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INSTRUCTION MAI{UAL

H
H

MrNOl:|-n
-

FLASH METER IV

MINOLTA FLASH METER IV


The Minolta Flash Meter lV is the most advanced exposure meter available for measuring both flash and ambient light sources. By attaching the appropriate receptor, you can
take precise incident-light or ref lected-light readings.
A large LCD data panel shows complete exposure information in both analog and
digital form. A built-in microcomputer and memory function make it easy to calculate
the exposure for highlights, shadows, or an average of two areas.
The Flash Meter lV also features a special "analyze" function that lets you take
readings of flash and ambient light simultaneously. After taking a reading, you can vary
the exposure settings to make either light source dominant.
A wide range of accessories are available for your Flash Meter lV, including spotmetering attachments and external receptors for incident-light and reflected-light metering. And if you use a Minolta (Maxxum) 7000 or 9000 camera, the Data Receiver DR1000 enables remote control of the camera via infrared signals from the Flash Meter lV.
With other carneras, the lR Receiver-Trigger can be used to trigger a flash unit by remote
control.
Before using the Flash Meter lV, please read this manual carefully to learn about the
meter's parts and functions. This way, you can begin to realize the full potential of the
Flash Meter lV right from the start.

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,.,

CONTENTS

NAMESOFPARTS.

......2

PREPARATION

fnstallingtheBattery
FilmSpeed.
AttachingaReceptor
GENERALTNFORMATTON...
DATAPANELDISPLAYS
Digital Display
AnalogDisplay
GuideValueDisplay
Settingthe

AMBIENT LIGHT MEASUREMENTS


Shutter-Priority(T|ME) Mode.
Aperture-Priority (FNo.) Mode .
FLASH MEASUREMENTS WITH A SYNC COFD
Shutter-Priority(T|ME) Mode.
Aperture-Priority(FNo.l Mode.
FLASH MEASUREMENTS WITHOUT A SYNC CORD

-shutter-Priority(TIME)

Mode.

Aperture-Priority (FNo.) Mode

MEMORYFUNCTION.
RE F

....14
... .. .. .16
.......18
...20
.......22

LECTED.LIGHT CALCU LATIONS

HighlightCalculations
ShadowCalculations
AveragedCalculations
Checking Other Areas of the Scene
Changing the Highlight and Shadow Values
EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT . . . .
MIXED LIGHTING: FLASH WITH AMBIENT LIGHT

......26
......28
....29
.....30
. . . . .31
. . . . .32
. . . . . . .33

.......34
.....
.......36
:....
Reflected-LightMeasurements,........37
MEASUREMENTSFORAMOVIECAMERA
.....38
.....39
LIGHTINGRATIOCALCULATIONS.
.....40
GUfDENUMBERCALCULATTONS.
..,...41
ILLUMINANCECALCULATIONS.
........41
ExposureValueNumbers....
.....42
INFRAREDREMOTECONTROL
.......43
...:.
GAL|BRATION....
.. ... .. .44
ACCESSORfES. . . .
.....46
TECHNICALDETAILS
.....47
CAREANDSTORAGE
Analyze

Function

......4
........5
.,....S
......6
.....10
........11
.....12
........13

Fill-in Flash
Comparinglncidentand

NAMES OF PARTS

Receptor head

Shadow key (29)


Averaging key (30)

Memory clear
Infrared (lR)
transmitter window (421

ishlight key (281

Measuring button

Data panel (101

Measuring-mode switch

Up/down control
Function switch
Memory button
On/recall button (4)

Sync terminal
Strap eyelet

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Reflected-light attachment (5)

Accessory-receptor j ack

Data-transmission button (42

(For use with Data Receiver


D

R-1000)

Analog-display switch ( 14)

Shutter-release button (4

(For use with Data Receiver


D

R-1000)

Tripod socket

Digital-display switch

(1 1)

Normal/an dyze switch ( 14)

Single/multi switch
Battery cover
(Measuring-level adjuster and
battery chambers A and B inside)

PREPARATION
Installing the Battery
The Flash Meter lV's memory and measurement
circuits are powered by one AA-size battery that fits
into battery chamber A. A 1.S-volt alkaline or carbonzinc or 1.2-volt nickel-cadmium battery can be used.

1.

Switching on the Data Panel

The Flash Meter lV


does not have a power
switch. Even with power
supplied continuously to

the meter's memory, the


power consumption is

Remove battery cover

minimal.

by sliding it downward.

power,
es

To

the

conserve

Flash Meter

lV

automatically switch-

off the data panel display 4 minutes after taking

reading or pressing a key. The most recent display can


be recalled at any time by pressing the On/Recall
button. The display is illuminated for 8 seconds after

the key is pressed.

Automatic battery check

2. Insert an

When battery power

is

low, the displays on the


data panel will blink while
taking a measurement. lf

AA-size

battery into chamber A


with plus (+) and minus
(-) ends as markdd in

-.f

ralEara.arr?f!lltt

ryh-550-

this occurs, install a new


| | \ \
battery. When the battery is /
completely exhausted, the data panel will remain

the battery chamber.

blank even after pressing the On/Recall button.

When replacing the battery, remove the dead


battery, press the On/Recall button to clear the
meter's circuit, then insert a fresh battery.

3.

Realign battery cov-

er and slide it
until it

upwards

snaps into place.

The meter will not operate unless a fresh battery is


properly installed.

Infrared Tranrmitter
' The Flash Meter

lV has a built-in infrared transmitter for use with the optional Data Receiver
DR-lOfi) and or lR Receiver-Trigger units. lf you use
either, of these units, a battery must be installed in
battery chamber B. A 6-volt alkaline (4LR44, Eveready 537 or equiv.l or 6.2-volt silver-oxide (4SR44,
Eveready il4 or equiv.) battery can be used. See
page 42 for more information about using these units.

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Setting the Film Speed


1

Attaching a Receptor
The Flash Meter is supplied with two receptors: a
spherical diffuser for incident-light measurements and
a reflected-light attachment for reflected-light measurements. An explanation of how to take incidentand ref lected-light measurements appears on the

. Set the function


to "lSO" posi-

switch
tion.

following

pages.

Spherical Diffuser for incident light

2.

Move the up/down

control downward to decrease

the ISO setting

to increase
the setting. Each time
and, upward

the control is moved, the


ISO setting changes by

Ref lected-l

ght attachment

for reflected light

1/3 stop. The setting

changes continuously if

you keep

pressing the

up/down control.
I ra 2 2ta
r-En

ta

oun
fun
,C,\

t lt t. 2rlaattato
*.
ArEl

3. After

To attach a receptor:

Align the white dot

setting the film speed, set the function


switch to "TlME" or "FNo." to take a reading.

on the receptor with the

NOTE

the receptor's

receptor index and insert

o
o
o

bayonet
Rotate

Any speed from ISO 8 to ISO 6400 can be set.

into the socket.

f SO 125 and ISO 125O are displayed as "lSO 12O"


and "lSO 1200", respectively.
After taking a measurement, you can change the

the receptor clockwise to


secure it.

film-speed setting and the shutter-speed/f-number


combination required for correct exposure will
also change.

To remove a receptor:

Rotate the receptor


counterclockwise until
its dot aligns with receptor index and lift the
receptor out of the socket.

Accessories

The reflected-light attachment supplied with the


meter has a 40" angle of view. To take "spot" readings of smaller areas of a scene, Minolta's 5" Viewfinder or 10" Viewfinder ll can be used. The Booster
ll is available for taking reflected-light readings off a
view camera's groundglass screen or in very low light.
Refer to pages 44 and 45 for more information
about these and other accessories for the Flash Meter

lv'

GENERAL INFORMATION
lncident{ight Readings
With incident-light readings, exposure is based on the brightness of the light falling on the subject. The subject's reflectivity (how light or dark it is) does not influence the reading.
Many photographers prefer to make incident-light readings because these readings produce very predictable,
consistent exposures for most average scenes. Furthermore, this method is very quick and simple, and thus is
well-suited to determining the exposure in fast-changing situations.
Taking Incident-light Readings

Attach the spherical diffuser to the Flash Meter lV. The optional Flat Diffuser, Mini Diffuser, and the 4X and
8X Spherical ND Diffusers can also be used.
Move in close to the subiect so that you can measure the same light that is falling on the subject. Aim the
diffuser directly at the camera lens. lf you can't get close to the subject, hold the meter in the opposite direction
that the camera lens is facing.
In "AMBI" and "CORD" modes, take the reading by pressing the measuring button. In "NON.C" mode,
press the measuring button to activate the meter, then trigger the flash unit to take the reading.
Incident light

metering

Light source

Camera

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Reflected{ight Readings
With reflected-light readings, the Flash Meter lV averages the light reflected from all subjects in the scene. Like
all reflected-light meters, including those used in single-lens reflex cameras, the Flash Meter lV is designed to give
the correct exposure for a medium-gray tone.
The assumption is that theaveragereflectance of the various light and dark tones in a scene would be about the
same as a medium-gray tone. In a wide variety of situations, reflected-light readings produce good exposures.
A major advantage of taking reflected-light readings is that you can select which tones are most important and
determine the exposure just for these tones. For example, a bright highlight or shadow area can be measured and
the exposure can be calculated to retain detail in that area {see pages 34 and 35).
Taking Reflected-light Readings
To take a reflected-light reading, attach the reflected-light attachment. The optional Viewfinder 5o, Viewfinder 10o ll can also be used. lf you use the Minolta Booster, Booster ll orSiner Boosterl, the spherical diffuser
must be attached to the receptor head.
Hold the meter near the camera lens and aim the meter's receptor at the subiect. The reflected-light attachment has a 40o angle of view, so you may need to move closer to the subject so that the reading is not influenced
by the background.
To make it easier to aim the meter, the receptor head can be rotated up to 270".
In "AMBl" and "CORD" modes, take the reading by pressing the measuring button. In "NON.C" mode, press
the measuring button to activate the meter, then trigger the flash unit to take the reading.
Reflected light metering

-./-4>)
tf

ffi

Camera

Selecting the Measuring Mode:

Flash Light Modes

Ambient and Flash Light Measurements

"CORD" (sync cord)


: I n th is mode, a
sync cord is connected
between the flash unit
and meter to trigger the
f lash un it. Th is mode
can be used to take readings of electronic flash
mode

Ambient Light Mode


(ambient
"AMB l"
light) mode: Use f or
measu rements of con-

tinuous light sources, in-

ng day ight, tu ngsten ights, neon and


fluorescent lights, and
cl ud

and f lash bu lbs.

television screens.

o After ta king a read ing, you can change the shutter


speed (in "TlME" mode) or f-number ("FNo."
mode) by moving the up/down control. The
new shutter-speed lt-number combination will be
displayed.

"NON.C" (non-cord)
mode: In this mode, a
sync cord is not requ ired;

you manually trigger the


flash to take a measurement. This mode can be
used to take readings of
electronic f lash.

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"FNo" Mode: In aper-

Selecting the Function


"T I M E" Mode: In shut-

ter-priority

ture-priority

("F No.")
mode, you can select any
f-number setting from
t lo.7 to t 190.

