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Converter

J.Mahdavi, A. Emaad i

Sharif University of Technology

Dept. of Elec. Eng., Tehran, Iran

PO.BOX11365-9363

Fax: +98/(2 1j 60 12983

of sliding-mode controllers for DC/DC

converters is presented. Principle advantage

of this nonlioear control is lack of restriction

of small rignal variations around the

operating point in the control process of the

related converters. In the other words, the

nonlinear control over the converters during

large

signal

variations

are

under

consideratian.

Therefore the controllers

which assigned to PWM Cuk converter are

discussed. Finally the prepared controllers

are simulated and their behaviour under

different operations are worth of notification.

Keywords: DGDC converters, Cuk converter,

PWM. State Space Averaging method,

Sliding-Mode control, Second Theorem of

Lyapunov.

I. h'TRODUCTION

By state space ave-aging method [1]-[5] the

3CiDC conveizrs simulation are studied. With

p e r t q to the nonlinear farm of these

converters md the resulted models are in the

state space, it is possible to control them by

sliding-mode control [6]-[0], The resulted

coxikollers ai: capable to control the related

systems in the Large s@ variations.

hi t l x s p a p s at iirst by state space avera-ging

method for Culi converter the resulted model is

The r e k 3 controUer

very s@cwt.

functiorung under variable cxitexia are s&ed and

at the end with use of the second Theorem of

Lyapunov the system stabihty is & s h e d .

STATE SPACE AVEFUGISG &fETHOD

The Cuk converter of Fig 1 operating with

switchmg penod T and du?: cycle d IS

considered.

equations of c i . c ~ in

t two state of witch Q are

written as below:

discussed. and the qualified form of sliding-mode

contmller with approximations of simplicities

introduced, sc: the simple controller for Cuk

converter formed whch nith addition of

many advantages in control system process, the

'Power Electronics and Variable Speed Drives', 23-25 September 1996, Conference Publication No. 429, 0IEE, 1996

373

to the folloning and the convergence speed is

under control.

i,=-jlx4-Kj

(4)

fono..ing:

xz =

4

xj =

--d

c,

x3

1

-x4

where as xl,xz,x,

converter

111. S L I D I N G ~ ~ OCONTROL

DE

The object of control system is to control

voltag; and A: is as output voltage reference.

The s l i h g suface in the statc space 1s x4 = I.:

and accordrng to the slidmg-mode control 161[I 11 there is:

Is

*<o

ifx, ?K

->o

ifx, CK

greater the system reaches to the steady state

sooner, contrary h e smder it the slower operate

the system. However, it is difficult to increase the

convergence speed too much because of

distmguished system limits,fkrh:,more as you

will see the convergence factor couldn't by any

value. because it deals with h i & .

For stabhhment of controller it is necessary to

add the eqwtior, (4) to the equations (2) and

make the fonriula of duty cycle d accordmg to

the circuit state variables and the axist

parameters, because the object is to control the

system and the control parameter in the PWM

converters is U a duty cycle. However, the little

state variable appear in the formula 'd' the little

feedback there is and the better the results. By

inserting the convergence equation (4j into

equations (2) there is:

(3)

where

374

III Table I sirnuldtri

TABLE 1

J>,,

24v

3mH

L2 1.9mH

r,

c,

[ &)+ L)

Wl

[ &)

f = - e ,&I-cj=

(6)

d'=-

K

yn-!-K

lOOuF

l5ohm

l0KHz

the sooner steady state the systsr,, in the other

hand it is not possible to increase the

convergence hctor too much, because there are

practical h t s of system and t h z e is high range

in the theory of convergence hctor, so in the

equation (5) the wnvergence factor must be so

that m the Mkrent h c b o n s of converter, duty

cycle d is real and in the reasonable range,

though the conv,qqmce factor 2 3 ISchoosed.

The figures (4)-(7illustrates the rsdk provided

by system sunulabon per I(=16v.

J :-(I~CK~- e(Y;, -t ~ ) ) ( x ,- K )

t f ( x 4 -KY

47uF

(7)

relabon in thz stzady state is resulted:

2o

K =Yo- J'

---

Y n

1-d*

mode control system results from equation (3.

"

o

001

002

om

004

005

Ttme(Sec)

ow

007

om

converter

Ttme(Sec)

system

controlled Cuk converter to load step changes

from I5ohm to 3Oohm at 2rmSec.

009

cl

375

changes, on the other hand U: the simpled

.-0

h

i

t

s and lfto continue the prelirxs field criteria

it is necessary to reduce the convqence Eactor

and results in reducing the system rzaction.

002

owi

006

0 08

0.1

0 1.'

Time(Sec)

controlled Cuk converter to output voltage

reference step changes from Iov to 14v at

2OmSec.

I

'9;

Id

0.02

0 04

0.06

Time(Sec)

0.08

0.1

controlled LOA converter to input voltage step

changes from 24v to 2 lv at 20mSec.

SLIDLVG-MODE

CONTROLLER

Fig 3 dustrates Cuk converter sliding-mode

control system which results fiom equation (5).

