Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 17

WORLD STEEL IN FIGURES 2015

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD

Foreword 3

Despite continued turbulence around the world in 2014, it has been


another record year for the steel industry. Crude steel production totalled
1,665 million tonnes (Mt), an increase of 1% compared to 2013.

Sustainable steel 4

CRUDE STEEL PRODUCTION


World crude steel production, 1950 to 2014 7
Top steel-producing companies, 2014 8
Major steel-producing countries, 2013 and 2014  9
Crude steel production by process, 2014  10
Continuously-cast steel output, 2012 to 2014  11
Monthly crude steel production, 2011 to 2014  12

STEEL USE
Steel production and use: geographical distribution, 2004  14
Steel production and use: geographical distribution, 2014  15
Apparent steel use, 2008 to 2014  16
Apparent steel use per capita, 2008 to 2014  17

RAW MATERIALS
Pig iron, 2013 and 2014  18
Direct reduced iron production, 2007 to 2014  19
Iron ore, 2013  20
World iron ore trade by area, 2014  21
Trade in ferrous scrap, 2013 and 2014  22
World trade in ferrous scrap by area, 2014  23

STEEL TRADE
World steel trade, 1975 to 2014  24
World volume of trade, 2000 to 2014  24
World steel exports, analysis by product, 2009 to 2014  25
World steel trade by area, 2014  26
Major importers and exporters of steel, 2014  27

INDIRECT TRADE

2014 also saw the emergence of a new phase in steel markets. For
the past decade, the steel industry was dominated by events in China.
The evidence is that the steel industry is now entering a period of pause
before undoubtedly picking up again when markets other than China
drive new demand. Nobody can predict exactly when or where. Today,
China represents around 48% of the global market for steel. This will
decline in years to come.
The impact of urbanisation will have a key role to play in the future. It is
estimated that a little more than 1 billion people will move to towns and
cities between now and 2030. This major flow will create substantial
new demand for steel to be used in infrastructure developments such
as water, energy and mass transit systems as well as major construction
and housing programmes.
Steel is a truly innovative material necessary for society to survive and
advance. It is adaptable enough to meet existing and future challenges
and has evolved to meet the challenges of high speed railway, high rise
buildings, the revolution in automobile design, renewable energy and
deep sea marine applications.
More and more today we want to maintain the strength of steel, but also
want it to be light enough to compete with alternative materials. Steel has
been able to satisfy all of these demands and will continue to do so into
the future.
Perhaps the most important impact steel can have is at the heart of the
circular economy, which demands zero waste and reduced use of new
materials as well as encouraging the reuse and recycling of materials
all fundamental advantages of using steel.
This booklet provides a comprehensive overview of steel industry
activities, stretching from production to steel use to some indications
of global trade flows. I hope you will find it useful.

Indirect trade in steel, 2000 to 2013  28


Major indirect importers and exporters of steel, 2013  28
True steel use, 2007 to 2013  29
Apparent and true steel use per capita, 2013  29
For details on the notation used in this publication, please refer
to page 30.

Dr Edwin Basson
Director General
3

SUSTAINABLE STEEL

Steel in the circular economy

Sustainability reporting

Steel enables a sustainable society, through a circular economy,


accounting for the full life cycle of steel products. A global circular
economy promotes zero waste, a reduction in the amount of materials
used, and encourages the reuse and recycling of materials. These
are all fundamental advantages of steel, which is reusable and 100%
recyclable. The development of stronger, more efficient and lighter steels
for many applications, such as cars, wind turbines, residential housing
or skyscrapers, is also contributing to substantial natural resources and
energy savings both in the production and use phases.

The steel industry is committed to being transparent about its


sustainability performance. Measuring performance is the first step
in making progress and having defined indicators allows companies
to benchmark themselves and encourages further improvement. Since
2004, when the first sustainability report for the global steel industry
was published, worldsteel members have been reporting on a yearly
basis on eight sustainability indicators. The report is made public every
year in October. In addition, many members also report individually on
their sustainability performance.

Safety and health


The ultimate goal is to achieve zero incidents and zero fatalities across
the industry. The lost time injury frequency rate (LTIFR) has improved
dramatically since 2004 with a 65% decrease but the industrys ultimate
aim is to reach zero.
6

Injuries / million hours worked

5
4.81

Combined Lost Time Injury Frequency Rate

4.98
4.47

4.55

Employee Lost Time Injury Frequency Rate

4.42

4.15

2.66

Contractor Lost Time Injury Frequency Rate

5.41

5.20

2.54

3.50
2.88
2.26

3.09

2.73
2.46

2.17
1.80

2.61
2.15
2.29
1.59

A life cycle approach


worldsteel has developed and supports the use of a rigorous Life Cycle
Assessment (LCA) methodology for steel products to enable designers
to make informed material choices and for the development of appropriate
legislation. An LCA of a product looks at resources, energy and emissions
from the raw material extraction phase to its end-of-life phase, including
use, recycling and disposal. LCA ensures that the overall environmental
impact of a product is considered. worldsteel also collects life cycle
inventory (LCI) data from steel plants all around the world. In 2015, new LCI
datasets will be made available to further encourage a life cycle approach
for product design and material selection.
4

0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

1.91
1.38

2011

1.69

2.02
1.61

1.45
0.97

0.94

2012

2013

In a move to further increase safety awareness, worldsteel and


its members launched an annual global Steel Safety Day in 2014.
All participating companies were requested to carry out a safety audit
across the entire company from CEOs to engineers to managers,
operators and service providers in order to raise the awareness of the
main causes of incidents. A second global campaign was launched
in 2015 with a special focus on the risks associated with moving
machinery. The results will be published later in the year.
5

SUSTAINABLE STEEL

Environmental protection
Climate change is a significant challenge for the steel industry in the
21st century. worldsteel encourages all steel-producing companies in
the world to participate in its climate action programme, which is the
collection and reporting, on a confidential basis, of CO2 emissions
plant-by-plant using an agreed methodology (ISO 14404:2013
standards). worldsteel also produces technical reports to help improve
the environmental performance of steel plants around the globe. Most
of these reports are kept up-to-date through web-based sharing and
benchmarking systems.

WORLD CRUDE STEEL PRODUCTION


1950 TO 2014

million tonnes
Years

World

Years

World

Years

World

1950

189

2000

850

2010

1,433

1955

270

2001

852

2011

1,537

1960

347

2002

905

2012

1,559

1965

456

2003

971

2013

1,649

1970

595

2004

1,063

2014

1,665

1975

644

2005

1,148

1980

717

2006

1,250

1985

719

2007

1,348

1990

770

2008

1,343

1995

753

2009

1,238

Education and training


The steel industry directly employs more than two million people
worldwide, plus two million contractors and four million people in
supporting industries. Including industries such as construction,
transport and energy, the steel industry is a source of employment
for more than 50 million people. Employee training is essential for both
business and personal growth. steeluniversity, a worldsteel initiative, is
an online industry university delivering education and training to current
and future employees of steel companies and related businesses.