("T lM E")

mode, you f irst set the


desired shutter speed,

then take a

RCALL

measure-

ment. The requ ired fnumber will be displayed


on the data panel.
o The shutter speed can

o Ambient-light

be set f rom 1/8000


sec. to 30 m inutes in
"AM B l" mode, and
f rom 1/1 000 sec. to

nu m

modes.

ber, then

ta

ke

measu rement. The requ ired shutter speed

r4.-3lr

-2 . -l . 0 .

TflE n

ffi

t-f i

F'|b

rfi.ro*"'
F

lash

measu rements :
speed

for proper

4h

5.6s

-2 . -1 . 0 . I . 2H. 3.4
n

trLf
'*fi--1
LI'

After taking a measurement, the Guide


Value (GV) number
will indicate how to

AuBr

^..,

X-sync,
then set the f-number.

3.4

%f-\

-4r-3s.

Set the shutter

2ir

5.fr t

the data panel.

f lash

| .

@_

will be dispf ayed on

30 minutes in "CORD'

and "NON.C"

meas-

urements: Set the f-

6116

f- f-7.n

fi

Hor'rc

t
-4.-3s. -2 o -l r 0 .

adjust the flash power


or correct exposu re.

1 .

ZH. 9.4

,-

.-'u'J. fl f Hottc
f/r,l,
lf you do not want to change the f lash's power
level, you can use the up/down control to set the

Guide Value number

to

zero. The new f-number

setting required for correct exposure will


d

isplayed

be

lf the ambient-light level is too h igh for the


shutter-speed lf-number combination you have set,
the shutter speed will be changed automatically to
display the correct exposure settings.

DATA PANEL DISPLAYS

1.

6.

Pointers

Reflected-light calculation modes

Shadow calculation mark

2.

3.

Highlight calculation mark


7. Analyze function
indicator

Analog displays
Contrast scal
F-number scale

i a'ls.e' I ot t'ts

g=hH

Shutter speed
(TIME)/frame rate
(crN E)

e-g floo

4.

ISO

5.

Number of exposures/Guide Value (GV)

film

speed

8.

Memory indicators

9.

Under/over range
indicators

10. Measuring modes

.fr.F,::l;

11. Multiple measurement


indicator
12. F-numbers (FNo.)/Aperture Value
numbers (ExlN)

7. Analyze function indicator

1. Pointerc
Pointers above analog displays indicate the most

"AN." blinks

recent measurement and any memorized read-

to "ANALYZE".

ings and calculated reading.

2. Analog displays
When f-number scale is displayed, the pointers
indicate the f-number setting. When the contrast
scale is displayed, the pointers indicate the difference in exposure for up to three readings.

3. Shutter speedfframo rate

light (AMBI) mode.

4.

ISO

film

speed

When function switch is set to "lSO", film speed

can be adjusted from ISO 8 to ISO 6400

in

1/3-stop increments.
5. Number of exposures/Guide Value

of exposures required is indicated. Display shows from


"O"
"9", then changes back "O" and
continues counting additional measurements

When "MULTl" is displayed, number

to

if

8. Memory indicators
A dot appears when a measurement is stored in
the memory. Up to two measurements can be
stored and recalled.
range indicators

9. Over/under

lf

brightness is under the meter's measurement

range,

Shutter speed can be set in full-stops from


1/8000 sec. to 30 min. in ambient-light (AMBI)
mode and from 1/1000 to 30 min. in flash
(CORD or NON.C) modes. Frame rate (filming
rate) for movie cameras can be set at 8, 12, 16,
18,24,32, or 64 frames per second in ambient-

to

are taken. When "GV" is displayed, the amount


of adjustment to flash power is indicated.

6. Reflected-light calculation modes


"l!1" for highlight calculation, "El" for shadow
calculation, and "El" for an average of two

tt

"V"

blinks;

if

over the meter's range,

@tt blinks.

o ff "U" or "4"

blink together with "T|ME",

"FNo.", "ExlN", "GV", or "MULTl", thg


measurement is outside of the meter's display
range. Usable reading

or

indications can

be

displayed by moving the up/down control.


10. Measuring modes

"AMBI" for ambient light, "CORD" for flash


measurements using a sync cord, "NON.C" for
flash measurements without using sync cord.
1 1. Multiple measurement indicator
"MULTl" is displayed when single/multi switch
is set to "MULTl" position for multiple measurements.
12. F-numbers/Aperture Value numben
Measurements appear on display with 0.1 stop

accuracy. F-number ("FNo.") range is f/0.7 to


f l9O +0.9 stop. Aperture Value
numbers range is -15.9 to 45.6.

measurements.

10

when normal/analyze switch is set

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("ExlN")

DIGITAL DISPLAYS
Aperture Value Numberr ("ExlN" settingl

F-numbers ("FNo." settingl

When the digitaldisplay ("FNo./ExlN")


switch is set to "FNo.",

When the

"ExlN", apertur value


numbers are displayed on

the Flash Meter [V shows


the f-number setting in

the data panel.

digital form. The small


number next to the fnumber is a one-tenth
stop display and indicates how much the

f-number or

shutter

speed should be changed

for correct exposure.

These

numbers cgn be used to


determine the lighting
ratio of a scene or to
compare readings taken
{..t..{

.4

* 5Y

*g.d

. O . I . 1.. t.a

Adjustments for tenth-stop indications


Tenth-stop

digital-

display switch is set to

Adjustmenr

o-2

Set f-number to full stop setting

3-7

Close aperture 1/2 stop. E.9., set aperture haffway between tl8 and tl11
if dispfay shows " f l8.B t".

8-9

Close aperture 1 stop. E.9., set aperture


to f 111 if display shows "llfl.Bg".

in ambient ("AMBl"l
mode with readings

taken a flash ("CORD"


f,o
5rl
or "NON.C"l mode.
The "ExlN" setting can also be used to display

rr. E'-

Exposure Value ("EV") numbers which are usOd to


determine the illuminance of an ambient light source
(see page 41).

Shuttsr Speed
The shutter speed is indicated next to the 'TlME"
mark. The indication for 11125 sec. is displayed as
" i?s ". All other speeds are displayed in the usual
way.

11

ANALOG DISPLAYS
When the function switch is at

"TlME" or "GV",

either the f-number scale or the contrast scale can be


displayed by setting the anafog-display switch to
"FNo." or "CONTRAST" position. When the func-

tion switch is set to

displayed even

"F N o." , the contrast scale is


if the anafog-display switch is set to

"FN o.".

F-number scale

The pointers above the f-number scale indicate


f-number settings with 1|2-stop accuracy. The display
range is f rom t 11 to f /90. lf the required f-number is
outside this range, the 't<" or
and " (U " or " O" vvill blink.
a

11,42 2.84 5.68 lt162232456490

Contrast scale
The contrast scale has a range from -4 to +4 stops.
Pointers indicate the differences in exposure between
up to three readings. Readings are indicated with
1

/4-stop

accu

-3 to +3 stops, and w ith


-4 to -3 and +3 to +4 stops.

racy f rom

'll2-stop accuracy from

-1..-3s. -2 . -1 . 0 o 1 . 2x. 3.4

ffh'*5.8,r"''
a single reeding has been stored in the
a pointer appears above the "O" in the
center of the display.Pointers appear above the
When

memory,

contrast

sca

le

on ly

when a

read

ing is stored in the

memory.

When a shadow calcufation is made, a


pointer will appear above

the small "S"

mark

"tr,

iEl

which indicates a 2.7 -stop decrease in exposure.

Likewise,

highlight

cafculations are shown


by a pointer above the
small "H" mark which

-4..3s.

-2 . -l . 0 . 1 . 2\.

*E,[i

"tr1

3.1.

'* -r h

l.fl

aMB,

indicates a 2.3-stop increase In exposure.

When us ing the analyze function to take


read ngs of m ixed f lash
and am bient light, the
i

I a:r

-4..3s. -2 . -1 . O .
Jj''

I .

-.
3.4.

2x.

FNo

rlr-r
f f
;. LI' ;-__l 7.n I
'

roxc

pointers on the contrast scale indicate the relative


intensity of f lash and am bient light sou rces. The
positions of the pointers will change as the f-number/
shutter-speed combination is changed.
Please refer to pages 26 through

35 for

more

information about the memory, shadow, highlight,


and analyze functions.

12

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ffh

""5.E,J'u"'

GUIDE VALUE DISPLAY

The Guide Value ("GV") number indicates how


the f lash power should be adjusted for correct exposure without changing the f-number setting.
Guide Value control

Guide Value control

After taking the reading, move function switch


from "TlME" to "GV". Move the up/down control
to change the "GV" number. This results in a corre-

in aperture-priority ("FNo.")

sponding change in the f-number setting.

mode:

To get correct exposure at

in shutter-priority ("TlME")

mode:

-2 . -1 . 0 . I . 28. 3.4

-4.-3s.

f/5.6 and 1/60

In this example, the upl -4.-3s. -2 . -1 . 0 . I . 2H. 3.4


down control was used to t".|. ,- t-,
ri|o
coRD
ft t-f
,, _ t' fchange the f-number from
-JT__r,iiel1.fi
ft
t15.6 to 5.6 + 0.6. The "GV"
correspondingly changed
from 0 to +1 . "+1 GV" indicates that the flash power -4.-3sa -2 . -1 . 0 . 1 . 28. 3.4
must be increased by one ** ,- ,-,
*t
flli___\'ioJ,f,
+ ,_ F- tr - coRD
stop (dou bled) for correct

EfLf .*, -7.n


L- tr -.coRD
"*1 GV" indicates
tso 7 4
\.\ I u'
il
LI'
that the flash power
shou ld be increased by one stop (dou b led ) or the
distance between the flash and su bject ca n be de-

sec.,

creased by a factor

of 1 11.4.

For correct exposu re


at t15.6 and 1160 sec.,
"-2 GV" indicates that
the f lash power shou ld
be decreased two stops

-2 o -1 . 0 r 1 . 2H. 3.4

-4.-3s.

t-. , r-,

tlt

tf t-t

""-Er-t
to

(set

-L-'nu

7.n

exposu

[i

re at

t 15.6

0.6 ""

E,

[_i_l

stop.

114 power) or the

distance between the flash and subject can

be

dou bled.

lf you cannot change


the flash power or

the
flash-to-subject distance,

adjust the f-number

set-

-4o-3s . -2

,r", tr

.,

LI LI

fso f_ L,
L'I

. 1.

@
rttl

Liev

2^.

':o
coRo

I lLi

ting until the "GV" number is set to tT" (zero).


Make the exposure at that f-number setting.

o In aperture-priority ("F No.") mode, the "GV"


number is displayed in full stops. lf the measured
value falls between the f u ll-stop settings, the
difference (from 0.1 to 0.9 stop) will be indicated
by the small number next to the digital f-number.

Relationship between GV, flash power, and flash-to-subject distance.


GV number

-8

F las h power 11256x

lash-to-sub-

ject distance

16x

-7
1 1128x

11.3x

-6

1164x 1132x
8x

-4

-5
5.7x

-3 -2 -1

/16x 1l9x 1l4x 1l2x 1x


4x

2.Bx 2x

1.4x 1x

+1

+2

+3

+4

2x

4x

8x

16x

l1 .4x 1l2x

1l2.Bx

l4x

+6

+7

+8

32x

64x

128x

256x

115.7x

l l9x

+5

111

.3x 1 l16x

13

AMBIENT LIGHT MEASUREMENTS


Shutter-priority ("TIME

"l

5. Prrs measuring button to take a measure-

Mode

Single Measurements

1.

ment.

