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372

Converter
J.Mahdavi, A. Emaad i
Sharif University of Technology
Dept. of Elec. Eng., Tehran, Iran
PO.BOX11365-9363
Fax: +98/(2 1j 60 12983

Abstract- A novel approach to the design


of sliding-mode controllers for DC/DC
converters is presented. Principle advantage
of this nonlioear control is lack of restriction
of small rignal variations around the
operating point in the control process of the
related converters. In the other words, the
nonlinear control over the converters during
large
signal
variations
are
under
consideratian.
Therefore the controllers
which assigned to PWM Cuk converter are
discussed. Finally the prepared controllers
are simulated and their behaviour under
different operations are worth of notification.
Keywords: DGDC converters, Cuk converter,
PWM. State Space Averaging method,
Sliding-Mode control, Second Theorem of
Lyapunov.

I. h'TRODUCTION
By state space ave-aging method [1]-[5] the
3CiDC conveizrs simulation are studied. With
p e r t q to the nonlinear farm of these
converters md the resulted models are in the
state space, it is possible to control them by
sliding-mode control [6]-[0], The resulted
coxikollers ai: capable to control the related
systems in the Large s@ variations.
hi t l x s p a p s at iirst by state space avera-ging
method for Culi converter the resulted model is

construction simplicity and it's h@ reliability are


The r e k 3 controUer
very s@cwt.
functiorung under variable cxitexia are s&ed and
at the end with use of the second Theorem of
Lyapunov the system stabihty is & s h e d .

11. THE R4ODEL RJ3SULTED FROM


STATE SPACE AVEFUGISG &fETHOD
The Cuk converter of Fig 1 operating with
switchmg penod T and du?: cycle d IS
considered.

Fig. 1. Cuk converiz

In continuous conduction mode; the state


equations of c i . c ~ in
t two state of witch Q are
written as below:

represented as we]L than the slidmg-mode

conuoi of converter w i h appiicable model is


discussed. and the qualified form of sliding-mode
contmller with approximations of simplicities
introduced, sc: the simple controller for Cuk
converter formed whch nith addition of
many advantages in control system process, the

'Power Electronics and Variable Speed Drives', 23-25 September 1996, Conference Publication No. 429, 0IEE, 1996

373

For thts. a first order path is choosed accordmg


to the folloning and the convergence speed is
under control.

aT < f < T(I b)

i,=-jlx4-Kj

(4)

1is positive and called convergencc factor.

The model by state space averagjng method is as


fono..ing:

xz =
4

xj =

--d

c,

x3

1
-x4

where as xl,xz,x,

Fig. 2. Convergence relation for control of Cuk


converter

and x, are average of

iL,, vc,i,, and v, respectively.

111. S L I D I N G ~ ~ OCONTROL
DE
The object of control system is to control

average of oufput voltage. x4is average output


voltag; and A: is as output voltage reference.
The s l i h g suface in the statc space 1s x4 = I.:
and accordrng to the slidmg-mode control 161[I 11 there is:

Is

*<o

ifx, ?K

->o

ifx, CK

Under (4) whenever the convergence factor is


greater the system reaches to the steady state
sooner, contrary h e smder it the slower operate
the system. However, it is difficult to increase the
convergence speed too much because of
distmguished system limits,fkrh:,more as you
will see the convergence factor couldn't by any
value. because it deals with h i & .
For stabhhment of controller it is necessary to
add the eqwtior, (4) to the equations (2) and
make the fonriula of duty cycle d accordmg to
the circuit state variables and the axist
parameters, because the object is to control the
system and the control parameter in the PWM
converters is U a duty cycle. However, the little
state variable appear in the formula 'd' the little
feedback there is and the better the results. By
inserting the convergence equation (4j into
equations (2) there is:

(3)

where

374

The above system nith apphcauon of pcanrreters


III Table I sirnuldtri
TABLE 1
J>,,

24v

3mH
L2 1.9mH

r,
c,

[ &)+ L)
Wl

e=4 I Z L & c,c, (I 1-

[ &)

f = - e ,&I-cj=

(6)

In the steady state whch x4 = K there is:

d'=-

K
yn-!-K

lOOuF
l5ohm
l0KHz

As it mentioned the more convergence factor


the sooner steady state the systsr,, in the other
hand it is not possible to increase the
convergence hctor too much, because there are
practical h t s of system and t h z e is high range
in the theory of convergence hctor, so in the
equation (5) the wnvergence factor must be so
that m the Mkrent h c b o n s of converter, duty
cycle d is real and in the reasonable range,
though the conv,qqmce factor 2 3 ISchoosed.
The figures (4)-(7illustrates the rsdk provided
by system sunulabon per I(=16v.

J :-(I~CK~- e(Y;, -t ~ ) ) ( x ,- K )

t f ( x 4 -KY

47uF

(7)

Which the Cuk converter input and output


relabon in thz stzady state is resulted:

2o

K =Yo- J'

---

Y n

1-d*

In the Fig. 3 shows the Cuk converter slidmg


mode control system results from equation (3.

