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Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Applied Energy journal

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Applied Energy

Energy journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apenergy Analysis of the control structure of wind energy generation

Analysis of the control structure of wind energy generation systems based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator

O. Carranza a , , E. Figueres b , G. Garcerá b , R. Gonzalez-Medina b

a Escuela Superior de Cómputo, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Batiz S/N, Col. Lindavista, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, México 07738, DF, M exico b Grupo de Sistemas Electrónicos Industriales, Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera S/N, 7F , 46020 Valencia, Spain 1

highlights

" We have presented the analysis of two control structures for WEGS.

" The analysis of both control structures include all the elements of a WEGS.

" The analysis of both control structure are independent of the converter topologies.

" The speed control scheme is best suited for implementation.

" The speed control scheme for WEGS has been evaluated experimentally.

article info

Article history:

Received 18 June 2012 Received in revised form 3 October 2012 Accepted 4 October 2012 Available online 3 November 2012

Keywords:

WGS

PMSG

Torque control

Speed control

abstract

This paper presents the analysis of the two usual control structures for variable speed and fixed pitch wind energy generation systems, namely speed and torque control, to determine the most appropriate structure to improve both robustness and reliability of this kind of distributed generators. The study con- siders all the elements of a typical wind power generation system and it has been carried out in a general way, so that conclusions are independent of the kind of the AC/DC converter that it is used to process the energy at the output of the generator. Particular emphasis was placed on developing a model of the tur- bine where the mechanical torque is considered as a system variable and not an exogenous disturbance for the system, as in other previous studies. After showing that speed control presents several advantages in terms of stability and reliability, an experimental study of this technique was carried out by using a grid connected wind generation system, which is composed by a three-phase boost rectifier feeding the grid connected inverter. Other practical issues for the design of high efficient wind generation sys- tems, like the use of a Kalman speed estimator to avoid the need of mechanical sensors, are also imple- mented in the prototype and discussed in the paper.

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Due to the high cost of fossil fuels used in conventional gener- ation system and the high pollution generated by these systems. Currently, develop power generation systems employing alterna- tive energy sources are an interesting solution. Generation systems based on renewable energy are having a boom around the world, one of these systems are wind generation systems (WGSs) [1] . In the case of wind energy systems is necessary for statistical studies to determine the appropriate place to take full advantage of this energy, these studies estimate the average wind speed, the wind power density and its capacity factor for a specific geographical

Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: ocarranzac@ipn.mx (O. Carranza), efiguere@eln.upv.es (E. Figueres), ggarcera@eln.upv.es (G. Garcerá). 1 http://www.gsei.upv.es

0306-2619/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

area [2] . Largely on the world there are several projects as wind farms, which seek to increase the amount of electrical energy from wind, getting with this increase the amount of clean electrical energy [3] . An important issue in the implementation of wind energy systems is to establish the viability and relative generation capacity to conventional generation systems. It also seeks to reduce the cost of the power generation with the implementation of wind energy systems [4] . Due to the versatility of wind genera- tion systems, these can be implemented in different applications and environments, such as a primary energy source in remote loca- tions, with the support of storage systems to provide energy at all times [5] , as well as, these can be used in distributed generation systems in context the microgrids working both island mode and grid connected mode [6,7] . In low power WGS, there are used two types of generators, these are induction generators (IGs) and permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) [8–10] . The IGs need external

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

523

magnetization and use a gearbox, whether directly to the grid or indirectly to the grid by using of a back-to-back converter. In the

case of directly connecting to the grid, the generator is limited to

a fixed speed, so that does not work in a wide range of wind speed;

consequently the power that is extracted is reduced [8] . In the case of indirectly connexion to the grid, the generator operates at vari-

able speed, due to employment of the converter, which ensures greater amount of power extracted, however, this topology is very complex and expensive to be used in WGS low cost. Furthermore, the PMSGs do not require external magnetization, so that may be employed in isolated grid. Because they are constructed of several pairs of poles, it is not necessary to use gearbox. PMSG work in a wide range of wind speed, which is extracted as much energy from the wind [10,11] . Accordingly in WGS low power, PMSGs are pre- ferred to IG.