Srt switches on left side of meter to:

Analog-displayswitch. . .

.
Normal/analyze switch
Single/multi switch
Digital-displayswitch. .

- .""t"ort:Atn" r*fl o if
2.

S.t

measuring mode

to "AMB|".

. "FNo."
. . "FNo."
"NORM"
.."SINGLE"

-o"'1\ .o*o.r.r*1^o./\

ouifriEi'

In this example, the


shutter speed was set

to

1/30 sec. and the

required f-number was


plus 0.2 stop.

f/l6

r tartaaLa !taltaaa.t

+h

^ t6?"

lf "FNo." and "@" or "O" blink, the brightness


level is outside the meter's display range. lf this
happens, change the shutter speed to obtain an
appropriate f-number/shutter-speed combination.

3. S.t function switch


to "TlME".

lf the shutter speed or film-speed setting is changed after the measurement is taken, the f-number
will change automatically to show the correct exposure at the new settings.

4. S"t shutter speed by


moving up/down control.

o Any speed from 30


min. to 1/8000 sec.
can be set in fullstops.

14

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AMBI ENT LIGHT MEASUREMENTS

5.

Shutter-priority {"TlME"} Mode

Press measuring but-

ton to take a measure-

Multiple Measurements

ment.

1.

Set switches on left side of meter

Analog-displayswitch. . . .
Digital-display switch
Normal/analyze switch
Single/multi switch

coNrRAsr

.flrn.

,n.fl.

to:

."FNo."

raa

. "FNo."

"NORM"

lltl

.."MULTI"

o
**nfQ .

ono.rr,tt^o.r.flgmimrt

The display shows the


f-number required and

the number of

mea-

surements taken.

2. S.t measuring

mode

to "AMBl".

I
lrl

I ultraaaa

ra||laaaat

ffi', ?.go:

6.

Each time the measuring button is pressed, an


additional measurement is taken and the meter recalculates the cumulative exposure. The total number of
measurements and the f-number reguired are displayed.

o In this example,

| !rtttatta
t|atlaaaat
measurements have
been taken and the
required f-number is
f/5.6 plus 0.3 stop.
Before taking a new series of measurements,
slide the single/multi switch. to ,,RESET" ANd

5fr1^s.Er;

3. Srt function switch


to "T|ME".

check that data panel shows

" 'A ".

4. Srt shutter

speed by
moving up/down control.

o Any speed from 30


min. to 1/8000 sec.
can be set in fullstops.

15

AMBI ENT LIGHT MEASUREMENTS


Aperture-priority ("FNo.") Mode
Single Measurements

5.

Press measuring but-

ton to take a measurement.

1.

S.t switches on left side of meter to:


. "CONTRAST"
Analog-display switch*. . .

."FNo."
..
Normal/analyzeswitch . "NORM"
. "SINGLE"
Single/multi switch
Digital-displayswitch.

In this example,

the

f-number was set to

f/l6

* When the function switch is set to "FNo." (step 3


below), the contrast scale is displayed even if the
analog-display switch is set to "FNo.".

2. S.t measuring

mode

and the required

shutter speed

%Y_l ibc

aro'

1/30 sec.

ff "TlME" and ttUltt or "O" blink, the brightness


level is outside the meter's display range. lf this

3. Sr, function switch


to "FNo.".

rA'
V

4. Srt f-number by moving up/down control.


f-number from

tl0.7 to f/90 can be


set in full-stops.

16

@ r.

happens, change the f-number to obtain an appropriate f-num ber/shutter-speed com bination.

to "AMBI".

o Any

was

.a..3r. -2 . .l . 0 . t . 2i. 3.a

*Jl?

www.orphancameras.com

AMBI ENT LIGHT MEASUREMENTS


Aperture-priority ("FNo.") Mode

5.

Pr.r, measuring but-

Multiple Measurements

ton to take a measure-

1.

ment.

S.t switches on left side of meter to:


Analogdisplay switch*. . .
. "CONTRAST"
Digital-displayswitch. . .
. . "FNo."
Normal/analyze switch
"NORM"
Single/multi

switch

.."MULTI"

6. Tn. data panel will


show the number of
I

* When the function switch is set to "FNo." (step 4


below), the contrast scale is displayed even if the
analog-display switch is set to "FNo.".

exposures required.

o In this example, the

mode

I'.9 f

.{
rll

.{

. o . t . t..
r..*--.al-r
tc_,,

l.a

rT

rr tfi^5I.||
u 'rl'l
TA -, Itit
.

f-number was set to f/8; 5 exposures at 1/30

sec.

are required.

2. S.t measuring

a.ar

tr'!

Each time the measuring button is

pressed,

new measurement is taken.

to "AMBl".

3. s.t function switch


to "TlME", then set
shutter speed by moving
up/down control.
o Any speed from 30

min. to 1/8000 sec.


can be set in full
stops.

4. S.t function switch


to "FNo.", then set
f-number by moving up/
down control.
o Any f-number from

t/0.7 to f/90 can be


set in full-stops.

17

FLASH MEASUREMENTS WITH A SYNC CORD (CORD MODE}

5. S.t shutter

Shutter-prioriry (TIME ] Mode

speed by
moving uF/down control.

Single Measurementl

1.

Set switches on left side of meter to:


. "FNo."
Analog-displayswitch. . . .

.
switch
switch

Digital-displayswitch. .
NormaUanalyze

Single/multi

tItfLJArJrt
coilrRAsr oFlFxo
rrof{ o :'n

. . "FNo."
"NORM"
.."SINGLE"

roRrvlal a ANALYZE srNcLclq a

g'REsEr

o
o

Any shutter speed from 30 min. to 1/1000

sec.

can be set.

Make sure shutter speed

is

set within camera's

X-sync range.

2. S.t measuring mode


to "CORD".

6. Prrs the measuring


button to trigger the
flash.

3. Connect PC plug to
meter's sync terminal.
. The flash may fire
when the sync cord

In this

example, the

required f-number
f 15.6.

is

connected.

r |rttaaLa

#\

!rtlt!...|

-5.8s*

Trigger voltage of some electronic flash units


may not be sufficient when using "CORD" mode.
lf so, use "NON.C" mode (see page 22).

4. Srt function switch


to "TlME".

18

is

www.orphancameras.com

FLASH MEASUREMENTS WITH A SYNC CORD (CORD MODE}

6,

Shutter-priority (TIME I Mode


Multiple Mearurementt

Press

button

the measuring
trigger the

to

flash.

1.

Set switches on left side of meter to:


."FNo."
Analog-displayswitch. . . .

.
switch
switch

NormaUanalyze

. ."FNo."
"NORM"

Single/multi

.."MULTI"

Digital-displayswitch. .

o The required f'number and the number of

times the flash was


triggered will be dis'
played.

2. srt measuring

mode

I ra!

aaa

Ll lr||alraal

#\"

E'[iB;

7. Each time the measuring button is pressed and


the flash is triggered, the meter recalculates the cumu'
lative exp(Nure.

to "CORD".

In this example, the


ffash was triggered 4
times and the required

f-number is f/l6.

3.Connr"t PC plug to

Before taking

meter's sync terminal.

series of

o The flash may

fire
when the sync cord is

new

measure-

ments, slide the single/

multi switch

connected.

to

r.ratrt.rat

fltrllla

ffit^,Es;
I rattaaltalrfttaall

-ii.o
n oD
F6Tfi'?- U
*'

"RESET" and check

thattt display
ttl

shows

n.

Trigger voltage of some electronic flash units


maY not be sufficient when using "CORD" mode.

4. S"t function switch

to'TlME".

lf

so, use "NON.C" mode (see page 23).

5.

Srt shutter speed by


moving up/down control.

Any shutter

speed

from 30 min. to 1/1000

sec.

can be set.

Make sure shutter speed is set within camera's


X-sync range.

19

FLASH MEASUREMENTS WITH A SYNC CORD (CORD MODEI


Aperture-prioriU (FNo.l Mode

5. S.t function switch


to "FNo.", then set

Single Mearursments

f-number by moving up/

1.

down control.
Set switches on left side of meter to:
Analog-displayswitch*. . .
. "CONTRAST"
Digital-displayswitch. . .
. . "FNo."

switch
switch

Normal/analyze

Single/multi

"NORM"

.."SINGLE"

Any f-number from t/O.7 to f/90 can be set in


full-stops.

6.

When function switch is set to "FNo." (step 5f,


the contrast scale is displayed even if the analogdisplay switch is set to "FNo.".

Press measuring button to trigger the flash.

2.

Set measuring mode


to "CORD".

In this

example, the

Guide Value number

"-1 GV" indicates


that flash power
of

3.

Conn.ct PC plug to
fire

when the sync cord

.O.t.l..t.a

#\,T1oo-

should be reduced by one half for correct exposure at 11125 sec. and f/4. Alternately, if you cannot change the flash power, the distance between
the flash and subject can be increased by a factor

meter's sync terminal.

o The flash may

a.{r.a..l

of 1.4X.

is

Trigger voltage of some electronic flash units


may not be sufficient when using "CORD" mode.

connected.

lf

so, use "NON.G" mode (see page 24).

lf

you select a shutter-aperture combination that


might cause overexposure of the ambient light, the
shutter speed is automatically shifted to a higher

4. Srt function switch


to "TlME", then set

setting when the measurement is taken.

shutter speed by moving


up/down control.

Any speed from 30 min. to 111000 sec. can

be

set in full stops.

Make sure shutter speed is set within camera's


X-sync range.

20

www.orphancameras.com

FLASH MEASUREMENTS WITH A SYNC CORD (CODE MODE)


Aperture-priority (f ruo.) Mode

5. Set function switch


to "FNO.", then set

Multiple Measurements

f-number by moving upl


down control.
1

Set switches on left side of meter to:


*
,,CONTRAST"
.

Analog-d isplay switch

Digital-display switch

Ex

,,FN
O."
,,NORM"

Norm al lanalyze switch


Single/m u lti switch
lN

NORM

,,MULTI"

o Any
a O ANAI

Y.i

fu

SINGLI

f-num ber

rom t lO.7 to t l9O can be set

6.

Press

fl ash

the

measuring

button to trigger
rF

When function switch is set to


No."
the contrast scale is dispfayed even if the
display switch is set to "FN o.".
"F

2.

(step 5),

in

l-stops.

the

anafog-

Set measuring mode

to "CORD".

7.

The number of times

-4.-3s. -2 . -1 . 0 .

1 .

2H. 3.4

the f lash must be f ired


will

be displayed.

o In this example, the

'' 8,,1 \ | | Lf li uu.,,

lash must be triggered 4 times f or correct expore at 1 1125 sec. and t 116.
Each time you press the measuring button, a new

o
3.

Connect PC plug to

meter's sync term inal.

o The f lash may

ire

when the sync cord

su

measurement

will

be taken.

Trigger voltage of some electronic flash units may


not be sufficient when using "CORD" mode. lf so,
use "NON.C" mode (see page 25]. .

'*

is

con nected.

4. Set function switch


to "T l M E ", then set
shutter speed by moving
u

p/down control

Any speed from 30 min. to 1/1000 sec. can be set


in full stops.
Make sure shutter speed is set within camera's
X-sync range.