1,800
Average Growth Rates
% per annum

1,600

1,400

1,200

Steel makes our world a better place


The steel industry is the second biggest industry in the world after oil
and gas with an estimated global turnover of 900 billion USD. Steel is
used in every important industry: energy, construction, automotive and
transportation, infrastructure, packaging and machinery. It is also the
main material used in delivering renewable energy such as thermal,
solar and tidal power. The housing and construction sector is the largest
consumer of steel today, using around 50% of steel produced. By 2050,
steel use is projected to increase to be 1.5 times higher than present
levels in order to meet the needs of a growing population.

1,000

Years

World

1950-55
1955-60
1960-65
1965-70
1970-75
1975-80
1980-85
1985-90
1990-95
1995-00
2000-05
2005-10
2010-14

7.4
5.1
5.6
5.5
1.6
2.2
0.1
1.4
-0.5
2.5
6.2
4.5
3.8

800

600

400

200

0
1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

TOP STEEL-PRODUCING COMPANIES


2014
million tonnes crude steel production
Rank

Company

ArcelorMittal (1)

NSSMC (1)

million tonnes crude steel production

Tonnage

Rank

98.09

26

IMIDRO (1)

Company

Tonnage
14.42

49.30

27

Severstal (1) (2)

14.23

Hebei Steel Group

47.09

28

Fangda Steel

13.64

Baosteel Group (1)

43.35

29

SAIL (1)

13.56

POSCO (1)

41.43

30

MMK (1)

(1)

13.03

Shagang Group

35.33

31

JSW Steel Limited

Ansteel Group (1)

34.35

32

Rizhao Steel

11.40

Wuhan Steel Group (1)

33.05

33

Metinvest Holding (1)

11.18
10.89

(1)

12.72

JFE

31.41

34

Anyang Steel

10

Shougang Group (1)

30.78

35

Taiyuan Steel

10.72

11

Tata Steel Group (1)

26.20

36

Baotou Steel

10.72

(1)

12

Shandong Steel Group

23.34

37

Jingye Steel

10.54

13

Nucor Corporation (1)

21.41

38

Jiuquan Steel

10.34

14

Hyundai Steel Company (1)

20.58

39

Zongheng Steel

10.32

15

U. S. Steel Corporation (1)

19.73

40

Techint Group (1)

9.38

16

Gerdau

19.00

41

Sanming Steel

9.21

17

Maanshan Steel (1)

18.90

42

Jinxi Steel (3)

9.12

18

Tianjin Bohai Steel

18.49

43

Zenith Steel

9.01

19

ThyssenKrupp (1)

16.27

44

Xinyu Steel

8.82

20

Benxi Steel

16.26

45

Erdemir Group (1)

8.49

21

NLMK (1)

16.11

46

Guofeng Steel

8.40

22

Evraz Group (1)

15.54

47

SSAB (1) (4)

8.07

23

China Steel Corporation (1)

15.40

48

Nanjing Steel

8.04

24

Valin Group

15.38

49

voestalpine Group (1)

7.95

25

Jianlong Group

15.26

50

Citic Pacific

7.93

(1)

(1) worldsteel members


(2) Includes pro-rata tonnage of former Severstal North America, namely Dearborn, owned by AK Steel
Corporation from July 2014, and Columbus, owned by Steel Dynamics from September 2014.
(3) A lso known as China Oriental Group, which is partially owned (47.02%) by ArcelorMittal, a member
of worldsteel.
(4) SSAB tonnage includes former Rautaruukki Oyj.
Notes on company ownership and tonnage calculations: For worldsteel members, the data
was sourced from their official tonnage declaration. For Chinese companies, the official CISA
tonnage publication was used. In cases of more than 50% ownership, 100% of the subsidiarys
tonnage is included. In cases of 30%-50% ownership, pro-rata tonnage is included. Unless
otherwise specified, less than 30% ownership is considered a minority interest and therefore
not included.
For an extended company listing, go to worldsteel.org/statistics/top-producers.

MAJOR STEEL-PRODUCING COUNTRIES


2013 AND 2014

Country
China
Japan
United States
India
South Korea
Russia
Germany
Turkey
Brazil
Ukraine
Italy
Taiwan, China
Mexico
Iran
France
Spain
Canada
United Kingdom
Poland
Austria
Belgium
Netherlands
South Africa
Egypt
Saudi Arabia
Viet Nam (e)
Argentina
Czech Republic
Malaysia (e)
Slovak Republic
Australia
Sweden
Finland
Kazakhstan
Thailand (e)
Romania
Qatar
Indonesia (e)
Byelorussia
United Arab Emirates
Luxembourg
Portugal (e)
Venezuela
Switzerland (e)
Philippines (e)
North Korea (e)
Colombia
Hungary
Chile
Peru
Others
World

2014
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

2013
Tonnage
822.7
110.7
88.2
86.5
71.5
71.5
42.9
34.0
33.9
27.2
23.7
23.1
19.0
16.3
16.1
14.2
12.7
12.1
8.6
7.9
7.3
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.3
5.7
5.5
5.4
5.0
4.7
4.6
4.5
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.2
3.0
2.8
2.5
2.4
2.2
2.1
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.1
13.7
1,665.0

Rank
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
15
14
16
17
18
20
19
22
24
21
23
26
25
27
28
29
31
30
32
34
35
33
36
40
38
39
37
42
43
41
44
46
47
48
53
45
49

Tonnage
822.0
110.6
86.9
81.3
66.1
69.0
42.6
34.7
34.2
32.8
24.1
22.3
18.2
15.4
15.7
14.3
12.4
11.9
8.0
8.0
7.1
6.7
7.2
6.8
5.5
5.5
5.2
5.2
4.7
4.5
4.7
4.4
3.5
3.3
3.6
3.0
2.2
2.6
2.2
2.9
2.1
2.1
2.1
1.5
1.3
1.3
1.2
0.9
1.3
1.1
13.2
1,649.0

CRUDE STEEL PRODUCTION


BY PROCESS, 2014
Million
tonnes
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Croatia
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Poland
Portugal (e)
Romania
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
European Union (28)
Turkey
Others
Other Europe
Russia
Ukraine
Other CIS
CIS
Canada
Mexico
United States
NAFTA
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Venezuela
Others
Central and South America
Egypt (e)
South Africa
Other Africa
Africa
Iran
Saudi Arabia
Other Middle East
Middle East
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Taiwan, China
Other Asia
Asia
Australia
New Zealand
Total of above countries

7.9
7.3
0.6
0.2
5.4
3.8
16.1
42.9
1.0
1.2
23.7
2.2
7.0
8.6
2.1
3.2
4.7
0.6
14.2
4.5
12.1
169.3
34.0
4.3
38.4
71.5
27.2
7.4
106.1
12.7
19.0
88.2
119.9
5.5
33.9
1.1
1.5
4.0
45.9
6.5
6.5
1.9
14.9
16.3
6.3
5.7
28.3
822.7
86.5
110.7
71.5
23.1
20.3
1,134.9
4.6
0.9
1,663.2

