour, together with the wood ash which has accumulated in
the burning process, and then scattered over the ground. Through
experiments, special times for doing this were worked out for
individual plants. The following constellations refer to the
position of the Moon; couch grass and fat hen in the Archer;
Black Nightshade in the Scorpion; polygonum in Water Carrier;
vetches in the Fishes; dead-nettle in the Ram; horse-tail and
thistle in the Virgin.
The question arose: How can this dynamic plant-ash be applied to
large areas as the seeds yield only a small quantity of ash ? We
have been pursuing this question since 1968. In experiments with
Bio-Dynamic spray preparations sometimes had a very inhibiting
effect on plant growth. In using wood-ash we aim, of course,
at selective control. We have been doing extensive experiments
with decimal potencies of ash for a number of years. The results
justify a definite recommendation for the practical farmer
and gardener, that is, to start with the dynamic product which
has already been described, and to make from that an either
potency,**7 which is then sprayed on the fields in the same
quantities as we know them for the cow-dung preparations. This D8
has a similar effect to the dynamic ash obtained by burning and
grinding up in the manner described. We recommend that it should
be applied three times in succession.

*See Rudolf Steiner Agriculture, Lecture 6.


** To 1 part of ashes add 9 parts of water (by volume). Shake it
rhythmically in a closed container for 2 minutes. Then take 1 part of
that liquid (which is D1) and add 9 parts water. Shake again for 2
minutes to make D2. Continue in this manner until you get to D8.
Translator
7

34

There is very high weed germination from a soil when it is


worked when the Moon is in the Lion, which can be got rid
of by subsequent cultivation. The final hoeing, when when
undertaken with the Moon in the Goat will reduce further
germination. Experiments concerning these particular
effects are, however, not yet complete.
PLANT DISEASES
We speak of plant diseases when cultivated plants are
affected by plant parasites. These are often caused by the
wrong type of manure or manure which has not sufficiently
matured. Generally speaking, seeds bought nowadays lack
genuine life forces. Fungi attack them almost immediately
they are in touch with the soil; that after all is the
function of fungi - to cause dying organic substances to
decompose. Seed dressings of certain types can avoid early
damage to the seed. A second fungus attack often occurs
when the plant is just past its earliest growth period.
Prophylactic sprays are used, therefore, in the early
stages.
But preventative treatment should really be of a different
kind. The first pre-condition is a good regenerative power
of the seed itself. If that is sown into a well-mature soil
the young plant can develop without the prior help of seeddressings. But if processes of fungal decomposition are
still in full swing the danger is that this fungal activity
is carried upward into the plant. How do we then bring it
back to the soil again ? One way of doing this is to hoe
frequently in the evenings. By stimulating activity in the
soil the level of fungus life recedes. In severe cases the
application of horse-tail (equisetum arvense) will help if
one takes 10 grams ( oz.) of the dried herb and brings it
to the boil in 10 litres (2 gallons) of water and, when
cooled to about blood-heat, sprays the plants and the soil
with it, again in the evenings. It is advisable to spray
the soil the next morning with diluted stinging-nettle
manure (see chapter 17).

35

The effect of Equisetum is to contain force in the region


of the soil, while stinging-nettle stimulates renewed and
healthy growth.
If Full Moon and the Moons Perigee happen to fall on the
same day an increase in fungal attacks must be expected for
about two years. This will not happen in the near future.
When it does, attention will be drawn to these critical
times in the Annual Sowing and Planting Calendar.*8
Fungus activity is also strongly affected by the time of
harvesting as far as subsequent sowing are concerned. We
found e.g. that if harvest had taken place on a Leaf Day,
at Perigee, at a Water Trine (Triangle), or on the day of a
node or eclipse, corn sown the next year tended to be very
liable to fungal attack.
If carrots, celeriac, beetroots and onions had been
harvested on a Leaf Day we found that their keeping quality
was much impaired. When beetroots thus harvested were
replanted for seed production in the following year, often
no more than 20% developed properly to the seed stage.
ANIMAL PESTS
If succeed in becoming familiar with the ways of the
so-called animal pests then mistakes we have made will
often in turn make it possible to regulate things merely by
changing our own working methods a little.
The turnip gall weevil (Ceutorhynchus pleurostigma), a
small brownish-black beetle, will assail plantings of late
cabbage when both Sun and Moon are in front of the Bull,
especially if the young plants are still standing close,
perhaps too close, together. The individual plant has not
enough space around it. The beetle pierces the neck of the
root and lays its egg in it. The plant then forms a kind of
sheath around the growing embryo so that it can develop. If
we open such a sheath - sometimes called a gall - then we
find a small larva lying there, an inbetween-stage in the
development of the beetle. It perishes when air gets to it.