21

FLASH MEASUREMENTS WITHOUT A SYNC CORD (NON,C MODE)

5. Press measuring button to activate flash-

Shutter-priority (TIME ) Mode


Single Measurements

measurement circuit.

1 . Set switches on left side of meter to:

Analog-displayswitch..
Digital-d isplay switch .
No rm al I ana lyze switch

Singlelmulti

switch

..

."FNO."
''N O R M "

"SING LE

o "NON.C" will

blink

on the data panel.

1
F-"i-e

r.6

2.8

il n

5.6

11 16 22 32

Fr{o

4564

''ofi? \
tt

Z.

6.

Set measuring mode

Trigger the f lash unit manually

90

r\ I /

NoN.c

/tt\

to take a meas-

urement.

to "NON.C".

7. The required

f-num1 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6 I tt t8 2232 456490


ber will be d isplayed.
o In this example, the
shutter speed was set
to 1 1125 sec. and the required f number was f/8
plus 0.5 stop.
o After taking measurement, "NON.C" continues
to blink for about 60 seconds to indicate that the

-ffi'*fl.ilI"o-.

3. Set f u nction switch


to "T|ME".

meterlng circuit is

still activated. lf "NON

stops blinking bef ore you trigger the f lash, press


the measu ri ng button again .

o Each time you trigger the flash unit

when

"NON.C" is blinking, the meter will take a new


measurement.

4.

Set shutter speed by


moving up/down control.

Any speed from 30 min. to 1/1000 sec. can be set


in full stops.
Make su re shutter speed is set with in camera's
X-sync range.

22

www.orphancameras.com

FLASH MEASUREMENTS WITHOUT A SYNC CORD (NON.C MODE}

5. Press measuring button to activate flash-

Shutter-priority (TIME ) Mode


Multiple Measurements

measu rement ci rcu

. Set switches on left side of meter to:


Analog-displayswitch.. ."FNO."
Digital-displayswitch..
."FNO."
Normallanalyzeswitch.. . "NORM"
Single/mu lti switch
. "M U LT | "

"NON.C"

it.

will blink

on the data panel.

6.

rt

Set measuring mode


to "NON.C".

2.8

5.6

11 16 22 32

llO

90

Jr/
-

NON.C

-ri,i.t\

Trigger the flash unit manually

4564

*rno'

to take a meas-

urement.

o The

requ

ired

f-

number and number


of times the f lash was
triggered will be displayed on the data

32 45 64 90

pane

1t.42 2.845.6 I n167232456490

r'rE

il a

t,'*

%#1,l.Es::l;

|.

o After taking a measurement, "NON.C" continues

3.

Set function switch


to "T|ME".

fr\

''o

1.

1.4

rrl,Er

to blink for about 60 seconds to indicate that the


metering circuit is still activated. lf "NON.C"

<-

stops blinking before you trigger the flash, press


the measu ring button again.

7. Each time the f lash is triggered, the meter recalculates the cumulative exposure. The total number of
flashes and the required f-number will be displayed.

4.

Set shutter speed by


moving up/down control.

o In this example, the


flash was triggered

times to obtain

4
an

f-number readout of

I r.42 2A4 5.68

-* ilg.t'*E f

"";flr

J.E

5:"J;

t15.6 plus 0.5 stop.


Bef

ore taking a new

series

the single/multi switch to


thatdisplayshows"I ".

of
"

measu rements,
R

sl

ide

ESET" and check

Lr

speed from 30 min. to 1/1000 sec. can be set


in full-stop increments.
Make sure speed is set within camera's X-sync

Any

range.

23

FLASH MEASUREMENTS WITHOUT A SYNC CORD (NON.C MODE)

5, Press measuring button to activate flash-

Aperture-priority (FNo.) Mode


Single Measurements

measurement circuit.
Set switches on left side of meter to:
Analog-display switch*.
. "CONTRAST"

Digital-displayswitch.
Norm allanalyze switch . .
Single/multi switch
coNIRASI

/l\_ r-No
11o

n l-r
rruofil O E^rN

n
ruonvfel

.."FNO."
"NORM"
"SING LE"
LJ

a aNALyzr

n
srr.rcL{rl

o "NON.C" will

blink
on the data panel.

o MULr| aRrsEr

rr When

the function switch is set to "FNo." (step 4


below), the contrast scale is displayed even if the

anafog-display switch is set to "FNo."

-4.-3s. -2 . -1 . 0 .

;fl

Trigger the f lash unit manually

6.

1 .,2h.

3.4

T''1.trili(
to take a meas-

urement.

7. The exposure readout will be displayed on the


rt

data pane | .

Z.

Set measuring mode

to "NON.C".

3d

GV

th

"

is example,
ind

icates

"

-2

th at

flash power should

-4.-3s.

-2 r .1 . 0 r I . 2n. 3.4

be

ced to on e- %s\;:*ut.tf
quarter to obtain correct exposure at t 14. Alterred

nately, the distance between the f lash and

can be

3. Set function

,-,"""'

dou

su

bject

bled f or correct exposure without

changing the f-number or f lash power.


After taking a measurement, "NON.C" continues
to blink for about 60 seconds to indicate that the

switch

to "T lM E ", and set shutte r speed by mov in g

metering circuit

is still activated. lf "NON.C"

stops blinking before you trigger the flash, press


the measu ring button again.

up/down control.

Each time you trigger the f lash un it when


"NON.C" is blinking, the meter will take a new

measu rement.

o
o

Any speed from 30 min. to 1/1000 sec. can be

set

in full stops.

Make sure shutter speed is set within camera's


X-sync range.

4. Set function switch


to "FNO.", then set
f-number by moving up/
down control.

o Any f-number

from t10.7

to tl90

can be set in

full-stops.

24

www.orphancameras.com

FLASH MEASUREMENTS WITHOUT A SYNC CORD (NON.C MODE}

5. Press measuring button to activate flash-

Aperture-priority (FNo.) Mode


Multiple Measurements

measurement circuit.

1.

Set switches on left side of meter to:


. "CONTRAST"
Analog-display switch*.

Digital-displayswitch..

Normallanalyze switch..
Single-multi switch

."FNO."
.."NORM"
. . "MULTI"

o "NON.C" wifl

blink

on the data panel.

When the function switch is set to "FNo." (step 4


below), the contrast scale is displayed even if the
analog-display switch is set to " F No.".

6.

";F-1

Trigger the f lash unit manually

11.'"

rtrfr1.,1,:

to take a meas-

7.

The number of times the f lash must be triggered


or correct exposu re wil I be d isplayed.

In th is example, the
flash must be triggered 7 times for
correct exposure at

Set measuring mode

to NON.C.

-2 o -t . 0 . t . ,2". 3.4

urement.

2.

-4.-3sr

'- ,ato t*

TIXE

lF
it 7_r't thit
H,:
'f-xd

E, U
'so LI
I

11125 sec. and t116.

After taking measurement, "NON.C" continues to


blink for about 60 seconds to indicate tlrat the

metering circu it is still activated. lf "NO N .C"


stops blinking before you trigger the ffash, press
the measuring button again.

3. Set function switch


to "T M E ", then set

Each time you trigger the flash unit when


"NON.C" is blinking, the meter will take a new

shutter speed by moving

measu rement.

up/down control.

Any speed from 30 min. to 1/1000 sec. can be set


in full stops.
Make sure shutter speed is set within camera's
X-sy nc range.

4. Set function switch


to "FNO:', then set
f-number by moving upl
down control.

o Any
fu

f-number from

tlj.7 to f/90

can be set in

l-stops.

25

MEMORY FUNCTION
By using the memory f unction, you can store and
compare measurements of different areas of a scene

or of d ifferent light

sou rces.

Two

measu rements can

be stored in the meter's memory and are indicated by

Error Display
A maximum

of

two

rements can be
stored in the memory. lf
measu

pointers on the analog scale. The stored measurements can be recalled to the digital display by pres-

you press the memory


key after two measu re-

sing the On lRecdl button.


To store measurements in the memory, the NORM/
ANALYZE switch must be set to "NORM".

a farge letter 'tE" (error)


will appear. The error

. After taking a measurement, press the memory ("M"1 button. A


memory indicator (black
dot) appears to the right
of the analog scale when
a measu rement is stored

tion

d isp

lay can

in either of

be

two

ways:

Method

@
-4.-3s. -2 . -l . 0 .

t .

2H. 3.4
a

trast

pointer at the 'tO"


position indicates the

requ

ired

number settings.

f-

2.8

tfiYii \

5.6

r1

16 22 32 4564 90

FNo

AMBI

11.42 2.845.68

*60

1.4

..-t,r

lflrEl

2.8

5.6

1-,
Li

t1 t6 2232

45 64

rl

rl fl
1ff1 fl.il

L-t

-t

Press

1 .

2.8

the

ment will be d isplayed


on the data pane | . The
f irst and second measurements remain stored
in the memory.
1t.42 2.845.6 I lrGz2s245eogo i

* fi ll

3.4

FNc

'- [/J I

ifrf,,ou"'

5.6

11 16

22324564

90 .

FN'

Effa

ilfio*'

measu ring

button. A new measure-

2r.

ala

1 1.t 2

lf,n

Meth od 2

rN'

f- |-,

;94

FN(

-4.-3s. -2 . -l . 0 .
ITIME;

s4go

90 .

'"' L, t? o'"'
-.

1.U il

lf you press the memory-clear ("M-C L R ") key,


both measurements will be cleared f rom the
memory.

the mode, such as f rom "T I M E " to


"FNo.", will clear the memorized data.

Changing

lf the f -number scaf e is d isplayed,

changing the
ilm-speed or shutter-speed setting will also change
the positions of the pointers.
Measurements remain stored in the memory when
the measuring mode or light receptor is changed
and when the single/multi switch is moved. This
lets you to store and compare f lash and am bientlight measurements. You can also compare incident and reflected-light measurement.
Measurements remain stored until the memoryclear ("M-C L R ") key is pressed or as long as
f

26

*fi

1.4

n1

When the f-number

to the

t
1

fSO f

second measu rement. The other pointer ind icates


the relationship to the second read ing.
scale is displayed, the
pointers correspond

trfa'*llt^."'

in the memory.

trfa'*",y.tfi^."'

To store a second measurement, press the memory ("M" ) button a second time.
con

t6 2232 45et SO !

irst and second measurements remain stored

2.

scale is displayed, the

11

recent measurement. The

measurement is taken.
lf the measurement is outside the meter's measuring range, it cannot be stored in the memory.

When the

When the f -number

the correspond ing tnumber when the

5.6

'l

scale is displayed, a
pointer appears above

Push the OnlRecall


button. The 'tE" will be
replaced by the most

in the memory.

o When the contrast


scale is displayed, a
pointer will appear
above the t'0" posi-

E''l

cleared

2.8

ments have been stored,


("

How to store measurements:

1 1.t Z

battery power lasts.

www.orphancameras.com

How to Clear the Memory

How to Recall Measurements

To clear the mem, press the mem oryclear ("M-CLR") key.

One measurement is stored:

The most recent measurement is displayed bef

ore pressing the On/ Re-

call button.

o(y

-4.-3s. -2 . -l . 0 .

*r5fi

-.ff,

1 .

FNo

2H. 3.4.

