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A good study book describing the four views of Revelation is ‘Revelation Four Viewsby

Steve Greg

Historicists, 3. The Idealist or Spiritual view and 4. The Futurists. These four views are according to the various hermeneutic principles the authors adopted.

. The four views given in his parallel commentary are 1. The Preterist, 2. The


Hermeneutic simple means the way a reader interprets Biblical writings. The Preterist view sees that all of Revelation was fulfilled before AD.70 when Jerusalem fell. The Historicist view sees that Revelation was fulfilled throughout Church History. The Idealist view sees the spiritual meanings behind the visions of Revelation, and, The Futurist view sees Revelation after chapter four is fulfilled in the future. Throughout Church history many learned men have held to at least one of these four views.

DATE. The date of writing of the book of Revelation is the most important point as it affects ones interpretation of the Revelation. If it can be proved that the Apostle John wrote the book before AD 66-70 then the Preterist view is correct. Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry’s arguments to prove a date for writing the book of Revelation before AD.70 presented in “Before Jerusalem Fell” are excellent.

A brief overview of eschatological thought in Church history. 2 The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple had far greater implications than most modern day believers realize. The Jewish genealogies were destroyed thus resulting in the fact that none of the modern day Jews can prove they are from Abraham’s seed. All the Jews alive today belonged to other nations that converted to Judaism throughout history. Most Jews are Ashkenaz Jews coming from Armenia. I dare to say that there are no Jews from Abraham in the world today and the Encyclopedia’s say the same. The former Baptist evangelist John L Bray went to Jerusalem to search in the Jewish Libraries there and discovered that the Jews know they cannot prove they are from Abraham.

When the temple of Jerusalem was destroyed in A.D. 70 the true Israel of God were taken into the Kingdom of God in Heaven. The true Israel went into the New Jerusalem to rule and reign with Christ in the Heavenly realm. God’s promises to Abraham and the Prophets were

all fulfilled by the time of the AD.70 destruction of Jerusalem.

Before the end of the Jewish age in AD.70, there was a large scale apostasy sweeping the Church due to false doctrines spread by the Judiazers. These Judiazers believed in a literal thousand year reign of Christ in the earthly Jerusalem. Most of the Christian leaders that remained after AD.70 (the foolish virgins, Matthew 25:8) sought to revive the hope of a millennial kingdom instead of understanding that Christ’s spiritual kingdom had begun as predicted (Luke 17:21, “The Kingdom of God does not come outwardly, Lo the Kingdom is within you.” John 18:36, “My Kingdom is not from here.”).

While some of the Church fathers maintained the biblical fundamentals of salvation there is no doubt that in the writings of the Church fathers after AD 70 there was a departure from the doctrines of the Apostles. I believe the apostasy was the main reason for the

1 Gregg, Steve, Revelation Four Views, A Parallel Commentary, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, ISBN 0-8407 2128-5 (hardcover) 1997.

2 The notes in the overview are draw from Eschatology and The Shape of Christian Belief by Robert C. Doyle, Paternoster Press, PO Box 300, Carlisle, Cumbria, CA3 OQS, UK., ISBN 0-85364-818-2, Reprinted 2000.


misunderstanding of Biblical teachings after AD.70. They fell away from discerning Christ spiritually and determined to prove He would come back literally.

In Matthew 23:34-38 Jesus clearly taught that Jerusalem was to be destroyed because she had killed the Lord and the Prophets. However, not one of the apostolic writers, Barnabas, Hermas, Clement, etc., made that connection. Not until Justin the Martyr in approximately AD.150 did any writer make the connection!

The apostasy seemed to grow worse for many centuries after. The eccentricity of the Church Fathers is amazing to those who know the Scriptures. Many of their historical claims were in error. For example Iranaeus' claimed that Jesus lived until He was 50 years old.

Regarding the Parousia, Barnabas associated the time of the end with the fall of Jerusalem, but he seemed confused that the end had not come literally as he expected it. The early writers struggled to understand why the Lord had not come back openly, physically

as they expected,

observation, for it would be revealed within the heart, Luke 17:20-21.


even though Jesus had said the Kingdom would not come with outward

In Sam Frost's book, “Misplaced Hope,” he documents that the Apostolic writers did associate the end with AD.70, in some ways, but were trying to understand why the "end" had not occurred physically. They all seemed to be under the Grecian world philosophy taught in Alexandria. The Alexandrian world view was more literal than Hebraic thought. As most of the Church were converts from the poorer uneducated masses, and could be called street Gentiles, there was a growing ignorance of the Prophetic Scriptures, and they did not understand the correct hermeneutic for interpreting the Scriptures.

It is my belief that the Jewish apostasy and the false doctrines of the Judiazers were the main reason for the silence, and confusion concerning the Parousia. They had lost the proper understanding of the spiritual nature of the Parousia, although they knew it was supposed to occur in AD.70. They failed to understand that God had kept His word. The church has been paying the price for embracing those false Jewish teachings ever since with all kinds of false predictions of the date of Christ’s coming.

Cerinthus (AD.100) and Papias (AD.60-130) taught an earthly millennium of prosperity. Ireaneus (AD.130-200) believed in a literal millennium and gave a millennial timetable showing the end of human history. He was influenced by the Jewish hope of a literal Kingdom of God on earth with the Jews ruling. Ireaneus made mistakes in his writings and made suggestions that were embraced by the Roman Catholic Church in later years. Bible teachers who say that Christ will come in the future, and claim that most of the early Church fathers believed it, are not telling the truth. It is not a fact.

The majority of the Church fathers in that early period where either witnessing for their faith, fighting error in the Church or suffering persecution. Most of them had no time to write books on the Last Days things (eschatology).

When the Roman Emperor Constantine converted in AD.312, the Christians experienced a period of rest throughout the Roman Empire. Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea (died AD.339) believed and wrote that Constantine’s rule was a foretaste of the eternal Kingdom, and stated God’s judgments would take place within Church history as well as after it.

3 For example the writings of Hermas reveal this struggle, and his attempts to explain the so-called delay of the end.


Eusebius taught the Roman Catholic Church was the Kingdom of God, so why should believers seek the spiritual kingdom Christ promised in John 3:3-5, and 18:36?

When the barbarians invaded the Roman Empire, during the fourth and fifth century, another period of social instability caused the revival of end-time predictions amongst the Christian writers. Towards the end of this period Augustine (AD.354450), the founding father of all Roman Catholic theology greatly affected the teachings on Last Day things. It was Augustine who interpreted the millennium of Revelation 20:1-8 as being in the present age and the Church being the Kingdom of God on earth. Augustine’s a-millennial views were taught for over a thousand years, and were held by the founding protestant fathers, Martin Luther and John Calvin.

To understand the differences between John Calvin and Martin Luther regarding their views on the last days (eschatology) one must know their approach to interpreting the Scriptures. Luther moved Bible interpretation away from seeking the spiritual meaning behind a scripture, to accepting just the literal meaning of a verse. Luthers eschatology was influenced by the prophecy of Elias which originated in a third century Jewish Midrash book. It was rewritten several times, and published in AD.1523. The prophecy divided the history of the world into three periods.

The prophecy reads as follows, The sayings of Elias house. The world shall stand six thousand years and after shall it fall. Two thousand years without the Law Two thousand years in the Law Two thousand years the time of Christ. And if these years be not accomplished, our sins shall be the cause, which are great and many.” 4

Philip Melanchthon, (leader of the Lutheran Church after Luther) was responsible for this prophecy of Elias affecting the interpretation of history and eschatology in the Lutheran Church. The Lutheran elders taught an imminent final crisis, which would bring the present, corrupt age to an end and begin a new one.

Luther believed he was living in the Last Days, and that antichrist was the Pope of Rome, the Turks (Muslims) and the Anabaptists (Baptists), thus proving Christ was coming soon. A few typical speeches of Luther were, “Christ’s coming is at the door….the angels are

getting ready, putting on their armour….the last day is already breaking…

world will

perish shortly.” Luther also said “Christ would come in 1558.5 Because Luther made that prediction, the door was opened in Europe for Pastors to begin setting dates for when Christ would return.


John Calvin interpreted Scripture by recognizing the figurative, allegorical, types, and spiritual meanings behind the Scriptures. This was seen in his eschatology. Calvin believed the mission of the Church was to have a positive role in the Society. He was optimistic about

4 Doyle, Robert C., Eschatology, The Shape of Christian Belief, Paternoster Press, Page 225, PO Box 300, Carlisle, Cumbria, CA3 OQS, UK., ISBN 0-85364-818-2, Reprinted 2000.

5 Bray, John L. Evangelist, The Second Coming of Christ and related events, Page 12-13, John L. Bray Ministry, Inc., P.O. Box 1778, Lakeland, Florida, USA. 1983.


Church’s role in history and taught the Kingdom of God would increase on the earth until the end of the age. Calvin believed the restoration of the world would be through the Church.

Jonathan Edwards (1703-58) an important American theologian taught a golden age of the Church, which would come through the preaching of the Gospel. Edwards insisted that the time of the Churches prosperity had begun; a postmillennial hope; and that the revivals of 1740-42, were a sign of it.

The other views since the 1800s are still available in print. Over one hundred thousand books on the book of Revelation have been written, so there is no shortage of opinions on the Book of Revelation.

In the 1800’s John Darby who was declared a heretic by the Church of England (CNI) went to USA to spread his dispensational views. His view of an earthly millennium kingdom after the restoration of the Jews encouraged the Zionist movement of the 1850’s which sought to restore the nation of Israel (accomplished in 1948) in the hope that it would help Christ to return to earth. The large number of publications teaching Darby’s dispensational and pre- millennium views resulted in the other views of the Last Days never being read.

The view that the nation of Israel must be nationally restored before Christ comes, is similar to the view the Pharisees held in Jesus day. While it was the majority view it was wrong and Jesus warned the disciples to beware of it, Luke 12:1-2, Mark 8:15-21. The numerous teachings that have risen in the last hundred years, (pre-tribulation rapture, mid-tribulation rapture, pre-wrath rapture, seven years tribulation, 3½ years tribulation, etc,) and the countless failed predictions should warn students to be careful regarding the interpretation (hermeneutic) they adopt regarding eschatology. 6

An excellent book by Francis X. Gumerlock entitled “The Day and The Hour” 7 supplies a list from the beginning of Church history of all the failed date-setters who claimed to have calculated the year when Jesus was returning. This concludes a very brief historical overview of eschatology.

Introduction. The book declares itself to be “The revelation of Jesus Christ.” The Greek word for revelation is ‘apocalypse’ which means an ‘unveiling.’ God was revealing Jesus Christ as Lord and King of Kings to the Jews. God revealed His Kingdom, His new Government, His method of judgments and the restoration of mankind to His garden in the Heavenly places. The restoration of mankind, to the glory, authority and dominion, that Adam had before he fell.

In 1 Timothy 6:14-15, Paul wrote that at the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ, God would show who was the Blessed and only Potentate, the King of Kings and Lord of Lords. In John 5:22, Jesus had declared that the Father had committed all judgment unto the Son. However, it had not been publicly revealed to the Jews that Christ was in fact the Judge. In Acts 17:31, Paul preached, God had appointed a day when He would judge the world by Christ whom He had ordained and gave assurance of it by the resurrection. Jesus said in Mark 13:32, “But that day and hour knows no man, no, not the angels which are in Heaven, neither the Son, but the Father.”

6 The Grammatical-historical method taught by Milton S. Terry in Biblical Hermeneutics is recommended to the students. 7 Gumerlock, Francis X., The Day and The Hour, Christianity’s Perennial Fascination with Predicting the End of The World, American Vision, PO Box 220, Powder Springs, Georgia, USA, ISBN 0-915815-37-0, 2000.


It is clear, at the time Jesus was on earth, He did not know the day or the hour of His coming, though He repeatedly said it would be within the generation of the disciples alive in His day, Matthew 16:28, 23:36, 24:34. In Revelation 1:1-3, John declared the Father had finally revealed the time when Christ could go to the earth and judge the Jews, and that Christ had revealed it to him.

Revelation 6:10, revealed that Christ’s coming was to avenge the blood of the martyrs. Their cry was, “How long, O Lord,…. do you not judge and avenge our blood on them…” In Revelation 18:20, the angel cried, “Rejoice over her, you holy Apostles and Prophets: for God has avenged you on her,and in 19:2, God has avenged the blood of His servants. No other period of Church history can claim to have ‘holy Apostles;’ only the early Apostolic Church. Therefore Revelation reveals Christ taking vengeance on those who killed the Apostles. Matthew 21:43, It also reveals Christ giving the Kingdom to the saints to fulfill Daniel 7:18, the completion of the harvest of Israel, 14:15, and the resurrection.

After the ascension Christ ruled from the throne of God where He was taught by the Father

to conquer the enemies of the Kingdom. Psalm 110:1, Matthew 22:7, Luke 21:20-22. The six enemies were, 1, Satan. 2, The beast. 3, The false prophet. 4, The harlot, and 5, death and 6, hell. These six enemies were represented symbolically as follows:

1. Satan, the dragon, 20:10, was cast into the Lake of fire.

2. The Beast, the Roman Government, the Caesars, 19:20, were cast into the Lake of fire.

3. The false prophet, the apostate Jewish leaders,19:20, were cast into the Lake of fire.

4. The harlot, the city of Jerusalem. 1718 was destroyed by fire, described in 18:8.

5. Spiritual death caused by sin and strengthened by the Law, 20:14, cast to Lake of fire.

6. Hell, 20:14, was cast into the Lake of fire.

The story of Revelation. Revelation reveals a story that completes the story begun in Genesis 3:15, were God promised Adam that Christ, (the Seed of the woman) would crush Satan (the serpent). In Genesis, Adam’s bride fell from her dominion over the earth into sin and spiritual death. In Revelation, Christ’s Bride (the true Church of both Testament’s), conquers sin, spiritually rises and has dominion with Christ in the New Jerusalem over the Heavens and earth. In Genesis, Adam’s seed and creation fell from glory and dominion. In Revelation, Christ’s seed the new creation believers conquer and inherit glory and dominion. In Genesis, Adam was driven out of the Garden of Eden, the Governmental place of God. In Revelation, Christ and His Bride enjoy rulership in God’s Presence in the New Jerusalem. In Revelation the enemies of God are conquered and all things lost by Adam are restored. Christ takes vengeance on the apostate Jews who crucified Him and His Bride (the Church) receives her inheritance and begins to rule and reign over Heaven and earth. The story ends with the Son presenting His Bride to His Father. They have a marriage Feast and then the Son and His Bride rule the universe together. John repeatedly said this story was to begin very soon, 22:6,7,10,20.

The Theme. The theme of the book of Revelation is declared in Chapters 15-18 where the wrath of God is poured out on apostate Israel for her spiritual adultery. In Ezekiel 16:8, 31-33, God declared He was spiritually “married” to Israel, but in Isaiah 50:1, and Jeremiah 3:8, He threatened Israel with divorce because of her idolatry. In Ezekiel 24:14-27, Ezekiel’s wife was struck dead the same day the city of Jerusalem was destroyed by the Babylonians. This was the sign of what God was going to do with


Jerusalem in the Last Days of their ruling over the Kingdom of God. The destruction of the temple in Jerusalem was the sign of God’s divorce of apostate Israel. The Jewish leaders would no longer rule over the Kingdom Of God with Christ, for they had rejected Him, but Christ and His Body the Church became the new rulers over the Kingdom. Then the true Israel(the Princes and Princesses of God) would be presented to the Father, to complete the restoration of all things that Adam lost, Acts 3:21.

The language and symbols that are in the Revelation were well known to the early Jewish Christian’s, for they are all found in the Old Testament. It is clear the book was written to the Jewish Christians in the seven Churches, 1:11, 3:9. In 2:9, ‘Those who say they are Jews, but do lie,” and those of the synagogue of Satan.” 1:7, “The families of the earth,” should be translated, “The tribes of the land” meaning of the land of Judea. It has absolutely nothing to do with people today seeing Him coming on Television.