Oxygen
%
91.2
67.6
93.4
66.8
65.9
69.6
84.5
27.5
98.2
59.2
58.4
92.3
29.5
68.2
83.9
61.0
30.2
31.7
30.4
66.6
73.4
47.3
67.0
60.7
29.9
37.4
38.7
50.1
75.5
64.6
8.7
64.0
7.9
57.0
21.9
31.2
16.7
9.6
93.9
42.3
76.8
66.2
58.6
84.2
77.6
67.5
73.9

Electric Open hearth Other


%
%
%
8.8
32.4
100.0
100.0
6.6
33.2
34.1
30.4
100.0
15.5
72.5
100.0
1.8
40.8
100.0
41.6
7.7
100.0
70.5
31.8
16.1
39.0
69.8
68.3
69.6
30.6
6.2
52.7
25.9
39.3
70.1
62.6
61.3
49.9
23.0
35.4
100.0
91.3
34.8
92.1
43.0
78.1
68.8
83.3
100.0
100.0
90.4
6.1
57.6
23.2
33.8
41.4
100.0
15.7
22.4
32.5
25.6

2.8
20.5
7.1
0.0
0.0
0.5

0.1
0.1
1.5
1.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

The countries in this table accounted for more than 99% of world crude steel production in 2014.

10

CONTINUOUSLY-CAST STEEL OUTPUT


2012 TO 2014

Total
%
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Million tonnes
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Croatia
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Italy
Latvia (e)
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Poland
Portugal (e)
Romania
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
European Union (28)
Turkey
Others
Other Europe
Russia
Ukraine
Other CIS
CIS
Canada
Mexico
United States
NAFTA
Argentina
Brazil
Venezuela
Other Latin America
Central and South America
Egypt (e)
South Africa
Other Africa
Africa
Iran
Saudi Arabia
Other Middle East
Middle East
China
India (e)
Japan
South Korea
Taiwan, China
Other Asia
Asia
Australia
New Zealand
Total of above countries

% Crude steel output

2012

2013

2014

2012

2013

2014

7.1
7.3
0.6
0.0
4.6
3.7
15.0
41.2
1.2
1.5
26.0
0.8
2.2
6.7
8.2
1.9
3.2
4.4
0.5
13.2
3.8
9.4
162.9
35.9
4.0
39.9
56.8
17.8
7.5
82.1
13.1
18.0
87.5
118.6
5.0
33.6
2.4
5.2
46.1
6.6
6.9
1.7
15.2
14.5
5.2
4.9
24.5
720.1
62.0
105.4
67.9
20.6
13.2
989.2
4.8
0.9
1,484.3

7.7
7.1
0.5
0.1
4.7
3.5
15.1
41.3
1.0
0.9
22.9
0.2
2.1
6.6
7.8
2.0
2.9
4.5
0.5
13.9
3.9
11.7
160.9
34.7
4.0
38.6
56.0
17.0
6.6
79.7
12.1
18.2
85.8
116.0
5.2
33.4
2.1
5.2
45.9
6.8
7.1
1.9
15.8
15.4
5.5
5.4
26.3
808.2
66.3
108.9
65.0
22.2
12.7
1,083.4
4.6
0.9
1,572.2

7.6
7.3
0.6
0.2
4.9
3.8
15.5
41.6
1.0
1.2
22.3
2.2
6.8
8.4
2.1
3.1
4.7
0.5
13.9
4.0
11.9
163.6
34.0
4.3
38.4
58.5
14.7
7.4
80.6
12.5
19.0
86.9
118.3
5.5
33.4
1.5
4.9
45.3
6.5
6.5
1.9
14.9
16.3
6.3
5.7
28.3
809.0
71.5
109.1
70.4
23.0
13.4
1,096.4
4.6
0.9
1,591.3

96.2
100.0
99.1
100.0
91.1
99.5
96.1
96.7
100.0
100.0
95.4
100.0
100.0
98.0
98.0
99.0
97.2
99.7
82.6
97.1
87.2
98.0
96.6
100.0
99.4
99.9
80.9
53.9
99.8
74.2
97.2
99.9
98.6
98.6
99.7
97.3
100.0
94.5
97.4
100.0
99.5
99.6
99.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.5
80.2
98.3
98.3
99.6
100.0
97.1
98.7
100.0
95.7

96.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.1
99.5
96.3
96.9
100.0
100.0
95.0
100.0
100.0
98.0
97.9
99.5
97.2
99.7
82.3
97.8
87.6
98.7
96.7
100.0
99.7
100.0
81.2
52.0
99.9
73.5
97.1
99.7
98.8
98.7
99.7
97.9
100.0
95.6
97.9
100.0
99.7
99.6
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.3
81.6
98.5
98.4
99.6
100.0
97.2
98.8
100.0
95.8

96.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.6
99.5
96.2
96.8
100.0
100.0
94.2
100.0
98.2
98.1
99.2
98.2
99.8
80.2
97.8
87.6
98.6
96.6
100.0
99.8
100.0
81.9
54.1
99.9
76.0
98.0
99.9
98.5
98.7
99.7
98.5
99.8
98.3
98.7
100.0
99.5
99.7
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.3
82.6
98.6
98.4
99.6
100.0
97.2
98.8
100.0
96.1

The countries in this table accounted for more than 99% of world crude steel production in 2014.

11

MONTHLY CRUDE STEEL PRODUCTION


2011 TO 2014

million tonnes

million tonnes

Total 65 reporting countries

NAFTA

145

11

135

10

125

actual data
115

2011

2012

2013

deseasonalised data

actual data
8

2014

2011

2012

2013

deseasonalised data
2014

Central and South America

European Union (28)

6.5

17
actual data

deseasonalised data
6.0

15
5.5

13

5.0
actual data

11

4.5

2011

2012

2013

2014

CIS (6)

Japan

10.0

10.0

9.5

9.5

9.0

9.0

8.5

8.5

actual data
8.0

2011

8.0

2013

2014

The 65 reporting countries


Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Byelorussia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, Czech
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Guatemala, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Libya,
Luxembourg, Macedonia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, New
Zealand, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea,
Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, China, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab
Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, and Venezuela.
In 2014, these 65 countries accounted for more than 98% of world crude steel
production.