When the key is pressed,

tr

ifr[i

the memory ind icators


(black dots) and the
pointers corresponding
to the stored measu re-

The stored measu rement appears when the


OnlRecall button is held

ments

lf only one measurement is memorized,


0 (zero) or that mea-

1 l.b 2

2,8

5.6

I ll

16 22

Be-

fore pressing the memory-

clear ("M-C LR ")


the most recent

down.

su

will disappear.

key,
mea-

surement is displayed on
the data panel.

1.4

2.8

5.6

I tl 15 22 32 4564

,-*, -1

lrtue; 1] l-l

Lt

Lf

FNo

-t -t

Pln

90
AMBI

rement wi | | appear.

Memory indicator

-4.-3s. -2 . -1 . 0 .

*F,ii

(dot) blinks.

,so tr ,J*__\
-

Llf

1 .

2H. 3.4.r.
-u'.r

'."rT.fl

^""'

fi

Two measurements are stored:


The most recent meas-

urement is displayed before pressing the On/Reca

| button.

One stored measurement appears when the


On/Recall button is held
down.

su

Another stored mearement appears when

the On/Recall button

held down a
time.

is

second

-4.-3s.

-2 . -1 | 0 . | . 2F. 3.4.
a

trh'*,Jlr^'"'
.4.-3s..2

. -,1 .0

1 .

2re

3r{rr

trh'*'ffff'^'"'
-4.-3s. -i

*bli

iTlHEl r- l-l

. -l . 0 .

Zh.

t.o)i

rro
Fl{(

lr
".#-1 iln-o*"'

no measurements are stored, a large zero ("0")


appears on the digital display when the On/Recall
button is pressed.
f

The stored measurements can be displayed sequentially by repeatedly pressing the On/Recall button.
When the button is released, the most recent
measurement will appear on the data panel.

27

LECTED-L IGHT CALCU LATIONS


Reflected-light calculations must be made in
shutter-priority ("T lM E") mode. Aperture-priority
("FNo.") mode cannot be used.

RE F

Measurements can be taken

The f-number setting required for proper exposure

of the high light area will be indicated by the


digital f-number display. The " lll" mark indicates
that the highlight calculation is displayed.

or " NON.C" mode.

The reflected-light attachment, Viewfinder 5o or


inder 1 0o | | must be attached to the receptor

V iewf

head when making ref lected-light calcu lations.

use the Booster

lf you

When the

contrast
isplayed, the
pointer appears above

scale is

ll or Sinar Booster 1 for ref lected-

the

lations, the spherical diffuser must be


attached to the receptor head to obtain the proper

light

calcu

Highlight calculations should be used when the


most important areas in a scene are white or very

light tones. This method is especially usef ul when


shooting color-slide (color-reversal) f ilm, since it
ensures that suff icient high light detai I wil I be re.

("M-CLR") button to

scale is dispfayed, the

left pointer indicates


the h igh light ca lcu la-

-.

Li

has been increased

area.

1.4

2 2.8 4 5.6 I

JUg t- f,

ft

fSO f

11

FHo

t-l
tt

tt1

tion, and the right pointer

ind icates

162232456490.

nh

o""'

n.Ll Li-.
the

measu red

Before pressing the h igh light ' 'H" key, Vou can
store two measurements in the memory. The
highlight calculation will be based on the higher
measu rement.

specular

-2 . -l . 0 . 1 . 2Ho 3.4

-4.-3s.

*fulE li-l

t-l

li

"tr,

''|o

FNr

'

AMBI

| ,- -

iE, 1

3.

Press the h igh light


") key. The reading
will be stored in the
memory and the highlight exposu re wi | be
("H

-:-

ill

28

r "H"

ou"'

,P-t

2.3 stops.

hishlisht).

calcu lated automatical ly.

lette

,:I,LI

Once the h igh light ("H"1 key is pressed, the h ighlight calculation cannot be stored in the memory.
f only one measurement is memo rized, highlight
calculation is based on this measurements.

2. Measure a very light


area that contains some

detail (not a

ISO f rt
L-l -f

When the f -number

Highl ight Calculations

1 . Press the memory-clear


clear any previous readings.

sm al

*fiil

to indicate that the exposure

exposure indications.

ta ined

www.orphancameras.com

Shadow Calculations
Shadows calcu lations shou ld be made when a large
or very important area consists of darker tones. This
method is especially useful when shooting color-slide
f

ilm, since it

ensu

res that the shadow areas will

receive suff icient exposure.

1. Press the memory-clear


clear any previous readings.
2.

Measure a

dark

When the

contrast

scale is displayed, the


pointer appears above

-4.-3s. -2 . -1 . 0 .

*f,

il

'no

"".--

'l .

2H. 3.4.

ru
,- -7.n
'ii

AMBI

Lt |
\
the small letter "S" to
indicate that the exposure has been decreased

2.7 stops.
(M-C L R ")

button to

When the f-number


scale is displayed, the
right pointer indicates

the shadow calcu lation, and the left

area

that contains some detail


(not a solid black tone).

1.4

2.8

5.5

11 16

2232 456t

S*h'"'5".fifi

90

o'"'

pointer indicates the measured area.


Before pressing the shadow "S" key, you can store

two

in the memory. The shadow


will be based on the lower measure-

measurements

calculation

ment.
Once the shadow

.4.-3sr -2 . -1 . 0 .

1 .

2a.

##a '"'l.lJ J

3.4

^."'

("S") key is pressed, the shadow


calculation cannot be stored in the memory.
lf only one measurement is memorized, shadow
calculation is based on this measurements.

rt. Press the shadow


("S") key. The read ing
will be stored in the
memory and the shadow
exposure will be calculated automatically.

The f-number setting required for proper exposure


of the shadow area will be indicated by the digital
f-number display. The " E" mark indicates that a
shadow calculation is displayed.

29

Averaged Calculations
When the scene has a wide variety of brightness,
you can make an averaged calcu lation to determ ine
the best exposure. Using this method, the exposure is
calculated by averaging two measurements, such as a
highlight and a shadow measurement.
1 . Measu re the ightest
area that you want to
I

retain some detail (not

specu

lar

then press the


("M") button

2.

light),
memory

high

Measure the darkest

area

that you want to

retain some detail (not


a solid black tone), then
press the memory ("M")

-4.-3s.

JU!-

-2

. -l |

r' r-,
fl t-l

-4.-3s.

calcu

lation, press the

OnlRecall button or
the memory-clear ("MCLR") key. When the

OnlRecall button

pressed,

FN"

cent

f- f-

""-*,_l 7.n'E,
Lf

How to clear calculated measurements

o To clear a highlight,
shadow, or average

the most

measu

urements

button.
4t

\t.

Press the averagi ng


("A") key to calcu late an
average exposu re.

When the averaging key is pressed, the "E!.t' mark


appears above the digital f-number setting.

When the

contrast

scale is displayed, two

pointers will aPPear at


equal distances from
the center t'0" position

-4r-3s . -2
............:-

*fit
'to ti tl

. 0 .

I .

t""

Znc

3.lr r

un?

AMBI

1.Ll

When the f-num ber


scale is displayed, the

highlight

measure-

11.42 2.84s.68 n16223245eAgO

5*h

-",-f.hio*"'

ment is indicated by
the right pointer, the averaged exposure by the
center pointer, and the shadow measurement by
the left pointer.
averaged calculation, two measurements must be stored in the memory.

To make an

30

-JI

fq
t-t

is

re-

rement appear and the stored

will be retained.

meas-

When the memory-clear

("M-CLR") key is pressed, the most recent measurement appear and the stored measurements will
be cleared f rom the memory.

-2 . -l . 0 . 1 . 2r. 3.4
!

n1

RECALT

www.orphancameras.com

Checking Other Areas of the Scene

After making a highlight, shadow, or averaged


calculation, you can check how other areas of the
scene will be reproduced. For example, after making
a highlight calcufation, you can take measurements of
shadow and midtone areas to see how these will be
reproduced on the f ilm.
When the "H", "S", or 'tA" key is pressed, the
cafculated exposure is fixed on the digital dispfay.
Additional measurements will be ind icated on the
contrast scale. The following example shows how to
check other areas of a scene after making a highlight
calculation.
Use of the optional Viewfinder 5o or Viewfinder
10o

The examples below show how the different areas

of the scene will be reproduced if the exposure is


made at the highlight calculation.

a. Will be reproduced as
a specular highlight
with no detail.

b. Will be reproduced

-4.-3s.

-2 . -l . 0 o I . 2hr 9.4.

JIUE , -,

+9,

fl.fir^.''

as

a midtone value.

ll is recommended.

Measured area

l. A highlight calculation is displayed after


pressing the highlight ,H"

c. Will be reproduced as
a shadow tone with
some detail.

key.

2.

Measured area_______1

Press

.4.-3s.

-2 . -1 . O . .l . 2^. 3.t
.

tfiT-\

f.n1

the measuring

button to take a measure-

ment of
from the

o The

anothe

area

<-

scene.
measu rement is

indicated by second
pointer on the contrast scale, while the

highlight calculation
remains on the digital
display.

Measured area
-4.-3s. -2 . -l . 0 .

-#\

.TIME

ll n

'n.

1 .

LI

2A. 3.4
AMBI

fl.fl n

31

Changing the Highlight and Shadow Values


The Flash Meter IV is programmed to increase the

by 2.3 stops when the high light key is


to decrease the exposure by 2.7 stops

exposure

pressed, and

when the shadow key is pressed. These values produce correct exposure for highlights and shadows
when using most color-slide (color-reversal) f ilms.
However, when using some films, particufarly bfackand-white negative f ilms, you may want to change the
highlight and shadow vafues to provide more or less

Changing the Shadow Vatue

To increase the shadow value:


Hold down the "S" key and move the up/down
control upward.
To decrease the shadow value:

Hold down the


control downward.

After you have changed either the highlight or


vaf ue, the new value will be used f or all

further

caf cu lations until you reset the original values


or remove the battery.

Changing the Highlight Value


To increase the highlight value:

Hold down the

"H" key and move the up/down

the up/down control.


The shadow pointer moves to the right as the value
is decreased and to the left as the vafue is increase.

"H" key and move the up/down

*fi[i
ISO f

Et

control upward.
To decrease the highlight value:

Hold down the

Each time the up/down control is moved, the


num ber will change by 0.1 of a stop. The
number changes continuousfy if you keep pressing

digital

exposu re.

shadow

l.fi t

rt

-t

I
_4..3s.

the up/down control.

The highlight pointer moves

to the right as the

value is increased and to the left as it is decreased.

,4.-3s. -2 . -1 . O .

'J]!E

f n

FNo

-l,lt

Lil
-"'.--_l
\

Measu

1 .

tF

in

2x.

[,

,l
I

FNo E

'7.

"S" key pressed


-2.7 stops

aMEl

-4.-3s. -2 . -l . 0
1 . 28.
Zl. 3.4
O . 1
a

fir-r

'{o

E-

f r

AMBI

/ "'t_*l. 7.n fl
L'I

ew va ue : +2.5 stops
Q/10 stop more than

E,.fl r'^""'

''H" key pressed


Standard highlight value:
+2.3 stops

standard highlight value)


-4.-3s. -2 . -.1 . O
'

1 .

2x.

New value: -3.0 stops


(3110 stop f ess than standard shadow value)
.4.-3s.