PMSG cannot connect directly to the mains; because both the output voltages and frequency depend on wind speed, then is necessary a power conversion system for coupling the energy extracted from the generator and the energy which is injected into the grid. This system should consist of an AC/DC converter (recti- fier), which has the function of converting the AC signal from the generator to DC signals, so that through a DC/AC converter (inver- ter) is injected into the grid. For AC/DC converter, there are basi- cally two topologies used in WGS. The first type is a rectifier and

a DC/DC converter and the second type is a controlled rectifier,

which together with inverter is commonly known as a converter back-to-back. Inverter is responsible for controlling both the active and reactive power is injected to the grid, also inverter usually con- trols the voltage of the DC-Link. One of the most important issues in wind power generation systems is to extract as much energy as possible from the wind, seeking to achieve high levels of efficiency and quality of the en- ergy that it is injected into the grid. To achieve that, it is mandatory to implement the proper control strategies [12,13]. For the case under study, the system operates at variable speed and fixed pitch, so that the usual control structures are torque control and speed control. Note that in both cases there is a torque loop that regulates the generator output current, but in the case of speed control the torque loop receives a reference signal from the speed regulator, where the regulated variable is the PMSG speed [14] . Figs. 1 and 2 show the scheme of torque and speed control, respectively. The MPPT block represents the algorithm of the maximum power point

tracking (MPPT) that provides the reference current ( I ref ) for the torque control scheme, providing the speed reference ( x ref ) for the speed control loop if this technique is used. The study of MPPT is outside the scope of this paper. This paper is focused on the analysis of both speed and torque control structures. It is worth to point out that the dynamics of the wind turbine have been taken into account in the analysis, so that the mechanical torque is considered as an internal variable of the system and not simply as a disturbance, simplification that is usual in the study of motor control applications [14] . After show- ing in a general way that the speed control approach offers advan- tages in terms of stability and easier design, a detailed description of that control technique applied to WGS is presented and experi- mentally tested. The experimental prototype is a three-phase boost rectifier working in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM), which feeds a grid connection inverter. This topology was presented in [15] , showing that it presents some advantages with regard to other low cost topologies, like reduced value of the total harmonic distortion at the generators output current and high power factor in the whole speed range of the PMSG. As a result, the system effi- ciency is increased and the mechanical stress of the generator is decreased. Table 1 shows the values of the parameters of the WGS under study.

2. Fundamentals of wind turbines based on PMSG

The mechanical behavior of the wind turbine follows (1)

J

dx m

dt þ Bx m ¼ T m T e

ð 1Þ

where J is inertia coefficient, B is the friction coefficient, x m is the turbine rotational speed, T m is the turbine mechanical torque and T e is the electrical torque applied to the PMSG rotor. The mechanical power generated by the wind turbine ( P m ) and the applied torque T m are expressed by Eqs. (2) and (3) , respectively.

P

T

m

¼

m ¼

1

2

1

2

qpr 2 C p ð kÞ V x 3

qpr 3 C t ð kÞ V x 2

ð

ð

2Þ

3Þ

3 q p r 3 C t ð k Þ V x 2 ð ð 2

Fig. 1. Block diagram of the torque control structure for WGS.

524

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

524 O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 Fig. 2. Block diagram of

Fig. 2. Block diagram of the speed control structure for WGS.

Table 1 Characteristics of the WGS under study.

Characteristics

Values

Output power of the generator ( P o )

2k W 104–416 V rms 0.9022 V peak/rad/s 1 2 150–600 rpm 15.7–62.83 rad/s 94.2–376.98 rad/s

25mH

Output

voltage range of the generator ( V ab = V bc = V ca )

Constant of the electromotive force ( K fem ) Number of poles ( n p ) Speed range of the generator ( n m ) Angular mechanical frequency range of the generator ( x m ) Angular electrical frequency range of the generator ( x e ) Inductance of one phase of the generator ( L ga = L gb = L gc ) Resistance of one phase of the generator ( R Lga = R Lgb = R Lgc )

5 X

Wind

turbine

coefficients

a = 0.043, b = 0.0108, c = 0.146, d = 0.0605, e = 0.0104, f = 0.0006

Wind

turbine

ratio ( r )

1.525 m

Inertia Coefficient of the system (J)

0.5 kg m/s 2

Density of wind ( q ) DC link Capacitance ( C 0 ) DC link voltage ( V 0 ) Sampling time ( T s )

1.08 kg/m 3 2m F 650 V 1 0 l s

where q is the density of the air, r is the wind turbine rotor radius, V x is the wind speed, C p ð k Þ is the power coefficient, C t ð k Þ is the tor- que coefficient. Both coefficients depend on the tip-speed-ratio parameter ð k Þ, and it is expressed by (4).

k ¼ r x m V x

ð

4Þ

C p ð k Þ is expressed by (5) and C t ðk Þ is expressed by (6). Fig. 3 shows both C p ðk Þ and C t ð k Þ characteristics as a function of the tip-speed ratio.