John was following the language and imagery of Ezekiel when He was writing. There are about one hundred and thirty references to Ezekiel in Revelation. John seems to follow Ezekiel step by step. Philip Carrington said that, “Revelation is a Christian rewriting of Ezekiel.” 8

Therefore the interpretation of Revelation is the same as that of Ezekiel. Consider the parallels:

1. The throne-vision (Revelation 4 / Ezekiel 1).

2. The book (Revelation 5 / Ezekiel 2-3).

3. The four plagues (Revelation 6:1-8 / Ezekiel 5).

4. The slain under the altar (Revelation 6:9-11 / Ezekiel 6).

5. The wrath of God (Revelation 6:12-17 / Ezekiel 7).

6. The seal on the saint’s foreheads (Revelation 7 / Ezekiel 9).

7. The coals from the altar (Revelation 8 / Ezekiel 10).

8. No more delay (Revelation 10:1-7 / Ezekiel 12).

9. The eating of the book (Revelation 10:8-11 / Ezekiel 2).

10. The measuring of the temple (Revelation 11:1-2 / Ezekiel 40-43).

11. Jerusalem and Sodom (Revelation 11:8 / Ezekiel 16).

12. The cup of wrath (Revelation 14 / Ezekiel 23).

13. The vine of the land (Revelation 14:18-20 / Ezekiel 15).

14. The great harlot (Revelation 17-18 / Ezekiel 16,23).

15. The lament over the city (Revelation 18 / Ezekiel 27).

16. The scavengers’ feast (Revelation 19 / Ezekiel 39).

17. The first resurrection (Revelation 20:4-6 / Ezekiel 37).

18. The battle with Gog and Magog (Revelation 20:7-9 / Ezekiel 38-39).

19. The new Jerusalem (Revelation 21 / Ezekiel 40-48).

20. The river of life (Revelation 22 / Ezekiel 47).

M. D. Goulder pointed out the step-by-step “pegging” of Revelation with Ezekiel. 9 Level pegging was used when the Church puts one book alongside another book. For example, when Genesis is read alongside Romans. Goulder believed John intended it to be used as a series of readings to be read with the prophecy of Ezekiel. Both books divide into about fifty units, and the Jewish Christian year consists of fifty-one Sundays.

8 Carrington, Philip, The meaning of the Revelation. Page 65. SPCK, London U.K. 1931. 9 Goulder, M. D., The Apocalypse as an Annual Cycle of Prophesies. Page 350. SPCK, U.K. 1978.


Language. The Bible Prophets used symbolic language. They wrote using poetry, figures, metaphors, enigmas, allegories, parables and symbols, which they drew from the images found in the writings of Moses and David.

When interpreting the symbols in Revelation, the reader must seek the same interpretation of the symbol as used in the rest of the Bible. Otherwise the temptation is to come up with some other interpretation.

The student must ask the questions: Where in the Bible does this phrase or image come from, and, what was its significance in that context? This is why it is necessary to have some understanding of the Prophets use of symbols, Jewish poetry, Jesus prophecies and the Bible’s use of that symbol, if we are to understand the Revelation symbol.

2 Peter 1:20-21, Peter warned, “No prophecy of the Scripture is of any private interpretation. Prophecy came in old times…when holy men spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.” The symbol’s of Revelation were understood by the early Church. For example, the symbolic numbers six hundred and sixty six, 13:18, clearly referred to Nero Caesar. 10 John used the number six hundred and sixty six, because that allowed him to say many things about Nero by using that number. 11 Kindly note, John did not use a triple six number; 666, as some wrongly teach.

The purpose of the Revelation is as follows:

1. To reveal God’s vengeance on the Jews and the Roman world because they crucified

His Son and killed the Apostles, Luke 21:20-22.

2. To show the Kingdom of Christ, and New Jerusalem were established in Heaven. Isaiah 22:22, 9:7, said Christ would establish His Kingdom with judgment and with justice forever. This meant that the Kingdom could not be fully released to the saints until the Son of Man had performed His first universal judgment, spoken of by Jesus in Matthew 25:31-46, John 20:11-15. Then His Kingdom would be established by His judgment and justice and would continue forever, Daniel 2:44.

3. To reveal Christ and the sons of God ruling over the earth from Heaven, Romans 8:19, manifestation of sons of God, Ephesians 2:6, seated in Heavenly places.

4. To encourage the Church on earth that they would be rulers in Christ’s Kingdom, Matthew 18:28, sit on thrones judging; Luke 19:17, have authority over ten cities, Luke 22:29-30, I appoint unto you a Kingdom, eat and drink at My table, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes.

5. To encourage the Church that the death of the believer is precious and has value. The martyr’s soul immediately ascends to Heaven, where they sit upon thrones, 11:11, 14:13, 20:4. The blessing is that they ascend into Heaven at physical death in their spiritual body and reign in Heaven, Revelation 20:4. Their blood is avenged, 6:9, 8:3, and the earth is affected by their sacrificial death.

10 Gentry, Dr. Kenneth L., The Beast of Revelation, Page 34-35, Dominion Press, Fort Worth, Texas, USA, ISBN 0-930464-21-4, 1989. and 11 Chilton, David. Days of Vengeance. Page 35. Dominion Press. Ft. Worth. Texas, USA.1987.


6. To reveal that the New Covenant between God and His Son was established.

The writer. 1:4, John the Apostle. 1:1, He tells us he was a servant, 1:9, a brother, 22:9, and one of the Prophets. He assumed that the seven churches of Asia knew him, and he wrote with the authority of an Apostle.

The date. There are two views discussed by all scholars regarding the date when John wrote this book. The two views are:

1. The latter date of approx. AD.95, and

2. The early date of AD.62-65 or earlier.

1. The latter date, AD.95.

It is assumed the Revelation was written during the reign of Caesar Domitian A.D. 81-96.

The external evidences for this view are found in the writings of the following Church fathers: Ireaneus of Lyons, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Victorinus of Pettau (d.AD.304), Eusebius of Caesarea (AD.260-340), and Jerome (AD.340-420). As Ireaneus is the key witness, some scholars quote only Ireaneus.

The main external evidences are:

1. Ireaneus. (A.D. 130-202), stated, “for that was seen no very long time since, but almost in our day, towards the end of Domitian’s reign.” This is discussed below.

2. Emperor worship. That during Domitian's reign Emperor worship was widespread.

3. That Domitian was in the habit of banishing his enemies.

4. They say that John was released from Patmos on Domitian's death.

The internal evidences (meaning the evidence within the book) for the late date of AD.95 are weak and rarely explained. Milton S. Terry stated, “No critic of any note has ever claimed that the later date can be proved by the internal evidence.” Leon Morris, however, did try in his commentary.

2. The early date AD.6265, during the reign of Nero AD.54-68.

The external evidences are examined critically (in detail) by Kenneth L. Gentry in “Before Jerusalem Fell.” Gentry argues that the testimony of Ireaneus should not be used as it is weak. Gentry then gives a list of those who stated John wrote Revelation during the reign of Nero AD.56-68.

Gentry’s examination of the main witness Ireaneus revealed the following.

1. The testimony of Ireaneus of Lyons, (AD.130-202).

Actually the book written by Ireaneus has not been preserved. The statement Ireaneus made is preserved in the original Greek in Eusebius’s Ecclesiastical History at 3:18:3 and also 5:8:6 were Ireaneus was dealing with the identification of “666” in Revelation 13:18. Eusebius says Ireaneus wrote:

“We will not, however, incur the risk of pronouncing positively the name of Antichrist, for if it were necessary that his name should be distinctly revealed in this present time, it would have been announced by him who beheld the apocalyptic vision. For that was seen no very long time since, but almost in our day, towards the end of Domitian’s reign.”


Gentry questioned the meaning of Ireaneus’ words and gave seven arguments. Gentry’s four main arguments regarding Ireaneus are as follows:

1. The phrase “that was seen” or “it was seen” is the important point. The Greek verb

‘heorathe’, translated “was seen”, raises the question what is the subject of this verb? Was Ireaneus referring to “he who saw the Revelation” (John) or was he referring to the Revelation itself? It could be easily be translated, “John, who saw the Revelation, was seen alive almost in our own generation.”

2. The context of the passage shows that Ireaneus was saying that John was seen alive.

Gentry paraphrased Ireaneus’ words as, “It is not important for us to know the name of the beast (or antichrist), which was hidden in the number 666. Were it important, why did John not tell us? After all, he lived almost to our own era, and spoke with some men that I have known.” Ireaneus’ point was John and his knowledge of the name of the beast.

3. Ireaneus mentioned “ancient copies” of Revelation. This proves that the original manuscript of Revelation was ancient. If Revelation was written before AD.68, then it could be considered as ancient. If it was written in AD.95 Revelation could not be considered ancient to Ireaneus.

4. Ireaneus made errors in his writings. He wrote that Jesus lived to be almost fifty years old,

Against Heresies 2:22:5. Gentry’s arguments should make one to doubt on the use of Ireaneus as a witness for the late date.

2. Clement of Alexandria, AD.150-215, wrote: “When after the death of the tyrant he

removed from the island of Patmos to Ephesus,’ Clement’s designation of tyrant fits the description of Caesar Nero and not of Caesar Domitian. Many other writers described Nero as the tyrant. E.g. The Sibylline Oracles’, Sulpicius Severus, Tertullian, Lactantius, Jerome, and Augustine. Clement wrote Revelation was written under Nero. “For the teaching of the Apostles, including Paul, ended with Nero.” Nero died in AD.68.

J. B. Lightfoot wrote “Evidence is lacking for any general religious persecution during Caesar Domitian’s reign. Though Domitian was a violent man, his violence was not directed against Christians but against individuals whom he suspected of undermining his authority.”

3. Origen of Alexandria, (AD.185-254) stated Revelation was written during Nero’s reign.

4. The Muratorian Canon,(AD.170) stated “the Apostle Paul, following the rule of John,

wrote to no more than seven churches by name.” This writer taught that the Apostle John was before Paul in writing letters to seven churches. It is agreed that Paul died in AD.65-66.

5. The Syriac Tradition made a reference to John’s banishment under Nero.

6. Arethas.

7. Theophylact of Bulgaria, (died AD.1107).

8. The Shepherd of Hermas.

9. Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis, (AD.60-130),

Gentry came to the conclusion that the external evidences point to the fact that Revelation was written during the reign of Nero, which was between AD.54-68. Please note that Gentry was a futurist at the beginning of his research. His Bible College professor was a Preterist who challenged Gentry’s beliefs. This resulted in Gentry searching for the truth.


The internal evidences in any book are always more important than the external evidences. The internal evidences that Revelation was written before AD.70 are many:

1. In 1:7, the theme of the book is that of Christ coming in the clouds of judgment to the apostate Jews. The words 'those who pierced Him' refers only to the first century Jews.

2. The introductory words of 1:1-3, clearly state the time was near for fulfillment. Nothing happened in the world around AD.95 similar to the visions of Revelation.

3. The references regarding the Judiazers in 2:9, 3:9, and to the twelve tribes, 7:4-8, strongly point to it being written to the early Jewish believers.

4. The Jewish persecution of Christianity is described in chapters six and eleven.

5. The persecution by Caesar Nero against the Christians fits the Beast, 13:1-10.

6. The seven Kings refer to the seven Caesar’s of Rome of which five were fallen, 17:10. The reign of the sixth Caesar points to a date in the AD.60s

7. The temple and Jerusalem were described as standing in 11:1-2. If they would have been already destroyed, as they were in AD.70, then John would have said so, because it fulfilled Jesus words in Matthew 24:2.

8. The language regarding Babylon, the Beast, and the references to a time of shaking and commotion in the Roman Empire fit the last days of Nero, AD.64-68.

9. Everything fits if Revelation is interpreted as describing the Jewish War of AD.67-70.

Parallelism in the Book of Revelation. Parallelism means to double back, or to cover the same ground as was covered in the previous section but from a different viewpoint. Moses used this method of writing, for example in the repeat of the sixth day of creation in Genesis chapter two. The dreams of Joseph and Pharaoh were also repeated twice. Most of the Old Testament Prophets repeated their visions or prophecies using different images, reinforcing the same message. See Daniel 2 and 7. Parallelism is called, ‘The written language of the Prophets.’

William Hendricksen in “More than Conquerors”, divided Revelation into two parts and then identified seven parallel sections. Hendricksen called his view “Progressive Parallelism.” He taught the seven sections are parallel. His divisions of the Revelation are very helpful to understanding the book.

The seven divisions are as follows:

1 st Part, chapter 1 11.

1. The seven candlesticks represent the churches of Asia.

Chp. 1-3.

2. The seven seals showed the judgments upon Israel.

3. Chp. 8-11. The trumpets repeat the judgments and end with the coming of the Kingdom.

Chp. 4-7.

2 nd Part, Chapter 12 22. The spiritual background to the Day of the Lord.

4. Chp. 12-14. The woman and man-child are persecuted by the Dragon, Beast and Harlot.


6. Chp. 17-19. The fall of the great Harlot, Jerusalem, and the Beast Nero.

7. Chp. 20-22. The judgment on Satan, sin and death followed by the new creation.

There are other similarities that point to parallelism within Revelation. For example.

1. Three different passages describe a similar battle; 16:14, 19:19, and 20:8.

2. The mention of 3½ years occurs five times in 11:2,3; 12:6, 14; 13:5 and

3. The similarities between the seven trumpets and the seven bowls of wrath.

They are:



The first affects the earth.


a third

16:2 All

The second affects the sea.


a third

16:3 All

The third affects the rivers.

8:10 a third

16:4 All

The fourth affects the heavens.

8:12 a third


The fifth affects men.


a third


The sixth affects the river Euphrates.



The seventh of each is the end.



The hermeneutic of Revelation. Hermeneutic refers to the principles used to interpret the Bible text thereby influencing how the verses are to be understood. The student should realize that teachers often change their hermeneutic when interpreting a verse that does not fit their view point. The dispensationalists and futurists are the most famous for doing this. They insist upon a literal interpretation of scriptures expressed by the words, “Literal wherever possible” (by H. Bonar) or “Literal unless absurd” (by Govett). One minute they say everything is literal but when they see locusts coming out of the earth, 9:3, they suddenly change their interpretation rules and state that is a metaphor for something else, such as a helicopter or an airplane. Their system of interpretation has therefore split into several views. The historic pre-millennialists, the dispensationalists, the progressive dispensationalists, and the classical dispensationalists. Their system of interpretation needs continual revision, therefore showing it is not correct. The dispensationalists, denounce as “spiritualizers” those who do not interpret the Bible literally as they do. They are wrong to do this.

Bible students must keep to the same principles of interpretation when they interpret Scriptures. The Preterist view, is rooted in correct hermeneutic principles. The Preterist’s believe in the Grammatical Historical principle which studies the words used in the day and culture of John. First they think how the persons receiving the book would interpret the verses. They try to find out what it would mean to the people living in that day. The Preterist’s keep to the historical background of the AD.60’s and so do not go far wrong in their interpretation.

The Futurists view became the popular after 1948 when the United Nations recognized Israel as being a nation and due to the “any moment rapture” teaching made popular by teachers like Hal Lindsay. But due to the continual revision of the futurist’s predictions many Christians have begun to abandon it. The publishers in the United States found it to be the most financially profitable and so it is still the main view in the bookstores.

The Preterist understanding of subjects such as the Last Days, the time of the end and the prophesies of Daniel need explaining.


The Last Days. The writer to Hebrews in 1:1-2, declared he was in the Last Days of the nation of Israel. Later in Hebrews 12:26, he referred to another shaking about to come to Israel which happened during the Jewish War of AD.67-70. In Hebrews 12:22, the writer stated the Jewish Christian’s had already come to Mount Zion… the Heavenly Jerusalem. This agrees with Revelation 14:1, and 21:2. If the writer of Hebrews was Paul then it shows Paul was confirming John’s Revelation which was already written. We conclude the Last Days were from AD.66-70.