*Working with the Stars Lanthorn Press

36

Later when the plants have been planted in their final


position and have sufficient space around them the insect
shows no interest in them any more.
One can, of course, cover up the seed-boxes or beds during
the above-mentioned three days so that the beetle cannot
get to the cabbage plant.
It is different with the cabbage root fly (Erioischia
brassicae). It also lays its egg in the neck of the root.
The larvae then eat away the tender cambium layer of the
lower stem and upper root so that the plant dies off. The
cabbage root fly attacks and lays its eggs when Sun and
Moon stand in front of the Ram; early cabbages are affected
in this case. It is not the young plants in seed-boxes
which are endangered now, but those which have had their
final transplanting but were then planted too deep into
the soil. A small section of the stem which grew in the
sunlight before has now been brought into the darkness
of the earth and there provides a suitable basis for the
early development of the cabbage root fly. If the attack
is noticed early enough - the leaves go limp in the middle
of the day - a twice-repeated treatment with wormwood tea
may save the crops : 10 gram ( oz.) of the dried herb are
brought to the boil in 10 litres (2 gallons) of water and
each plant is given a dessertspoonful directly on the stem.
The same method could also be applied in the case of other
so-called animal pests.
If, however, a direct attack is called for Hahnemanns
principle of homeopath, i.e. of treating like with like,
becomes useful. Rudolf Steiner suggested to let the
damaging insects, or whatever, rot away. (We suggest
dissolution in water, i.e. making a kind of liquid manure).
Alternatively, one could burn them. In either case the
remains - of rotting or burning - should be scattered in
infested areas. Some examples follow.

37

If mole-crickets (Gryllotalpa vulgaris)*9 are a nuisance,


one should burn some of them in a wood fire when the Moon
is in Scorpio and the Sun in front of the Bull, then rub
the ash to a fine powder in a mortar or bowl and then
apply it to their tunnels. We have had good results with
the scattered ashes of Colorado beetle (a notifiable pest)
and their larvae, the burning having been carried out
when both the Sun and the Moon in front of the Bull and
the ashes rubbed down for an hour. The ashes can also be
kept and spread in the autumn or in spring on any areas
where potatoes are to be planted. If a homeopathic decimal
potency of D8 is made of well-powdered ashes**10 and that
is sprayed three times within two days the effect will be
enhanced.
If mice or birds become a pest some skins (with their
feathers in the case of birds) should be burnt when Venus
is in Scorpion and the Moon is in the Bull, and the ashes
are scattered in their respective places.
The effect of light in the silica preparation (501) is
much disliked by snails. If they become a great nuisance
a number of them can be added to the preparation 501 when
stirring and the ground then sprayed with it.

Although a pest on the European continent, mole-crickets are hardly


known in Britain.
Translator
10 See footnote page 33.

38

THE USE OF STINGING NETTLE


The stinging nettle, after it has undergone a special
treatment, is used as one of the bio-dynamic compost
preparations. Apart from this various other ways of using
it have been developed, either to assist in the biological
control of pests and diseases or in the enhancement of
plant growth.
a) The 24-hour extract
For this fresh stinging nettle is used, but without the
roots. It does not matter if it is already in flower, but
it should not already have gone to seed. One kilogram
(2.2 lbs) of the plant is put into a wooden, clay or
enamel container and 10 litres (2 gallons) of cold or
handwarm water is poured on it. This is left standing for
24 hours. When sieved the juice is used as a spray in cases
of attacks by any kind of larvae or caterpillars. The
treatment should be repeated twice within the space of a
few hours.
b) Singing nettle manure as a growth stimulant
The same preparations are made as under a) using the same
proportions. But this time the liquid is left standing
until the leaves at least have decomposed in it. This
may happen in 3-4 days, but it may also take some weeks
and depends on the outside temperature. We use the
term manure because the smell of this liquid is rather
similar to that of animal manure. It has a potent effect
on growth and must be diluted in the proportion 1:10.
If, for example, growth has been inhibited by unusually
cold weather which sometimes causes subsequent attacks by
aphids, this dilution can suitably be used. Plants which
have suffered can be helped by spraying the soil either
towards evening or in the early morning and watering well
a few hours later. Observation of roses, soft fruit, fruit
trees and such like has shown that this treatment, also
repeated twice within a short period of time, will, though
the fact