"
o

001

002

om

004

005
Ttme(Sec)

ow

007

om

Fig. 4. Start-up of sliding-mode controlled Cuk


converter

Ttme(Sec)

Fig. 3. Cuk converter slidng-mode control


system

Fig. 5. Dynamic response of slidmg-mode


controlled Cuk converter to load step changes
from I5ohm to 3Oohm at 2rmSec.

009

cl

375

to the complete system is sensiti\it).ofit to load


changes, on the other hand U: the simpled

.-0

slim-mode control system the load ranges


h
i
t
s and lfto continue the prelirxs field criteria
it is necessary to reduce the convqence Eactor
and results in reducing the system rzaction.
002

owi

006

0 08

0.1

0 1.'

Time(Sec)

Fig. d. Dynamic response of slidmg-mode


controlled Cuk converter to output voltage
reference step changes from Iov to 14v at
2OmSec.
I

'9;

Id

0.02

0 04

0.06
Time(Sec)

0.08

0.1

Fig. 7. Dynamic response of sliding-mode


controlled LOA converter to input voltage step
changes from 24v to 2 lv at 20mSec.

Ij'. THE SIMPLIFIED FORM OF


SLIDLVG-MODE
CONTROLLER
Fig 3 dustrates Cuk converter sliding-mode
control system which results fiom equation (5).
For simpthe control system it is necessary
to use the appIoxunaaons m the equation (5).
Along the sltding-mode controller holds the
system m the way whch x4 - K reduced, it IS
possible to apply the below approrimation in the
zquation (5).

0.12

Fig. 8. Cuk converter simplified slidmg-mode


control system

V. OTHER FORM OF SLID'CYG-MODE


COKTROLLER
-4s mentioned for desigrung of sliding-mode
controller the convergence e q d o n (4) must be
inserted into the equations (2) and duty cycle d is
calculated. In the equation (5) duty cycle is
calculated according to the output voltage
average, though there is only one feedback of the
output voltage in the control s y s t a of Fig. 3.
Here the control system is designed 2ccordmg to
the two feedbacks which one of them relates to
the output voltage and the other to the input
current. Duty cycie d calculated as following:

where

(9)
so the simpler equation resulted in the Id'.

In the Fig. 8 shows the Culc convater slidmgmode control system results fiom equation (10').
With the apprlxixnationin ('9;). the results fiom
system simulation in Fig. 8 is parhally slrmlar to
system in Fig. 3. The only problem in the
simpled slidmg-mode control system companng

376

\.-3. STABILITY
The slidmg s d c e defined as folli7vcing:

f=-1
R

d=xl2 f ( a x , f b K ) ( x 4- K )

+ c(x4 -K)*

(12)
In the steady state whch x4 = K and

XI

=-

K2

I? L

there the same equation (7) and (8).

In the Fig. 9 the Cuk converter slidmg-mode


control system with output voltage and input
cment feedbacb which resulted from equation
(1 1) is illustrakd.

Fig. 9. Cuk converter slidmg-mode control


system -6th output voltage and input current
feedbacks
The results from system simulation in Fig. 9 is
partially s i m h to system in Fig. 3. The control
system in Fig. 9 is more complicated than Fig. 3
because the new controller with having current
feedback whch mcreases the complexty a
lowpass filter and an accelarator added to die
system in Fig. 3. It is worth mentioning that the
control system with output voltage and output
inductor current feedbacks IS very complicated
than system in Fig. 3, and it is impossible to
apply the output voltage and intermediate
capacitor voltage feedbacks, becduse the
equation concerning to the duty cycle m th~scase
is a third degree equation in scale of Id' which it
is impossible to make an equation for Id'.

5 = {xix4 -- it' = 0 )
(13)
The control command must pxt the variables
nithin slicllng surface and maintain them in that
field, so with stabhhmg the shcimg condhon
there is:

377

If a, = 1000 and a2 = a3 = 1 choosed . V ( x )


for whole x

x, is negauve

values the curve Y(x)

per numerical

alnrays is under

V ( x ) is negative
definite funcam and V(x) is a Lyapunov

coordinates

j. That is

function and the system is stable and x, is a


stable balance point.

Vl'[.

CONCLUSIONS

With applictition of the resulted model


accordmg to the state space averagmg method for
Cuk converter the control of h s converter is
&cussed, so t h e slidmg-mode control associated
with model are applied. For Cuk converter the
Werent forms of slidmg-mode controllers are
studied and simple form obtained. The functions
of them undc merent operations and the
sigrufjcant varia~tionsin load, reference voltage
and input voltpge studed. Large signal control,
simplicity of construction and high reliability as
their advantages illustrated.

REFEREWES
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[o] V.I.UtIan, Sliding Modes and Their


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[7l V.I.Utkq, SSdmg Modes in Problems of
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[8]H.Sira-"Slidmg Motions in Bilinear
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