The time of the endis referred to in Daniel 12:4. Note it does not say ‘the end of time’ as some teach. The Oryia Bible translates it as ‘the time of the period.’ In Daniel 12:9, Daniel was told to seal up the things written in his book regarding the Last Days of Israel until the time of the end of that nation. In Daniel 12:6, an angel asked, How long shall it be to the end of these wonders?and in vs. 7 another angel answered and swore there would be three and a half times (3½ years), and then gave another sign, that when the Lord scattered the power of the holy people (the Jews), then all these things would be finished. The Oryia Bible states, then all these things shall be perfect,’ referring to the resurrection of the righteous mentioned in vs.3. Thus it was revealed in that in the Last Days of the Jews (vs.1) there would be a 3½ year tribulation period (vs.1, 7) and then the judgment (vs.2) and the resurrection (vs.3) when the end and perfection of Israel would be reached. The perfection of Israel could not come till there was a vast ingathering of Gentiles. The harvest from the Gentiles was imperative for Israel’s perfection to be completed. That’s why the Apostle Paul was driven to reach all the Gentiles with the Gospel before the end come. This 3½ year period referred to the time of the Jewish war which was in AD.66-70. This is the same 3½ year period revealed by John in 11:3, 12:6, 12:14, 13:5, at the time of the end of earthly fleshly Israel. The true spiritual Israel was already reigning in the Heavenly places. This 3½ year period has nothing to do with the end of the physical world. The King James Version mistranslated the word for ‘age’ as ‘world.The Jewish age of ruling the Kingdom of God was finally abolished in AD.70, when the age of Christ and His Body the Church ruling over the Kingdom began. Ephesians 3:21, states the age of Christ has no end. Daniel 2:44-45, The age of Christ refers to the everlasting age where Christ rules the universe through His Apostles and Prophets.

Daniel 9:24-27. This prophecy is usually called the seventy weeks prophecy. The six clauses in Daniel 9:24, point to the completion of the resurrection of Israel in AD.70 and the establishment of the Kingdom of Christ with His saints in Heaven.

The six clauses of the prophecy are:

1. To finish the transgression.This referred to the sin of Adam, John 1:29, Romans 5:14. Christ did this at the cross.

2. To make an end of the sinsof the Jews, Acts 3:19, Romans 11:25-27. After crucifying Christ the Jews continued to sin by persecuting the disciples of Christ. It was clear the sins of the apostate Jews were not put away till AD.70 when Christ punished them at His coming in vengeance, Luke 21:22, Matthew 23:35-36.


Hebrews 9:28 stated Christ would do this when He came out of the Holy Place in Heaven at His coming; when He came without sin unto salvation, Romans 13:11. This means the Old Covenant Jewish saints were taken by Christ into God’s Presence in AD.70. The Jews were then reconciled and glorified.

4. Christ brought men into a state of everlasting righteousness through faith in Him, and through His spiritual life He breathed into them by the Holy Spirit, Romans 8:9-10. Romans 14:17, The righteousness of the Kingdom Paul said was in the Holy Spirit.

5. Christ sealed up all the visions and prophecies of the Old Covenant by fulfilling them. Jeremiah 31:31-34, promised that a New Covenant (agreement) would be made between God and man before the Old Covenant was finished. Jeremiah 32:40, said it would be an everlasting Covenant. Matthew 26:26-28, declared the New Covenant was in His Body and Blood. Thus the new agreement between God and mankind was made in Christ’s Body. However the new covenant was not written until it’s power to make men perfect was experienced by the Apostles in Christ’s spiritual Body. By AD.50 the Apostles were perfect and were producing perfect disciples, Philippians 3:15. Then through the years AD.54-66 the New Covenant agreement was written and completed. The Scriptures were finished before AD.70. 12

6. God then anointed the Most Holy place, which was Christ’s spiritual Body, the true house of God. In the Old Testament the types of God’s dwelling pace were; the Garden of Eden, the Tabernacle, and the Temple. In AD.70, Christ Body, the Church, incorporating the Apostles, Prophets and saints of both Covenants was anointed after presentation to the Father. Christ’s Body comprises the overcoming saints that rule together with Jesus Christ. This Government makes decisions on the Heavenly throne called Zion, in the New Jerusalem, the city where they lived in fellowship with God the Father and one another.

Daniel 9:25-27, Most teachers agree that Jesus Christ came to confirm the Covenant’s with Israel for seven years and that after 3½ years Christ was cut off by crucifixion. This means that there remained 3½ years to be fulfilled. This 3½ year period is also referred to in Daniel 12:1-9 and in Revelation 11-22. This period was fulfilled in the Last Days of Israel, AD.66-70 and is called the Last Days, or the great Day of the Lord’s Wrath.

Going back to the fifth clause of Daniel 9:24 for a moment. The angel stated that Christ would ‘seal up vision and prophecy.’ The Hebrew word to “seal,” means “to complete, finish, or fulfill,” both the “vision and the prophecy.” In other words, “to bring to conclusion by fulfillment, visions and prophecy.”

The Church father Tertullian, (AD.160-225) believed this signified that the New Testament Scriptures would be completed by the Jews in the “Last Days” of Israel before the destruction of Jerusalem in AD.70. Tertullian wrote, "And thus, in the day of the storming (of Jerusalem) the Jews fulfilled the seventy hebdomads predicted in Daniel." I believe Tertullian was correct and that the remaining 3½ years of Daniel’s prophecy were fulfilled during the tribulation from March AD.67 to September AD.70 when Jerusalem fell.


12 Robinson, John A.T., Redating the New Testament.

13 Roberts, Alexander, & Donaldson, James, editors. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 3. Tertullian 1 st Part, VII, An answer to the Jews. Chp.8. Page 160. Eerdmans Pub. Co., Grand Rapids. Michigan. USA. 1997.


In Luke 21:20-22, Jesus ties vs.22, the days of vengeance,vs.27, His coming,vs.31, His Kingdom,and vs.28, the redemption of Israel,” to events taking place during the Last Days of Israel from AD.67-70. Jesus referred to the destruction of Jerusalem, when He said, vs.22, “These are the days of vengeance when all things which are written, are fulfilled.” Jesus used the word “fulfilled” repeatedly in 21:22, 24, 32; 22:16; 24:44. In Luke 21:32 Jesus stated it would be within that generation of Jews alive in Christ’s day. What Luke wrote Jesus taught, is the same as what John teaches in the Book of Revelation.

I personally believe the book of Revelation was written before AD.63 for the following reasons.

1. When Matthew, Mark and Luke included Jesus prophesy on the mount of Olivet in their

Gospels, I question, where is John’s account? I believe John left it out because he had

already written it in Revelation.

2. Hebrews 12:22-24, vision of Zion is the same as Revelation 14:1-5. Therefore Revelation

was written earlier than Hebrews. If Paul wrote to the Hebrews from prison (AD.58-61), then the book of Revelation would have encouraged him, for John had already revealed the Lord

was coming very soon.

3. James was martyred in Jerusalem in AD.62. Why did John not mention his death?

11:7-8, John prophesied two would die in Jerusalem. Certainly James would be one of them.

During that period Nero’s persecution of Christians had increased. 1 Peter 4:17, Peter was imprisoned and wrote in April of AD.64 that judgment had already

started with the house of God. It is not much of a revelation if that was written after they had already died?

If the two martyrs who died in Jerusalem were James and Peter who died in AD.62, and 65,

or Peter and Paul who died in AD.65-66, then John wrote before their deaths, for it was a prophecy of things about to come.

I believe a date for writing Revelation between AD.58-62 would show John declared the prophecies of Jesus on the Mount of Olives were about to be fulfilled.

This Preterist view glorifies God in that it shows God kept all His promises to Israel given by the Prophets. A student does not have to twist the meaning of Scriptures or ignore Scriptures that do not fit their views of the Last Days.

Students will find also find many other difficult Scriptures in the Bible suddenly make sense. The more I have studied eschatology the more I see how all the latter Prophets, John the Baptist, Jesus Christ, and the Apostles Paul, John, Peter and James all agree and are united in their view of the Kingdom coming. It excites me to know that they are all One.

This view also began the expansion of mind concerning the Kingdom of God. I began to pursue the Kingdom of God fervently. I started to enter the “timeless zone” of the Kingdom while entering into deeper intimacy with God the Father and the Lord Jesus. The visions revealed in the Revelation became realities. One can sit on the throne of God and rule and reign with Christ over the Heavens and the earth and advance the Kingdom of God on earth.

Two of the best books to introduce one to the Preterist view are: J. Stuart Russell’s, “The Parousia.14 and “Who is This Babylon” by Don Preston.

14 “The Parousia” is available from www.preterist.org, or from Don Preston available at www.eschatology.org.



Chapter one. The book is a revelation of Jesus Christ as the King ruling the Kingdom. In his ‘Republic’ Plato stated “The beginning is the most important part of the work.”

1:1-7, The key to the meaning of the book is actually found in the first few verses. :1, God revealed to His Son the time of the judgment and the Kingdom had come. God wished His Son to show it to the other Apostles. Christ was about to give the Kingdom to the saints. The foundation of His Kingdom was finally completed. He signified it by His angel,meant Christ would show the revelation by ‘signs.’ The visions would be symbolic and not literal. When John wrote, vs.1, “the things that must shortly come to pass,” and vs.3, “the time is at hand,” he was fixing the time for the fulfillment of the visions. The visions were quickly going to happen. These words mean very near.In 22:6,10, John also used the same words to conclude the book. These words bracket the entire book and also appear frequently throughout the book. We find “soon” in 1:1; 2:16;; 3:11; 22:6,7,12,20, and “near” in 1:3; 3:10, and 22:10. We should not change the clear meaning of these words to mean something else in order to accommodate our thoughts on the subject. Otherwise we are making the Apostle John a liar and end up trying to prove John was wrong. The Apostle John knew what words he was choosing when he wrote and if he meant it was going to happen thousands of years in the future he would have used words to say so. However nowhere does John give that idea.

:2, John bore record of;-

1. The Word of God, referring to the Old Testament prophesies that were about to be fulfilled.

Deuteronomy 32:29, Moses started to describe the Jews latter end. Deuteronomy 32:35-43, He said it would be a day of vengeance when the Lord would judge His people. Leviticus 26:14-45, Moses declared the curses of sickness and war that the Lord would bring against the Jewish people. Moses continually said they would be punished seven times

in verses 18, 21, 24, and 28. In verse 35, they would be cast out of their land for 70 years. In verse 42 in the days of Zerubabel they would be remembered and restored because of the Old Covenant. Jesus did not give the Jewish leaders a hope of restoration to their land rather He told them their house would be desolate Matthew 23:38. In Mark 11:14, when He cursed the fig tree, Jesus said, “No man eat fruit of thee hereafter forever.”

2. The testimony of Jesus, especially that on the mount of Olives, Matthew 24-25, and,

3. All the things he saw in the visions.

:3, Blessed are those who read and keep the words of this prophecy for the time was at hand. As though John quoted Jesus words recorded in Mark 1:15.

:4, John to the seven churches which were in Asia at that time. Seven was the symbolic number of fullness. John gave a greeting from the triune God of grace and peace to the seven Churches in Asia. Seven is not God’s number. However the number three is, and four represent the world. Throughout this book there are the numbers 4 + 2 + 1, or 4 + 3.

:5, From Jesus Christ,the obedient Son, who is the faithful witness of what God the Father and His Kingdom is like, Matthew 11:27, John 8:55. Christ revealed the loving Father to us. So Christ raised up faithful witnesses who also would reveal the loving Father, and Heaven.


Christ was the first begotten, referring to Christ’s resurrection, Colossians 1:18, Psalm 2:7. And, Christ was the Prince of the kings of the earth. Jesus was training His disciples to be kings ruling with Him in His Kingdom. Many disciples had already begun to exercise their spiritual authority and were spiritually ruling over the principalities that ruled the earth, 1 Corinthians 4:8-9. 1 Peter 5:1, The Apostles were already receiving the glory, and more was to come when they became martyrs, Romans 8:17, 2 Corinthians 4:17. 20:4, Christ revealed the martyrs already ruled on thrones in Heaven, Ephesians 2:6. Matthew 25:21, Christ had promised He would, Make them ruler over many things.Matthew 24:47, Rulers over all His goods.Luke 12:44, Rulers over all He had.Luke 19:17, “Some would have authority over five cities, some ten cities. The disciples start to reign while on earth. Through revelations, visions, and prophesies from Heaven they declare what God is about to do. This book teaches disciples how to interpret visions of the judgments that God and Christ do, in order to bring the nations into obedience to them. Disciples learn to talk to angelic visitors who come with messages, visions, and signs, so that they can forewarn nations before the judgments are poured out.

:6, Christ made them King priests to serve with God the Father. The king priests bring the Heavenly realm to the earth, influencing the nations for Christ. Matthew 13:33, They are the leaven that affects and infiltrates every society.

:7, Is the theme of the book. “Behold Christ comes with clouds,to judge the apostate Jewish leaders and to prove He is the Ruler of the universe. The phrase is taken from Daniel 7:13, and Zechariah 12:10. It is a prophecy of the coming destruction of Jerusalem in AD.67-70.

The following is a brief list to show what “Coming in Clouds” meant to the Jews. 1. In Daniel 7:13, the phrase “coming with clouds” is a metaphor the Prophets used regarding God coming to visit nations in deliverance and judgment. Exodus 19:16-20, 24:9-15, Moses revealed the cloud was a revelation of the invisible Heaven, were God sat on His throne, surrounded by His Heavenly court. Exodus 33:9, From the cloud Christ spoke to Moses. Exodus 13:21-22, Psalm 105:39, The cloud gave light at night and shade in the day. Exodus 14:19-25, It also brought judgment on Pharaoh and his army. Deuteronomy 33:2, Psalm 68:17, God’s cloud was filled with ten thousands of angels. Exodus 40:38-38, The cloud entered the tabernacle and filled it with the glory of God. Leviticus 9:23-24, From the cloud God’s fire came and burned the sacrifices.

The cloud was a sort of “mobile court” for God. It was His fiery chariot. Ezekiel 1, Ezekiel looked into the cloud and saw fire, lightning and cherubim flying below the firmament that was below God’s throne. The cloud was filled with noises like wind, thunder, rushing water, a shout, a trumpet, a marching army, the rumbling of chariots across the Heavens or fluttering of wings. Isaiah 19:1, God did not literally ride down on a cloud from Heaven against Egypt. But He did send a great judgment upon the Egyptians by the Assyrian army. Joel 2:2, Described the Day of the Lord’s coming as a day of clouds and thick darkness. Psalm 18:7-15, David described the Lord coming in clouds to deliver him. Psalm 104:3, Isaiah 13:1,9-13; Micah 1:3-4, Deuteronomy 33:2, Zechariah 1:16, Zephaniah 1:15, describe the Lord coming in clouds. In none of the above verses does it ever refer to the Lord coming visibly on a cloud. The Lord came nevertheless. The believers who had spiritual understanding knew He had come.


2. The word “come,or “coming,is used in different ways in the New Testament.

The following is a list of eight types of Jesus’ coming.

1. The coming of Christ to Christian’s at physical death to take them into Heaven, John 14:3.

2. The coming of Christ in judgment. Matthew 24:30.

3. The coming of Christ to the disciples after His resurrection. John 14:18, 28.

4. The coming of Christ on the day of Pentecost in power. Acts 2:16-21, 33, 41.

5. The coming of Christ to the Churches of Asia Minor. Revelation 2:5, 16, 3:20.

6. The coming of Christ to cities in Palestine during His public ministry. Matthew 10:23.

7. The coming of Christ to believers, spiritually indwelling them. John 14:21, 23.

8. The coming of Christ in glory at the end of the Jewish age, in AD.70. Matthew 16:27.

Of this list, some acknowledge seven and some five. But obviously there are more than two comings of Christ mentioned in the New Testament.

Hebrews 9:28, is the only verse that mentions the second time. This was because the writer referred to the Day of Atonement, which type Christ fulfilled when He came out from God’s Presence in AD.70 having completed the Atonement; reconciling God and Israel.

3. Daniel 7:13, is of the Son of Man coming in clouds into Heaven to receive the Kingdom.

Daniel 7:25, He saw the little Horn, Nero, persecute the saints until the 3½ times came. Daniel 7:10, stated the judgment was set, (Revelation 20:10), and the saints were vindicated, for in 7:18, the saints received the Kingdom from Christ, see also verses 22, 27. The vindication meant that the apostate Jews then realized that the disciples of Christ are the true sons of God who have received the Kingdom, while they were cast out, Matthew 8:11- 12. Daniel 7, visions were fulfilled during the time of the Roman Empire in the first century.

4. Christ’s coming in 1:7, was directed against “those who pierced Him,” that is, the first-

century Jews who crucified Him. The judgment caused “all the tribes of the earth,referring to the Jewish tribes, to mourn.” The Greek words “tes ges” translated ‘the earth,referred to “the land of Israel.” “The land” always referred to Palestine or the land in Heaven and not the world or the earth. Those who translate it as “the world,give the wrong meaning.