C p ð kÞ ¼ a þ bk þ c k 2 þ dk 3

C t ð kÞ ¼ C p ð k Þ

k

þ ek 4 þ f k 5

ð

5Þ

ð

6Þ

Analyzing the behavior of the PMSG, it is obtained that the elec- tromotive torque ( T e ) [16] is determined by (7)

T e ¼ 3K emf I g

p

2 2

ffiffiffi

ð 7Þ

where I g is the generator phase rms current.

I g p 2 2 ffiffiffi ð 7 Þ where I g is the generator phase

Fig. 3. Power and torque coefficients.

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

525

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 525 Fig. 4. Dependence of the

Fig. 4. Dependence of the generator output power ð P b out Þ .

3. Modeling of the wind generation system

The main goal in wind power generation systems is to extract the greatest amount of wind energy and convert it to electric energy. This is achieved with an adequate control structure that al- lows the system to be stable in the range of operation and an appropriate algorithm of maximum power point tracking. The goal of the MPPT is to extract as much energy, for which, the MPPT adjusts the operating point of the system to be controlled in order to achieve maximum power available from the wind [17–19]. Considering the electrical losses of the generator and assuming that the torque induced in the turbine is equal to the electrical torque in the generator, the generator output power may be expressed by

2

P out ¼ T e x m R Lga I g

ð 8Þ

by 2 P out ¼ T e x m R Lga I g ð 8 Þ

Fig. 5. The basic block diagram of torque control structure in the wind generator system.

Applying (7) in (8), it is obtained:

P out ¼ 3K fem I g x m R Lga I

p

ffiffiffi

2

2

g

ð

9Þ

Although the power function is not linear, a linear model of P out may be obtained by applying a first order Taylor series around the oper- ation point. This linear model allows a small-signal analysis to determine which is the most suitable control. The small signal mod- el represents variations or disturbances in the system operating point [20]. The following nomenclature is adopted: any dynamic

variable x is represented as: ¼ X þ x , where X is the operation point

value and ^ x is the small-signal term.

^

b

P

out ¼

x m @ ½ P out ð x m ; i g Þ

^

@

x m

x m ¼ W m

i g ¼ I g

þ ^ i g @ ½ P out ðx m ; i g Þ

@

i g

x m ¼ W m

i g ¼ I g

ð 10Þ

Applying (9) in (10) , it is obtained

b

P out ¼

h
@
^

x m

3K fem

p ffiffi

2

i g

x

m R

Lga

2

g

i

i

@ x m

x m ¼ W m

i g ¼ I g

þ

^

i g

h
@

3K fem

p ffiffi

2

i g

x

m R

Lga

2

g

i

i

@

i g

x m ¼ W m

i g ¼ I g

ð

11Þ

Developing the partial derivatives, it is obtained

b

P out ¼

^

x

m

3K fem

p

ffiffiffi

2

i

g

x m ¼ W m

i g ¼ I g

þ ^

i

g

3K fem

p

ffiffiffi

2

x m 2R Lga i g

x m ¼ W m

i g ¼ I g

ð 12Þ

Evaluating, it is obtained

b

P

out ¼

^

x

m

3K fem

p

ffiffiffi

2

I g þ ^ i g

3K fem

p

ffiffiffi

2

W m 2R Lga I g

ð 13Þ

From (13), the analysis can be performed to know which of the two considered control structures is most appropriate for WGS. Note that the generator output power depends on both the generator current and the generator speed, as Fig. 4 shows. Figs. 5 and 6 show the basic block diagrams of torque control and speed control, respectively. In the first case, the dependence

of the generated power with the torque ð b

T e Þ should be ob-

T g Þ because the gener-

tained, but it is preferred to calculate ð b

ator current is the true regulated variable. Note that the generator torque has a direct relationship with the current generator as (9) shows, so that the torque is indirectly regulated by closing the cur- rent control loop.

P out = b

P out = b

the cur- rent control loop. P out = b P out = b Fig. 6. The

Fig. 6. The basic block diagram of speed control structure in the wind generator system.

526

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

526 O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 Fig. 7. Block diagram of

Fig. 7. Block diagram of the mechanical behavior of the wind generation system.

Starting from Eq. (13), it is obtained (14). In (14) it is observed

P out = ^ i g depends on the relationship between the generator

that

speed and the generator

b

P out

current ð x m = ^ i g Þ .

