Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 2655 e 2662
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Maximum power point tracker of wind energy conversion system
M. Kesraoui ^{a} ^{,} * , N. Korichi ^{b} , A. Belkadi ^{b}
^{a} Laboratory of applied automatics, Faculty of hydrocarbons and chemistry, M ’ hamed Bougara University, Avenue de l ’ indépendance, 35000, Boumerdès, Algeria ^{b} Department of electronics and electrical engineering, Faculty of engineering sciences, M ’ hamed Bougara University, Avenue de l ’ indépendance, 35000, Boumerdès, Algeria
article info
Article history:
Received 22 March 2010 Accepted 21 April 2010 Available online 15 May 2010
Keywords:
WECS PMSG MPPT algorithm PWM converters controllers
abstract
In this paper, a simple control strategy for an optimal extraction of output power from grid connected
variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) is presented. The system consists of a variable
speed wind turbine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) through a gear box, a diode bridge recti ﬁ er, a dctodc boost converter and a current controlled voltage source inverter. The maximum power point tracker (MPPT) extracts maximum power from the wind turbine from cutin to rated wind velocity by sensing only dc link power. The MPPT step and search algorithm in addition to the
DC e DC and DC e AC converters PWM controllers are simulated using MATLABSIMULINK software. The
obtained simulation results show that the objectives of extracting maximum power from the wind and
delivering it correctly to the grid are reached.
2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Variable speed wind energy systems integrated with power electronic interfaces are becoming popular because they can extract maximum power from the wind, alleviate the load peak in drive train and supply reactive power on demand. For maximum energy extraction, the speed of the turbine should be varied with wind speed so that the optimum tipspeed ratio is maintained constant. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is developed. It extracts maximum power from the wind turbine for wind speeds from cutin to rated, by generating a suitable reference voltage to the dc e dc converter. A separate controller generates the reference current for the inverter in such a way that the dc link voltage is maintained constant. The WECS used will be described ﬁ rstly. It is followed by the presentation of the MPPT step and search algorithm and the used PWM inverter and dc e dc converters controllers. Finally the MATLABSIMULINK models used as well as the simulation results will be given.
2. Wind energy conversion system
The wind generator system is formed by a ﬁ xed pitch wind turbine, a permanent magnet synchronous generator, a passive recti ﬁ er, a dctodc boost converter and a current controlled voltage source inverter. It is shown in Fig. 1.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 213 669.53.34.86; fax: þ 213 24.81.91.72. Email address: mkesraoui@umbb.dz (M. Kesraoui).
09601481/$ e see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.renene.2010.04.028
2.1. Wind turbine system
The blades of a wind turbine extract the energy ﬂ ow from moving and deliver it via a gear box unit to the rotor of an electric generator. The wind power is estimated by [1] :
^{P} Wind ^{¼}
1
_{2} rA y ^{3}
(1)
Where, r is the air density which varies with air pressure and temperature. The power coef ﬁ cient C _{p} is usually given as a function of the tip speed ratio l and the blade pitch angle b. The pitch angle is the angle between the plane of rotation and the blade cross section chord [3] . The tip speed ratio of a wind turbine is de ﬁ ned as:
l ¼ ^{u} ¼ ^{r} ^{u} ^{R}
y
1
y
1
(2)
Where u is the tangential velocity of the blade pitch, u _{R} the angular velocity of the rotor, r the rotor radius in meters, and y _{1} the wind speed. For the wind turbine used in this paper, C _{p} as a function of l is given by the following equation [1] :
C _{p} ¼ 0 : 043 0 : 108 l þ 0 : 146 l ^{2} 0 : 062 l ^{3} þ 0 : 014 l ^{4}
0 : 0006 l ^{5}
(3)
The output power of the wind turbine P _{t} is calculated as:
1
P _{t} ¼ _{2} C _{p} ð lÞ A y ^{3}
(4)
The mechanical power versus the generator rotor speed for different wind speeds is shown in Fig. 2 . The power extracted from
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Fig. 1. WECS with MPPT and converters controllers.
the wind is maximized when the power coef ﬁ cient C _{p} is at its maximum. This occurs at a de ﬁ ned value of the tip speed ratio l. Hence for each wind speed there is an optimum rotor speed where maximum power is extracted from the wind. Therefore if the wind speed is assumed to be constant, the value of C _{p} depends on the wind turbine rotor speed. Thus, by controlling the rotor speed, the power output of the turbine is controlled.