“Vindication,” was often spoken by Jesus. In Matthew 21:33-41, the parable of wicked farmers. Matthew 22:2-14, the parable of the wedding. Luke 18:1-8, the parable of the importunate widow. Matthew 23:1-39, the judgment of the Jews. Matthew 23:31-36, Jesus stated the martyrs would be vindicated within that generation. Matthew 24:30, Jesus declared He would come on the clouds, verse 34, within that generation. The Lord’s coming in vindication, shows this book is a prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem in AD.67-70.

5. The second prophecy of Zechariah 12:10, is also vindication of the suffering Servant.

Zachariah revealed that those who pierced Christ would live to see Christ destroy them. Zechariah 12:10, hints at another “mourning,where God said He would pour out the Spirit of grace on the house of Israel, and in 13:1, open a fountain for the cleansing of sin. This was fulfilled in Acts 2:37, on the day of Pentecost when God opened the fountain of Jesus blood for forgiveness to Israel. Zechariah 13:8-9, Later at the second mourning, the Lord caused two thirds of the Jewish people to die, leaving only a remnant saved. 14:1-2, This was when Jerusalem was destroyed.


6. When John declared, “every eye will see him,” John meant that the Jews would ‘understand’ perceive, and spiritually recognize, that Christ had come to take vengeance. John 5:19, Christ only does what He sees His Father do. Isaiah 19:1, Psalm 18:11-12, His Father came in clouds of judgment, invisibly but truly, and so Christ comes in the same way in the New Testament. This coming in clouds is something believers have to understand so that when God reveals visions of clouds coming towards cities they can prophesy that the Lord is visiting in judgment or deliverance. There have been thousands of visitations of the Lord coming in judgment on countries and cities of the world throughout Church history and the Church has been slow to warn them of the Lord’s coming. Ephesians 5:13-17, The Church must wake up and “see” that the Lord and His King priests are ruling from the Heavens and righteously judge the nations of the earth. Ephesians 3:10.

:8, “I am the Alpha and Omega,” signified Christ is the Beginning and the End of all things created in the universe. Christ spoke the will of the Father and created everything according to what was in the mind and Spirit of the Father. As He spoke “Let there be Light” the Holy Spirit was released to manifest the light which began to travel throughout the universe, ever increasing and expanding the Kingdom.

:9, From John who was a companion in the tribulation that Nero had started in AD.58, and which continued till Nero’s death in June AD.68. John was in the Kingdom and patience of Christ meaning he was experiencing being in the spirit realms in the Heavenly places.

:10, John was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day. Believers who spend time waiting on God can experience “being in the Spirit.” The human spirit becomes so full of the Spirit of Christ that the human spirit is overpowered so that He can quicken the mind to see visions. All around the person, underneath their feet and over their head, they can travel in the Spirit throughout the Heavens. The person’s spirit can be transported into the Heavenly realms. While in that state the human spirit can recognize, remember, and record the things revealed to it. If the visions are hard to understand, they ask the angels guiding them as to its meaning. They are often taken from one scene to another scene in visions, 4:2, Ezekiel 2:2. While in the Spirit, John heard Jesus voice sounding like a trumpet.

:11, John was told to write the things he saw in a book and to send it to the seven churches that were in Asia. John sent these epistles to the churches, though he remained on the Island of Patmos until Caesar Galba released Nero’s prisoners, in June AD.68, when Nero’s decrees were made void.

:12, “I turned to see the voice.” This is a pattern that will be repeated throughout this book. John ‘heard,’ and ‘saw.In 22:8, he state, “I, John, saw these things, and heard them.The spoken revelations help to make the visual revelations understandable. John saw seven golden candlesticks. Verse 20, states they were Churches. Each Church was represented as standing in God’s Presence with Christ ministering personally to each of them.

:13, John saw Christ was standing in the middle of them. We assume Christ was supplying the Holy Spirit anointing to each of the seven churches. Christ’s Spirit was ready to minister prophesies to each Church. 1. To warn them of the trouble approaching. 2. To comfort the persecuted, and 3. To encourage them to overcome during the time of suffering.


The glorified Son of Man vision is similar to Daniel 10:5-6, 7:9. Christ was more than a Grecian super-hero, or Roman Caesar. Christ was the glorious Ruler of a new kind of men that rule over all of God’s works.

The vision combines several Old Testament visions.

1. He is the Son of Man, Daniel 7:13.

2. Wearing the High Priest’s garment of righteousness, Exodus 29:39-41.

3. The golden girdle of the High Priest, showing girded with truth, Exodus 28:6-8. Eph 6:14.

4. His white hair, referred to His divine omniscience and wisdom, Daniel 7:9-10.

5. His eyes were as a flame of fire, representing His zeal and piercing vision, Daniel 10:6.

6. His feet of fine brass, revealed He was purified by fire at the cross, Zechariah 13:9.

7. His voice as the sound of many waters represented the voice of prophecy gushing from a heart full of God’s Spirit, Ezekiel 1:24. Like an authoritative prophecy bubbling with life.

8. The seven stars in His hand were the seven angels of the churches, 1:20.

9. Out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword proceeded. Ezekiel 7:1-12. Hebrews 4:12.

10. His countenance was as the bright shinning sun. Christ was glorious, Matthew 17:2.

:17, John fell down under the weight of glory he was beholding and experiencing. This was a similar reaction to that of Daniel and Ezekiel, Daniel 8:17, 10:8-9, Ezekiel 1:28. The radiant beams of God’s perfections emanating from the Person of Christ was of a glory brighter than the sun that overpowered John’s human body as he drew close to Him. That glory permeates the person and changes them so that they can radiate God’s glory too. In Exodus 34:29 Moses face shone from beholding the Lord as He passed by while beholding the Lord’s back. John saw the front side of the Lord’s face and so was overwhelmed by the radiance. The fact that John lived to tell of the experience should produce in us a thirst to want to experience the same kinds of visions. After all, what the Lord showed to one He will show to all. He is no respecter of persons. Isaiah 44:6, The Lord’s hand came upon John as He declared He was the First and the Last.

:18, Christ told John that He lived. He was dead, but He was alive forevermore. This was to encourage the disciples that were to suffer martyrdom, that Christ had the authority over death and hell, so they were not to fear.

:19, John was told to write;

1. “The things which he had seen,” referring to Christ caring for His Churches. Chapter 1-3.

2. “The things which are,referring to His exaltation on God’s throne over all. Chapter 4-5.

3. The things what are to take place after these things,” referring to how He progressively destroyed God’s enemies.

:20, Jesus explained the seven stars were the seven angels of the seven Churches and the lamp stands represented the seven Churches that stood in God’s Presence. When Christ gives a vision He gives the understanding of it. It was revealed that each Church has an angel representing them in God’s Presence that ministers Heavenly things to them. Chapters two and three. The epistles to the seven Churches. These seven churches were city churches which were in Asia in John’s day. Jesus warned them that judgment was coming upon their cities through Nero. Nero gave orders to his captains Vespasian and Titus, to destroy the Jews, and take their wealth and gold. Ephesus had been at war with Rome before Nero became Caesar, and there was often trouble between the two cities. The seven cities warned were heavily populated with Jewish merchants, some of whom were Christians. Those who took the Lord’s warning moved away. Those who thought they were alright and trusted in Rome died, for Nero’s order was to kill all the Jews.


There is a pattern Jesus followed when writing to each church. Jesus introduced each epistle by stating something about Himself. This introduction revealed how Jesus would meet the particular need of that church. As Jesus gave rebukes or exhortations it revealed the churches problem. Jesus gave promises to the overcomers in each Church. These promises reappear in later chapters, supporting the view that the Church was already part of the New Jerusalem. The repetitive, “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches,emphasized the importance of listening to what the Holy Spirit says through prophecy in every church meeting. The Holy Spirit warns believers about the enemies plans and gives them wisdom what to do about it. There are other excellent Bible commentaries that give descriptions of the seven cities. 15 Therefore the comments on the seven churches are concise.

2:1-7, The Church at Ephesus. This church fell from their first love of Jesus Christ. They no longer spent quality time fellowshipping with God and Christ. That zealous burning love for Christ was gone. In the heart of the believer there are doors that must be kept open in order for Christ to come out from the heart and manifest in the earth. The door in the heart of first love, and worship must be kept open and kept clean by the blood of Jesus.

:2, The Ephesian Church had tested those preachers who said they were Apostles, and found them to be liars. This referred notably to Cerinthius, who claimed angelic revelations, and wrote his revelations using the Apostle’s names, (John’s or Paul’s). Cerinthius asserted there would be an earthly Kingdom of Christ for a thousand years in which they would celebrate wedding festivals. Acts 20:29-30, Paul had warned the elders of Ephesus regarding Cerinthius.

:3, Christ commended them for their works and patience. :4, Christ was disappointed because they had lost their first love for Him. :5, Christ counseled them to repent and do the first works or else He would come to them quickly and remove them.

:6, Christ commended them for hating the deeds of the Nicolaitanes which He also hated. The followers of Nicolaus were leaders who tried to rule over God’s people, 3 John 9-10. They disobeyed the command issued to the Gentile churches, by the Apostolic council held at Jerusalem in AD.49-50, Acts 15:29. Their pride resulted in desires for leadership positions. Hence pastoral and layman divisions arose. The leaders appointed the church ministers instead of waiting on the Holy Spirit to speak, call and anoint, Acts 13:2. In the Church of Pergamos this became a practice by the elders.

:7, The promise to eat of the tree of life which was in the midst of the paradise of God links this with the final vision in 22:2. It reveals that paradise was restored to the overcomers. “Eating the tree of life” was a metaphor for partaking in the spiritual life of Christ and fellowshipping with God the Father, John 17:3. This church which enjoyed the ministry of Paul and John did not repent and was removed from standing before God. So keeping ones first love for Jesus Christ is most important.

15 Clarke, Adam, Commentary on the Bible, Abridged by Ralph Earle, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 49516, USA, 1967. Offers very good comments.


2:8-11. The Church at Smyrna. This Church endured poverty and suffering. She was warned of the tribulation that she was to endure at the instigation of the Jews. :9, Christ condemned the Jews who betray the believers in this Church calling them the synagogue of Satan. :10, Christ encouraged the believers to be faithful unto death that He might give them the crown of life. He warned them they would have tribulation ten days which would refer to the ten years between AD.58 - 68 when Nero was persecuting both Christians and Jews. :11, Christ promised that they would not be hurt of the second death. The second death was explained in 20:14. Jesus loved this Church and did not find any fault with them.

2:12-17. The Church at Pergamos. :13, After Cyrus took Babylon, the High Priest was forced to leave. He went to Pergamos and made his temple there. Later the Greeks made a health resort dedicated to the god Asklepios. Many traveled there for baths, music, prayer, and above all for interpretation of dreams. The other temples dedicated to Augustus Caesar, Zeus, Minerva, Apollo, Venus and Bacchus made it the most suitable place to be designated as “Satan’s throne.” There were faithful believers in this Church who held fast to Jesus name and had not denied the faith. :13, Jesus commended the faithful martyr Antipas, of whom there is no mention in history. :14-16, Nevertheless Jesus would come quickly and fight with the sword, those who held the doctrine of Balaam (immorality), Numbers 25:1-9, 1 Corinthians 10:8, and Nicolaus (ruling over God’s people), 3rd John 9. :17, Jesus promised the overcomer’s the hidden manna, and a new name, Isaiah 65:15, Revelation 19:12, 14:1, 3:12.

2:18-29. The Church at Thyatira. :19, The Lord commended this Church for their works. :20, However some Jewish elders had the spirit of Jezebel. This was a zealous, religious, adulterous spirit, which the Nicolaitanes and Balaam possessed. See Galatians 5:1-3. :21, Jesus said He would throw them into great tribulation of AD.67-70. It is an error to place the great tribulation in the future when both Jesus and Paul stated the Church of that generation would suffer tribulation, John 16:33, 1 Thessalonians 3:4. :22, He threatened to kill her children (the apostate believers) with spiritual death. :25, Christ exhorted them to hold fast to the faith and to Apostolic teaching till He came. :26-27, Jesus promised the overcomers power over nations, 19:15, 12:5. Psalm 2:8-9. The rod of iron represents the kingly priestly authority that is given to Christian’s to rule over the powers of darkness. Believers must exercise this spiritual authority, Luke 9:1, 10:19. This power and authority over the nations is for believers of all generations. It has been seen throughout Church History. For example, Martin Luther impacted Germany, John Calvin over Switzerland, John Knox over Scotland, Yongii Choo over South Korea and many others over the countries or cities where they ministered. :28, The morning star is declared to be Jesus Christ in 2 Peter 1:19.

Chapter three. 3:1-6. The Church at Sardis. :1, Jesus came with the fullness of the Holy Spirit to revive the believer from spiritual death. Through their apostasy they had lost the Spirit of Christ, Hebrews 3:14, 4:2. Jesus called them dead, and verse 2, ready to die. :2, Christ encouraged them to strengthen their faith. Their works were not perfect before God for they were not guided by the Spirit of Christ, nor were they obedient to His will.


:3, They were to remember how they had received salvation and the power and gifts of God’s Spirit, etc. If they would not watch for His coming He would come like a thief and take away the apostate Jews and give the Kingdom to others, Matthew 21:43. The removal of the Holy Spirit from the believers, paves the way for the removal of a Church, either by the destruction of the city in which she resides, or by the spirit of death sweeping the denomination she represents. This happened in Sardis and constantly happens throughout Church history. :4, Only a few overcame and would walk with Christ in white garments of righteousness. :5, Their names would not be blotted out of the book of life and Christ would confess their names before God the Father. See 20:5. :6, He that has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the Church.

3:7-13. The Church at Philadelphia. Of all the churches this was one Jesus declared His love for. Together with Smyrna this Church received no rebuke. Both of these Churches had apostate Jews in them that were of the synagogue of Satan, :9.

:7, Jesus came with the key of David meaning He had received the authority over the house of Judah, to care for the Jewish people, carry their burdens, and to judge them. Acts 15:13-17, James stated God was rebuilding the tabernacle of David so that the Gentiles would seek the Lord. David allowed the Gentiles to come and worship the Lord before the Tabernacle in Jerusalem. David had placed two tents centrally in Jerusalem, one in which was the Ark of the Covenant, (God’s throne on earth), where people came to worship and seek God. And another tent near to it, where David’s throne was, to which the Jews and Gentile nations came, to receive justice and judgment. King David led the Gentile nations to worship God. David set musicians, choirs, dancers, Prophets who sang prophesy, and priests, before the tabernacle. It was a miniature type of God’s throne on earth. Thus the Jews and Gentiles came and fellowship in God’s Presence. This was a shadow of the true spiritual Kingdom. Christ bringing the Jews and Gentiles into God’s Presence. Luke 1:32-33, Gabriel stated Christ would sit on the throne of David forever. Acts 2:30-36, Peter said Christ’s reign began at the ascension. Acts 13:34-36, The ‘sure mercies of David’ had begun as many Jews received forgiveness. Therefore all the prophesies concerning David and Christ were fulfilled. The house of David was perpetuated in the Kingdom of Christ. 16 The teaching that Christ must return to sit on the throne of David in an earthly millennium is a theological error, based on a literal interpretation of Scripture, instead of understanding the spiritual fulfillment and completion of Christ’s work of atonement by AD.70. Christ has already fulfilled the Day of Atonement in AD.70. The believers at Philadelphia were worshipping God and evangelizing the Gentiles, therefore Christ promised open doors into Heaven. Christ opened the doors of Heaven to them in order to extend the Kingdom of God throughout the earth.

:8, Christ set before the believers an open door to go to the nations to preach His Gospel. Christ desires His Churches manifest His Kingdom power; His healing, miracle power in order to save humanity. Because Smyrna and Philadelphia were the only two witnessing Churches of the seven, some commentators have likened them to the two olive trees that stood before God in Zechariah 4:1-14, and in Revelation 11:3-4. They were the faithful lights in a world of spiritual ignorance.

:9, Again Christ referred to those who said they were Jews, but were not.


Christ was interested in the Jews because as the Shepherd of Israel, He had to gather the scattered tribes, and bring them together with the Gentiles, into God’s Presence, Isaiah 49:5. In Romans 15:8-9, Paul stated, “Jesus Christ was a minister of the Jews, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers, so that the Gentiles might glorify God for His mercy….” Ezekiel 37:15-24, The Prophets promised the regathering of the scattered tribes of Israel and the joining of Judah and Israel together. These promises were fulfilled as Christ through the Apostles went throughout the Roman Empire preaching the Gospel. As the scattered Jews received Christ they were gathered together and became one in Christ’s Spiritual Body. In AD.70 Christ raised up all the Jews and Gentiles from the Old Testament, judged them, and then took them into God’s Presence, presenting a Kingdom of both Jewish and Gentile saints. All the promises to the Jewish Prophets were fulfilled by Christ by AD.70. 17 “It is finished,Revelation 21:6.