39

that the sap begin to flow again more vigorously, cause the
aphids and often also fungal attacks to disappear.
c) A general tonic for plant growth
The principle of this manure is the same as described
under a), and its preparation is that as described under
b), only now the actual manure constituent is less. The
nettle manure is diluted by using -litre ( pint) of it
in 10 litre (2 gallons) of water; this is used to water
plantations of tomato, cucumber, spinach, cabbage etc. A
spray can be made by using -litre (just under 1 pint) to
10 litres (2 gallons) of water and stirring it for 15
minutes before spraying it through fine jets on to the
growing plants. Potatoes respond well to this treatment;
also soft fruit showed in the following year the result
of having been sprayed after harvesting. There should,
however, never be more than three successive applications
as otherwise the quality of the produce might begin to
suffer. This shows in a lessened ability to keep when
stored and also in reduced germination of the seed; both
these results are particularly noticeable if the manure
is used in a more concentrated form than has here been
indicated.
d) Stinging nettle compost
If a compost is made from stinging nettle only, the most
excellent soil results, particularly suitable for growing
delicate crops and for treating roses and strawberries.
Only a really successful pine-needle compost comes anywhere
near it in quality.

40

THE MANURE CONCENTRATE


The bio-dynamic preparations have already proved their
positive effect over many years both in assisting
the rotting-down process of compost and manure and in
ameliorating the smell. They also aid soil formation and
the improvement of the soil structure. Naturally, the
question arose as to how we can get this beneficial effect
into the soil more often than is possible through the
ordinary manuring and composting as it occurs in the course
of a crop rotation ? It seemed desirable, too, for people
in the process of changing over to bio-dynamic methods to
be able to use the compost preparations more frequently.
Other questions had already risen earlier. About 20
years ago some investigations at a research station in
Freiburg had shown that plants which had grown on limestone
soils contained far fewer residues of a certain type of
radioactive fall-out than plants of the same kind which
had grown on silicious soils. Certain experiments were
carried out in this connection over a period of 8 years,
which showed clearly that the shells of chicken eggs have a
significant role to play with regard to the calcium process
in the soil and also in regulating its pH value.
The usefulness of basalt was investigated, too. It was
found that on the one hand, basalt can be added to compost
and manure in the form of grit; it then supports continued
rotting-down process in the soil which in turn favour
the formation of secondary clay-minerals.*11 On the other
hand, basalt if added in a finely powdered state acts in
a nitrogen-fixing capacity. Experiments involving the use
of hornmanure (500) and hornsilica (501) were carried out
and the results as regards both soil and plant led to the
idea that both basalt as well as eggshells should, in
homeopathic form, be incorporated in bio-dynamic work.

11

For elucidation of the whole subject of humus formation see The


Living Earth, by W. Cloos, especially chapter 4.
Translator

41

Cowmanure was chosen as a medium through which to combine


these three aspects. Cows are fed sufficient roughage for
the dung to be fairly firm. To five buckets of cow-dung
(without any admixture of straw) we add 100 grams (about 3
ozs.) of dry, very finely-crushed eggshells and 500 grams
(about 18 ozs.) of basalt powder. All this is put into a
wooden barrel. Then it is thoroughly mixed with a spade for
a whole hour so that it becomes one dynamic whole. To start
off a kind of composting process we have to put one half
of the mixture into the barrel from which we have first
removed the bottom and which we have dug 40-50 cm. (about
16-18 inches) into the ground; the remainder of the soil is
thrown up against it on all sides. Into this first half we
insert one portion of each of the compost preparations,*12
but separately. The second half of the mixture is then
added and is treated in exactly the same way. Then we stir
5 drops of the Valerian preparation* for 10 minutes in 1
litre ( gallon) of water, and pour on. Finally, we cover
the barrel with a wooden lid or board and leave it. It
should stand out-of-doors, of course. After about four
weeks the whole mass is dug over once more and then left
for another two weeks, after which it is ready for use.
When carrying out tests with hornmanure (prep. 500) we
use 30 grams (about 1 oz.) as one portion and use it,
stirred in 10 litres (2 gallons) of water, for -hectare
(i.e. just over half an acre). In the case of the manure
concentrate we use for the same area and in the same amount
of water, 60 grams (just over 2 ozs.) Whereas hornmanure
(prep. 500) and hornsilica (prep. 501) have to be stirred
for one hour to attain their full efficacy, we need only
about one-third of the time with this concentrate, i.e. 1520 minutes. The special preparation process described above
makes for a labour-saving procedure when it comes to using
it.