^

¼

^

x

m

^

i

g

3K fem

p

ffiffiffi

2

I g þ 3K p fem ffiffiffi W m 2R Lga I g

2

ð14Þ

^

i

g

m Þ

is needed. Starting from Eq. (13) , it is obtained (15) . In (15) it is

depends on the relationship between the

observed that

generator current and the generator speed ð ^ x m Þ .

To analyze the speed control structure, the expression ð b

P out = ^ i g

i g =

^

P out =

x

^

b

P out

^

x

m

¼

3K fem

p

ffiffiffi

2

I g þ

^

i

g

^

x

m

3K fem

p ffiffiffi W 2R

2

m

Lga I g

ð 15Þ

In both control structures it is necessary to know the relation- ship between the generator speed and the generator current. Start- ing from Eq. (1) , it is obtained (16).

x m ¼

Js 1 ð T m T e Þ

ð 16Þ

Fig. 7 shows the block diagram of the mechanical behavior of the wind generation system. T m is normally considered as an external disturbance for the system. However, T m strongly depends on both the speed of the PMSG, x m , and on the wind speed, m x , as it is shown in (3)–(6). T e depends on I g as (7) shows.

Applying (4)–(6) in (3) , it is obtained:

T m ¼ 2 qpr 3 av x þ b þ cr x m

r

x m

v x

1

þ dr 2 x 2

v

2

x

m

þ e r 3 x 3 þ f r 4 x 3

v 3

x

m

v

4

x

m

!

v 2

x

ð 17Þ

Although T m is a not linear function, a linear model of T m may be

obtained by applying a first order Taylor series around an operation

point. Note that one of the inputs of the resulting linear model is the

that one of the inputs of the resulting linear model is the Fig. 8. Block diagram

Fig. 8. Block diagram of the mechanical behavior model of WGS, considering the wind speed as an external disturbance.

WGS, considering the wind speed as an external disturbance. Fig. 9. Bode diagrams of the relationship

Fig. 9. Bode diagrams of the relationship between the PMSG speed and generator current ð x m = ^ i g Þ for V x = 10 m/s.

^

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

527

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 527 Fig. 10. Bode diagrams of

Fig. 10. Bode diagrams of the transfer function from the generator current to generator output power ð P

b out = ^

i g Þ for V x = 10 m/s.

wind speed, which is considered the true external disturbance, while the other one is the inherent feedback of the generator speed.

b

T m ¼

^

x

m

@ ½ T m ð x m ; v x Þ

@

x m

x m ¼ W m

v x ¼ V x

Developing, it is obtained

þ

^

v x

@ ½ T m ðx m ; v x Þ

@ v x

x m ¼ W m

v x ¼ V x

ð18Þ

b

T m ¼

1

2 q pr 3 aV 3 þ crV x þ 2dr 2 W m þ 3er 3 W 2

x

m

rW 2

m

V x

þ

4fr 4 W 3

m

V 2

x

!

^

x

þ 2 q pr 3 3aV 2 þ 2bV x þ crW m er 3 W 3

1

x

rW m

m

V 2

x

4fr 4 W 4

m

2V 3

x

!

^

v x

m

ð 19Þ

The wind speed is an external disturbance, so that m x ¼ 0 is consid-

ered to analyze the stability of the speed control loop. The small- signal term of T m is expressed by (20).

^

The small- signal term of T m is expressed by (20). ^ Fig. 11. Root locus

Fig. 11. Root locus of the transfer function from the generator current to generator output power ð P b out = ^

i g Þ for V x = 10 m/s.

528

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

528 O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 Fig. 12. Bode diagrams of

Fig. 12. Bode diagrams of the transfer function from the generator speed to generator output power ð

^

P out =

x ^ m Þ for V x = 10 m/s.

b

T m

^

v x ¼0 ¼

1

2 q pr 3 aV 3 þ crV x þ 2dr 2 W m þ 3er 3 W 2

x

m

rW 2

m

V x

þ 4fr 4 W 3 V 2

m

x

!

ð

^

x

m

20Þ

The small-signal expression of the electrical torque may be obtained from (7) , resulting in (21).

b

T

e

¼ 3K fem ffiffiffi ^ i g

p

2

ð21Þ

Considering that there are not variations in the wind speed,

m ^ x ¼ 0, the PMSG speed is expressed by (22). Fig. 8 shows the block

diagram of the mechanical behavior of wind generation systems, considering the wind speed as the true disturbance for the system.

x m ¼ 1

^

Js

b

T m

v x ¼0 T b e ði g Þ

^

ð22Þ

From (20)–(22), it is obtained

"

x m ¼ 1

^

1

Js 2

qp r

3

aV

3

x

rW

2

m

2

þ crV þ 2dr W þ

x

m

3

3er W

2

m

V

x

þ

4

4fr W

3

m

V

2

x

!