:10, Christ promised to keep this Church from the hour of temptation (the tribulation of AD.67-70). The test in those days was whether the believers were still a Jew or a Christian? Did they love Rome or Christ? If they listened to the prophecies given by the Spirit they would be saved. Otherwise their faith would be tested through the fires of suffering. Those willing to stand would be kept by the power of God, 1 Peter 1:5.

:11, Jesus again stated He would come quickly to judge the apostate Jews. The faithful Jews must hold on to Christ so that no one could take their crown of glory.

:12, Those who overcame would be a pillars in the Temple of God, the New Jerusalem. Christ would write upon them spiritually the new names of the Christians, Acts 11:26. The new names are:

1. The name of God the Father, John 17:26.

2. The name of New Jerusalem, and,

3. Christ’s new name;- the Lord Jesus Christ.

The Jewish believers recognized that this referred to the golden plate on the hat of the High Priest on which was inscribed, ‘Holiness to the Lord.

3:14-22. The Church at Laodicea. :14, Christ greeted the believers as the Amen,the Beginning of the creation of God. :15-17, Their lukewarmness produced a nausea in Christ. To be spewed out of Christ’s mouthis the same as being cut out of the book of life, 20:15.

:18, Christ counseled them buy gold tried in the fire. 1 Peter 1:7, To have pure doctrines tested in the furnace of sufferings. Revelation 19:8, 1 Peter 5:5, To be clothed with the white garment of Christ’s righteousness. Matthew 5:8, To anoint their eyes with ointment that they might spiritually see. To have a heart to see, love and understand the invisible God. Many were blind to spiritual realities.

:19, Christ encouraged them to change their minds regarding the things of the spiritual world and to be zealous for Christ. If they sought the spiritual Kingdom it would open to them.

:20, Christ stood at the door of their heart and knocked. This refers to Christ through the Holy Spirit gently knocking at the door of the believer’s heart seeking entrance. Christ’s Spirit

17 What Jesus said to the Jews then, could not be said today, for there are no true Jews of David’s line. The Jews today are mainly from Armenia when that nation converted to Judaism. The modern day American support of the Jews for the land of Israel is based on an incorrect interpretation of Scripture.


mixes with the believer’s personality. Christ in us, takes us into God the Father’s Presence where we fellowship with Him. It is described as eating with Him. The believers must open the doorways of their heart for Christ to come in so that He can open the doors to Heaven.

:21, Christ promised those who overcame would sit with Him on His throne. This was a reference to the martyrs that were already sitting on thrones with Him, 20:4-6. I believe John saw Stephen who was martyred in Acts 7:55-60, and James, his own brother, who was martyred in Acts 12:2, as already seated on thrones on the throne of God. They were part of the first-fruits, Revelation 14:4.

Part 2. Revelation 4-7. Worship at the throne of God.

Chapter four. The worship of God the Father. :1-2, John was in the Spirit, and was told that he was going to see the things that would fulfill the warnings and promises Christ had revealed to the churches of Asia. The door opened in Heaven, was a similar experience as Ezekiel’s in Ezekiel 1:26-28, 2:2, 3:12,14, 24, 11:1. It was also similar to Paul being caught up to Heaven in 2 Corinthians 12:2. This verse is not a picture of the rapture of the Church. John needed to show to the Judiazers his visions were on the same level as those of the Old Testament Prophets thereby declaring he was a Prophet.

:2, God’s “throne” is mentioned forty times in Revelation 6:10; 11:18; 15:4; 16:5-7; 18:8.

:3, God the Father was not personally seen, but the radiance of His glory was. The two stones, jasper and sardine (red and white) shot out glorious rays of powerful light, representing the perfections of God’s character. His love, righteousness, mercy, justice, etc., From this throne, God directed Christ to judge the apostate Jews, in order to bring the fulfillment of the Old Covenant. God’s throne which is in the center of the universe, in the highest and holiest of realms declares that God controls all events, everywhere, in all ages. What is so exciting about this throne is that God has room on His throne for others. E.g. The twenty-four elders, and the four living creatures. The twenty-four elders are angelic advisers to God the Father. Some say they represent the twelve Patriarchs and the twelve Apostles, the representatives of both the Old and the New Covenants, providing a perfect Government to oversee the Kingdom.

:4-5, The seven Spirits, represent the fullness of the Holy Spirit. John has already introduced the Holy Spirit as being seen as seven Spirits in Revelation 1:4. The Holy Spirit ministers the presence and power of Christ in the Church. This refers to Isaiah 11:2 where the seven Spirits were revealed to Isaiah. The Blessed Holy Spirit adopts a humble position as the Intercessor for the Church before the throne, Romans 8:26-27. He oversees the Church, brings her before the throne of God and represents her constantly. Together with the Lord Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit prays, Romans 8:27, 34. They are a powerful prayer duo on behalf of men.

:6-9, The Cherubim, covered with eyes, are angels that oversee and pray for the creation. They sing of creation, verses 7,11. The number four points to the four-corners of the earth, verses 7, 7:1, 21:13. These Cherubim as representatives of the creation stand before God, interceding and offering praise on behalf of creation. The lion as the king of beasts, the eagle


as the king over the birds, the calf as the king of the servant animals, and man as the head over the earth.

:10-11, Adoration and praise is offered to the Creator. The purpose of His creation is stated. Man was created to give God pleasure. The first goal of man is to please God; to cause God to rejoice. As Jack Hayford stated, “The book of Revelation is a handbook on worship. It is a call to adoration. It begins and ends with worship.” 18

Chapter five.

A Lamb was seen standing before the throne of God. It is an enigma, for the Lamb is also the

Lion of Judah. It is a sacrificial Lamb that has the nature of a Kingly Lion. Jesus the perfect man has been sacrificed, and only He was worthy to take the scroll and open it. The Lamb was being presented to God as the offering to fulfill the Day of Atonement.

:1-7, The book in the right hand of God was that which the angel told Daniel to seal till the end of the Jewish age in Daniel 12:9. It was God’s sentence of judgment against Jerusalem because they had shed, “all the righteous blood” of the martyrs,” Matthew 23:35. In Deuteronomy 28:15, Moses warned the Jews of all the curses that would come upon them. In vs. 33, they would be crushed and vs. 61, every sickness, and every plague…the Lord, would bring upon them, till they were destroyed. One must study Leviticus 26, Deuteronomy 27-28, and the Song of Moses in Deuteronomy 32, to understand the covenantal background to Revelation. Once Christ opened the Book, the visions would continue going forward till they reach the climax in the destruction of Jerusalem. Then John would repeat the judgments from another angle, till he reached the destruction of Jerusalem again.

:8-9, Christ was the only one worthy to open the Book of judgments on the apostate Jews because He had suffered the wrath of God on their behalf on the cross, and was suffering through the members of His Body the Church. Luke 23:4, Pilate stated he could not find any fault in Jesus. John 8:46, nor did any of the Pharisees find any sin in Him. Nor was there any creature in the universe who could find fault with Him. Their Creator had humbled Himself to died on their behalf. He rose from the dead on their behalf and offered them God’s salvation, and eternal life, John 20:21-23. Heb.7:24-26, He had ascended to God’s right hand to be their High Priest and make intercession for all of them to be saved. He sent His disciples empowered with His Spirit to regather Israel. He fulfilled the promises made by the Prophets of pouring out His Holy Spirit on them so that they could have fellowship with God. He had united the Jews and Gentiles in His Body through the dynamic ministry of Paul and his team. Some sat in Heavenly places, had authority and were gifted with spiritual gifts. He inspired them to write the Gospels and Epistles upon which the Jews could mature as Sons of God.

What more could Christ do for His people the Jews? He had given them sufficient time to repent, and yet all they did was to persecute His disciples more and more!

It was therefore time to complete their ‘age,’ their authority over God’s Kingdom, so that He could expand His reign throughout the Heaven and earth through His Body the Church.

18 Hayford, Jack, E Quake, A New Approach to Understanding the End Time Mysteries in the Book of Revelation. Pages 11,12,16,24. Thomas Nelson Publishers. Nashville, Tenn, USA. 1999. ISBN 0-7852-7472-3.


Jesus Christ was the only one worthy to open the Book of judgment on apostate Jews.

It was time to reveal Christ as the Son of God and to show His disciples were the true sons of God. To manifest the sons of God to the universe. An good example to illustrate the point is. A judge is sitting in court, when an innocent boy staggers in covered in bruises and blood. He has been severely beaten. The boy pleads for vengeance because the judge is a righteous man, and is his father. Shall the boy not expect vengeance? In the same way should the Son of God not request vengeance from His Father? God gave the judgment to His Son, and showed Him how to avenge Himself at the right time, and in the right manner (invisibly), John 5:22.

Chapter six. These prophesies are similar to Jesus’ prophecy in Matthew 24:1-34. :1-2, The first seal. The four angelic creatures called for horses to come and bring the destruction upon the land of Israel. See Zechariah 6:5, where the four winds of the Heavens, are seen as chariots going back and forth patrolling the earth. They serve the Holy Spirit and together with the angels bring judgments upon the earth. In the Old Testament these four types of judgments are repeatedly seen. In Jeremiah 15:2-4, there are four judgments, 1. sword, 2. famine, 3. captivity, 4. pestilence. In Ezekiel 5:1-4; 7:2,15, 21, 1. the sword, 2. famine, 3. evil beasts, and 4. the plague. In Leviticus 26:25, 1. the sword and pestilence; 2. vs.16, disease; 3. vs.26, famine; and 4. vs.38, death. Deuteronomy 32:23, 1. arrows; 2. vs.25, the sword; 3. vs.24, pestilence and 4. famine. In Matthew 24:6, 1. Wars, 2. vs.7 Famines, 3. Pestilences, and 4. earth quakes.

:2, While the other horses are symbols of earthly judgments, this vision of a white horse has to be interpreted with reference to a similar vision in 19:11-16. The rider on the white horse is symbolic of Christ’s Spirit in His Apostles and evangelist’s that conquers the nations through His powerful Gospel. In 19:11, the rider on the white horse is the Lord Jesus Christ who conquers nations through His Body, His Kingdom, and His Churches. Zechariah 10:3, said, “God has made Judah as His goodly horse in Battle.”

The word conquerorin this book always refers to the Lord Jesus and His Kingdom, See 1:13, 2:26-27, 5:5, 11:11-15, 12:11, 20:4, and 22:16. In Romans 8:37, Paul stated, “We are more than Conquerors.

:3-4, The second seal. The rider on the red horse, took “peace from the earth.Matthew 24:6-7, This speaks of the trouble that came upon the Jews from AD. 64-70.

:5-6, The third and fourth seal. The riders on the black and pale horses represent the famine and death that issued from the Jewish war of AD.67-70. This refers to the civil war between the Zealots and the Moderates. The Zealots started a reign of terror and eventually took Jerusalem and the temple. The Jews starved in the famine and death was reported in every house in Jerusalem. Several Historians testify of various signs occurring at that time.


Josephus reported, “Before sun set, chariots and troops of soldiers in their armor were seen running about in the clouds, and surrounding the city…There was a star resembling a sword, which stood over the city, and a comet that continued a whole year” 19 Schaff wrote, “The temple hill seemed covered in one sheet of flaming fire. The blood was more that the fire, and those slain more that those who killed them. The ground was not visible as all was covered with dead bodies. Thus the prophecy about the abomination of desolation standing in the holy place was fulfilled.20

:9-11, The fifth seal revealed the martyrs under the Heavenly altar crying for vengeance. Stephen was martyred in Acts 7:59. James, Peter, and Paul all were martyred, along with a multitude of Christians who choose to pass through the fire in order to inherit a greater degree of glory. In 11:12, we are told two martyrs ascend into Heaven and in 20:4, we see they are already sitting on thrones judging those who killed them, Matthew 19:28. The martyrs were given white robes and told to wait a little while till the end in AD.66-70. In the most wise and perfect way God responded to the cries of the martyrs and executed vengeance on those who killed the Apostles and Prophets, 18:20, 19:2.

:12-17, The sixth seal. In verse 17, is called the great Day of His Wrath. Malachi 4:5-6, stated the Lord would send Elijah before the great Day of the Lord. Matthew 11:13-14, and 17:10-13, Jesus identified John the Baptist as Elijah. Malachi 3:1-2, said John the Baptist would be the (New) Covenant messenger. Matthew 3:7, John, warned the Pharisees to flee from the coming Wrath? Matthew 3:10, John said the axe was laid to the root of the trees, referring to the apostate Jewish leaders, and in vs.12, Christ had his fan in His hand, to clean His threshing floor, (the nation of Israel) and gather the wheat into the barn (into His Kingdom in Heaven). John preached Christ would hold instruments of both harvest and judgment in His hand. Jesus also taught harvest and judgment in his parables in Matthew 13:37-43, 47-51, and referred them to the end of the Jewish age. Both John the Baptist and the Apostle John saw Christ’s coming in judgment as imminent. To say they were wrong by thousands of years is to misrepresent their words.

:12, In Prophetic literature a great earthquake represents a great political or spiritual revolution. It is common for the sun, moon, and stars to represent the political or religious leaders over nations. This scene parallels Joel 2:30-31, and Christ’s promise in Matthew 24:29. This earthquake shook the Government leaders in Jerusalem out of their place. This earthquake is seen again in this book in 16:18; 11:13,19, and 8:5. Chilton wrote, “Just as God’s salvation is spoken of as a creation, 2 Corinthians. 5:17, so God’s judgments are spoken in terms of a de-creation.” 21

:13, The “Stars,” here represent the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem. These leaders fell through the civil strife during AD.68-70. They fell to the earth, as a fig tree casts its unripe figs when shaken by a great wind. Jesus referred to the fig tree as a figure of Israel in Matthew 21:19, 24:32-34, Mark 11:13-14.

19 Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book 6, Ch 5, Section 3.

20 Schaff, History of the Christian Church, Vol.1 p. 398.

21 Chilton, David, The Days of Vengeance: An Exposition of the Book of Revelation, Page 196. Dominion Press, Ft. Worth, Texas. USA. 1987.


:14, The Heaven vanished like a scroll when it is rolled up. See Isaiah 51:15-16; Jeremiah 4:23-31, Hebrews 12:26-27. Every mountain and island was moved out of their places. Mountains represent Kingdoms, and so this refers to the ten Gentile nations belonging to the Roman Empire which were shaken after Nero’s death in AD.68.

:15, The list of men reveals seven types of men destroyed: 1. The kings of the earth, 2. great men, 3. commanders, 4. rich 5. strong, 6. every slave and, 7. every free man.

:16, Taken from Hosea 10:6-8, Jesus spoke this on the way to the cross, Luke 23:27-30.

:17, The great Day of His Wrath had come.This is repeated again in visional form in Revelation 15-16.

Chapter seven.

After the opening of the sixth seal one would expect that the seventh seal would follow. Instead John gives a gap between the announcements of judgments and the execution of them. Seven times John gave a vision of comfort and victory between the scenes of judgment. That is again similar to how the Prophets prophesied.

1. Between the fourth and sixth seals he showed the martyrs were comforted.

2. Between the sixth and seventh seals, God’s servants were sealed, chapter 7.

3. Between the sixth and seventh trumpet, the two witnesses ascend, 11:3-12.

4. Between the two beasts and Babylon’s fall, the overcomer’s are seen on Mt. Zion, 14:1-5.

5. Between the winepress of wrath and the seven last plaques, the overcomer’s sing the song of Moses, 15:2-4.

6. Between the fall of Babylon and Christ’s coming, the hallelujah chorus is sung, 19:1-6.

7. Between the binding of Satan and the final battle, the martyrs are enthroned, 20:4-6.

This short interlude allowed the Jews to flee to the mountains as Jesus directed in Luke 21:20-21, Matthew 24:16-22, and was prophesied in Joel 2:32.

The visions of this chapter answer the question in 6:17, “Who can stand in day of wrath?” The answer to “who can stand?” is given in 7:4-8. Those sealed among the Jews, and in 7:9 the multitudes of Gentiles that “stand” before the throne. Note the contrast between the remnant of the Jews and the multitudes of the Gentiles.