-2 . -l . 0 . | . Zs. 3.u

*fi il

""1r

To cancel the adiusted setting:


Hold down the appropriate key

'*"

,?

r,

\.[l

aMB,

vaf ue

("H" or,'S"), and


move the up/down control downward until the
pointer on the contrast scale returns to "0" position.
o Adjusted values remain set until battery is removed.

3.4
o

trh'"'8,.f/ r,

^""'

va lue : +2.0 stops


1O stop less than

New
(31

standard highlight value)

32

FNo E

f f
-\ l.n
:l

standard shadow

rement taken

fir

Standard
shadow value :
-

,sa

LlLl

'-.'"'//

Ett-t
""---,
t-? -t
\

New value: -2.5 stops


(2/10 stop more than

fr L'

E f,

Jrud; I

-2 . -1 . 0 .

3.4

FMEI

JlMg

-2 . -t . O . .l . 28.

-4.-3s.

Measurement taken

control downward.

Each time the up/down control is moved, the


digital number will change by 0.1 of a stop. The
number changes continuously if you keep pressing

"S" key and move the up/down

www.orphancameras.com

EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT

After taking an incident-light measurement, you


may want to adjust the meter's indicated exposure to
compensate

for f ilter factors, bellows-extension

factors, etc. Listed below are some typical situations


where exposure adjustment shou ld be used.

with mostly lighter tones: Decrease


sure by 0.3 to 1.0 stop.
o Scenes with mostly darker tones: Increase
Scenes

expo-

sure by 0.3 to 0.5 stop.

rement, press the mem-

ory-clear button to clear

any previous

Polarizing filters require a 2-stop


increase in exposu re, f or example.
Bellows-extensions f actors: When the magnif ication is 1 12 life-size, a 1-stop increase in exposure is
require, for example.

readings

from the memory. Then

take an
expo-

o Filter factors:
o

To use the exposure-adjustment setting:


Bef ore ta k i ng a meas-

-4o-3s.-2 . -1 .0

',nMEt

r n
LfLf

FN(

. | . 2i. 3r4
'

r/-n

I r

iE

AME'

incident-light

reading in the usual way,

and press the "H" key to


calculate an exposure increase , or press the "S"
key to calculate an exposu re decrease. I n the

exam

le, the

SA

r1 tTl

exposu re

When using the Minolta Booster, Booster II, or


Sinar Booster 'l f or highlight or shadow readings.

was increased 2 stops to


compensate for a polariz-

(See note in the next column.)

ing filter.

*f i,
rSO f

,t

ni

'""

fl.fr,

^""'

To set the exposure-adjustment value:


To cancel an exposure-adjustment setting:
Hold down the appropriate key ("H " or "S"), and

To decrease exposure:

Hold down the "Ht'


key and move the upl
down control upward
until the desired change

move

the up/down control downward until

the

pointer on the contrast scale returns to 'tO" position.


o Exposure-adjustment values remain set until the
battery is removed.

is indicated.

NOTE

The exposure increase can be set from 0 to +4.0


stops in tenth-stop increments.

o The pointer on the

contrast scale moves

to

the

right as the exposure is increased.

To increase

ex posu re

calculations with the Minolta Booster, Booster II,


or Sinar Booster 1, we recommend that the highlight
va lue be set to the ' 'H' ' mark (+2.3 stops ) and the
shadow value to the "S" mark l-2,1 stops) on the
contrast scale.

Hold down the "S"


key and move the up/

-\\

down control

.=;-rr==l-

upward

until the desired change


is ind icated.

When using the Minolta Booster, Booster II, or


Sinar Booster 1 , the spherical diffuser must be attached to the receptor head. To make highlight or shadow

\*"-

SA

1-

O ri-r r-l

The exposure decrease can be set from 0 to -4.0


stops in tenth-stop increments.
The pointer on the contrast scale moves to the left
as the exposure is decreased.

33

MIXED LIGHTING: FLASH WITH AMBIENT


Analyze Function
The Flash Meter

IV features a special "analyze"

function which indicates the contribution to exposure


made by flash light sources and ambient light sources
such as daylight or tungsten light. The meter takes
f lash and ambient light measu rements at the same
time, then stores the measu rements separately. The
total exposure is shown on the digital display, while
pointers on the contrast scale indicate the total

exposure, f lash contribution,


con tr ibut ion

and

ambient-light

IGHT
Adjusting the settings
The amount of ambient light can be controlled by
changing the shutter speed or the f-number. The
amount of flash light can be controlled by changing
the flash power, the distance between the flash and
subject, or the f-number. After changing any settings,
take another measurement to determine the correct
ex posu re.

o In
sh u

By changing the shutter speed, f-number, o( flash


power, you make either light source dominant. For

if the

lit by flash and tungsten light


and you are using daylight-balanced color film, the
scene wif l appear redd ish when the tu ngsten light is
example,

th

scene is

dominant and normal when the f lash is dominant.


As you change the exposure settings, the pointers
on the contrast sca le will ind icate wh ich light sou rce
is dominant. For example, setting a slower shutter

-,1:l

mm

Eil

1tn,

1 .

bient light
I

brighter than the flash.

.0...ilj.,
IUg

. .r .tl

-, s
L-

. r . 2.. s.,.lii

FNo

,*,;;l
IUU

i fi

coRo

In th is photo, the
flash and ambient
light provided about
the same amount of
light. The pointers

'".

nction

became

am bient ight was


about 2-1 /4 stops

'iii.

|.fl

pear next to
ilcoRD

apeach

other when flash


am

Total exposure of f lash and ambient light


b: Flash light (blinking pointer)
c: Am bient light
Fu

was

dominant. The pointers indicate that the

2x o 3o4'?'i'

a:

To use "Anal yze"

speed

used so that the am-

speed will increase the amount ambient-light exposure. Or if you increase the f lash power, the f lash exposure will be more dominant.

-{o-tso -l- o -t '.' 0 .

is photo, a slow

tte r

bient light

and

sou rces

are about equa l.

.t.-3r. -2 o 1!j
-t .
1]!E

'so

-t

Fxo

i0o

In

th is photo, the
lash power was increased to ma ke the
f lash lighting dom if

1. Set switches on left side of meter to


"CONTRAST", "FN o." , "ANALYZE" , and
,,SING

2.

LE

".

nant. The pointers in-

dicate that the flash


Set f lash mode to either "CORD" or "NON .C"

o For the following examples, shutter-priority

was about 2-314 stops

brighter than the ambient light.

("TlME") mode was used, but aperture-priority

("FNo.") mode can also be used.

3.

34

Take a measurement.

www.orphancameras.com

@E A
L,
"", ,, ir Cl.

Fr&

'r

ItJ.Er i

coRo

To make the f lash light dominant:

To make the ambient light dom inant:


Decrease the shutter speed:
Set the function
switch to "T lM E ", and
move the u p/down con-

Increase the shutter speed:

Set the function


to "T lM E ", and

switch

move the up/down con-

trol upward to set

trol downward to set a


slower

sh

utter

speed

o The pointer f or ambient light will move


closer to the tO' '
position on the con-

o The pointer for flash


light will move

sca

le as the

bient light

am

becomes

the contrast scale

-4o-3s. -2 . -l . 0 .
[!tt4-9 f

|-,

FNo.

Ettt
". -_-_,
LI -t

-tli

-t

'

dom i nant.

.4.-3s.
lrtl'tel

I .

2x.

f f
J. f,

3.4zlr

-:'

or

bient light

am-

becomes

lash power should be

decreased by two
stops. lf th is is not
possible, dou ble the
d

istance between the

f lash

and

su

bject.

FNo.

-(iA

""fr
Lll

1 .

tt

Ft

1.U

3.4'rt

2x.

g]xorc

function

the t'0" position

-4.-3s

'':'fi
rso t:

o fn this example, "-2


GV" indicates that

ruorr c

-lt

i
-4.-3s. -2 . -l d b .

Set the

set

dom i nant.

f f
7.n

switch to "Gv " , and


move u p/down control
upward to set a positive
"GV" number.
o The blinking pointer
will move closer to

"GV" number.
f

Increase amount of f lash light:

move the u p/down conpointe r

FNo

firt
".;;---t
t]t -t

X-sync range.

PJ.';i.rr"o^rc

Set the function


switch to "Gv " , and

bient light will move


closer to the t'O''
position on the contrast scale as the am-

the

! -t'l 3 . r . 2". 3.it\

fl

iTlMEj -, r-

Decrease the amount of f lash illumination:

o The

o Make sure that

-{.-3s. -2
'J]',E f

FNo.

Lf l

a negative

as

be-

shutter speed you set


is within the camera's

I f

the f lash light


comes dominant.

Nor'. c

! I . r . ,,. ,.rii{

*=f_1

trol downward to

closer

to the "0" position on

trast

faster shutter speed.

ll
U

Llt

. 2H. 3.4/a[

.l

-2

FNo.

+rt

rLl @

ro,

-f,

i't
Ll

comes dominant.
-l
-l

-4.-3s

. -e't'.

| .

#fat*t'l.ll

2a.

3.4'

'At(

J^,""'

is example , "*2
in d icates th at
GV"

In

th

. z*.

Ool

''"fifi
rso

ruori.c

i
. 0 .

on

the contrast scale as


the f lash light be-

t*

+rt
LI

E. U

Lll

rr

o -1. Lfi-t

lt
-l

3.i'4{

NoH c

t
-4.-3s

-2

''" fi fl

.-l

. r . 2,.

3.7F'

+ 'l
flash power should be
fi i j rltHoH.c
r @ ,J.LI
fSO f ,t
LI
Et't
increased by two
stops or distance between the flash and subiect
should be decreased by one-half .
aaaa

35

FILL.IN FLASH
Often when taking pictures in direct sunlight, the
shadows on the subject appear too dark. One way to
lighten these shadows is

to fire an electronic flash

unit to "fill-in" (lighten) the shadow. Another name


for fill-in flash is "synchro-sun" flash.
The Flash Meter IV's memory function lets you
store and compare separate measurements of ambient
light (using "AMB l" mode) and f lash light (using

"CORD" or "NON.C" mode). Then by pressing the


On/Recall key, you can compare the measurements,
and adjust the f lash.

a small amount of flash light is


to fill in the shadows. A good starting point is
to use about two stops less flash light than the
am bient light. With experience, you can vary the
amount of fill-in flash according to your needs.
The following steps explain how to make fill-flash

3. With the meter set


to "CORD" or " NON.C"

flash mode, take a

rement of the
light (wh ile holding the
meter near you r su bsu

ject).

dlt+\

meaf lash

<-

ilHl

Use the same shutter-speed setting that you used

for the ambient-light measurement.

Usually only

needed

measurements using incident-l ight readings, but


reflected-light readings can also be taken.
To make fill-in flash measurements:
1

. With the

1.4

*E[IF
TtMe',

2 28 4
l-t

lso f: u

L'I
so the f lash was adjusted to produce a reading of f /4.

f-nu m ber requ ired f or


correct exposu re of the

5.6

8 il 16 2232 4564

90

FNa
FNO

u,.fr

CORD

il

bient light.
"TlM E" mode shou ld be used so that you can set
the shutter speed with the camera's X-sync ra nge .

2.
("M

Press

")

the

memory

key to store the

read ing.

Ambient light only

-4.-3..

-2 . .l . 0 .