12

2012

2011

2012

2013

actual data

deseasonalised data
2012

2011

2013

deseasonalised data
2014

deseasonalised data
2014

China
80

70

60

actual data

50
2011

2012

2013

deseasonalised data
2014

13

STEEL PRODUCTION AND USE:


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
2004
Crude steel production
World total: 1,064 million tonnes

Other Asia
11.1%

Others
8.1%

Crude steel production


World total: 1,665 million tonnes

EU (28)
19.0%

Japan
10.6%

CIS
10.7%
China
25.6%

Others comprise:
Africa 
Middle East 

1.6%
1.3%

STEEL PRODUCTION AND USE:


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
2014

Japan
6.6%

Other Europe
2.4%

Others
Other Asia 5.7%
12.2%

EU (28)
10.2%

Other Europe
2.3%
CIS
6.4%
NAFTA
7.2%

China
49.4%

NAFTA
12.5%

Central and South America 


Australia and New Zealand 

4.4%
0.8%

Apparent steel use (finished steel products)


World total: 973 million tonnes

Others comprise:
Africa 
Middle East 

0.9%
1.7%

Central and South America 


Australia and New Zealand 

2.8%
0.3%

Apparent steel use (finished steel products)


World total: 1,537 million tonnes
Other Europe
2.4%

Others
9.0%
Other Asia
15.5%

China
28.3%

14

1.8%
3.0%

CIS
3.7%

EU (28)
9.5%
NAFTA
9.4%

Japan
4.4%

NAFTA
15.4%

Central and South America 


Australia and New Zealand 

Others
9.4%
Other Asia
15.0%

CIS
3.9%

Japan
7.9%

Others comprise:
Africa 
Middle East 

Other Europe
2.1%

EU (28)
17.8%

China
46.2%

3.4%
0.8%

Others comprise:
Africa
Middle East

2.4%
3.4%

Central and South America 


Australia and New Zealand 

3.1%
0.5%
15

APPARENT STEEL USE


2008 TO 2014
million tonnes finished steel products
Austria
Belgium-Luxembourg
Czech Republic
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Poland
Romania
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
Other EU (28)
European Union (28)
Turkey
Others
Other Europe
Russia
Ukraine
Other CIS
CIS
Canada
Mexico
United States
NAFTA
Argentina
Brazil
Venezuela
Others
Central and South America
Egypt
South Africa
Other Africa
Africa
Iran
Other Middle East
Middle East
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Taiwan, China
Other Asia
Asia
Australia and New Zealand
World

16

APPARENT STEEL USE PER CAPITA


2008 TO 2014
kilogrammes finished steel products

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

4.0
5.4
6.5
15.3
42.4
33.3
4.3
11.5
5.2
18.0
4.3
11.8
22.9
184.9
21.5
6.2
27.6
35.5
6.7
7.7
49.9
14.7
17.7
98.4
130.8
4.8
24.0
3.4
11.8
44.1
7.5
6.1
14.6
28.2
14.9
32.4
47.3
446.9
51.4
78.0
58.6
16.9
53.0
704.7
8.4
1,226.1

3.2
4.1
4.5
11.0
28.2
20.1
2.9
8.2
2.6
11.9
2.6
7.0
14.1
120.4
18.0
5.1
23.2
24.8
3.9
7.2
35.9
9.5
15.2
59.2
83.9
3.2
18.6
2.7
9.3
33.8
11.1
4.5
16.4
31.9
17.2
28.5
45.7
551.4
57.9
52.8
45.4
11.3
51.2
770.0
6.0
1,150.7

3.6
4.6
5.5
13.1
36.2
25.7
3.2
10.0
3.3
13.1
3.6
8.8
14.7
145.3
23.6
5.3
28.8
36.7
5.5
7.2
49.5
14.1
17.8
79.9
111.7
4.6
26.1
2.3
11.7
44.7
9.3
5.0
14.1
28.4
19.5
29.0
48.5
587.6
64.9
63.6
52.4
17.8
57.1
843.4
7.8
1,308.2

4.0
5.0
6.1
14.0
40.7
26.5
3.8
11.0
3.8
13.1
3.9
9.0
14.6
155.5
26.9
5.8
32.7
41.5
6.3
7.6
55.4
14.2
19.8
89.2
123.2
5.3
25.0
2.6
13.0
46.0
7.8
5.3
15.5
28.6
20.9
30.3
51.3
641.2
69.8
64.1
56.4
18.1
62.7
912.2
6.9
1,411.8

3.8
4.5
5.9
12.6
37.5
21.5
3.5
10.4
3.3
10.5
3.5
8.4
13.9
139.2
28.5
5.6
34.1
42.8
6.3
8.9
58.0
15.6
20.9
96.2
132.7
4.9
25.2
3.0
13.9
47.0
9.5
5.3
17.1
31.9
18.2
32.5
50.7
660.1
72.4
63.9
54.1
17.8
70.3
938.5
7.3
1,439.3

3.5
4.4
5.9
12.6
38.0
22.0
3.4
10.4
3.3
10.4
3.6
8.5
14.6
140.4
31.3
5.6
36.9
43.8
5.6
10.1
59.5
14.1
20.1
95.7
129.9
5.1
26.4
2.8
15.7
50.1
9.2
5.7
20.5
35.4
16.7
33.3
50.0
735.1
73.7
65.2
51.8
18.5
75.3
1,019.5
6.7
1,528.4

3.8
4.5
6.3
12.5
39.2
22.1
3.5
12.2
3.9
10.8
3.4
9.6
15.1
146.8
30.7
6.2
37.0
43.1
4.3
9.1
56.5
15.2
22.5
106.9
144.6
5.0
24.6
1.9
16.5
48.1
10.2
5.2
21.5
36.9
17.3
34.6
51.9
710.8
75.3
67.5
55.4
19.6
79.6
1,008.2
7.4
1,537.3

Austria
Belgium-Luxembourg
Czech Republic
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Poland
Romania
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
Other EU (28)
European Union (28)
Turkey
Others
Other Europe
Russia
Ukraine
Other CIS
CIS
Canada
Mexico
United States
NAFTA
Argentina
Brazil
Venezuela
Others
Central and South America
Egypt
South Africa
Other Africa
Africa
Iran
Other Middle East
Middle East
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Taiwan, China
Other Asia
Asia
Australia and New Zealand
World

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

479.3
487.0
627.7
245.0
508.1
556.0
260.9
301.6
235.3
397.8
469.9
192.1
308.3
368.1
304.9
191.3
269.2
246.9
144.6
111.8
192.5
439.8
154.3
320.9
287.5
120.6
125.4
120.9
65.9
98.5
98.8
121.9
17.1
28.8
204.6
311.8
233.9
332.8
43.8
612.2
1,223.6
734.9
57.0
193.3
321.2
185.2

385.8
367.4
429.7
174.9
339.1
333.4
175.1
214.5
120.7
259.6
275.9
113.6
189.3
238.8
253.0
158.8
223.6
172.8
83.8
103.7
138.4
282.4
130.3
191.3
182.6
80.0
96.0
93.9
51.3
74.7
144.0
87.6
18.7
31.8
233.7
253.9
220.1
408.1
48.6
414.5
942.8
488.7
54.3
209.1
223.9
171.7

433.4
410.0
523.0
206.6
436.5
423.9
190.2
260.5
150.3
283.0
388.0
141.6
197.8
287.4
326.7
162.8
275.9
255.9
118.9
103.0
190.3
412.9
150.7
255.9
240.7
114.4
133.7
78.0
63.4
97.7
119.5
97.2
15.7
27.6
262.5
250.6
228.4
432.1
53.9
499.2
1,081.2
768.6
59.9
226.8
287.7
193.0