:1-2, Four angels are seen holding back the winds of destruction that will destroy Israel, Zechariah 6:4, Daniel 7:2, Jeremiah 49:36-37; 51:1-2. The angels were holding back the army of Titus from overcoming the Jewish remnant in Jerusalem. God protected His people and not one perished in the final destruction of Jerusalem on September 10 th AD.70.

:3-8, It does not say that John saw a hundred and forty-four thousand sealed, rather John only heard the number of those that were sealed. Afterwards he saw a “great multitude,” for the Jews and Gentiles were one in Christ’s Spiritual Body. The angels sealed the true Jews so that the death angel passed over them, as in Ezekiel


The sealed Jews represent those who escaped Jerusalem before the invasion by Titus in February AD.67. They obeyed Jesus direction in Matthew 24:16-22 and fled. 22 I believe the number 144,000 is symbolic and represents “All of Israel that will be saved,” Romans 11:26.

22 Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, Bk 3, Ch 5, P 85, (See also Hort, Judaistic Christianity, 1894 ed, pp 174-175.)


The great multitude represents “the fullness of the Gentiles,” of that day, Romans 11:25. In Revelation 14:4 John called the 144,000 the ‘first fruits,’ because they were the first fruits of Christ’s resurrection, James 1:18, John 11:25-26. 1 Cor.15:20-24, Paul also spoke of a first fruit group in the resurrection order he preached.

1. Christ was the 1st fruit of resurrection.

2. Then the martyrs. The 1st fruits, for they were mature and suffered like Christ.

3. Then the rest of Israel, together with the Gentile believers, who gathered together in the

harvest taken at the end of the Jewish age.

:9-17, The vision of “an innumerable multitude” was the harvest of souls Christ and the Apostles took in that first generation. Christ as the Good Shepherd sent Paul and his team throughout the Roman Empire to gather the Gentiles into His Kingdom. It was the latter day harvest and Paul had preached to every person under Heaven in his day, Colossians 1:23. :11, The white robes symbolize the righteousness of Christ received through faith. They are holding palms, the symbol of peace and victory, vs. 9. :14, “They came out of great tribulation.” In Daniel 12:1 the great tribulation belonged to the end of Israel’s age, vs.7, stated it was when the power of the Jews was shattered, AD.70. Matthew 24:15-21, Jesus encouraged the disciples that after they were persecuted by the Jews then great tribulation would come on those apostate Jews who persecuted them. 23

The vision brings us again to the end of the Jewish age and shows Christ leading the first fruits, the 144,000, the true Israel, the Apostles and Prophets, etc, into the Father’s Presence. They were surrounded by a huge harvest of those saved from the Gentiles. This is the re-gathering all the Prophets spoke about in the harvest at the end of the Jewish age, Matthew 13:37-43, 47-51.

All the land promises are fulfilled to the Jews in Heaven in AD 70. Ezekiel 37:21-22, 24-28. Joshua 21:43-45, 23:14, stated that God had given all the land to the Jews which He had promised to the Fathers. Abraham looked for a Heavenly city not an earthly one.

John saw

John heard

John saw

Christ as a Shepherd gathered Israel Both the remnant from the Jews and the fullness from the Gentiles & joined them into the Great Congregation of the Gentiles.

The 144,000 Overcomers. The man child. The first fruits. Zion. The Bride of Christ. The King & Priests, Prophets & Apostles

The Great Congregation of the Gentiles.

& Apostles The Great Congregation of the Gentiles. The Fathers Presence In Heaven Christ lead them




In Heaven

Christ lead them into New Jerusalem. The promised land

Part 3. Revelation 8-11. The seven trumpets. :1, There was silence in Heaven for half an hour. During the Jewish temple services, the High priest offering the incense entered the holy place with his assistants. One assistant put the coal on the golden altar while the other prepared the incense. Then the priest was left alone while he waited for the signal to burn the

23 This doesn’t mean the Church did not suffer during this time. Christians were killed as Romans wreaked havoc on the land of Judah, and on the Jews throughout the Empire.


incense. When the command was given, the people outside, fell down before the Lord in prayer. The ‘half an hour’ period was while the priest offered the incense. Then the prayers from the martyrs ascended to God, 6:10.

:2, Seven angels were given seven trumpets. During the worship time in the temple, seven trumpets were blown, 1 Chronicles 15:24; Nehemiah 12:41. The earthly worship is to be patterned after the Heavenly angelic worship, Hebrews 8:5, 9:23-24, Matthew 16:19; 18:18, John 20:23.

:3-6, The martyr’s cry for vengeance, 6:10, was being answered. The apostate Jewish leaders were to be judged. The angel threw fire on the land of Israel. The thunder, voices, lightening and earthquake were signs that God’s cloud was moving towards the earth, see Exodus.19:16-18, Ezek.1:4, 3:12-13, 43:1-4. Chilton stated when a city was to be destroyed the priest would take fire from God’s altar, and use it to light the pile of booty so offering the entire city as a sacrifice. In Deuteronomy 13:15-16 this put the city under a ban so that nothing survived the burning.


:7-13, The seven trumpet judgments affected a third of the land of Judea and the people showing the judgments were increasing, See 6:8.

:7, The first trumpet. See Exodus 9:18-24. The trees refer to the leaders of Israel, (Psalm 1:3), and the grass to the people (Isaiah 40:6), who were slain in the destruction of Judea and Jerusalem.

:8-9, The second trumpet. The mountain represented the nation of Israel being thrown into the sea, never to rise again. Daniel 2:35,44 showed that mountains represent Kingdoms. See Jeremiah 51:24, Isaiah 34:3, 64:1,3, Ezekiel 6:2-3, Daniel 2:35, 45. 9:16, 20, Zechariah 4:7, Mark 11:23. Luke 3:5, Psalm 72:3, 83:14.

:10-11, The third trumpet. The great star falling from Heaven could refer to Ananus, the High Priest, who led the apostasy in Jerusalem; or to Eleazer, his son, who excited the Zealots to introduce a reign of terror in Jerusalem. The Zealots appointed their own priest to do the temple services, who was considered an antichrist. See Jude 13, Daniel 8:10, Genesis 37:9, Isaiah.14:12-15, Matthew 24:29. Wormwood, see Deuteronomy 29: 18, Proverbs 5:4-5, Jeremiah 9:15, Amos 5:7, the pure waters of God’s Spirit were polluted with bitter poisonous doctrines that resulted in the deaths of multitudes of Jews.

:12, The fourth trumpet. A third part of the sun, moon and stars were smitten. This imagery commonly used by the Prophets, refers to the rulers of nations falling, Isaiah 13:9-11, 24:19-23, Ezekiel 32:7-8, Joel 2:10. Farrar wrote, “Ruler after ruler, of the Jewish nation and the Roman Empire was assassinated and ruined. The leading High Priest of Jerusalem, perished in disgrace, or in

24 Chilton, David, The Days of Vengeance, Page 232. Dominion Press, Ft. Worth, Texas. USA. 1987.


exile, or by violent hands. All these were quenched suns and darkened stars.” 25 Genesis


When James, the brother of Jesus was murdered by Ananias the High Priest, Josephus wrote there was a gloom that came over Jerusalem. Then the Christian Jews started to leave Jerusalem. They knew Jerusalem was doomed.

:13, Three woes were announced by an eagle. In Hosea 8:1, warnings of Israel’s destruction are often in terms of eagles descending upon rotting dead flesh, see Deuteronomy 28:49, Jeremiah 4:13, Lamentations 4:19, Habakkuk 1:8; Matthew. 24:28. Part of the curse was being devoured by birds, Deuteronomy 28:26, Jeremiah 7:33-34, Ezekiel 39:17-20, Revelation 19:17-18.

Chapter nine. :1-2, The fifth trumpet. Smoke and locusts came from the bottomless pit to cover Judea. Deuteronomy 28:38, Joel


Gessius Florus, the procurator of Judea, in May AD.66 started killing 3,600 Jews. He terrorized the Jews for five months deliberately seeking to make them rebels. He was successful and Josephus dated the start of the Jewish War from this. In February of AD.67 Nero, while in Greece, called for his Captain Vespasian, who arrived with his son Titus, and their troops. Nero gave Vespasian the decree of war against Israel. Vespasian ordered Titus to go to Egypt to bring the fifth and tenth legions to help in the war. Vespasian went for the two other legions that were stationed near the Euphrates in Cappadocia.

:3-4, The locusts refers to the demons released on the earth to excite the 30,000 Zealots to rob, kill and terrorize Judea. Before Vespasian marched towards Israel, the Zealots destroyed Judea as they moved towards Jerusalem. The Zealots entered Jerusalem, took control of the Government and the temple, and appointed their own High Priest. One of their wicked leaders, John, murdered many of the Jewish leaders and incited the men in Jerusalem to fight.

:5-10, The Zealots took lots and appointed wicked priests, Jesus, son of Damneus, Jesus son of Gamaliel, Matthias son of Theophilus, and Pannias son of Samuel. This was when the son of perdition, prophesied by Paul in 2 Thessalonians 2:3-10, sat in the house of God, and began acting like he was God. 26

In a five month period from May to September AD.67 these men took all the food supplies inside Jerusalem for their army. The people perished for lack of food, others ate those who died from starvation, while some killed, cooked and ate their children.

Josephus wrote, “Neither did any age ever breed a generation more fruitful in wickedness than those Jews in Jerusalem. The madness increased with their hunger……the robbers searched men’s houses; and if they found any food they tormented them, and if they found no food, they tormented them more because they thought they had hidden it.” Luke 23:28-31, Jesus declared they would desire to die.

25 Farrar, F. W., The Early Days of Christianity, Page 519, Clarke & Co., Pub. Chicago, USA 1882.

26 Josephus, War of the Jews, Book 4, chp. 2:3, 3:5, 3:8, 3:10.


:8, Referring to the hair of women, Josephus wrote, “With their hunger for loot, they ransacked the houses of the wealthy, murdered men, raped women, drank, and gave themselves up to effeminate practices, plaiting their hair and putting on women’s clothes, wearing perfume and makeup, and copying the passions of women. Though they had put on women’s faces if they heard any man approaching they would suddenly turn into murderous men and kill them.”


:11-13, During the ministry of Christ, Satan had fallen to the earth like a star from Heaven. See also Revelation 12:4, 9, 12, where Satan is seen as falling. The key of the Abyss was given to him.

Matthew 12:41-45, Jesus told the Jews who received the benefits of His ministry but rejected Him, that they would be overtaken by demons. The words Abaddonand Apollyon,” simply mean “Destroyerand refer to the Zealots who destroyed Jerusalem.

:13-14, The sixth trumpet. In answer to the prayers from the martyrs below the altar, the Lord told the angel to lose the four angels bound by the Euphrates. The Roman army that had two legions stationed near the Euphrates was called for.

:15-19, John heard the number of the horsemen, was two myriads. See Psalms 68:17, “The chariots of God are double myriad’s, thousands of thousands.” The ancient dictionaries inform us that a myriad consists of 10,000 men. Therefore two myriads refer to 20,000 men.

Vespasian marched his army through Asia towards Judea. He was joined with 10,000 men from Euphrates and marched on Syria killing all the Jews in his way. At Askelon there was a great slaughter of Jews. All the cities were plundered, burned, and Jewish citizens murdered. Titus came to Syria by ship with 10,000 from Egypt and joined his father Vespasian. The two myriads marched through Judea to Jerusalem taking everyone they did not kill as prisoners, and burning everything in sight, as they moved towards Jerusalem,

Vespasian had to suddenly leave due to Nero’s death and return to Rome to become Emperor of Rome, late in AD.68. He charged his son Titus to continue the war against the Jews. Titus killed over 13,37,490 Jews in Jerusalem alone. The blood ran as deep as 2 ½ feet high, (a horses bridle). 28

:20-21. Still the Jews did not repent. Josephus wrote, “Even up to the end, after famine, mass murders, cannibalism, crucifixion of Jews at the rate of 500 per day, the Jews still listened to their false prophets who assured them of deliverance and victory. They were blind, to the clear warnings and signs of God”. 29

I am persuaded that when nations refuse to repent, God allows demonic powers to rise up and stir up religious fanatics to discipline that nation. If the Church will not do spiritual warfare and bind these demons then they will rise up to torment the Church. It is to be hoped that Europe and USA will repent so that they will not have to suffer continual torment by these terrorist organisations. History does indeed repeat itself.

27 Josephus, War of the Jews, Book 4, chp. 9:10.

28 Josephus, War of the Jews, Book 2, pages 485-537

29 Josephus, War of the Jews, Book 6. chp 5:3


Chapter ten. The little book and seven thunders. There is a gap between the sixth and seventh trumpets. John introduces all that he can before the Last Trumpet, so that he can record the end in a few words. The Seventh Trumpet corresponds with the Last Trumpet of Paul in 1 Corinthians 15:52.

Four things are presented:

1. The Mighty Angel coming down from Heaven, 10:1-7.

2. The eating of the little book, 10:8-11.

3. The measuring the temple of God, 11:1-2.

4. The two witnesses, 11:3-13.

:1, The mighty angel is the Lord Jesus Christ.

1. Clothed with the cloud, means Christ was clothed with judgment, Psalms 104:1-3.

2. The rainbow upon His head, as Ezekiel 1:27-28, refers to the covenant He had made.

3. His face was like the sun, 1:16, Matthew 17:2, shows Christ radiates God’s glory.

4. His legs were like pillars of fire. Exodus 14:24, “the pillar of fire and cloud.

Terry stated, “In apocalyptic prophecies the Son of Man is revealed in different ways. First the glorious Christophany in 1:13-17. Then as the Lamb in 5:6. Then as the Mighty Angel in 10:1. Again as the Lamb in 14:1; The Son of Man on a cloud in 14:14. The rider on the white horse in 19:11. and Finally as the Judge in 20:11. All these revealed Christ’s character and glory.

So also the antichrist, appears under various forms of manifestation. As Abaddon, the angel of the abyss in 9:11. As the great red dragon in 12:3. As the beasts in 13:1,11. As the scarlet-colored beast in 17:3. and As Babylon the habitation of devils in 18:2.” 30

:2, The Angel, holding the little book, placed His right foot on the sea and his left foot on the land. The sea represented the Gentiles nations and the land represented Judea. It revealed Jesus Christ standing, towering over Judea and Rome ready to judge them both.

The little scroll is the scroll that Jesus received from God in 5:7. It was gradually opened from chapter 6:1 to 8:1 so that John can now read it. This was the scroll Daniel said was sealed, Daniel 12:4, 9.

:3-4, In response to the Lord’s loud voice, seven peals of thunder utter their voices. See Psalm 29, where the mighty effects of the Lord’s voice is noted: It shatters cedars in pieces, rocks nations with earthquakes, lightning, etc. John was told not to write these thunders.

30 Terry, Milton S., Biblical Hermeneutics, Page 363. Wift and Stock Publishers, Eugene, OR., USA. 1999.


:5-6, The angel lifted up His right hand to Heaven like a witness in a court of law and swore an oath that there would be no more delay, but that the mystery of God would be fulfilled, which God told the Prophets.

Ephesians 3:3-8, stated the mystery of God was the uniting of the Jews and Gentiles in one Body of Christ, and that the Spirit of Christ was within them, Romans 16:25-26. Col.1:27.

Colossians 1:25, Paul knew he was chosen to bring the revelation of the mystery to its completion through his own personal sufferings for Christ. Paul had fulfilled the word of God and taken the mystery to every creature under Heaven.

In 2 Timothy 4:7, 17-18, Paul knew he had completed his missionary work of spreading the Gospel throughout the whole Roman world before he appeared before Nero. He understood the end of the Jewish nation could then come, Matthew 24:14.

2 Timothy 4:7 He had finished the duty assigned to him by the Lord. Acts 26:19, He was obedient to the Heavenly vision, Acts 9:15. This meant that by June AD.66 when Paul died, the Seventh Trumpet began to blow (it will blow for 3½ years) and the Day of the Lord began.

:7, In the days of the seventh trumpet the other mysteries would also be completed, namely, the resurrection, the judgment and the end of spiritual death by the removal of the Law, when the temple was destroyed.

