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Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 2655 e 2662

Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 2655 e 2662 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Renewable Energy journal

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Renewable Energy

Energy journal homepage: www.els evier.com/locate/renene Data Bank Maximum power point tracker of wind energy

Data Bank

Maximum power point tracker of wind energy conversion system

M. Kesraoui a , * , N. Korichi b , A. Belkadi b

a Laboratory of applied automatics, Faculty of hydrocarbons and chemistry, M hamed Bougara University, Avenue de l indépendance, 35000, Boumerdès, Algeria b Department of electronics and electrical engineering, Faculty of engineering sciences, M hamed Bougara University, Avenue de l indépendance, 35000, Boumerdès, Algeria

article info

Article history:

Received 22 March 2010 Accepted 21 April 2010 Available online 15 May 2010

Keywords:

WECS PMSG MPPT algorithm PWM converters controllers

abstract

In this paper, a simple control strategy for an optimal extraction of output power from grid connected

variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) is presented. The system consists of a variable

speed wind turbine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) through a gear box, a diode bridge recti er, a dc-to-dc boost converter and a current controlled voltage source inverter. The maximum power point tracker (MPPT) extracts maximum power from the wind turbine from cut-in to rated wind velocity by sensing only dc link power. The MPPT step and search algorithm in addition to the

DC e DC and DC e AC converters PWM controllers are simulated using MATLAB-SIMULINK software. The

obtained simulation results show that the objectives of extracting maximum power from the wind and

delivering it correctly to the grid are reached.

2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Variable speed wind energy systems integrated with power electronic interfaces are becoming popular because they can extract maximum power from the wind, alleviate the load peak in drive train and supply reactive power on demand. For maximum energy extraction, the speed of the turbine should be varied with wind speed so that the optimum tip-speed ratio is maintained constant. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is developed. It extracts maximum power from the wind turbine for wind speeds from cut-in to rated, by generating a suitable reference voltage to the dc e dc converter. A separate controller generates the reference current for the inverter in such a way that the dc link voltage is maintained constant. The WECS used will be described rstly. It is followed by the presentation of the MPPT step and search algorithm and the used PWM inverter and dc e dc converters controllers. Finally the MATLAB-SIMULINK models used as well as the simulation results will be given.

2. Wind energy conversion system

The wind generator system is formed by a xed pitch wind turbine, a permanent magnet synchronous generator, a passive recti er, a dc-to-dc boost converter and a current controlled voltage source inverter. It is shown in Fig. 1.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 213 669.53.34.86; fax: þ 213 24.81.91.72. E-mail address: mkesraoui@umbb.dz (M. Kesraoui).

0960-1481/$ e see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.renene.2010.04.028

2.1. Wind turbine system

The blades of a wind turbine extract the energy ow from moving and deliver it via a gear box unit to the rotor of an electric generator. The wind power is estimated by [1] :

P Wind ¼

1

2 rA y 3

(1)

Where, r is the air density which varies with air pressure and temperature. The power coef cient C p is usually given as a function of the tip speed ratio l and the blade pitch angle b. The pitch angle is the angle between the plane of rotation and the blade cross- section chord [3] . The tip speed ratio of a wind turbine is de ned as:

l ¼ u ¼ r u R

y

1

y

1

(2)

Where u is the tangential velocity of the blade pitch, u R the angular velocity of the rotor, r the rotor radius in meters, and y 1 the wind speed. For the wind turbine used in this paper, C p as a function of l is given by the following equation [1] :

C p ¼ 0 : 043 0 : 108 l þ 0 : 146 l 2 0 : 062 l 3 þ 0 : 014 l 4

0 : 0006 l 5

(3)

The output power of the wind turbine P t is calculated as:

1

P t ¼ 2 C p ð lÞ A y 3

(4)

The mechanical power versus the generator rotor speed for different wind speeds is shown in Fig. 2 . The power extracted from

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M. Kesraoui et al. / Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 2655e 2662

M. Kesraoui et al. / Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 2655 e 2662 Fig. 1. WECS with

Fig. 1. WECS with MPPT and converters controllers.

the wind is maximized when the power coef cient C p is at its maximum. This occurs at a de ned value of the tip speed ratio l. Hence for each wind speed there is an optimum rotor speed where maximum power is extracted from the wind. Therefore if the wind speed is assumed to be constant, the value of C p depends on the wind turbine rotor speed. Thus, by controlling the rotor speed, the power output of the turbine is controlled.