469.5
446.3
571.4
220.4
491.1
436.5
230.6
288.5
172.6
281.9
411.9
144.5
196.6
306.9
368.6
178.8
310.2
289.3
138.2
106.6
212.9
410.9
165.9
283.3
262.8
131.1
127.1
88.4
69.7
99.4
98.0
102.6
16.7
27.1
277.6
252.0
236.1
468.6
57.1
503.5
1,157.2
779.6
64.9
242.9
247.6
205.8

443.6
394.3
548.8
196.5
452.9
353.4
207.2
272.3
152.7
224.4
368.2
134.5
186.7
273.9
384.5
172.4
319.7
298.9
138.0
124.8
222.9
447.1
173.0
303.0
280.4
119.2
126.8
99.8
73.7
100.5
117.3
100.5
18.0
29.4
237.9
258.9
228.7
479.4
58.5
502.5
1,103.4
763.9
71.8
247.5
261.5
207.4

414.4
383.4
548.0
195.6
459.5
360.1
203.3
272.1
151.9
222.3
375.0
134.0
195.8
275.8
417.7
171.2
342.8
306.4
123.4
140.5
228.7
400.6
164.6
299.0
272.1
122.2
131.9
93.3
82.1
105.9
112.2
107.8
21.0
31.9
216.1
257.7
221.4
530.6
58.8
513.1
1,050.7
792.6
76.0
266.4
234.3
217.8

441.2
393.8
582.4
193.6
473.9
362.2
207.6
318.9
180.8
228.6
348.5
151.8
203.7
287.7
405.3
189.8
340.3
302.8
95.0
125.8
217.5
428.5
181.6
331.4
300.1
119.8
121.9
62.8
85.1
100.6
122.1
97.5
21.5
32.4
219.8
268.2
225.3
510.0
59.4
531.7
1,118.8
837.1
79.4
261.0
258.7
216.6

17

PIG IRON
2013 AND 2014
million tonnes

Austria
Belgium-Luxembourg
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Poland
Romania
Slovak Republic
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
Other EU
European Union (28)
Turkey
Others
Other Europe
Kazakhstan
Russia
Ukraine
Other CIS
CIS
Canada
Mexico
United States
NAFTA
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Other Latin America
Central and South America
South Africa
Other Africa
Africa
Iran
Other Middle East
Middle East
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Taiwan, China
Other Asia
Asia
Australia
New Zealand
Other Oceania
Oceania
World

18

DIRECT REDUCED IRON PRODUCTION


2007 TO 2014
million tonnes

Production
2013

Production
2014

- Exports
2014

+ Imports
2014

Apparent
= Consumption
2014

6.2
4.3
4.0
2.1
10.3
26.7
0.6
6.9
5.7
4.0
1.6
3.6
3.9
2.9
9.5
92.3
9.2
1.2
10.4
2.8
50.1
29.1
82.0
6.1
4.9
30.3
41.3
2.6
26.2
0.8
0.4
30.0
4.9
0.9
5.8
2.0
2.0
748.1
51.4
83.8
41.0
13.3
1.7
939.3
3.5
0.7
4.2
1,207.3

6.0
4.4
4.2
2.5
10.9
27.4
0.8
6.4
5.9
4.6
1.6
3.8
4.0
3.1
9.7
95.2
9.4
1.5
10.9
3.3
51.5
24.8
79.5
6.7
5.1
29.4
41.2
2.8
26.9
0.6
0.3
30.6
4.7
0.9
5.5
2.8
2.8
711.6
55.2
83.9
46.9
14.4
1.7
913.7
3.3
0.7
4.0
1,183.4

0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.8
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
4.3
2.2
0.0
6.5
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
2.6
0.0
0.0
2.6
0.7
0.0
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
1.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
12.5

0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.5
0.0
1.7
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
3.8
0.9
0.0
0.9
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
4.6
5.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.9
0.6
0.5
2.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
12.5

6.0
4.4
4.2
2.5
11.0
27.7
0.8
8.0
6.1
4.7
1.6
3.9
4.2
3.1
9.8
0.0
98.1
10.3
1.5
11.8
3.3
47.2
22.6
0.1
73.1
6.8
5.4
33.9
46.1
2.8
24.3
0.6
0.3
28.0
4.0
1.0
4.9
2.8
0.2
3.0
711.6
54.4
84.0
47.8
15.0
1.7
914.4
3.3
0.7
0.0
4.0
1,183.4

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Germany

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.6

0.5

0.6

Sweden

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

European Union (28)

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.6

0.5

0.7

0.6

0.7
5.3

Russia

3.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

5.2

5.1

5.3

Canada

0.9

0.7

0.3

0.6

0.7

0.8

1.2

1.5

Mexico

6.3

6.0

4.1

5.4

5.9

5.6

6.1

6.0

United States

0.3

0.3

NAFTA

7.4

7.0

4.5

6.0

6.6

6.4

7.3

7.5
1.7

Argentina

1.8

1.8

0.8

1.6

1.7

1.6

1.5

Brazil

0.4

0.3

0.0

Peru

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Trinidad and Tobago

3.5

2.8

2.0

3.1

3.0

3.3

3.3

1.6

Venezuela

7.8

6.8

5.5

3.8

4.2

4.5

2.6

1.4

13.5

11.8

8.4

8.5

9.0

9.4

7.4

4.8

Egypt

2.8

2.6

3.1

3.0

2.9

3.1

3.4

2.9

Libya

1.7

1.6

1.1

1.3

0.2

0.5

1.0

1.0

Nigeria

0.2

South Africa

1.7

1.2

1.3

1.1

1.4

1.5

1.3

1.5 (e)

Africa

6.4

5.4

5.5

5.4

4.5

5.1

5.7

5.4

Iran

7.5

7.4

8.1

9.4

10.4

11.6

14.5

14.6
1.5 (e)

Central and South America

Oman

1.1

1.5

1.5

Qatar

1.2

1.7

2.1

2.3

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.5

Saudi Arabia

4.3

5.0

5.0

5.5

5.8

5.7

6.8

6.8

United Arab Emirates


Middle East

1.2

1.8

2.7

3.1

2.4

13.1

14.0

15.2

18.3

21.4

23.8

28.2

27.8

China

0.2

0.2

0.0

India

19.1

21.2

22.0

23.4

22.0

20.1

16.9

19.4

Indonesia

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.3

1.2

0.5

0.8

0.8(e)

Malaysia

1.9

2.0

2.4

2.4

2.9

2.3

1.4

1.5(e)

Asia

22.5

24.5

25.6

27.1

26.1

22.9

19.0

21.7

World

67.0

67.9

64.3

70.5

73.2

73.4

73.6

73.1

19

IRON ORE
2013

(1)

20

Africa and Middle East

Total imports

of which: extra-regional imports*

54.1

13.6

0.0

0.2

154.6

116.8

0.0

6.2

6.2

0.4
27.2
30.0
2.1
3.5
5.5
41.1
205.6
41.8
15.3
52.0
109.1
364.0
12.5
9.1
8.0
1.9
395.5
4.3
13.1
71.5
22.7
111.7
38.0
269.2
136.1
0.6
55.4
461.3
615.0
3.2
1,980.5