:8-11, The instruction to take and eat the book is similar to the one given to Ezekiel in Ezekiel 2:8-10, and 3:1-3, where Ezekiel was to prophesy about Israel’s destruction. Like Ezekiel, John was to commit the vision to memory in order to continue to declare it. The book of prophecy was sweet, in that John could rejoice in the victory of the remnant over the enemies of God. But, it was also bitter, in that he heard Jerusalem was to be pulled down, the temple burned, and thousands of his countrymen killed.

Chapter eleven. :1-2, The temple, the altar and those who worship are measured. The imagery is similar to Ezekiel 40-43 where an angel measured God’s ideal temple.

Measuring is a symbolic action to reveal the spiritual height, or maturity of the worshippers, Ephesians 4:13-15, Ezekiel 22:26, Zechariah 2:1-5. Jesus Christ and Apostles set the height, referring to the spiritual standard their followers were to reach. The measuring was to separate the true spiritual believers (martyrs) from the rest of the Jews (apostates), before the judgment came upon the city of Jerusalem and its temple.

Luke 21:24, Jesus used similar words to that which John used, Jerusalem will be trampled on by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.



to the Gentiles. They will trample on the holy city for 42 months.

These verses teach that Jerusalem would be trampled by the Gentiles, meaning the Roman army of Vespasian and Titus, until the time of the Gentiles ruling over the Jews (3½ years) was fulfilled, which was within 42 months (3½ years).


In Daniel 2:31-45, the times of the Gentiles,referred to the time when the kingdoms of Babylon, Media-Persia, Greece, and Rome, ruled over Israel until Christ came who would then established His rule over the earth. In Daniel 2:34, the Stone cut without hands refers to Christ being cut at Calvary by God’s Spirit leaving Him. This cutting paved the way for the Stone to rise again and become in Verse 35, the Stone that smote the image which became the mountain (Kingdom) that filled the earth. There is no indication of a gap between the Stone being cut, smiting the image, and growing and filling the earth.

Daniel 7:14, When Christ rose and ascended He received a Kingdom. That Kingdom has been filling the earth ever since. Daniel 2:44, states Christ’s Kingdom will stand forever, suggesting it is going to continually be filling the earth till the earth is filled with the glory of God. As it is in Heaven, so it will be on earth one day.

This treading of the city refers to the Romans surrounding and destroying it, from AD 67-70. After Jerusalem was destroyed, the Gentiles would no longer be able to trample on God’s temple, for God’s temple would be a universal, spiritual one, referring to Christ’s Spiritual Body, John 2:21, 4:21. The teaching that a temple will be rebuilt in Jerusalem is in opposition to the teaching of Christ and the Apostles who insisted that God’s new dwelling place is in Christ’s spiritual body, John 2:21, 1 Corinthians 6:19-20, 12:12-13.

In Daniel 9:26-27, the timing of the destruction of the temple can only refer to the period when Herod’s temple was standing. The forty-two months was from the spring of AD.67 to August of AD.70, which was the time of the Roman War against Jerusalem.

:3-13, The two witnesses prophesied for 1260 days.

John arranged these time periods chiastically, showing they were symbolic.

A. 11:2 forty-two months. B. 11:3 twelve hundred and sixty days.


11:9 three and a half days.


11:11 - three and a half days.

B. 12:6 - twelve hundred and sixty days.

A. 13:5 - forty-two months.

The number seven prophetically represents wholeness, and completion. The number three and a half represents a broken seven, and so refers to a time of breaking, death, and destruction.

During this time period;- The saints were persecuted, corresponding to Daniel 7:25. The great tribulation and time of the end took place, corresponding to Daniel 12:7. Jerusalem was treaded down, 11:2. The two witnesses ministered, 11:3. The Woman was protected, 12:6, and, The Beast persecuted and blasphemed, 13:5. During this intense period of persecution God protected His people, 12:16. At the end, the persecutors were judged and the saints glorified, 20:4, 10, 14.

:3-4, The two witnesses are described as the two olive trees and the two candlesticks that stand before God. They were clothed in sackcloth, the dress of the Prophets that symbolize their mourning over Jewish apostasy. As the Law required two witnesses, it suggests they


represented the Prophets who bore witness against Jerusalem throughout her history. The early Church would have connected this to Zechariah 4:2-14, symbolizing the Holy Spirit who empowered the two leaders Joshua and Zerubbabel.

:5-6, These two witnesses were described like Moses and Elijah, the representatives of the Law and the Prophets. The fire coming out of their mouth was a standard symbol for the power of the anointed Prophetic word, Jeremiah 5:14, Numbers 16:35, 2 Kings 1:9-12. Some teach they represent the witnessing Churches, e.g. Smyrna and Philadelphia.

:7, The enemy of God and the Church, has always been depicted as a beast with its various manifestations throughout history.

:8, The two witnesses were killed in the great city Jerusalem, described symbolically by the names of Sodom and Egypt, and where also the Lord was crucified. The only city, in all the Bible that is ever called Sodom, other than historical Sodom, was Jerusalem. Isaiah 1:9-10, Jeremiah 23:14, Ezekiel 16:35-49.

:11-12, Similar to Acts 7:56 where Jesus stood up to receive Stephen’s spirit as he ascended into Heaven, so John symbolized the ascension of the witnesses into Heaven. This assured Jesus followers of their reward, Matthew 10:16-32, 24:9-13, Luke 21:12-19. This ascension corresponds to the vision in Revelation 20:4-6, were it is called, the first resurrection. When martyrs die they go straight to the throne of God. Hebrews.12:22-24.

:13 A great earthquake took place. This referred to the great political upheaval that took place in Jerusalem. A tenth part of the city fell, referred to many of the leaders being killed. Seven thousand of the Jewish ruling class died. Finally a remnant of Jews gave glory to God.

:14, The third woe is coming quickly. John has brought us to the final catastrophe to which all things in this first part were pointing.

:15-19, The Seventh Trumpet.

There are three parts to the description of Seventh Trumpet.

1. Loud voices announce in Heaven that the Kingdom has become Christ’s, vs.15.

2. The twenty-four elders sing the song of triumph, vs.16-18.

3. A vision of the temple of God opened in Heaven, vs.19.

:15, The seventh trumpet declared that the mystery of God announced in 10:6-7 was fulfilled. All of Heaven rejoiced that the Kingdom of the Lord and His Christ prophesied in Psalm 2, and Daniel 2:44, 7:14,18,27, was at last established. With the fall of Jerusalem, Christianity was liberated from the chains of Judaism, thus releasing the Church to bring the nations to Christ.

In the Jewish calendar year, the “Seventh Trumpet” sounds on the first day of the seventh month, called Rosh Hashanah, the Day of Trumpets. The Jews believe it is the first day of creation and the birthday of the world, Genesis 1:1-5. The birthday of the new earth after the flood of Noah’s day was on this day. Most of the kings of Judah choose it as their coronation day. On the coronation day of the kings, the final act was the blowing of trumpets, 1 Kings 1:34, 2 Kings 9:13; 11:14.

:16-18, The twenty-four elders were worshipping God. Previously, God was declared to be the One “who was and is and is to come,4:8.


Here, however, only the past and present tenses are used, as they speak to God as “You…who are and who were,11:17. The omission of the future tense showed the end had arrived. The mystery of God was finished. From the Elders point of view the Kingdom had come.

Several things happened that had eternal consequences.

1. God took His power and began to reign through His Sons.

2. The nations were angry, for God’s wrath had come, Psalm 2:1-5.

3. The time for the judgment of the dead and for avenging the martyrs had come. The ‘little time’ of 6:11 was finished.

4. The time for God to reward His servants had arrived.

5. The time for God to destroy those that destroyed Israel; namely Satan, and the two beast’s had finally come.

:19, God’s temple in Heaven was opened and the ark of His testament was seen. The ark represented the throne of God on earth. The manifest Presence of God on earth. To the Church it represented Jesus Christ, the image of the invisible God. From this ark the wrath of God was to pour out. After the wrath of God was poured out there would be no more need of the temple or the ark for in the New Jerusalem Christ and His spiritual Body would be God’s dwelling place, 21:22. The lightning’s, voices, thundering, an earthquake show there was still more to come.

Part 4. Chapters 12-14 describe the woman, the man-child, the dragon, and the harlot. Chapter twelve is the beginning of the second main division of the book. Introduction. The first division pictured the outward struggle between the Church and the apostate Jews. The second part of the book reveals the spiritual background to this war. What was happening in the spiritual realm behind the curtain separating Heaven and the earth. In each of the three parts before, John went over the same time period from the first advent of Christ to His return in judgment. The same happens in 12:1-5 where John went back to Christ’s birth and ascension, and then continues to chapter 14:14, where Christ was seen crowned and reaping the earth.

The Revelation is the conclusion of the story started in Genesis one. The symbols of the woman, her Seed called the man-child, the dragon, the beast, Babylon, and finally New Jerusalem, not only symbolize the fulfillment in John’s day, but also symbolize events that happen repeatedly throughout all generations of future history. God wants all generations of Christians to understand what is happening behind the scenes.

Chapter twelve. :1-6, This vision of a woman is a glorious vision of the Church in her purity, as the wife of Christ. Like Christ she is clothed with the sun representing Christ, the glory of God. She represents Eve, the mother of all the living ones, who crush Satan’s head, fulfilling Genesis 3:15. This woman also represents Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, Jochebed, Hannah, and the other Jewish women who gave birth to deliverers, who were forerunners of Christ. She also represents the virgin Mary, through whom Christ came. From the garden of Eden to the birth of Christ, God’s people were laboring and paining for Christ to come into the world, Isaiah 26:17-18, 66:7-8; Jeremiah 6:22-25, 30:6-7 and Micah 4:8-10, 5:1-3.


The woman gave birth to Christ and to the apostolic Church, which flees Jerusalem before the Jewish War of AD. 67-70. Paul in Galatians 4:26, said she is “Jerusalem which is above, which is our mother.”

Chilton wrote, “In the constellations of the stars, Virgo the virgin, has a crown of twelve stars. The twelve signs of the Zodiac were regarded as symbols of the Government in the Heavens. Professor Ernest Martin calculated the birth of Christ to about September 3 B.C. He stated “At Christ’s birth the sun entered the head position of Virgo about August 13, and left her feet about October 2. ….The sun ‘clothed’ Virgo for twenty days between August 27 and September 15. The moon was under her feet…. In the year 3 B.C. was on September 11 th from 6:15 p.m. till 7:45 p.m. That September 11 th 3 B.C. was the beginning of the Day of Trumpets! 31

:3-4, The great red dragon, whose tail drew a third of the stars of Heaven and cast them to the earth was revealed in verse 9 as Satan who caused a third of the angels to join him in the rebellion against God, 2 Peter 2:4, Jude 6.

:5, The imagery of the child with the iron rod comes from Psalm 2:9.

The man-child represents the overcomer’s in the Churches, for the following four reasons.

1. In 2:26-27, overcomers are promised they shall rule all nations with a rod of iron, 12:5.

2. In 2:10, Jesus promised, “Be thou faithful unto death and I will give you a crown of life.” In 12:11, “They loved not their lives even in the face of death.”

3. In 3:10, Jesus promised He would keep them from the hour of temptation. This was fulfilled when they were caught up to God, 12:5.

4. In 3:21, overcomers sit on thrones with Christ. This man-child also sits on a throne, 12:5.

The man-child group are the apostles who rule in the Kingdom together with Christ. Ephesians 2:6, They sit in heavenly places in Christ Jesus, As in Genesis 3 Satan attempts to kill the overcomers in the Church.

:6, The woman fleeing into the wilderness calls up several Old Testament associations.

1 Kings 17:3-6, Elijah was in the wilderness for three and a half years. Exodus 12-14 The flight of Israel into the wilderness from Pharaoh.

Matthew 2:13-21 and the flight of Mary and Joseph to Egypt from King Herod. When this woman flees she is assured God has a place prepared for her, 2 Samuel 7:10,

1 Chronicles 17:9, John 14:2-3.

This was fulfilled when the Jewish Christians left Jerusalem in A.D. 67.

:7-12, Michael the Archangel, and his angels fight against Satan and his princes and casts them out of Heaven. This explains why the woman had to flee. Once this is explained, John returns to the flight of the woman. Michael is a symbolic representation of Christ.

The story is like this; The Lord’s Bride, bears a son. This son will crush the dragon. There is a war with the dragon, in which the son tells Michael to cast the dragon out of Heaven. The dragon then goes to make war with the rest of the woman’s children.

Jesus gave Michael the joy of casting Satan out of Heaven. Christ also gives the believers the joy of casting demons out of nations in His name. :9, Three times it states Satan was “cast down,” vs.9 (2) and vs.10. This confirmed Luke 10:18, Matthew 16:18.

31 Chilton, David, The Days of Vengeance, page 301, Dominion Press, Tyler, Texas. USA, 3 rd print 1990.


Satan who pulled down a third of the angels, vs.4, suffered a tragic reversal in that he was thrown down with his evil angels too.

There are seven lessons the Church needs to learn from this vision.

1. Angels and demons are warring in Heaven and angels always win, vs.7-8.

2. Demons no longer have a place in Heaven, vs.8.

3. Christ has victory over Satan, vs.10.

4. Satan accuses the believer’s before God, vs.10.

5. The Church has power through the blood of Jesus Christ, vs.11.

6. The testimony of the saints overcomes Satan, vs.11.

7. Satan had only a short time before his rule over mankind was finished, vs.12.

This confirmed Jesus words in John 12:31, Now shall the prince of this world be cast out.”

:12-17, The casting out of Satan. There was rejoicing in Heaven when Satan was cast out, but it was a woe to the Jews for Satan was full of wrath. Satan is always seen as falling in the Scriptures. Like the snake fell to the ground in Genesis 3:14 so Satan has always been presented as a continually defeated foe, Luke 10:17-18.

:13-15, The persecution of the Jewish Church began, Matthew. 24:9-10. The imagery is taken from Exodus 14:29, Numbers 16:28-33. The wings given to the woman are symbolic of the Holy Spirit’s power given to help the Jewish Christians to escape. Exodus 19:4, Deuteronomy 32:11, This was similar to when Israel was carried on eagle’s wings to Mount Sinai, were God had a place prepared for her. This was fulfilled when the early Jewish Church was delivered from the armies of Edom and Rome during the Jewish war.

Chapter thirteen. :1-10, The first beast. John was standing on a beach and saw a beast like a leopard having seven heads and ten horns rising out of the Mediterranean Sea. This beast was the Government of the Roman Empire. In 17:15 John described the sea as peoples, multitudes, nations and tongues, out of which came a Caesar and Government that had the heart of a beast. Each Caesar of Rome was named Augustus meaning “the One to be worshipped.” Many called themselves Divus or god, and temples were built to honor them, especially in Asia Minor. Nero made a one hundred and twenty foot high image of himself and demanded it to be worshipped. For this reason some say Paul called Caesar Nero “the man of sin,” in 2 Thessalonians 2:3-4.

:2 The three animals, combined together in this beast, symbolize speed and fierceness. The vision is similar to Daniel 7:1-7. As God made man in His image so Satan made the beast in His image, and gave him his power, throne and great authority. The ten horns represented the Roman Government’s power. They are described in chapter 17:12 as ten kings, referring to the ten Roman Governors of the Roman provinces. The seven heads of the beast are explained to be the Caesar’s in 17:9-11.

The beast is an enigma for it is not just an empire but also a person; specifically, Caesar Nero. The empire and its leader should be considered as one, as the spirit of the empire is in the Emperor. As the human race was reckoned to be in Adam and fell when he fell, so the Roman Empire is represented and embodied in the reigning Caesar, who at the time of writing Revelation was Nero. Both Nero and the Roman Empire were sunk in low,


degenerate, animal-like activities. Nero made four hundred senators and six hundred Roman officers fight in the stadium in order to kill them. He murdered his parents, brother, aunt, his pregnant wife, whom he kicked to death, and many others close to him. He castrated a boy named Sporus and married him. His favorite pastime was watching people suffer tortures. He dressed up as a wild beast in order to attack prisoners. He used the bodies of Christians as candles and burned them to light up his garden parties. He started the first Government persecution of Christians at the instigation of the Jews. He was described as an animal, a tyrant, a monster, the lowest of men, and a mad man. He set the standard for his people making Rome the most immoral city in the world.

:5 The forty-two months signified, Nero’s persecution of the Church which lasted from November AD.64 to June AD.68.

:9-10 John declared the coming of the judgment on the apostate Jews, who are working with Nero in persecuting the Church. The patience and faith of the saints was revealed. The beast was given power to war with the saints for a short time.