2.2. Electrical system

The electrical system schematic is shown in Fig. 1 [2] . The wind turbine converts the power of the wind to mechanical power in the rotor shaft. This is then converted to electricity using a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The output voltage is recti ed using a three-phase diode bridge recti er. The dc-to-dc converter is used to control the dc voltage V dc across capacitor C 1 . The MPPT controller delivers a voltage reference that is compared to the actual value of V dc . The result is fed into a PI controller whose output is compared to a triangular waveform to determine when to turn the dc e dc boost converter switch ON or OFF. The voltage source PWM inverter interfaces the wind turbine system with the power grid. It operates so that the amplitude of the output current varies in order to keep constant the dc side voltage V 0 across the capacitor C o .

3. Control systems

3.1. Maximum power tracking algorithm

Due to its monotonic characteristics, wind turbines can be controlled to yield maximum power using search control methods. Before explaining the maximum power tracking controller, it is important to understand the basic physics of the system. The generated mechanical power is given by [3 e 5] :

P mech ¼ T mech ð t Þ u R ð t Þ

(5)

Where, T mech is the mechanical torque. For simpli cation, the generated electric power of a one-phase generator is given by

P e ð t Þ ¼ V a ð t Þ I a ð t Þ

(6)

V a and I a are the generator voltage and current respectively. Assuming no losses in the system, then

T mech ð t Þ $ u R ð t Þ ¼ V a ð t Þ I a ð t Þ

(7)

The basic electrical and motion equations are

T e ¼ kI a I f

(8)

motion equations are T e ¼ kI a I f (8) Fig. 2. Typical power versus

Fig. 2. Typical power versus speed characteristics of a wind turbine.

f (8) Fig. 2. Typical power versus speed characteristics of a wind turbine. Fig. 3. Maximum

Fig. 3. Maximum power tracking process.

M. Kesraoui et al. / Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 2655e 2662

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This equation can be written as: d u d P mech ¼ d P mech
This equation can be written as:
d
u
d P mech ¼ d P mech
d V dc
e
d u R ¼ 0
d
u R
d
d
u e
V dc
According to (15) , Maximum power point is when:
d P mech
¼ 0
d V dc

(15)

(16)

Fig. 4. Block diagram of a typical dc-to-dc converter controller.

I a ¼ V a E a

R

a

(9)

E a ¼ kI a u e

(10)

Where, u e ¼ p u R and p is the number of poles of the generator. Using (3) e (10) , the power is obtained by

2

The function P mech ( V dc ) has a single point where maximum power extraction is achieved. It also means that the maximum power can be tracked by searching the recti ed dc power, rather than environmental conditions, such as wind speed and direction. The MPPT algorithm is as follows [6] :

One initiates the maximum power searching process by setting an arbitrary dc side voltage reference V ref . The controller then measures both the dc side current and voltage, and calculates the initial electric power P o ¼ V dc I dc . Next, the reference voltage V ref is increased by DV dc so that.

P e ¼ u R kI f V a kI f u e

R

a

(11)

Where, u e is the electrical angular speed, I f the eld current, E a armature voltage and R a armature resistance. For a diode rectier, the dc output voltage, V dc is proportional to the generator phase voltage V a , (11) can be expressed as:

P e ¼ u R kI f

R a V dc kI f u e

d

P e

Maximum power is at V dc ¼ 0

d

(12)

(13)

It is noticed from (12) that the power extracted from the wind can be controlled by varying the dc bus voltage, which is a func- tion of I f and u e . Considering the wind turbine characteristics given in Fig. 2 , we know that the maximum power point is obtained when.

V ref ð k Þ ¼ V ref ð k 1 Þ þ DV dc

Then the dc power is calculated with P ( k ) ¼ V dc ( k ) I dc ( k ). If P ( k ) is bigger than P ( k 1), the maximum power point has not been reached therefore, the voltage reference needs to be increased by DV dc and the dc power needs to be compared. This process will repeat until maximum power is reached. And if P ( k ) is less than P ( k 1), the dc voltage reference is then decreased by DV dc . In order to search for maximum power at any wind speed four conditions must be met.

(17)

1. If P ð k Þ P ð k 1 Þ and V dc ð k Þ V dc ð k 1 Þ , the dc side voltage reference need to be increased by DV dc . This condition is met when the turbine operates on the low speed side of the power curve, shown on Fig. 3 .

2. If P ð k Þ P ð k 1 Þ and V dc ð k Þ 3 V dc ð k 1 Þ , the wind turbine is being operated in the high speed side and the dc reference voltage needs to be decreased by DV dc .

d P mech ¼ 0 (14) d u R 3. When P ð k Þ
d P mech
¼ 0
(14)
d u R
3. When P ð k Þ 3 P ð k 1 Þ and V dc ð k Þ V dc ð k 1 Þ , the maximum
power point is passed and a step back must be taken,
decreasing the reference voltage by DV dc . This condition is met

Fig. 5. Block diagram of voltage source inverter controller.