Ttt{E 1- fl
=

f-r

Li

'"

FNo

"-.r--h

36

f-number for the flash light is about two stops less


than the am bient light. Take another f lash measu rement to conf irm the change.
o To compare the measurements, the ambient-light
measurement can be displayed by pressing the
On/Recall key. The flash measurement reappears
when you release the key.
required f-number for
am bient light was f 18,

ight reading in
"AM B l" mode to determine the shutter-speed/
incident-l

am

change the
distance between the flash and subject so that the

o For this example, the

spherical

diffuser attached, take an

4. Adjust the flash's power level or

I .

2-.

a.o.

n f, - o*"'
fl.iln

www.orphancameras.com

Ambient light with fill-in flash

Compa
ments

ring I ncident- and

R ef

lected- L ight Measu re-

Measured area
-4.-3s. '2 . -l

Memorized measu rements are stored in the mem-

ory even if you change the light receptor. After


taking an incident-light measurement, you can

iTlMEl

,- ,.,

firt

ISO t- rt

tt'r

attach the reflected-light attachment (or Viewfinder


5o, Viewf inder 1 0" II) and check the exposure for

Measu

highlight and shadow areas.

tone.

For this

explanation, ambient-light mode

Press

the

1,-

Liti,!r

press the memory ("M")


key to store the measurement.

Measu red area


a

1-

;-1

L-I

LI
t-r

"",r-Et

[*;-'

be

Snrd

previous readings.

2. Take an incidentlight measurement and

red area will

was

to clear any

memory-clear button

ff

reproduced as a highlight

used, but both f lash modes can also be used.

1,

----1

Measu

"'fli7r,

AMBI

red area wi | be
a black
|

reproduced as

tone with no detail.


Measured area
.4.-3sr -2 . -1 . 0 .

1 .

2^.

3.4
a

-4o-3sr -2 . -1 . 0 .
Irtg

,-,

LtLt
,*;,n
l:

FNo

L"\

3.

Detach the

spherica

1 .

2".

nn
il.Li d

3.4
aMBl

.-.

FNo tr

ftUe

r; ff

""

,ff--t,

Measu

AMBI

P,.iJ n

red area

wi

be

reproduced as a shadow
tone with some detail

diffuser and attach the

reflected-light attachment, Viewfinder


finder 10" II.

5o

, or View-

4. Press the averaging


("A") key. The " a"

mark will appear above


the digital f-number display.

-2 . -'l . 0 . I . 2^. 3.4

-4.-3s.

r@r,-, * '
^r,
tlt ti
-\
Ll
'*,:,J
n-l

5.
bu

Press the measuring

tton to

ta

ke

m ea su re-

AMal

fTl

ments of other areas.

3
The incident-light

measu

rement

will

be shown on

the digital display, while pointers on the contrast


sca le wi ll ind icate the oth er measurements.
37

MEASUREMENTS FOR MOVIE CAIVIERAS

1,

Set switches on left side of meter to:

.
Digital-displayswitch.
Normallanalyze switch..
Singlelmulti switch

. "F No."

Analog-display switch.

.."FNo."
. "NORM"
"SING LE"

Shutter-sector open ing


Shutter-sector opening is 180" for all frame rates.
ff you use a movie camera that has a shutter-sector

opening other than 1 80", the f ilm speed shou


adjusted according to the table below.
Sh utte r-sector
open i ng
1

60"

2.

Set measuring mode

to "AMB 1".

AH

Adjustment to
fi lm speed

-1

220"

ld be

13

+1 13

Decrease ISO setting by 1/3 stop


(e.9., for ISO 100 film, set ISO 80).
+1 13: Increase ISO setting by 1/3 stop
(e.g ., f or ISO 100 film, set ISO 120l-

-1 13:

l-l

5.

Press

the

measu ring

C*

button to take a measure-

ment. The

requ ired

f-number will be displayed on the data panel.

3.

Set function switch


to "T|ME".

<E

E]
o In this example, the
rame rate was set to
24 frames per second
and the requ ired t-

l.t 2LO 4 5.68 ll162,232456490

4. Set frame

(frames per second) by


moving the up/down control.

Frame rates appear after 1/8000 sec. in shutterspeed d isplay.

The f ollowing f rame rates can be set:


18, 24,32, and 64 f rames per second.

38

"#o\'*y.0

number was f 14 plus 0.1 stop.

rate

8, 12, 16,

www.orphancameras.com

ro*"'

LIGHTING RATIO CALCULATIONS


The meter's memory function lets you check the
lighting ratio (relative brightness) of various light
sources. By controlling the lighting ratio, you can
vary the amount of shadow detail in a photograph.
For example, lighting ratios f rom 2:1 through 4:1
produce lighter shadows which are desirable in color
portraits. Whereas lighting ratios of 6: 1 and higher
produce much deeper shadows and are often used

5.

Hold the meter next


so that the
diffuser's surface is per-

to the subject

lar to the
light sou rce, then

pendicu

<r

main
press

the measuring button to


take a reading.

in dramatic black-and-white portraits.

tta

-4.-34. -2 . -1 . 0 .
rtuL/'

1. Attach the optional


o

2".

a,

LtLt

'r" Llr,rI

flat diffuser.

1 .

''

3.U.
AMBI

_.

l.i

ExlN.

Shield the diffuser from other light sources with

your hand to their light from striking the flat


diffuser and affecting the reading.

6.

the

Press

memory

button to store the readi

ll

[ , rlv ],,.,,1 ii

ng.
RECALL

tr

Z.

Set switches on left side of meter to "CON


TRAST", "ExlN", "NORM ", and "SINGLE".

f**

cv
I rso
I FNo.
I

3. Set the measuring


mode to "AM B l"

7.

"CORD", or " NON.C".

to

ta

Repeat steps 5 and 6


ke a read ing of the

other light

sou rce.

<b
4. Set the

function

switch to "T lM E ".

'

#t
#

Ji ry

REuAr-u

rA

L,
,-;;-\

Any shutter speed can be used. In average illumination, a speed around 1160 sec. should produce

Ll

,l .

2^.

Lf

l-Hlil

VryI
o

llt
-4.-3s. -2 . -'l . 0 .
JtlA' E n

ErlN.

3.4

AMBI

7.';l

The pointers on the contrast scale will indicate the


difference in illumination with quarter-stop
accu racy.

acceptable resu lts. Use a f aster speed in very bright


light, and a slower speed in low light.

39

GUIDE NUMBER CALCULATIONS

o When the

f-number
16 2232 4566 90 .
1
2 2.8 4 5.6 8
scale is displayed, the
o'"'
fi
,:. ,,
pointers show the dif"" ../n ExrN -l.Li
ference in illumination with half-stop accuracy.

* ii
1.4

o To check the lighting


ratio to 1/1O-stop ac-

11

2.

Attach the optionaf flat diffuser.


Set switches on left side of meter to:

Analog-displayswitch.. ."FNo."
"ExlN"
Digital-display switch.
.."NORM"
Normallanalyze switch..
"S lN G LE "
Single/mu lti switch
3. Set measuring mode to "CORD" or "NON.C"

displayed on the data


f

1.

i.5

EU
L''

curacy, hold down the


on/reca ll switch. The
f irst read ing wil I be

panel. When you

The Flash Meter IV can be used to determine the


guide number for flash bulbs or electronic flash.

mode.
"CO

re-

ton, the second reading is displayed again. Sub-

I N " number f rom the larger


"Exf N" number to determine the difference in
stops between to the twq read i ngs. R ef e r to the
table to f ind the approximate lighting ratio.

D" mode must be used to

make

gu ide

number calculations for flash bulbs. Either mode


can be used f or electronic f lash.

ease the on lrecall but-

tract the smaller "Ex

Stops difference

Approx. lighting ratio

0.6

1.5:1

4.

Set function switch


100.

to "lSO", then set f ilm speed

to ISO

5.

Set function switch to "TlME".

6, Set the meter's shutter

speed

within

your

camera's x-sync range.

1.0

2:1

1.6

3:1

2.O

4:1

2.6

6:1

3.0

8:1

4.O

16:1

5.0

32:1

7 . Position the f lash meter at a f ixed d istance, such


as 1 meter (3.3 feet) from the flash unit and aim the
diffuser directfy at the flash unit.

8.

Take a f lash reading in the usual way.

9.

Use the displayed "Ex I N " number in the f ormu


below to determine the guide number.

la

ExlN

G.N. = 1.14 x d x 2 2
Where d = Flash-to-merer distance
Example

With a display reading of "ExlN 10.0" at ISO 100


and a f lash-to-meter d istance of 1 meter, work the
equation

as

follows:
10

G.N. = 1.14 x
-- 1.14 x

*Z'
x2s

x x32
= 36.5 in meters at ISO 100 (aPProx.)

= 1.14

40

www.orphancameras.com

L LUM

To

INANCE CA LCU LATIONS

measure

the illum inance of an ambient light

(non-f lash ) source

Attach the optional flat diffuser.

2.

Set switches on left side of meter to:

Analog-displayswitch.. ..

Digital-displayswitch.
Norm al lanalyze switch . .
Single/mu lti switch
3,

."CONTRAST"

.."ExlN"
. "NO R M"
. "S I N G LE "

Exposure Value Numbers


To determine the Exposure value for ambient light
measurement, set the meter to "AMB|" and "TlME"
modes, then set the shutter speed to either 1 sec. or
any "ClN E" setting. Any ISO f ilm-speed setting can
be used. The "Exl N" number that will appear after
taking a measurement is the Exposure Value ("EV")
at that ISO setting.

Set measuring mode to "AM Bl".

4- Set function switch to "lSO", then set the


film

speed

5.

Set function switch to

to

6.

1 sec.

to ISO 100.

or any of the

"TlME" and shutter

speed

lN E settings.

Position the meter so that the

flat diffuser

is

parallel with and as close as possible to the subject


be ing i I lu m i nated , then press the measu ring button to
ta

ke a read i ng.

7.

Use the

"ExlN" number in the formula below.


fux=2.5x2ExrN

Lux
100,000
10,000
1,000
100
10
1

10

12

14

16

lExlN.l

Example

With a display reading of "Ex lN 10.0" work the


equation

as

follows:

fux- 2.sxrExlN
-2.5x2lo'o
= 2.5 x 1024
= approx. 2600
NOTE

o F or precise measu rement of

il lum inance, use of


the Minolta llluminance Meter is recommended.

4'.1

IN

FRARED R EIVIOTE COIVTROL

The F lash Meter IV has a built-in inf rared ( | R )


transmitter that permits remote control via the optional Data Receiver D R- 1 000 or I R Receiver-Trigger.
Designed exclusively f or use with M inolta
(Maxxum) 7000 and 9000 AF SLR cameras, the Data
Receiver D R- 1 000 ets you to trigger a f lash unit, set
the camera's f-number and shutter speed, and release
the shutter-all by remote control.
f

The I R Rece iver-Trigger can be used with any


camera and any electronic flash unit and permits
remote triggering of the f lash un it when taking

3. Point the lR trans,


mitter window on the
meter at the Data Recei-

D R-1000 (or lR
Receiver-Trigger) and
press the measuring button to trigger the flash

ver

un it.