2.2. Electrical system
The electrical system schematic is shown in Fig. 1 [2] . The wind turbine converts the power of the wind to mechanical power in the rotor shaft. This is then converted to electricity using a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The output voltage is recti ﬁ ed using a threephase diode bridge recti ﬁ er. The dctodc converter is used to control the dc voltage V _{d}_{c} across capacitor C _{1} . The MPPT controller delivers a voltage reference that is compared to the actual value of V _{d}_{c} . The result is fed into a PI controller whose output is compared to a triangular waveform to determine when to turn the dc e dc boost converter switch ON or OFF. The voltage source PWM inverter interfaces the wind turbine system with the power grid. It operates so that the amplitude of the output current varies in order to keep constant the dc side voltage V _{0} across the capacitor C _{o} .
3. Control systems
3.1. Maximum power tracking algorithm
Due to its monotonic characteristics, wind turbines can be controlled to yield maximum power using search control methods. Before explaining the maximum power tracking controller, it is important to understand the basic physics of the system. The generated mechanical power is given by [3 e 5] :
P _{m}_{e}_{c}_{h} ¼ T _{m}_{e}_{c}_{h} ð t Þ u _{R} ð t Þ
(5)
Where, T _{m}_{e}_{c}_{h} is the mechanical torque. For simpli ﬁ cation, the generated electric power of a onephase generator is given by
P _{e} ð t Þ ¼ V _{a} ð t Þ I _{a} ð t Þ
(6)
V _{a} and I _{a} are the generator voltage and current respectively. Assuming no losses in the system, then
T _{m}_{e}_{c}_{h} ð t Þ $ u _{R} ð t Þ ¼ V _{a} ð t Þ I _{a} ð t Þ 
(7) 
The basic electrical and motion equations are 

T _{e} ¼ kI _{a} I _{f} 
(8) 
Fig. 2. Typical power versus speed characteristics of a wind turbine.
Fig. 3. Maximum power tracking process.
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(15)
(16)
Fig. 4. Block diagram of a typical dctodc converter controller.
_{I} a _{¼} V _{a} E _{a}
R
a
(9)
E _{a} ¼ kI _{a} u _{e}
(10)
Where, u _{e} ¼ ^{p} u _{R} and p is the number of poles of the generator. Using (3) e (10) , the power is obtained by
2
The function P _{m}_{e}_{c}_{h} ( V _{d}_{c} ) has a single point where maximum power extraction is achieved. It also means that the maximum power can be tracked by searching the recti ﬁ ed dc power, rather than environmental conditions, such as wind speed and direction. The MPPT algorithm is as follows [6] :
One initiates the maximum power searching process by setting an arbitrary dc side voltage reference V _{r}_{e}_{f} . The controller then measures both the dc side current and voltage, and calculates the initial electric power P _{o} ¼ V _{d}_{c} I _{d}_{c} . Next, the reference voltage V _{r}_{e}_{f} is increased by DV _{d}_{c} so that.
P _{e} ¼ ^{u} ^{R} ^{k}^{I} ^{f} V _{a} kI _{f} u _{e}
R
a
(11)
Where, u _{e} is the electrical angular speed, I _{f} the ﬁ eld current, E _{a} armature voltage and R _{a} armature resistance. For a diode rectiﬁ er, the dc output voltage, V _{d}_{c} is proportional to the generator phase voltage V _{a} , (11) can be expressed as:
P _{e} ¼ ^{u} ^{R} ^{k}^{I} ^{f}
_{R} _{a} V dc kI f ^{u} e
d
P e
Maximum power is at _{V} dc ¼ 0
d
(12)
(13)
It is noticed from (12) that the power extracted from the wind can be controlled by varying the dc bus voltage, which is a func tion of I _{f} and u _{e} . Considering the wind turbine characteristics given in Fig. 2 , we know that the maximum power point is obtained when.
V _{r}_{e}_{f} ð k Þ ¼ V _{r}_{e}_{f} ð k 1 Þ þ DV _{d}_{c}
Then the dc power is calculated with P ( k ) ¼ V _{d}_{c} ( k ) I _{d}_{c} ( k ). If P ( k ) is bigger than P ( k 1), the maximum power point has not been reached therefore, the voltage reference needs to be increased by DV _{d}_{c} and the dc power needs to be compared. This process will repeat until maximum power is reached. And if P ( k ) is less than P ( k 1), the dc voltage reference is then decreased by DV _{d}_{c} . In order to search for maximum power at any wind speed four conditions must be met.
(17)
1. If P ð k Þ P ð k 1 Þ and V _{d}_{c} ð k Þ V _{d}_{c} ð k 1 Þ , the dc side voltage reference need to be increased by DV _{d}_{c} . This condition is met when the turbine operates on the low speed side of the power curve, shown on Fig. 3 .