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M. Kesraoui et al. / Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 2655e 2662

Continuous 2/pG [Wr] powergui 2/4*5 W gen speed 1/5 tm wm 1/G 0 pitch angle
Continuous
2/pG
[Wr]
powergui
2/4*5
W
gen speed
1/5
tm
wm
1/G
0
pitch angle
[Wr]
INVERTER CONTROLLER
te
+LOAD
pitch angle
Wr
pmech
[pmech]
[pmech]
pmech
T
Vo
Vo
wind speed
wind speed
pmech1
wind speed
Cp
[Cp]
Vo+
v+
[Cp]
1.08
air density
Cp
Cp1
Vo-
v-
air density
[lambda]
lamda
[lambda]
2.3
PMSG+RECTIFIER+DC TO DC CONVERTER
+CONTROLLER
lambda1
Scope1
rotor radius
lambda
rotor radius

WIND TURBINE

Fig. 6. WECS simulation block diagram.

radius WIND TURBINE Fig. 6. WECS simulation block diagram. Fig. 7. PMS generator and dc-to-dc converter

Fig. 7. PMS generator and dc-to-dc converter model.

when the turbine is operated in the high speed side of the dome and the power is decreasing. 4. When P ð k Þ 3 P ð k 1 Þ and V dc ð k Þ 3 V dc ð k 1 Þ , the power is decreasing on the low speed side, therefore the voltage refer- ence is to be increased by DV dc .

In Fig. 3 , the power-speed plot is shown for three different wind speeds, where y 1 < y 2 < y 3 . The arrows show the trajectory in which

the turbine will be operated using the maximum power tracking algorithm explained above. If the wind speed is y 1, the controller will search for the maximum power. If the wind changes to y 3 the turbine is no longer being operated at the maximum power point so the controller will search for the new maximum power point. After reaching the maximum point it will operate the wind turbine at the optimal point until wind changes, thus searching for maximum power at any wind speed. In order to optimize the

maximum power at any wind speed. In order to optimize the Fig. 8. Maximum power tracking

Fig. 8. Maximum power tracking and dc-to-dc controller model.

M. Kesraoui et al. / Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 2655e 2662

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et al. / Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 2655 e 2662 2659 Fig. 9. Inverter controller model.

Fig. 9. Inverter controller model.

maximum power search algorithm presented above, a step that combines speed of convergence and accuracy of results was developed. The variable step method is based on the New- tone Raphson method. The value of the root can be calculated as,

X n þ 1 ¼ X n f ð X n Þ Þ f ð X n

(18)

Where X n is the current known value of X , f ( X n ) represents the value of the function at X n , and f 0 ( X n ) is the derivative at X n . The function f ( X n ) can be expressed as:

f

ð X n Þ ¼ f ð V dc ð k ÞÞ ¼ d P e

d

V dc

P ð k Þ P ð k 1 Þ

¼

V dc ð k Þ V dc ð k 1 Þ ¼ Slope ð k Þ

(19)

And f ( X n ) as

f

X n Þ ¼ f V dc ð k ÞÞ ¼ d 2 P e

d 2 V dc

Slope ð k Þ Slope ð k 1 Þ

¼

V dc ð k Þ V dc ð k 1 Þ

(20)

Using (18), (19), and (20) , DV dc can be express as follows:

DV dc ¼

P ð k Þ P ð k 1 Þ

f ð V dc ð k ÞÞ

V dc ð k Þ V dc ð k 1 Þ

f V dc ð k ÞÞ ¼

Slope ð k Þ Slope ð k 1 Þ V dc ð k Þ V dc ð k 1 Þ

And hence,

DV dc ¼

P ð k Þ P ð k 1 Þ

Slope ð k Þ Slope ð k 1 Þ

(21)

(22)

Using this variable step will allow the maximum power tracker to converge faster to the maximum power point and will decrease power oscillations due to large values of DV dc when maximum power is achieved. For protection the value of DV dc is limited. The DV dc limit can be changed based on the generator size and design parameters.

3.2. Dc/dc converter controller

The maximum power tracker will generate a reference voltage that will be used to control the dc voltage at the recti er dc side terminals. The dc-to-dc converter uses a simple feedback controller. The dc voltage reference is compared to the actual dc voltage, and the error signal is fed to a PI controller. The output signal is compared with a xed frequency repetitive triangular waveform to deliver a signal that will turn ON or OFF the switch. This is shown in Fig. 4 .

3.3. Inverter controller

A current control voltage source pulse-width modulation control strategy is used. The controller varies the amplitude of the output current of the inverter in order to keep the dc voltage constant. Two feedback loops are used. The inner loop controls the amplitude of the current and the outer one controls the dc side voltage as shown in Fig. 5 . The reference dc side voltage is sub- tracted from the actual dc voltage and the error is fed into a look-up table. The look-up table outputs a gain that will then be multiplied by the utility grid ac voltage. This will generate a reference

multiplied by the utility grid ac voltage. This will generate a reference Fig. 10. MPPT for

Fig. 10. MPPT for a step change in wind speed.