The f lash will f ire and


the exposure reading

flash readings.

will appear on

A 6-volt

meter's data panel.

alka

line or

d /t{
__JF

ill Hl
:-_
u*;

11.422.8t

i(

the

5.6

11 16 22 32 45 64 90

Ft'lo.

''o fiY

E'ft

\\f/

EI.LI t-s / l\

NoN.

6.2-volt silver-oxide bat-

tery must be

installed

in battery chamber B on
the Flash Meter IV to use

the lR Receiver-Trigger
or Data Receiver D R1

ffi

000.

))))))))))

DR-1000 or lR
Receiver-Trigger

Camera

lR Receiver-Trigger or Data Receiver DR-1000


Remote triggering of a flashunit:
I

| . Set measuring mode


to "NON.C".

tr

Z.

Press the measuring


button once to activate

the meter's circu it.

o "NON.C" will

blink

on the data panel.

AH

:J l*1

drq

-H

<b

ill Hl
1

.ore

1.4

2 2.8 4 5.6 8

i( a

"'[/,

42

11 16

2232 b564

Ft{o

90

r\

|z

7)"ii

www.orphancameras.com

CALIBRATION

IV has been precisely calibrated


standard during manufacture. No further

The Flash Meter

Data Receiver DR-1000

(For Minolta (Maxxuml 7000 and 9000 AF SLR

to Minolta's

of the meter is usually required for


However, should you wish to
results.
optimum
calibrate the Flash Meter IV to match the reading
from another meter, the Flash Meter IV can be
adjustment

Transfer of exposure settings:

1. Aim the lR transmitter window on the meter at


the Data Receiver D R-1 000.
2.

Press the data-trans-

mission ("DATA OUT")


button.

-0.8 to +0.7 EV f rom the standard setting.


To adiust the meter, use a small screwdriver to
turn the measuring-level adjustment screw which is
adjusted

located under the battery cover. Turning the screw


clockwise produces a higher reading; turning counter-

clockwise produces

a lower reading.The

around the screw represent 0.2 EV steps


the diagram.

as

marks

shown by

NOTE

The shutter speed and


f-number settings dis-

played on the meter


will be transf erred to

The Flash Meter IV should be adjusted only after


determ in ing that the standard setting wi ll not
produce the desired resu lts.

the camera.
-0.2stop

Transf
shutte

1.
the

2.

er of
r

exposu re

settings

with

- 0. 1 stop

*0.lstop

*0.2stop

- 0.3stop

*0.3stop

- 0.4stop

*0.4stop

-0.5stop

*0.5stop

simultaneous

release:

Aim the lR transmitter window on the meter at


D

ata Receiver D R-1000.

Press

release

the

-0.6stop

shutter-

-0.7stop -0.Bstop *0.7stop

*0.6stop

("RELEASE")

button.

RELEASE

The shutter speed and f-number settings displayed


on the meter will be transferred to the camera,
then the shutter will be released.
The following data can be transmitted:
Shutter speeds: 1|4OOO sec. to 30 sec. using Minolta

F-numbers:

(Maxxum) 9000. 1|2OOO sec. to 30


sec. using Minolta (Maxxum) 7000.
Any available f-number f rom the
range available on the AF lens in use.

For example, f rom


the AF 85mm lens

t,'l

.4 to f 122 with

o lf the transferred data is outside the camera's


shutter-speed or f-number range, the closest
available setting is used. For example, 1/4000 sec.
be set if the shutter speed displayed on the
meter's data panel is 1/8000 sec.

will

43

ACCESSORIES
lR Receiver-Trigger

Sinar Booster

The lR Receiver-Trigger lets you trigger a f lash


unit by remote control. This unit connects to the

The Sinar Booster 1 enables you to take measure-

flash unit's sync terminal and receives infrared signals


from the Flash Meter fV. lt can be used with any
electronic flash unit.

ments at the f ilm plane of any large-format view


camera. The unit's probe slips into the camera back.
ff has a rectangular 2.5 x 3mm window that marks
the target field which can be positioned anywhere

at the film plane. Flash or ambient light

measure-

ments can be taken through the lens at any aperture


setting. This eliminates the need to compensate for
bellows extension factors. Contact your nearest Sinar
dealer for further information.

v
Data Receiver DR-l000

The Data Receiver DR-l000 mounts on the camera's


accessory shoe and receives infrared signals from the
Flash Meter [V. The DR-l000 enables wireless remote
control of Minolta (Maxxum) 7000 and 9000 cameras.
With the DR-1000, you can use the Flash Meter IV to
trigger a flash unit, set the shutter speed and f-number, and release the shutter.

Viewfinder 5"

The Viewfinder 5o attaches to the meter's receptor


head for taking spot measurements of ref lected light.
f t has a 5o angle of acceptance and can be used to
take precise measurements of both f lash and ambient
light.

Booster

II

The Boostsr

II is a highly

sensitive receptor for taking

reflected-light measurements (of flash or ambient


light) of very small areas of a scene. Readings can be
taken off a camera's groundglass screen, through a
viewfinder or a microscope optic, or at the f ilm plane.
' The Booster II can also be used for ordinary ref lected-light measurements, and has an angle of acceptance of approx. 60".
Note: Whenever the Booster II is used, the spherical
diffuser must be attached to the meter's receptor
head

44

to produce correct

Viewfinder 10" II
The View f inder l Oo

II can also be used for taking


spot measurements. lt has a 10" angle of acceptance.
Precise readings are possible by positioning the circle
in the viewfinder on the area to be measured.

readings.

www.orphancameras.com

Flat Diffuser

The F lat D iff user shou ld be used when determin ing


the lighting ratio between various light sources or to
calculate the illuminance values for continuous light
sources and guide numbers for f lash units. lt can also
be used for incident-light readings of f lat surfaces.

Mini Receptor
The Mini Receptor plugs into the accessory-receptor
jack on the side of the meter's receptor head . lt is
used to measure incident light in places that are

otherwise inaccessible to the meter's receptor head. lt


is especially useful for close-up and macrophotography.

Sync Cord II
The Sync Cord

II is a 5-meter long cord that connects


the meter, flash unit, and camera's sync terminal
together. Using this cord, you can take f lash readings
and release the shutter without changing connections.

Spot Mask
The Spot Mask lets you use the Flash Meter fV as an
enlarging meter. After determining the exposure for a
standard negative, you can measure areas of a subsequent negatives that have similar densities as the
standard negative.

4X and 8X Spherical ND Diffusers


These Spherical

iff users have neutral-density

filters which extend the upper limit of the meter's


measurement range by two stops (witfr 4X diffuser)
or three stops (with 8X diffuser). These diffusers
should be used when the light source is too bright to
be measured with the standard diffuser attached.

II

45

TECHNICAL DETAILS
Type: Multiple-function exposure meter for measuring ambient and flash light; incident- and reflectedlight readings possible with both digital and analog
readouts on LCD data pane | ; ana lyze f u nction for

ments

Aperture Value ("ExlN") numbers: -15.9 to 45.6

readings of ambient-f lash lighting

Receptor: Silicon photocell; receptor head rotates

Incident: Spherical diff user (or other optional

diff users)

lected-light attachment with 40"


acceptance (or optional Viewfinder 5o,

lected:

angle

of

Ref

Viewf inder 10'

il)

External receptors: Optional


II

ini

"

Receptor,

f ncident: f lO.7 to f/90 +0.9


Reflected: f 11.O to tlg0 +0.9 with reflected-light

attachment or Viewf inder 1 0" il; f 11 .4 +0.2 to


f lg} +0.9 with Viewfinder 5o
Ambient light measuring ranges at ISO 100:
Incident: EV -2 to EV 19.5
' Ref lected: EV 1 .0 to EV 22.5 with 40o receptor
' or Viewf inder 10" il; EV 2.2 to EV 23.7 with
Viewfinder 5"
Measuring modes:

"AMB

l": For ambient

light readings
"CORD": For electronic ffash, M-class flashbulbs
with or without ambient light; using f lash unit's
sync cord or optional Sync Cord II
"NON.C": For electronic flash with or without
ambient light; trigger cord not required
Multiple/cumulative readings: Possible with incident
or ref lected light readings of ambient or f lash light
Repeatability: 10.1 EV

to 1 /8000 sec. in 1 -stop


increments
Frames-per-second for movie cameras: 8, 12, 16,
18, 24, 32, 64; shutter-sector opening of 180"
Film-speeds: ISO 8 to ISO 6400 in 1/3-stop
increments

Number of multiple/cumulative exposures:0 to I


(displays last digit of accumulated readings over 9
exposu res in shutter-priority mode)

Guide value (GV) numbers:

Minolta Booster

Flash measuring ranges:

n 0. 1 -stop i ncrem en ts

Shutter speeds: 30 min.

270"
Reception method:

Ref

igital readouts/d isplays :


F-numbers: flO.7 to f 190 +0.9 in 0.1-stop incre-

increments
Analog displays:

-8 to 8 in

l-stop

F-number scale: t11.0 to flg} (in 1l2-stop increments)


Contrast : -4 .O to 4.0 in 1 /4-stop increments
(1 l2-stop increments from
-4 to -3 or 3 to 4)
Other displays: Over- and under-range signals; memo-

ry marks (up to two); analyze function indicator;


highlight, shadow, ohd average calculation marks
Other: Analyze function for metering ambient and
lash light together; Aperture-priority measurement
of ambient and flash light; Infrared remote triggering
of any f lash unit using optional lR Receiver-Trigger;
wireless data transfer to Minolta (Maxxum) 7000
and 9000 cameras via optional Data Receiver D Rf

000

Power source: One AA-size 1 .5-volt alkaline or


carbon-zinc, or 1.2-volt nickel-cadmium for measure-

ment and display; one 6-volt alkaline (4LR44, Eveready 537 or equiv.) or 6.2-volt silver-oxide (+SR44,
Eveready 544 or equiv.) for infrared data transmission

Dimensions= 28

in.)

x 68 x 153mm

(1-1

/8 x 2-1U16 x 6

'

Weight: 2009 (7-1 116 oz.l without batteries


Specif ications subject

46

www.orphancameras.com

to change without notice.

CARE AND STORAGE

o Do not press on or damage


o

the indication-display
window
Do not subject the meter to shock or vibration.

The Flash Meter IV

ing agent, such as silica gel.


is designed

for

use

at tempera-

tures 50o and -10oC. lf the unit becomes hotter or


colder than this, operation may be unsatisfactory.

never be placed or left in the


glove compartment or other places in a motor
vehicle, or eleswhere, where it may be subject to

temperatures higher than 55oC,

-20"c,

as

it may be permanently

Never attempt tq disassemble the meter.Any


repairs necessary should be undertaken only by an
authorized Minolta service facility.

o The meter should

'

to be stored, place it in its


original packing, and put it in an air-tight container with an appropriate amount of dehumidify-

When the meter is

or lower

o The meter body may be wiped with a siliconetreated cloth to clean it. Do not allow alcohol or
chemicals of any other kind to touch its surface.

than

damaged. parti-

cular care should be taken not to leave the meter

in sunf ight or near sources of heat such as strong


lights, etc. Do not store it in humid places, or near

o lf the meter is not to

corrosive chemicals.

o lf

Never lubricate any part of the meter.

weeks,

be used for two or more


it is advisable to remove the battery.

the meter is left or placed in direct sunlight for

any long period, the indication-display window


will turn black.

I
t

I
I

I
I

47