:11-12 The second beast was like a lamb with two horns. It was also an image of the first beast. It was seen as coming up from the land of Judea. In 16:13, and 19:20, it is called the false prophet. Matthew 24:5,11 Jesus’ warned of false prophets. The Judaism of Jesus day was based on the false teachings of the Pharisees taken from the Talmud.

Matthew 7:15, Jesus warned the Jews to “Beware of the false prophets, who


were ravening wolves,” a reference to this beast, which appeared like a lamb, but spoke like the dragon.

In John 19:15, the Jewish leaders supported Caesar. They said, “We have no king but Caesar.

:3, 12, 14, The beast’s deadly wound was healed. This counterfeit resurrection was not a bodily resurrection but the resurrection of Rome. The fulfillment of this prophecy is seen in the political events in Rome of that period. Nero committed suicide on June 8 th A.D. 68 due to the civil wars in Rome. After Nero’s death, there were disasters, wars, and civil struggles due to Rome being financially bankrupt. Four Emperors were chosen and killed by the sword. The History writers of the time considered this to be the death of Rome. Gentry wrote: “Before the world’s startled eyes, Rome, the seven-headed beast was toppling to its death as its sixth head (Nero) died. Rome died as it were and then suddenly returned again to life by Vespasian 1.32

:13-14, Israel’s Governor, Gessius Florus, intent on pleasing Nero caused the Jews to worship Nero’s image. Gessius turned to sorcerers like Simon Magus, Acts 8:9, Elymas, Acts 13:8, and other sorcerers throughout the Empire, Acts 19:19, 2 Timothy 3:8.

:15-16, The Jewish leaders promoted the authority of the beast. The imagery is taken from Genesis 2:7-8, when God breathed into His image, Adam and gave him authority to rule the earth, Genesis 1:28, 2:19. Similarly Satan raised up this beast of Jewish leaders who supported Nero’s authority over them. These Jewish leaders refused to sell food to those who would not submit to Caesar as Lord. Some Jewish leaders excommunicated and put to death those Jews who did not bow to Nero.

32 Gentry, Dr. Kenneth, The Beast of Revelation, page 73, Institute for Christian Economics, Tyler Texas, USA.


:17-18, The mark of the beast was Satan’s duplicate of the “seal of God.As God sealed the righteous Jews with the Holy Spirit so they would not receive the false doctrines of the Judiazers, so Satan sealed his followers to trust on Nero to help them. It was either ‘Caesar is Lord’ or ‘Jesus is Lord.’ The apostates among the Jews chose to be saved by the Roman Government, and so persecuted those who sought salvation in Christ. Paul described the Judiazers as wild beasts, in Acts 20:19, and 1 Corinthians.15:32.

:14-15, Satan’s image of the beast was a reversal of God’s order.

The Divine order.

Father. Son (Image of the Father). Holy Spirit, prophesying Church (Image of the Son).

The Satanic copy. Dragon. Beast (Image of the snake). False prophet. Synagogue of Satan (Image of the beast).

John revealed that when the Church prayed and prophesied, then the angels bound the demons and loosed the people. Satan copied this and had the synagogue “speak” resulting in the Jews betraying the Christians. The reformers saw the second beast as the Roman Catholic Church who adopted an organizational structure similar to that of the Roman form of Government. Many denominations innocently follow this Roman pattern of Government, which often grieves the Spirit of Christ. The following diagram illustrates this point.

The First Beast

Caesar. Prime Minister.


Ministers of Parliament

Junior Ministers


Under Secretaries


Junior Ministers Secretaries Under Secretaries People His Image Pope. 1 s t Bishop. Cardinals. Archbishops.

His Image

Pope. 1 st Bishop.







:18, The number of the beast. Gentry provides strong points to show that the number six hundred and sixty six refers to Caesar Nero. John wrote the number of the beast points to a man. The Hebrew form of Caesar Nero is Nrwn Osr, pronounced “Neron Kaiser.Gentry wrote, “The name “Nero” well meets the three fundamental criteria: 1. proper numerical valuation, 2. reference to a man and 3. contemporary relevancy,” for proving the number six hundred and sixty six refers to Nero. 33

The numerical value is as follows.


50+200+6+50 +100+60+200 = 666.







The “beast” was alive at the time of writing, 13:10, and the sixth Emperor alive at that time was Caesar Nero, 17:10.

33 Gentry, Kenneth L, Before Jerusalem Fell, Pages 199-201, American Vision, Atlanta GA. USA.


Chapter fourteen. The Lamb and the 144,000 on mount Zion. John revealed the saints ruling in the Government of Heaven following Jesus their leader. The three enemies, the dragon, the beast and the false prophet were way below the mountain and were overcomed. Ephesians 1:21, Far above all principality and power.

In this chapter John gave seven prophesies of victory and judgment.

1. A vision of the Lamb and 144,000 on mount Zion, 14:1-5.

2. The eternal Gospel will conquer, 14:6-7.

3. A prophesy that Babylon is fallen, 14:8.

4. A prophesy of warnings, 14:9-12.

5. Blessings for the saints who die, 14:13.

6. The harvest from the earth, 14:14-16.

7. The winepress of wrath for the Jews, 14:17-20.

:1-5, A vision of the overcomer’s in God’s Government on Mount Zion. Zion is mentioned seven times in the New Testament 34 . Christ and the sons of God make decisions affecting the universe, Isaiah 2:2-4, Daniel 2:32-35, 44-45, Micah 4:1-4. The number hundred and forty four thousand is symbolic of the perfect number of overcomer’s who together with Christ rule the universe.

Exodus 14-15, when Israel crossed the Red sea the people stood on a mountain and watched as their enemies drowned. Israel then burst into a new song of joy. This was a similar situation. The dragon and the beasts are in the valley below while the saints of God are in the heavenly places singing the song of victory.

:2-3, New songs were sung celebrating the victory of Christ over Satan.

:4, The one hundred and forty-four thousand have the following description.

1. They were redeemed by the blood of Jesus.

2. They were virgins in their doctrines.

3. They followed Jesus wherever He went.

4. They had no guile in their mouths.

5. They were without fault before God.

6. They were the first fruits to be presented to God. The man-child group of 12:5.

:4, The first fruitsis a title referring to those believers that have fully matured and reached the height of Christ, Ephesians.4:13-16, Philippians 3:15. They have matured into the image of the Son of God, and as the sons of God, Romans 8:29.

The description “not defiled with women for they are virgins” refers to spiritual purity in their doctrines. They did not mix with other philosophies or religious ideas. They are Christ’s friends, who are Kings and rulers with Him in the Kingdom of God.

:6-7, An angel flew preaching the everlasting Gospel to those who dwelt upon the earth. This is the Gospel of the Kingdom which Jesus declared had to be preached in the world before the end of the Jews, Matthew 24:14. This was the last call to the apostate Jews, made during the period AD.62-68 before the end of their nation.


:8, Another angel followed crying “Babylon is fallen, is fallen.” The description of Babylon’s fall will be described later in 17-18. Here it is introduced as that “great city” referred to earlier as Jerusalem, 11:8. The wine of her fornication,suggests her religious spirit which was mixed with demons. People from all the Roman Empire came to visit Jerusalem in order to worship. They drank from the spirit within her.

:9-11, The third angel followed warning those who worshipped the beast and his image of the judgment that was coming. They would be tormented with fire and brimstone. John is not referring to having a number stamped on a person’s forehead. It refers to those who have already bowed to the ideologies of the Government and embraced their philosophies which control men’s minds. Christians should fear having the title “worldly,” “socially inclined,” “nominal,” “politically correct,” etc., stamped upon one’s mind. While one cannot see these titles nevertheless they are there. To be politically correct and socially acceptable by any Government would suggest I have failed to please the Government of our Lord Jesus Christ.

:12, The martyr’s were encouraged to keep Gods commandments and their faith in Jesus Christ during the tribulation period.

:13, “Blessed’ are those martyrs who die in the Lord. Their works follow them into Heaven. This refers to all the good works wrought in fellowship with the Spirit. It is indelibly written into their human spirit that these works were done by them while on earth; so that when others look at them in Heaven their good works shine out of their glorified bodies.

They, “die in the Lord”, can only be said of born again Christians, as it is the Holy Spirit who is the witness who said, ‘Yes’ to this. This verse opposes those who teach a rapture of the Christians before the seals and trumpets begin. Note “from this time onwards,” meant John referred to the martyrs killed from AD.62-70. They are blessedfor they went immediately to Heaven to be with the Lord. In Philippians 1:21, Paul wrote “to die is gain.” They were not required to wait till death was destroyed in AD.70. John 11:25, Jesus said they had resurrection life and so went immediately to Christ.

:14-16, The harvest of the earth. The following two visions have much in common that they seem designed to supplement each other. These visions are similar to the parable of the wheat and tares in Matthew 13:24-30, 37-43, and are closely related to Joel 3:13.

John has already stated the “first fruits” are in Heaven. It only needs for Christ to complete the harvest for “the time has come” for Him to reap. The souls waiting on the earth are described as a great harvest, Mark 4:26-29, and Jesus

told His disciples to “


on the fields, for they were white for harvest. John 4:35-36.

The word “reap” is repeated three times vs.15 x 2, vs.16. A harvest is not a few grains of wheat but the fullness of the fields. The Lord Jesus took the harvest of souls, from among the Gentiles from all over the Roman Empire in that first generation and continues to take a harvest in each and every generation since. Christ gathers the harvest, Matthew 3:12, and Matthew 24:30-31.

:17-19, This vision is of the gathering of the wicked Jews for judgment. The repeated mention of “the land” verses 15, 16, 18, 19, and the city in verse 20, show that John is referring to the land of Judea. God intended Israel to be His fruitful vine but all she


gave to Him was wild grapes. Around the city of Jerusalem the Roman armies gathered to complete her judgment, Luke 21:20-24. See Joel 3:9-14, and Isaiah 63:1-6.

:20, “The blood…. even to the horse bridles” is an extravagant hyperbole that suggested the horses that trod down the land walked in a sea of blood which extended for one thousand six hundred furlongs. This number is forty multiplied by forty, the number of judgment and penalty, Numbers 14:34, Genesis 7:12. Modern Bible translations incorrectly state two hundred miles revealing that the publishers willfully rejection of Biblical symbolic meanings.

Part 5. Revelation 15-16, The seven bowls of wrath.

Chapter fifteen. :1, This new sign shows seven angels having seven bowls of wrath containing the final judgments on the Jews. They are similar to the seven trumpets of chapters 8 - 11.

:2-4, A vision of the overcomer’s singing a victory song as in chapter 7:9-17. The “glassy sea mingled with fire,” refers to the sea before God’s throne filled with those who had the baptism of suffering which the martyrs had experienced. “The song of Moses and the song of Christ” refer to the song Moses taught to Israel in Deuteronomy 32. The vision is similar to the victory of Israel at the Red Sea, where they saw God’s vengeance on the Egyptians, Exodus 15:1-18. See Isaiah 12, and Habakkuk 3, for similar songs.

:5-8, The temple of the tabernacle of the testimony in Heaven was opened. The time had come for the old Temple in Jerusalem to be finished.

:7, The drink-offering, was poured at the daily sacrifice, just after the trumpets had begun to sound. In Philippians 2:17, Paul said the drink offering was poured on the sacrifices burning in the fire.

:8, God filled the temple with His glory cloud as His power and anger were poured out upon the apostate Jews. No one could enter His Presence to pray. His mercy for apostate Israel was finished. Exodus 40:34-35; 1 Kings 8:10-11; 2 Chronicles 5:11-14; 7:1-3.

Chapter sixteen. The wrath of God. The bowls of wrath in chapter sixteen, correspond to the seven trumpets. However, apocalyptic repetition of symbols is never exactly the same. The new vision always adds something to the one before. So the seven last plagues are more destructive and affect all.

They move on quickly till “It is done,” is reached. Then the climax is reached when God remembered Jerusalem, now referred to as “Babylon.

The following chart shows the similarities between the bowls, trumpets and the plagues on Egypt.

Bowls of Wrath

1 On the land becoming sores (16:2)


On the Land 1/3 trees, grass, earth burned (8:7)

Plagues on Egypt Boils (6th plague Exodus. 9:8-12)


Blood 16:3

blood,1/3 sea creatures ships destroyed.

(first plague: Exodus. 7:17-21)


On rivers and springs,

On the rivers and springs; 1/3

Waters become blood (first

becoming blood (16:4-7)




plague: Exodus. 7:17-21)




On the sun, causing it to

1/3 of sun, moon, and stars

Darkness (ninth plague:

scorch (16:8-9)

darkened (8:12)

Exodus. 10:21-23)






Demonic locusts tormenting

Locusts (eighth plague: Exodus

darkness 16:10-11


Men 9:1-12



Euphrates, dried up so Kings of East come Frogs, Armageddon

Army from Euphrates kills 1/3 mankind (9:13-21)

Invasion of frogs from river (second plague: Exodus. 8:2-4)







Voices, storm, earthquake,

Hail (7th plague: Exodus. 9:18-



Hail 11:15-19


:1-2, The first bowl of wrath caused sores and ulcers, on those who worshiped Nero in Judea cf. Deuteronomy 28:27, 35. This was still not as painful as what Nero did to the martyrs.

:3, The second bowl of wrath. The sea turned to clotted blood and began to smell. Four times blood was mentioned as it covered the land of Judea.

:4-7, The third bowl of wrath. The rivers turn to blood. An angel declared God was righteous for they shed the blood of saints so God had given them blood to drink.

:8-9, The fourth bowl of wrath. The sun burned men with fire. This was a reversal of the blessing of protection from the sun, stated in Exodus 13:21-22, Psalm 91:1-6.

:10-11, The fifth bowl of wrath. The throne of Caesar Nero in Rome became darkened as the light of the knowledge of God and His Presence were removed, Exodus 10:21-23. This resulted in wars, riots, and a world-wide shaking that took place in the Roman Empire after Nero died in AD.68. The judgments happened so quickly that people were still suffering from the one before it. However they still did not repent.

:12-14, The sixth bowl of wrath. The Roman armies came from the Euphrates. :12, The drying of the river Euphrates made the way for the Roman armies of Titus to move towards Jerusalem. The armies were camped near the Euphrates. Exodus 14:21-22, this is similar to when God dried the Red sea for Moses and Joshua.

:13-14, The three unclean spirits were spirits from Satan, Caesar Vespasian, and the Jewish leaders who encouraged their men to war. 1 Kings 22:19-22, Micah gave a similar message to King Ahab, “A spirit said, I will go and be a deceiving spirit in the mouth of all his prophets.”

:15, “Behold, I am coming like a thief.” This is a reminder of the theme in 1:7. Christ said in 3:3, “I will come like a thief, and you will not know at what hour I will come upon you,Matthew 24:42-44, Luke 12:35-40, 1 Thessalonians. 5:1-11.


:16, Megiddo was first mentioned in Judges 5:19 in Deborah’s song. 2 Kings 23:29, the death of King Josiah was in Megiddo, followed by a great lamentation. The word is spelled literally is Har - Magedon, meaning Mount Megiddo. However Megiddo is a city on a plain. There never was, nor ever will be, a literal, “Battle of Armageddon,” for there is no such place, It is a prophetic name. The nearest mountain to the plain of Megiddo is called Mount Carmel. Farrer stated, Megiddo stands for the place where lying prophets die. Where kings and their armies are deceived and die. It represents defeat to those who war against God.

:17-18, The seventh bowl declared there was a great earthquake. Israel’s reign over the earth had ended. It is done! God’s wrath was poured out. The sin of Israel was finally removed through the outpouring of God’s wrath, and the destruction of Jerusalem. Earthly Israel was finished as far as God was concerned. The true Israel was already in Heaven in the Kingdom of God and of Christ. 21:6, Christ again said “It is done!” when the New Jerusalem was revealed. The seventh trumpet and bowl occur at the same time.

Seven times John has mentioned the earthquake in 6:12; 8:5; 11:13 x 2; 11:19; 16:18 x2. The word earthquakewas a metaphor used by the Prophets for the end of a ruling power, Isaiah 24:19-20. In Revelation it was the sign for the end of the Old Covenant and the beginning of the New Covenant ruling over the earth, Matthew 24:21; Exodus 9:18,24; Daniel 12:1; Joel 2:1-2. The Old Covenant between God and Israel was forever gone. The New Covenant between God and Christ replaced it.