0.2
0.0
0.0
21.1
0.0
0.3
0.4
0.0
23.2
0.1
0.0
45.4
3.6
0.9
0.2
50.0
70.8
38.0
10.1
11.0
59.2
329.6
12.3
9.0
3.8
2.2
356.9
4.3
13.1
62.8
14.2
94.3
27.1
0.1
14.4
0.0
0.2
53.8
68.5
613.4
2.8
1,343.0

15.3
40.9
11.5
31.9
6.6
2.5
5.6
6.3
0.0
14.1
3.8
157.1
0.0
0.1
8.1
0.6
165.9
3.4
6.1
1.1
3.2
10.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
10.5
10.5
0.5
5.8
6.3
22.2
820.2
1.1
135.9
63.4
96.5
1,117.0
4.1
0.0
1,339.7

15.1
41.3
11.5
10.8
6.6
2.2
5.2
6.2
4.0
14.1
3.8
141.7
2.1
0.0
12.8
0.3
156.9
138.1
9.9
6.3
44.1
60.4
34.4
0.2
0.1
4.2
10.2
49.2
0.0
0.0
9.3
14.4
23.6
33.1
1,089.3
122.8
135.9
63.8
98.1
1,509.8
5.7
2.3
1,979.2

Destination
European Union (28)

37.8

4.2

28.2

16.5

Oceania

8.2
6.3

Asia

5.9
6.4

Exporting Region

NAFTA

France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Poland
Romania
Slovakia
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
Other EU
European Union (28)
Bosnia-Herzegovina
Norway
Turkey
Other Europe
Europe
CIS
Canada
Mexico
United States
NAFTA
Brazil
Chile
Peru
Venezuela
Other America
Central and South America
Liberia
Mauritania
South Africa
Other Africa
Africa
Middle East
China (1)
India
Japan
South Korea
Other Asia
Asia
Australia
New Zealand and Other Oceania
World

0.0
0.0

= Apparent
Consumption

CIS

Czech Republic

2.3
-

+ Imports

Other Europe

Austria
Belgium-Luxembourg

- Exports

European Union (28)

Production

million tonnes actual weight

Other America

million tonnes actual weight

WORLD IRON ORE TRADE BY AREA


2014

Other Europe

1.7

0.1

3.7

0.2

3.8

0.1

0.0

9.6

9.5

CIS

0.0

0.0

3.1

0.0

0.0

3.1

0.0

NAFTA

0.3

0.0

0.0

13.2

2.1

0.1

0.0

15.7

2.5

Other America

0.0

1.9

14.1

0.0

16.1

1.9

Africa and Middle


East

5.8

0.2

0.2

24.2

0.7

0.9

32.0

31.3

China

2.0

1.2

29.0

17.0 196.0

99.6

37.8 550.5

933.0

895.2

Japan

0.1

0.0

2.6

4.3

38.2

6.3

1.8

83.1

136.4

134.6

Other Asia

0.0

0.0

0.3

5.0

39.0

14.0

1.2

73.5

133.0

131.9

Oceania

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.8

2.0

2.9

0.9

Total exports

47.8

5.7

66.9

58.2 371.6 134.5

of which: extraregional exports*

10.0

5.6

63.8

45.0 357.5 133.8

-106.8

-3.9

63.8

42.5 355.6 102.5 -1,160.0 706.3

Net exports
(exports - imports)

42.5 709.2 1,436.5 1,324.7


1.7 707.2 1,324.7

* Excluding intra-regional trade marked

Production adjusted so that Fe content is similar to world average. Source: United Nations.

21

TRADE IN FERROUS SCRAP


2013 AND 2014
million tonnes

million tonnes

22

Exporting
Region
of which: extra-regional imports*

1.4

1.2

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

31.8

3.2

Other Europe

10.9

0.3

3.2

3.9

0.0

0.6

0.0

18.9

18.6

CIS

0.0

0.0

0.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.9

0.0

NAFTA

0.6

0.0

0.0

5.6

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

6.2

0.6

Other America

0.0

0.0

0.5

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.6

0.5

Africa

2.2

0.0

0.0

1.2

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

3.5

3.4

Middle East

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

1.2

1.1

China

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

2.1

0.2

0.0

2.5

2.5

Japan

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.4

0.4

Other Asia

2.9

0.1

0.9

7.4

1.9

3.4

0.0

5.2

2.5

2.5

26.7

24.2

Oceania

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Total Exports

45.4

1.8

6.3

19.8

2.2

4.3

0.0

7.4

3.0

2.7

92.8

54.5

of which:
extra-regional
exports*

16.7

1.5

5.4

14.2

2.1

4.2

0.0

7.4

0.4

2.7

54.5

Net Exports
(exportsimports)

13.6 -17.1

5.3

13.6

1.6

-0.4

-2.5

7.0 -23.7

2.7

Oceania

28.7

Destination

Other Asia

European Union
(28)

Japan

1.2
4.8
0.5
0.6
0.1
2.5
5.0
0.5
5.1
1.9
0.5
0.2
4.8
0.3
0.4
4.0
32.3
19.1
1.0
20.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.3
1.5
0.9
4.2
6.6
0.0
0.6
0.7
0.1
3.4
3.5
1.2
2.6
0.4
8.0
4.3
14.4
29.6
0.0
94.3

China

1.1
4.2
0.1
0.5
0.0
2.4
5.3
0.3
5.0
1.7
0.5
0.4
4.7
0.3
0.3
3.3
30.2
19.7
0.9
20.6
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
1.7
0.9
3.9
6.5
0.1
0.6
0.6
0.0
3.2
3.3
0.1
4.5
0.2
9.3
4.4
14.6
33.0
0.0
95.0

Africa and Middle East

1.1
3.9
0.6
2.0
0.4
6.2
8.4
0.1
0.3
4.0
2.0
0.5
0.6
1.4
7.0
7.3
45.8
0.2
1.6
1.8
0.0
5.3
0.9
0.0
6.3
4.5
0.7
15.3
20.6
0.6
1.5
2.2
1.5
0.8
2.3
2.0
0.0
7.4
0.3
0.1
1.4
9.1
2.8
92.8

Other America

1.0
3.2
0.6
1.9
0.3
6.0
8.4
0.1
0.3
4.2
1.9
0.4
0.5
1.3
6.9
7.3
44.2
0.1
1.8
1.9
0.7
3.7
0.3
0.2
4.9
4.5
0.8
18.5
23.8
0.5
1.3
1.7
1.5
0.8
2.3
1.9
0.0
8.1
0.2
0.1
2.8
11.2
2.7
94.6

NAFTA

2014

CIS

2013

Other Europe

2014

Total imports

Imports

2013

European Union (28)

Exports
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Italy
Netherlands
Poland
Slovak Republic
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
Other EU
European Union (28)
Turkey
Others
Other Europe
Kazakhstan
Russia
Ukraine
Other CIS
CIS
Canada
Mexico
United States
NAFTA
Brazil
Other Central and South America
Central and South America
South Africa
Other Africa
Africa
Middle East
China
Japan
South Korea
Taiwan, China
Other Asia
Asia
Australia and New Zealand
World

WORLD TRADE IN FERROUS SCRAP


BY AREA, 2014

* Excluding intra-regional trade marked

23

WORLD STEEL TRADE


1975 TO 2014
million tonnes finished steel

million tonnes

500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50

10

05

20

00

20

95

20

90

19

85

19

80

19

19

75

19

WORLD STEEL EXPORTS,


ANALYSIS BY PRODUCT
2009 TO 2014

Exports are of finished and


semi-finished steel products.
Production of finished steel,
where not available from national
sources, is calculated from
crude steel production, taking
into account the continuous
casting ratio.