12

See Handbook and others.

42

This manure concentrate is, however, no substitute for


hornmanure (prep. 500) which is used at the sowing times
and has a direct effect on the plant. The former stimulates
the soil-metabolism by activating the micro-organisms and
thus results in better decomposition of organic matter
and better soil structure. It is recommended, therefore,
to spray it when green manure or composted farmyard
manure is spread and also on autumn-ploughed land. When
sprayed on pastures after grazing the soil-metabolism is
stimulated and growth enhanced. Control experiments showed
considerable increase in yields.
This manure concentrate can be warmly recommended to the
practical grower.

43

APPENDIX
About Ringall
Ever since the mid-fifties, we have found again and again,
in connection with our plant and weather observations, that
definite spells of cold weather occurred whenever the Moon
reached a certain longitude in the Zodiac, sometimes also
when it stood at right angles to that particular point.
This matter was carefully investigated; and after I had
asked some friends who lived in different climatic zones to
follow it up too, we found that it was not the question of
a fixed point that gave rise to certain events, but that it
moved on. It seemed to me that one would have to assume the
existence of another planet. Repeatedly severe, otherwise
unexpected, cold spells set in - often in districts for
which they were not at all typical - and always when
positions of 90 or 72 occurred between other planets and
this slowly moving point. Naturally, a number of questions
arose in connection with this observation .
Taking the above mentioned occurrences into account, my
observations resulted in calculating an annual shift
of .925 in one year. This would constitute an orbit of 333
years. Comparing this result with the other more distant
planets which, as is known, stand in front of the 30 Signs in seven-year rhythms, we find the following:

Based on calculation

Based on observation

URANUS

in 7

times 12 years = 84

84

NEPTUNE

in 14

times 12 years =168

165

PLUTO

in 21

times 12 years =252

248

RINGALL

in 28

times 12 years =336

*333

* according to my observations.
I do hope that one day an astronomer or an observatory will
in fact discover the actual planet.

44

FURTHER READING
A selection of books for reference or further reading, all
of which are available in Great Britain through Rudolf
Steiner Bookshops, at 38 Museum Street, London WC1A 1LP,
or 35 Park Road, London NW1 6XT, and from the Bio-Dynamic
Agricultural Association, Woodman Lane, Clent, Stourbridge,
West Midlands.
Rudolf Steiner Agriculture, 8 lectures
*Maria Thun - Working with the Stars : Annual
Sowing and Planting Calendar
Koepf, Peterson, Schaumann - Bio-Dynamic Agriculture
Agnes Fyfe - Moon and Plant
- The Signature of the
Planet Mercury in Plants
- The Signature of the
Planet Venus in Plants

)
)
)
)
)

Research
work
described
and
illustrated

E. Pfeiffer - Weeds and what they tell

- Bio-Dynamic Farming (Articles 1942-62)

- The Pfeiffer Gardening Book


G. Corrin

- Handbook on Composting and


Bio-Dynamic Preparations

*W. Cloos

- The Living Earth - The Organic


Origin of Rocks and Minerals

Philbrick & Gregg - Companion Plants


Philbrick - The Bug Book
M. Geuter - Herbs in Nutrition
13*K.

13

Castelliz - Life to the Land : Guidelines


to Bio-Dynamic Husbandry

Also obtainable direct from The Lanthorn Press, Peredur, East


Grinstead, Sussex RH19 4NF

45

JOURNALS
Star and Furrow

Published in Great Britain


twice yearly by the BioDynamic Agricultural
Association, Woodman Lane,
Clent, Stourbridge, West
Midlands.

Bio-Dynamics

Published in the U.S.A.


quarterly by the Bio-Dynamic
Farming & Gardening
Association, RDI, Stroudsburg
Pa. 18360, U.S.A.

----------A wide range of other books and articles on different


aspects of Bio-Dynamic work is available on loan to members
of the Bio-Dynamic Associations.
----------In German:
Maria Thun/H. Heinze : Anbauversuche, 2 volumes
Ulf Abele : Vergleichende Untersuchungen zum
konventionellen und biol. dyn. Pflanzenbau
Biol. dyn. Landbau, Volume I
Volume II

- General Articles
- Research Reports

Sternkalendar :

Annual Astronomical Calendar.


Goetheanum, Dornach, Switzerland.

Lebendige Erde:

Bi-monthly journal

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