2. If P ð k Þ P ð k 1 Þ and V _{d}_{c} ð k Þ 3 V _{d}_{c} ð k 1 Þ , the wind turbine is being operated in the high speed side and the dc reference voltage needs to be decreased by DV _{d}_{c} .
Fig. 5. Block diagram of voltage source inverter controller.
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WIND TURBINE
Fig. 6. WECS simulation block diagram.
Fig. 7. PMS generator and dctodc converter model.
when the turbine is operated in the high speed side of the dome and the power is decreasing. 4. When P ð k Þ 3 P ð k 1 Þ and V _{d}_{c} ð k Þ 3 V _{d}_{c} ð k 1 Þ , the power is decreasing on the low speed side, therefore the voltage refer ence is to be increased by DV _{d}_{c} .
In Fig. 3 , the powerspeed plot is shown for three different wind speeds, where y _{1} < y _{2} < y _{3} . The arrows show the trajectory in which
the turbine will be operated using the maximum power tracking algorithm explained above. If the wind speed is _{y} _{1}_{,} the controller will search for the maximum power. If the wind changes to y _{3} the turbine is no longer being operated at the maximum power point so the controller will search for the new maximum power point. After reaching the maximum point it will operate the wind turbine at the optimal point until wind changes, thus searching for maximum power at any wind speed. In order to optimize the
Fig. 8. Maximum power tracking and dctodc controller model.
M. Kesraoui et al. / Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 2655e 2662
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Fig. 9. Inverter controller model.
maximum power search algorithm presented above, a step that combines speed of convergence and accuracy of results was developed. The variable step method is based on the New tone Raphson method. The value of the root can be calculated as,
X _{n} _{þ} _{1} ¼ X _{n} ^{f} ^{ð} ^{X} ^{n} ^{Þ} _{Þ} f ^{’} ð X _{n}
(18)
Where X _{n} is the current known value of X , f ( X _{n} ) represents the value of the function at X _{n} , and f ^{0} ( X _{n} ) is the derivative at X _{n} . The function f ( X _{n} ) can be expressed as:
f
ð X _{n} Þ ¼ f ð V _{d}_{c} ð k ÞÞ ¼ ^{d} ^{P} ^{e}
d
V dc
P ð k Þ P ð k 1 Þ
_{¼}
V _{d}_{c} ð k Þ V _{d}_{c} ð k _{1} _{Þ} ^{¼} ^{S}^{l}^{o}^{p}^{e} ^{ð} ^{k} ^{Þ}
(19)
And f ’ ( X _{n} ) as
f
0ð X _{n} Þ ¼ f 0ð V _{d}_{c} ð k ÞÞ ¼ ^{d} 2 ^{P} ^{e}
^{d} ^{2} ^{V} dc
Slope ð k Þ Slope ð k 1 Þ
_{¼}
V _{d}_{c} ð k Þ V _{d}_{c} ð k 1 Þ
(20)
Using (18), (19), and (20) , DV _{d}_{c} can be express as follows:
DV dc ¼
P ð k Þ P ð k 1 Þ
f ð V _{d}_{c} ð k ÞÞ
V _{d}_{c} ð k Þ V _{d}_{c} ð k 1 Þ
f 0ð V _{d}_{c} ð k ÞÞ ^{¼}
Slope ð k Þ Slope ð k 1 Þ V _{d}_{c} ð k Þ V _{d}_{c} ð k 1 Þ
And hence,
^{D}^{V} dc ¼
P ð k Þ P ð k 1 Þ
Slope ð k Þ Slope ð k 1 Þ
(21)
^{(}^{2}^{2}^{)}
Using this variable step will allow the maximum power tracker to converge faster to the maximum power point and will decrease power oscillations due to large values of DV _{d}_{c} when maximum power is achieved. For protection the value of DV _{d}_{c} is limited. The DV _{d}_{c} limit can be changed based on the generator size and design parameters.
3.2. Dc/dc converter controller
The maximum power tracker will generate a reference voltage that will be used to control the dc voltage at the recti ﬁ er dc side terminals. The dctodc converter uses a simple feedback controller. The dc voltage reference is compared to the actual dc voltage, and the error signal is fed to a PI controller. The output signal is compared with a ﬁ xed frequency repetitive triangular waveform to deliver a signal that will turn ON or OFF the switch. This is shown in Fig. 4 .
3.3. Inverter controller
A current control voltage source pulsewidth modulation control strategy is used. The controller varies the amplitude of the output current of the inverter in order to keep the dc voltage constant. Two feedback loops are used. The inner loop controls the amplitude of the current and the outer one controls the dc side voltage as shown in Fig. 5 . The reference dc side voltage is sub tracted from the actual dc voltage and the error is fed into a lookup table. The lookup table outputs a gain that will then be multiplied by the utility grid ac voltage. This will generate a reference
Fig. 10. MPPT for a step change in wind speed.