Year

Exports

Production

Exports
share %

1975
1980
1985
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

114.7
140.6
171.0
171.0
177.1
196.1
222.5
238.6
246.6
236.4
267.9
268.7
280.8
307.1
300.4
319.0
332.3
366.2
371.4
418.3
445.3
436.5
327.6
390.8
416.3
413.9
409.1
452.0

506.9
578.7
599.0
654.0
660.1
658.2
665.0
656.3
685.7
687.2
730.3
713.5
725.8
783.5
785.8
837.0
899.0
985.3
1,065.2
1,161.1
1,253.3
1,248.4
1,153.7
1,335.4
1,433.1
1,455.4
1,539.7
1,555.0

22.6
24.3
28.5
26.2
26.8
29.8
33.5
36.3
36.0
34.4
36.7
37.7
38.7
39.2
38.2
38.1
37.0
37.2
34.9
36.0
35.5
35.0
28.4
29.3
29.0
28.4
26.6
29.1

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

51.5

57.3

55.6

52.7

51.0

49.2

2.8

3.1

3.2

2.0

2.0

2.1

Angles, shapes and sections

16.5

19.1

21.8

20.4

22.1

23.0

Concrete reinforcing bars

21.9

18.8

18.6

12.2

20.7

19.3

Bars and rods, hot-rolled

7.6

11.4

13.0

14.6

17.3

28.5
28.2

Ingots and semi-finished material


Railway track material

Wire rod

16.6

19.4

20.8

21.2

24.4

Drawn wire

5.4

6.4

7.2

6.6

6.9

7.9

Other bars and rods

3.1

4.6

5.7

4.9

4.8

5.5

Hot-rolled strip

2.4

3.2

3.4

3.1

2.9

3.3

Cold-rolled strip

3.1

3.8

3.8

3.5

3.6

3.7

50.7

60.5

61.8

61.3

62.7

72.1

Hot-rolled sheets and coils


Plates

24.2

29.5

31.6

30.1

28.1

32.2

Cold-rolled sheets and coils

25.2

30.8

32.2

30.5

31.5

35.0

Electrical sheet and strip

3.2

3.8

4.1

3.9

3.7

4.0

Tinmill products

5.5

6.2

6.3

5.9

6.1

6.5

Galvanised sheet

23.6

31.5

33.7

33.0

34.2

37.7

8.2

11.4

14.7

14.5

13.6

16.6
38.6

Other coated sheet


Steel tubes and fittings

WORLD VOLUME OF TRADE


2000 TO 2014
Quantum indices 2000 = 100

29.6

34.1

40.2

36.3

36.1

Wheels (forged and rolled) & axles

0.7

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.7

Castings

0.6

0.6

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.9
0.8

Forgings

0.5

0.7

0.8

0.7

0.8

Other

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Total

302.9

357.0

379.7

358.7

373.9

415.9

Exports in World Steel in Figures include intra-EU trade, trade between


countries of the CIS, and trade between NAFTA countries. The figures
are based on a broad definition of the steel industry and its products,
including ingots, semi-finished products, hot-rolled and cold-finished
products, tubes, wire, and unworked castings and forgings. The
above table comprises the exports of 38 countries, which represents
aproximately 92 per cent of total world trade in 2014.

300
280

steel-containing manufactured goods


steel
all commodities

260
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100

24

13

12

11

10

09

08

07

06

14
20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

05
20

04
20

03
20

02
20

01
20

20

00

80

25

WORLD STEEL TRADE BY AREA


2014
million tonnes

MAJOR IMPORTERS AND


EXPORTERS OF STEEL
2014
million tonnes

Exporting Region

101.3

5.1

13.6

0.4

0.9

1.1

6.2

0.3

4.7

of which: extra-regional imports*

Total Imports

Oceania

Other Asia

Japan

China

Africa and Middle East

Other America

NAFTA

CIS

Other Europe

European Union (28)

Destination
European Union
(28)

Rank

0.0 133.7

32.4
18.7

Other Europe

9.7

0.7

5.8

0.0

0.3

0.1

1.3

0.3

1.1

0.0

19.4

CIS

1.7

0.6

11.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

2.2

0.1

0.5

0.0

17.1

5.2

NAFTA

8.9

2.8

2.5

20.1

5.8

0.5

5.1

4.1

10.7

0.4

61.0

40.8

Other America

1.5

1.4

2.5

1.9

2.6

0.1

8.8

1.2

2.3

0.0

22.4

19.7

Africa

8.1

2.8

5.7

0.2

0.1

1.7

6.7

1.1

1.6

0.0

28.1

26.3

Middle East

1.8

5.7

5.5

0.2

0.2

0.1

9.2

1.8

4.7

0.0

28.9

28.8

China

1.5

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

6.2

7.0

0.0

14.9

14.9

Japan

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.6

5.0

0.0

6.7

6.7

Other Asia

3.7

0.4

5.4

0.5

1.2

1.1

51.2

25.9

24.2

0.2 113.7

89.4

Oceania

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.7

0.3

2.6

138.4

19.5

52.8

23.5

11.3

4.9

92.9

41.3

64.4

1.0 450.0 287.0

of which: extraregional exports*

37.1

18.8

40.9

3.4

8.7

3.0

92.9

41.3

40.2

0.7 287.0

Net Exports
(exports-imports)

4.7

0.1

35.7 -37.5 -11.1 -52.1

78.0

34.7 -49.2

Total Exports

0.3

4.3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

China
Japan
European Union (28)
South Korea
Russia

(1)

Germany (2)
Ukraine
Italy (2)
Turkey
France (2)
Belgium (2)
Taiwan, China
United States
India
Brazil
Netherlands (2)
Spain (2)
United Kingdom (2)
Austria (2)
Canada

Mt

Rank

92.9
41.3
37.1
31.9
27.0
24.8
21.5
17.3
16.2
14.9
14.2
12.1
12.0
10.4
9.8
9.7
9.7
8.6
7.3
6.2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Mt

Rank

78.0
34.6
21.3
20.3
9.5
5.8
4.7
3.5
3.4
3.2
2.8
2.8
2.4
1.8
1.6

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Total Imports
United States
European Union (28) (1)
Germany (2)
South Korea
Italy (2)
Thailand
China
France (2)
Turkey
Viet Nam
Mexico
Indonesia
Belgium (2)
Canada
India
Poland (2)
Taiwan, China
Spain (2)
United Kingdom (2)
Netherlands (2)