^

x

m

3K fem

^

i

g

p

ffiffiffi

2

#

ð 23Þ

From Eq. (23), it is possible to deduce the relationship between the PMSG speed and the generator current, following (24).

c 1 ¼

G x g ð sÞ ¼

^

x

^

i

m

g

¼

3 K fem

½

ffiffi

p

2 Js

1

2

q

p r

3

c

1

3

aV

rW

x

2

m

2

þ crV þ 2dr W þ

x

m

2

m

3

3 er W V

x

þ

4

4 fr W V

2

x

3

m

ð24Þ

Fig. 9 shows the Bode diagrams of the relationship between the

PMSG speed and the generator current ð x m = ^ i g Þ as a function of k ,

for V x ¼ 10 m = s.

^

Þ as a function of k , for V x ¼ 10 m = s. ^

Fig. 13. Scheme of three-phase boost rectifier operating in DCM with PCC.

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

529

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 529 Fig. 14. Peak current-mode control

Fig. 14. Peak current-mode control loop.

4. Torque control vs speed control

In this section a comparative study of both torque and speed control schemes is presented to determine which control structure is the most suitable for use in the proposed wind generation system. Starting from (14) and (24) , the transfer function from the generator current to generator output power can be obtained, following (25).

P out = ^ i g is unstable for k values greater than 3.

This is corroborated in Fig. 11 , which shows the location of the

P out = ^ i g , for k values between 4 and 7. Note that the poles

and zeros are in the right half plane at very low frequency and very

close one to each other for different operating points. Therefore, the torque control scheme is very complicated to implement by using classical control theory. Starting from (15) and (24) the transfer function from the generator speed to the generator output power can be obtained, following (26).

roots of

Fig. 10 shows that

b

P out

^

x

m

c 1 ¼

¼

3K fem

p ffiffiffi I g W m 2

2

p

ffiffiffi

2 R Lga I g

3K fem

!

Js

1

2

q

aV 3 þ crV x þ 2dr 2 W m þ 3er 3 W 2

x

rW 2

m

m

V x

þ

pr

3

c

1

4fr 4 W 3

m

V 2

x

!

ð 26Þ

Fig. 12 shows the Bode diagrams of the transfer function from the

generator speed to generator output power ð of k , for V x ¼ 10 m= s.

x ^ m is a non-minimum phase transfer

function for several values of k , due it contains zeroes in the right half plane, which causes the phase angle not follow the same behavior as the magnitude. It is slow in responding because of its behavior at the star of a response [21] . Therefore, the speed control structure can be easily designed and implemented by using classi- cal control techniques.

x ^ m Þ as a function

b

P out =

Fig. 12 shows that b

P out =

b

P out

^

x

m

c 1 ¼

¼

3K fem

p ffiffiffi I g W m 2

2

p

ffiffiffi

2 R Lga I g

3K fem

!

Js


1

2 qpr

3

c

1

aV 3 þ crV x þ 2dr 2 W m þ 3er 3 W 2

x

rW 2

m

m

V x

þ

4fr 4 W 3

m

V 2

x

!

ð25Þ

Fig. 10 shows the Bode diagrams of the transfer function from the

b

generator current to generator output power ð P

of k , for V x ¼ 10 m = s.

i g Þ as a function

out = ^

5. Sample design and implementation of speed control

5.1. AC/DC converter and current control loop

The chosen AC/DC converter is a three-phase boost rectifier operating in DCM, which is shown by Fig. 13 . A Peak Current Mode

Control (PCC) has been chosen to regulate the generator currents.

PCC is the most used in switching power supplies, as it gives a strict adherence to the current in the inductor, which is highly

adherence to the current in the inductor, which is highly Fig. 15. Bode diagram of the

Fig. 15. Bode diagram of the transfer function from the duty cycle to the equivalent boost inductor current G id ( s ).

530

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

530 O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 Fig. 16. Bode diagram of

Fig. 16. Bode diagram of the current loop gain T i ( s ).

recommended when working in DCM. Furthermore, PCC is con- trolled by the peak current in the inductor or power active switch (power transistor), so that there is an inherent overcurrent protec- tion control [20,22,23]. Such a control scheme was presented and analyzed in detail in [15] . Fig. 14 shows the block diagram of the current loop with PCC [23] . The reference for the current loop, I ref , is provided by the con- troller of the speed control loop. The current loop gain, T i ( s ), is determined by (27) and the closed loop gain of the current loop, G ic ( s ), is given by (28).