For simpthe control system it is necessary

to use the appIoxunaaons m the equation (5).

Along the sltding-mode controller holds the

system m the way whch x4 - K reduced, it IS

possible to apply the below approrimation in the

zquation (5).

0.12

control system

COKTROLLER

-4s mentioned for desigrung of sliding-mode

controller the convergence e q d o n (4) must be

inserted into the equations (2) and duty cycle d is

calculated. In the equation (5) duty cycle is

calculated according to the output voltage

average, though there is only one feedback of the

output voltage in the control s y s t a of Fig. 3.

Here the control system is designed 2ccordmg to

the two feedbacks which one of them relates to

the output voltage and the other to the input

current. Duty cycie d calculated as following:

where

(9)

so the simpler equation resulted in the Id'.

In the Fig. 8 shows the Culc convater slidmgmode control system results fiom equation (10').

With the apprlxixnationin ('9;). the results fiom

system simulation in Fig. 8 is parhally slrmlar to

system in Fig. 3. The only problem in the

simpled slidmg-mode control system companng

376

\.-3. STABILITY

The slidmg s d c e defined as folli7vcing:

f=-1

R

d=xl2 f ( a x , f b K ) ( x 4- K )

+ c(x4 -K)*

(12)

In the steady state whch x4 = K and

XI

=-

K2

I? L

control system with output voltage and input

cment feedbacb which resulted from equation

(1 1) is illustrakd.

system -6th output voltage and input current

feedbacks

The results from system simulation in Fig. 9 is

partially s i m h to system in Fig. 3. The control

system in Fig. 9 is more complicated than Fig. 3

because the new controller with having current

feedback whch mcreases the complexty a

lowpass filter and an accelarator added to die

system in Fig. 3. It is worth mentioning that the

control system with output voltage and output

inductor current feedbacks IS very complicated

than system in Fig. 3, and it is impossible to

apply the output voltage and intermediate

capacitor voltage feedbacks, becduse the

equation concerning to the duty cycle m th~scase

is a third degree equation in scale of Id' which it

is impossible to make an equation for Id'.

5 = {xix4 -- it' = 0 )

(13)

The control command must pxt the variables

nithin slicllng surface and maintain them in that

field, so with stabhhmg the shcimg condhon

there is:

377

for whole x

x, is negauve

per numerical

alnrays is under

V ( x ) is negative

definite funcam and V(x) is a Lyapunov

coordinates

j. That is

stable balance point.

Vl'[.

CONCLUSIONS

accordmg to the state space averagmg method for

Cuk converter the control of h s converter is

&cussed, so t h e slidmg-mode control associated

with model are applied. For Cuk converter the

Werent forms of slidmg-mode controllers are

studied and simple form obtained. The functions

of them undc merent operations and the

sigrufjcant varia~tionsin load, reference voltage

and input voltpge studed. Large signal control,

simplicity of construction and high reliability as

their advantages illustrated.

REFEREWES

[I] R.D.Middlcbrook and S.Cuk, "A general

unifed approach to m o d e h g switchmg

converter powa. stages," IEEE PESC Rec., 1976,

PP. 18-34

[2] P.T.Krein, J.Bentsman, R.M.Bass and

B.Lesieutre, "On the use of averaging for the

analysis of power electronic system," IEEE

Trans. on Power Electronics, Vol. 5, No. 2, Apnl

1990.

[3] J.Sun and H.Grotstollen, "Averaged

modelling of snitclung power converters:

reformulation a:nd theoritical basis," IEEE PESC

Rec., 1992, PP. 1165-1172.

[4] S.R.Sandm;, J.M.Noworolski X.Z.Liu and

G.C.Ver&se, " h e r h d Averaging Method

for Power coniwsion circuits," IEEE Trans. on

Power Electromcs, Vol. 6, No. 2, Apnl 1991.

[5] A.F.Witulski and R.W.Enckson "Extension

of state space airera-rring to resonant snitches and

beyond," IEEE 'Trans. on Power Electroiucs, Vol.

5, No. 1, January 19PO.

-4pplication in Variable Structure Systems.

Moscow: MJR, 1074.

[7l V.I.Utkq, SSdmg Modes in Problems of

Optimizationand control. Moscow: Nauka, 1981.

[8]H.Sira-"Slidmg Motions in Bilinear

Switched Networks," IEEE Trans. on Circuits

and Systems, Vol. CAS-34, NO. 8, A w t 1987.

[9] Jean-Jacques ESlotine and W.Li Applied

Nonlinear Control. F'rentice-Hall, 1991.

[lo] L.Malesani, L.Rossetto, GSpiazzi and

P.Tenti, "Performance Optimization of Cuk

Converters by Slim-Mode ControL" IEEE

Trans.on Power Electronics, Vol. 10, No. 3, May

1995.

Ill] S.Huang, H.Xu and Y.Liu, "Slidmg mode

controlled Cuk switchmg regulator with fast

response and firstader dynamic characteristic,"

IEEE PESC Rec., 1989, PP. 124-129.

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