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Fig. 11. Simulation results for wind speed v ¼ 6 m/s.
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Fig. 12. Simulation results for wind speed v ¼ 8 m/s.
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waveform for each phase current with unity power factor. Different power factors can be obtained by phase shifting the current refer ence to lag or lead the voltage waveform. The actual value of the current is then subtracted from the reference and the error is fed
into a PI controller. The output of the PI controller is compared with
a repetitive triangular waveform to turn the inverter switches ON or OFF.
At t ¼ 10 s, wind speed is changed from 6 to 8 m/s in step, whereas tipspeed ratio is maintained at Cp maximum in steady state conditions. It is noticed from Fig. 10 (b and c) that the controller is able to search for maximum power and keep the power coef ﬁ cient of the wind turbine very close to its maximum.
5. Conclusion
4. Simulation
The MATLABSIMULINK model of the WECS and the control systems are ﬁ rst presented. Simulation results with the MPPT in addition to the comments will then be given for two wind speeds 6 and 8 m/s. The electric machine and the dctodc converter parameters are given in Appendix. The dctodc converter parameters were obtained by selecting
a power rating based on the generated power capacity and voltage
ripple requirements for the output voltage of the converter. The Air density r ¼ 1.08 m ^{3} /Kg, radius r ¼ 1.525 m, initial Speed 20 rps, Gear Ratio G ¼ 5.
4.1. WECS MATLABSIMULINK model
The WECS model is shown in Fig. 6 . The model of the generator and dctodc converter is represented in Fig. 7. The model of the maximum power tracking algorithm and the dctodc controller are given in Fig. 8 . The inverter controller with a connection to the grid is shown in Fig. 9 .
4.2. Simulation results and comments
Simulation results of the WECS with MPPT algorithm are shown (with zooming) in Figs. 10 e12 . It can be seen from Figs. 11 and 12 (a and b) that the input current of the recti ﬁ er is in phase with the voltage waveform therefore, leading to a unity power factor. Dc link voltage is main tained constant at 400 V as indicated in Figs. 11(e) and 12(e) . Phase A current of the PWM inverter is in antiphase with the corre sponding phase voltage according to Figs. 11 and 12 (c and d). With the increase in wind speed the power fed to the grid also increases which is indicated by an increase in magnitude of PMSG phase voltage and phase current at Figs. 11 and 12 (a and b) and inverter output phase current Figs. 11 and 12 (c).
A maximum power point tracker of a wind energy conversion system as well the dc e dc converter and PWM inverter controllers have been presented and simulated for two wind speed pro ﬁ les. The proposed wind energy conversion system has been described and each of its components modeled in MATLABSIMULINK. The step and search algorithm for the MPPT has been developed and simulated. The analysis and simulation have shown that the developed step and search algorithm has reached the objective of extracting maximum power from the air stream at any wind speed without the knowledge of wind speed or rotor speed. In addition, the knowledge of the wind turbine aerodynamic characteristics is unnecessary in order for the algorithm to work.
Appendix
Machine Parameters: Stator resistance R _{s} ¼ 1.5 U , Stator induc tances L _{d} ¼ L _{q} ¼ 0.01 mH, Flux induced by magnets f ¼ 0.1194 Wb, moment of inertia J ¼ 2 Kg m, number of poles p ¼ 4. Converter parameters: Low voltage side capacitor C _{1} ¼ 500 uF, High voltage side capacitor C _{0} ¼ 3600 uF, Inductor L ¼ 200 uH, Switching frequency f _{d} ¼ 20 kHz.
References
[1] AB Raju, BG Fernandes, Kishore Chatterjee. A UPF Power Conditioner with a Simple Maximum Power Point Tracker for Grid Connected Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion System, EPE2003. Toulouse, France; 2003. [2] Kesraoui M. Optimization of a decentralized electrical energy supply system. Phd thesis. Austria: University of Leoben; 2006. [3] Spera DA. Wind turbine technology: fundamental concept of wind turbine engineering. New York: ASHE Press; 1994. [4] Bhadra SN, Kastha D, Banerjee S. Wind electrical systems. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2005. [5] Mohammad H. Rashid. Power electronicscircuit. Devices and application. 3rd ed; 2004. [6] Koutroulis E, Kalaitzakis K. Design of a maximum power tracking system for windenergyconversion applications. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Elec tronics April 2006;53(2):486 e 94.
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