T i ð sÞ ¼ G id ð sÞH e ðsÞ R i F M

G ic ð sÞ ¼

^

i L ðsÞ ¼ G id ð sÞF M

þ T i ð sÞ

1

^

i ref ð sÞ

ð

ð

27Þ

28Þ

where G id ( s), H e (s ) and F M are the transfer function from the duty cycle to the equivalent boost inductor current, sampling gain and PWM modulator gain, respectively, which are detail in [15]. Figs. 15–17 show the Bode plot of G id ( s), T i (s ) and G ic (s ), respectively, for various values of the generator speed.

), respectively, for various values of the generator speed. Fig. 17. Bode diagram of the closed

Fig. 17. Bode diagram of the closed loop gain of the current loop G ic ( s ).

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

531

Table 2 Characteristics in the three-phase boost rectifier operating in DCM with PCC.

Characteristics

Values

Boost inductance associated to each phase ( L a , L b , L c = L /2) Resistance in series associated to the Boost inductor in each phase ( R La , R Lb , R Lc ) Capacitance of the filter ( C 1 , C 2 , C 3 ) Current sense gain ( R i ) Slope of the stabilization ramp ( S e )

375 l H 37.5 m X

2.2 l F

0.015

22.5 kV/s

As the PMSG torque depends on the generator currents, it is important to know the relationship between the generator current and the equivalent boost inductor current, following (29).

^

i g ðsÞ

1

¼

^

i

L ð sÞ

s 2 C i L g þ sC i R Lg þ 1

ð29Þ

Table 2 shows the values of its most relevant parameters of the three-phase boost rectifier operating in DCM with PCC.

5.2. Design of the speed control loop

Once set the AC/DC converter used in the WGS, it is performed a small-signal analysis of the system around the operating point and

it is chosen a speed controller to stabilize the system in the whole range of operation points. Fig. 18 shows the block diagram of the speed control loop. K = 1 is the speed sensing gain, G x is the transfer function of a propor- tional–integral controller and x ref is the reference for the speed loop, which is provided by a maximum power point algorithm, which is outside the scope of this paper. To analyze the response of the system, the wind speed is con-

^

sidered as a disturbance input for the system, so that m x ¼ 0 around an operation point. The relationship between the generator speed and the generator current is expressed by (24) . The current loop is reduced to the transfer function expressed by (28) , so that the block diagram of the speed loop can be reduced to that shown in Fig. 19 .

The loop gain of the speed loop, T x ð s Þ , is determined by (30).

T x ð sÞ ¼ G ic ð sÞ G x g ð sÞ

^

i g ðsÞ

^

i L ð sÞ

KG x ð sÞ

ð 30Þ

The chosen gains for the PI speed controller, G x are: K p = 0.05777 and K i = 0.0187752 rad/s. Fig. 20 shows the Bode diagrams of T x with the chosen controller. The closed loop transfer function from the reference speed to the PMSG speed is given by (31) and it is shown in Fig. 21 .

PMSG speed is given by (31) and it is shown in Fig. 21 . Fig. 18.

Fig. 18. Block diagram of the speed control loop.

Fig. 21 . Fig. 18. Block diagram of the speed control loop. Fig. 19. Reduced block

Fig. 19. Reduced block diagram of the speed control loop.

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O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

532 O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 Fig. 20. Bode diagram of

Fig. 20. Bode diagram of the speed loop gain T x ( s ), at a wind speed of 6 m/s.

G x r ¼

^

G ic ð sÞG xg ð sÞ

¼

^

i g ðsÞ

G

x ðsÞ

x

m

^

i L ðsÞ

^

 

x

ref

1

þ T x

 

5.3. Speed estimator

ð31Þ

Due to both the voltages and frequency of the generator depend on its speed, the PMSG speed can be estimated starting from the measurement of the electrical quantities, eliminating the need for mechanical sensors. The problem is that the measured signals contain low frequency harmonics of the fundamental frequency of the generator, as well as switching frequency components due

to the boost rectifier. Furthermore, the fundamental and its low frequency harmonics have different values depending on the gen- erator speed. These issues have been studied in detail in [24] , con- cluding that the use of a Linear Kalman Filter (LKF) is a good compromise among dynamical response, static performance and complexity of implementation. In this case sensors are used to measure the generator output voltages in order to apply the LKF speed estimation. The main equations of the LKF used in this work are expressed by (32) . The meaning of each variable of (32) is explained in [24] . The chosen values of the LKF parameters are:

d = 5 10 6 , K s 1 = 0.0032896, K s 2 = 0.54221 and K s 3 = 0.00044647.