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M. Kesraoui et al. / Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 2655 e 2662 Fig. 11. Simulation results

Fig. 11. Simulation results for wind speed v ¼ 6 m/s.

M. Kesraoui et al. / Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 2655e 2662

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Kesraoui et al. / Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 2655 e 2662 2661 Fig. 12. Simulation results

Fig. 12. Simulation results for wind speed v ¼ 8 m/s.

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waveform for each phase current with unity power factor. Different power factors can be obtained by phase shifting the current refer- ence to lag or lead the voltage waveform. The actual value of the current is then subtracted from the reference and the error is fed

into a PI controller. The output of the PI controller is compared with

a repetitive triangular waveform to turn the inverter switches ON or OFF.

At t ¼ 10 s, wind speed is changed from 6 to 8 m/s in step, whereas tip-speed ratio is maintained at Cp maximum in steady state conditions. It is noticed from Fig. 10 (b and c) that the controller is able to search for maximum power and keep the power coef cient of the wind turbine very close to its maximum.

5. Conclusion

4. Simulation

The MATLAB-SIMULINK model of the WECS and the control systems are rst presented. Simulation results with the MPPT in addition to the comments will then be given for two wind speeds 6 and 8 m/s. The electric machine and the dc-to-dc converter parameters are given in Appendix. The dc-to-dc converter parameters were obtained by selecting

a power rating based on the generated power capacity and voltage

ripple requirements for the output voltage of the converter. The Air density r ¼ 1.08 m 3 /Kg, radius r ¼ 1.525 m, initial Speed 20 rps, Gear Ratio G ¼ 5.

4.1. WECS MATLAB-SIMULINK model

The WECS model is shown in Fig. 6 . The model of the generator and dc-to-dc converter is represented in Fig. 7. The model of the maximum power tracking algorithm and the dc-to-dc controller are given in Fig. 8 . The inverter controller with a connection to the grid is shown in Fig. 9 .

4.2. Simulation results and comments

Simulation results of the WECS with MPPT algorithm are shown (with zooming) in Figs. 10 e12 . It can be seen from Figs. 11 and 12 (a and b) that the input current of the recti er is in phase with the voltage waveform therefore, leading to a unity power factor. Dc link voltage is main- tained constant at 400 V as indicated in Figs. 11(e) and 12(e) . Phase- A current of the PWM inverter is in anti-phase with the corre- sponding phase voltage according to Figs. 11 and 12 (c and d). With the increase in wind speed the power fed to the grid also increases which is indicated by an increase in magnitude of PMSG phase voltage and phase current at Figs. 11 and 12 (a and b) and inverter output phase current Figs. 11 and 12 (c).

A maximum power point tracker of a wind energy conversion system as well the dc e dc converter and PWM inverter controllers have been presented and simulated for two wind speed pro les. The proposed wind energy conversion system has been described and each of its components modeled in MATLAB-SIMULINK. The step and search algorithm for the MPPT has been developed and simulated. The analysis and simulation have shown that the developed step and search algorithm has reached the objective of extracting maximum power from the air stream at any wind speed without the knowledge of wind speed or rotor speed. In addition, the knowledge of the wind turbine aerodynamic characteristics is unnecessary in order for the algorithm to work.

Appendix

Machine Parameters: Stator resistance R s ¼ 1.5 U , Stator induc- tances L d ¼ L q ¼ 0.01 mH, Flux induced by magnets f ¼ 0.1194 Wb, moment of inertia J ¼ 2 Kg m, number of poles p ¼ 4. Converter parameters: Low voltage side capacitor C 1 ¼ 500 uF, High voltage side capacitor C 0 ¼ 3600 uF, Inductor L ¼ 200 uH, Switching frequency f d ¼ 20 kHz.

References

[1] AB Raju, BG Fernandes, Kishore Chatterjee. A UPF Power Conditioner with a Simple Maximum Power Point Tracker for Grid Connected Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion System, EPE2003. Toulouse, France; 2003. [2] Kesraoui M. Optimization of a decentralized electrical energy supply system. Phd thesis. Austria: University of Leoben; 2006. [3] Spera DA. Wind turbine technology: fundamental concept of wind turbine engineering. New York: ASHE Press; 1994. [4] Bhadra SN, Kastha D, Banerjee S. Wind electrical systems. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2005. [5] Mohammad H. Rashid. Power electronics-circuit. Devices and application. 3rd ed; 2004. [6] Koutroulis E, Kalaitzakis K. Design of a maximum power tracking system for wind-energy-conversion applications. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Elec- tronics April 2006;53(2):486 e 94.