Mt
41.4
32.4
24.3
22.4
16.6
15.1
14.9
13.4
13.4
12.4
11.6
11.0
10.7
10.3
9.5
9.1
8.9
8.1
7.4
7.0

4.0

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

-3.3

* Excluding intra-regional trade marked

(1)
(2)

26

Total Exports

Net Exports
(exports - imports)
China
Japan
Russia
Ukraine
South Korea
Brazil
European Union (28) (1)
Austria (2)
Belgium (2)
Taiwan, China
Turkey
Netherlands (2)
Slovakia (2)
Luxembourg
Spain (2)

Net Imports
(imports - exports)
United States
Thailand
Viet Nam
Indonesia
Philippines
Saudi Arabia
Mexico
Algeria
United Arab Emirates
Egypt
Poland (2)
Canada
Iran
Hong Kong
Singapore

Mt
29.4
13.7
10.9
9.7
6.7
6.5
6.0
6.0
5.8
5.8
4.1
4.1
3.7
3.7
3.6

Excluding intra-regional trade


Data for individual European Union (28) countries include intra-European trade

27

INDIRECT TRADE IN STEEL


2000 TO 2013

TRUE STEEL USE


2007 TO 2013
million tonnes, finished steel equivalent

Mt

Indirect exports, Mt
Indirect exports as a percentage
of exports of steel products, %

350

%
80

300

75

250
70

200
150

65

177.3

2002

186.6

2003

198.0

2004

223.5

2005

248.8
269.1
291.5

2008

302.4

55

2009

230.8

2010

284.6

13

12

11

2001

2007

20

20

10

20

09

08

20

07

20

20

06

20

05

04

20

20

03

20

02

20

01

00

20

20

171.2

60
50

20

Indirect Exports, Mt

2006

100

Year
2000

Indirect trade in steel takes place through


exports and imports of steel containing goods
and is expressed in finished steel equivalent of
products used.

2011

323.1

2012

319.8

2013

314.6

Further explanation on definitions and methodology of indirect trade in steel


can be found in Indirect Trade in Steel report (March 2015) on worldsteel.org.

MAJOR INDIRECT IMPORTERS


AND EXPORTERS OF STEEL
2013

Germany
France
Italy
Spain
United Kingdom
European Union (28)
Turkey
Other Europe
Russia
CIS
Canada
Mexico
United States
NAFTA
Brazil
South America
Africa and Middle East
China
Japan
South Korea
Asia and Oceania
Total (1)
(1)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Indirect Exports
China
Germany*
Japan
South Korea
United States
Italy*
Mexico
Spain*
Poland*
France*

Mt

Rank

67.2
30.6
24.2
22.7
21.3
12.8
12.2
8.7
8.6
7.9

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Indirect Imports

Mt

United States
Germany*
Canada
China
France*
Russia
United Kingdom*
Mexico
Belgium-Luxembourg*
Japan

41.0
20.9
12.9
12.6
11.4
11.0
10.5
9.6
8.3
7.1

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

32.2
19.0
31.6
24.6
18.0
195.9
21.5
28.4
47.6
62.5
20.2
16.1
127.1
163.4
20.9
40.9
66.3
375.5
58.7
42.1
601.5
1,158.9

33.0
18.4
28.5
16.9
15.8
178.2
18.7
26.7
44.4
58.2
20.2
17.7
111.3
149.1
23.8
45.2
76.7
399.7
55.2
44.2
628.4
1,162.5

22.2
14.2
17.5
9.7
9.9
114.6
16.2
21.8
28.1
37.2
14.0
14.5
68.9
97.3
19.1
35.5
72.3
515.7
36.7
29.1
703.9
1,082.6

29.9
16.0
22.6
11.9
12.6
140.0
22.3
28.9
42.8
53.1
20.0
16.6
91.2
127.8
27.5
48.1
73.3
537.4
43.0
33.8
760.2
1,231.5

32.8
17.9
22.3
10.3
12.8
145.6
25.9
32.8
50.5
62.4
20.7
17.5
101.6
139.9
27.1
51.2
79.7
583.4
43.8
35.6
815.5
1,327.0

28.6
15.8
15.4
7.4
12.1
122.5
27.1
34.3
52.4
65.8
22.6
19.1
113.1
154.7
27.1
52.1
80.8
603.5
44.0
35.1
848.2
1,358.5

28.3
16.0
15.5
8.5
12.9
125.4
29.8
37.2
52.7
66.5
21.8
17.5
115.4
154.7
28.8
54.5
81.7
680.4
48.1
35.6
935.4
1,455.4

Total comprises 74 countries, the most significant users of steel products worldwide

Note: True steel use (TSU) is obtained by subtracting net indirect


exports of steel from apparent steel use (ASU).

million tonnes, finished steel equivalent


Rank

2007

APPARENT AND TRUE STEEL USE


PER CAPITA, 2013
kilogrammes, finished steel equivalent
Brazil

True steel use per capita


Apparent steel use per capita

Mexico
United Kingdom
Spain
France
Japan
United States

Rank
1
2
3
4
5

Net Indirect Exports


(exports - imports)
China
Japan
South Korea
Germany*
Italy*

Mt

Rank

54.7
17.1
16.2
9.7
6.5

1
2
3
4
5

Net Indirect Imports


(imports - exports)
United States
Russia
Canada
Australia
United Kingdom*

*Data for individual European Union (28) countries include intra-European trade

28

Mt
19.7
8.9
7.7
5.2
4.5

Russia
Turkey
Italy
Germany
China
Canada
South Korea
0

200

400

600

800

1,000

1,200

29

ABOUT WORLDSTEEL

The World Steel Association (worldsteel) is one of the largest and most
dynamic industry associations in the world. worldsteel represents
approximately 170 steel producers (including 9 of the worlds 10 largest
steel companies), national and regional steel industry associations, and
steel research institutes. worldsteel members represent around 85% of
world steel production.

This publication is printed on Olin paper. Olin is certified by the Forest


Stewardship Council as environmentally-responsible paper.

Notation used in this publication:

30

(e)

indicates a figure that has been estimated.

0.0

indicates that the quantity concerned is less than 0.05.

indicates zero or no data.

World Steel in Figures


World Steel Association 2015
ISBN 978-2-930069-82-1
Cover image: Steel structure, Kings Cross railway station, London, UK
istock.com/Memitina
Architects: John McAslan + Partners
Design: double-id.com

World Steel Association


Rue Colonel Bourg 120
B-1140 Brussels
Belgium
T: +32 (0) 2 702 89 00
F: +32 (0) 2 702 88 99
E: steel@worldsteel.org

C413 Office Building


Beijing Lufthansa Center
50 Liangmaqiao Road
Chaoyang District
Beijing 100125
China
T: +86 10 6464 6733
F: +86 10 6468 0728
E: china@worldsteel.org
worldsteel.org