K s 2 = 0.54221 and K s 3 = 0.00044647. Fig. 21. Bode diagram of

Fig. 21. Bode diagram of transfer function of the speed control loop closed, G x r ( s), at a wind speed of 6 m/s.

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

533

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 533 Fig. 22. Scheme of the

Fig. 22. Scheme of the proposed WGS.

eðk Þ ¼ V b ðk Þ cos h ð kÞ V a ð kÞ sin h

hð k þ 1Þ ¼ h ðk Þ þ T s x e ð k Þ þ K s1 eð k Þ

x e ðk þ 1Þ ¼ x e ðk Þ þ qð k Þ þ K s2 eð k Þ

qð ^ k þ 1Þ ¼ q ðk Þ þ K s3 e ðk Þ

^

^

6. Simulation results

ð32Þ

The performance of the proposed WECS has been evaluated by means of PSIM 7.0.5 software [25] . Fig. 22 shows the scheme of the proposed WECS. The system includes boost rectifier in DCM with input filter and PCC control, the wind turbine model, the speed estimator and the speed loop with the designed controller. In order to evaluate the dynamic performance of the speed con- trol structure, steps are applied in the reference speed to observe

the behavior of the WGS, assuming a constant wind speed. The steps ð D x ref Þ are 20 rpm, the update time ð D t Þ of the reference is 10 s and the considered wind speeds are 6 m/s and 10 m/s. The ref- erence speed starts at 150 rpm, however, the WGS is limited to a maximum reference speed, according to the behavior of the tur- bine, so for the case of 6 m/s, the maximum speed is 310 rpm and for 10 m/s, it is 530 rpm. Figs. 23 and 24 show the behavior of the speed loop to steps in the speed reference at a constant wind speed of 6 m/s and 10 m/s, respectively. It is observed that the speed loop properly follows the reference value. These figures also show the behavior of the electric torque and the PMSG output power. It is observed that the speed loop properly follows the reference value in all cases.

loop properly follows the reference value in all cases. Fig. 23. Response of the speed loop

Fig. 23. Response of the speed loop to speed reference steps at a wind speed of 6 m/s. Top: generator speed and its reference. Middle: generator output power. Bot tom:

electric torque.

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O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

534 O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 Fig. 24. Response of the

Fig. 24. Response of the speed loop to speed reference steps at a wind speed of 10 m/s. Top: generator speed and its reference. Middle: generator output power. Bo ttom:

electric torque.

Figs. 25 and 26 show in detail the speed loop response to steps in the reference speed. It may be observed that the speed loop al- ways follows the setpoint established by the reference speed, regardless of the wind speed value and whether the reference speed increase or decrease, thereby demonstrating the good per- formance of the speed control structure.

7. Experimental results

The following tests were carried out to experimentally validate the performance of the designed speed loop. Fig. 27 shows the

scheme used for carrying out the experimental tests to evaluate the speed loop in the proposed wind power generation system. In these tests the sensorless technique described in Section 5.3 has been implemented to calculate the PMSG speed. To emulate the wind turbine characteristics, the 2 kW PMSG is connected to a commercial AC motor drive Siemens Micromaster 440 that feeds a 5.5 kW induction motor 1LE1002CC322AA4Z from Siemens. With the AC motor drive, different wind speeds can be emulated by properly adjusting its speed reference, following a programmed wind turbine model. The PCC circuit for the boost converter has been implemented around an UC3823 integrated

converter has been implemented around an UC3823 integrated Fig. 25. Detail of the speed loop response

Fig. 25. Detail of the speed loop response to steps at the reference speed, for a wind speed of 6 m/s.

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy

103 (2013) 522–538

535

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 535 Fig. 26. Detail of the

Fig. 26. Detail of the speed loop response to steps at the reference speed, for a wind speed of 10 m/s.

circuit. The wind speed emulation, speed control loop and genera- tor speed estimation have been implemented by means of a DSP TMS320F28335. Table 1 shows the most relevant values of the experimental WES. Some of the oscilloscope waveforms shown in the following are internal variables that are processed inside the DSP. Those vari- ables are displayed by using the DSP PWM outputs and an analog low pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 300 Hz. This is a simple way to display some slow variables inside a DSP without the need

of a digital to analog converter. The displayed internal DSP vari- ables are: the estimated speed with a scale factor of 133.69 rpm/ V, the speed reference with a scale factor of 133.69 rpm/V, the gen- erated power with a scale factor of 500 W/V, the electric torque with a scale factor of 14 Nm/V, the power coefficient with a scale factor of 0.12/V, and the wind speed with a scale factor of 2.4 m/ s/V. Figs. 28 and 29 depict the response of the speed loop to a stepped speed reference at a wind speed of 6 m/s and 10 m/s,

loop to a stepped speed reference at a wind speed of 6 m/s and 10 m/s,

Fig. 27. Scheme of the experimental prototype.

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O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

536 O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 Fig. 28. Response of the

Fig. 28. Response of the speed loop to a stepped speed reference at a wind speed of 6 m/s. Reference speed (133,69 rpm/V, 500 mV/div). Estimated speed by means of t he LKF estimator (133,69 rpm/V, 500 mV/div). Electric torque (14 Nm/V, 500 mV/div). PMSG power output (500 W/V, 500 mV/div): (a) time scale: 20 s/div and (b) t ime scale: 10 s/

div.

(a) time scale: 20 s/div and (b) t ime scale: 10 s/ div. Fig. 29. Response

Fig. 29. Response of the speed loop to a stepped speed reference at a wind speed of 10 m/s. Reference speed (133,69 rpm/V, 500 mV/div). Estimated speed by means of the LKF estimator (133,69 rpm/V, 500 mV/div). Electric torque (14 Nm/V, 500 mV/div). PMSG power output (500 W/V, 500 mV/div): (a) time scale: 50 s/div and ( b) time scale:

20 s/div.

respectively. It is observed that the speed loop properly follows the speed reference. These figures also show the behavior of electric torque and the PMSG output power. A great agreement can be ob- served between these experimental results and the simulated ones of Figs. 23 and 24 . The tests were performed by applying a series of ascending and descending speed steps for a given and constant wind speed. The speed steps have an amplitude of 20 rpm every 10 s, all tests begin to 150 rpm but are limited to a maximum step, according to the behavior of the turbine, so that in the case of 6 m/s reaches 310 rpm and in the case of 10 m/s to 530 rpm. The speed loop responds to all wind speeds with appropriate monitoring of the reference speed set, both upward and downward steps. It is also observed behavior of electric torque and power out- put GSIP as expected. Figs. 30 and 31 show in detail the response to both ascending and descending speed steps for a wind speed of 6 m/s and 10 m/

s, respectively. The graphs in yellow represent the reference speed and the green plots represent the speed estimated by the LKF. A good performance of the speed control loop is observed in all cases.

8. Conclusions

This paper has presented the analysis of two control structures for wind power generation systems. The analysis of both control structures has taken into account all the elements of a wind power generation system, taking great care of the turbine model, which considers the mechanical torque as a system variable and not a dis- turbance as in other studies. Furthermore, the analysis of the con- trol structure is developed to be independent of the chosen power converter topologies. The study has concluded that the speed control scheme is best suited for implementation because it is designed to stabilize a non- minimum phase system, so that a classical and easy to implement

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538

537

O. Carranza et al. / Applied Energy 103 (2013) 522–538 537 Fig. 30. Detail of the

Fig. 30. Detail of the speed loop experimental response to steps at the reference speed, for a wind speed of 6 m/s. Reference speed (133,69 rpm/V, 100 mV/div). Es timated speed by means of the LKF estimator (133,69 rpm/V, 100 mV/div). Time scale: 5 s/div.

estimator (133,69 rpm/V, 100 mV/div). Time scale: 5 s/div. Fig. 31. Detail of the speed loop

Fig. 31. Detail of the speed loop experimental response to steps at the reference speed, for a wind speed of 10 m/s. Reference speed (133,69 rpm/V, 100 mV/div). E stimated speed by means of the LKF estimator (133,69 rpm/V, 100 mV/div). Time scale: 5 s/div.

PI controller may be used. On the contrary, the torque control scheme is applied to a system that has a pole and a zero in the right half plane, at a very low frequency and very close to each other, so it is very difficult to stabilize the system, at least by using the clas- sical control theory. Finally, a sample design of the speed control scheme for WES has been presented and experimentally evaluated, showing that this approach offers an excellent performance to place the PMSG at the desired speed operation point to extract as much energy as possible from the wind, following a consigned for the speed loop that would be calculated by a maximum power point algorithm.

Acknowledgements

The first author thanks the support of the Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN) and of the Comisión de Operación y Fomento de Actividades Académicas (COFAA). This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation under Grant

ENE2009-13998-C02-02.

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