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In tr od uc tio n

As tr ol og y
(Gani ta, Hora & Samh ita)

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About ti,e Author


Introd ucti on to Astrology

A strology - O Uf H eritage

The Pl anets, Signs and Constell ations


Astrology the Harmonizer


Wha t is Jyotish" ?




Utility of Astrology


H isto ry of Ast rology

The Present Peri od



Fate and Freewill


The Karma Theory



W hy Believe in Destiny



Astrology and Psychology



Astrology and Science



The Par/chaJlga


As trol o ge r-Qua lific ati on~



COlllel rts


Casting of Horoscope by Modern Method



Casting of Horoscope by Trad itional Meth od



As tro-Meteorology




Mughals and Astrology

Da ily Rising Lagna for New Delhi
Lagna Correction for the Major Cities




Maharishi Parashara,
Ved Vyasa and Meitreya

Ma/wrishi Parasltara is the source of all astrological knowledge

bequeathed to the mankind. He himself states: " Qi00Ifi4 ~ ~ ~ ~I

t#~'1Cf1IFi:.~ ~: ~ "IDGnt11

mil "'" "'" ;mi

'1""f"i "'"

fl;;;!! "
"The knowledge of Astro logy e manated from Lord Bralllllll ,
the creator, who gave it to Nnmdn Mill/i. Ntlmdn M1I11i, in turn,
gave thi s know led ge to Slfmmaka and other Risllis. Maharishi
Paras/wra ad mits to have acquired the knowled ge from these
I~is /lis . Modestly he sta tes to hi s diSciple, Rishi Maitreya, tha t
whatever he could retain out of the wisdom showered upon him,
the sa me know led ge, now, he imparts to the ca pable d isc iple in
that very form" .
Maharishi Paras/,ara taught Astrology to hi s disciple Maitreya

Risili in the for m of Questions and Answers. It is but .:l ppropria te

tha t students of Astrology know these two personalities in a little
more detail.
Mallarislli Parasllara
M aharishi Va shistha was the manasa-putra (the son born from
mental power) of Lo rd Brallma. He was also the family priest of
the legendary king Dns/wrn llw, the fa ther of Lord Rnma. His
very name co njures up images o f di vinity and benign
benevolence. Anllldlwfi was his devoted "..'ife. Slinkti was the
eldest amo ngs t the 100 sons of M alwrislii Vasll isHm. Shakti wa s

illi r()r/u r lioll ttl Iblm/ogy

milrried to I\drishyalli i wh o was a devout , we ll mannered and

dutiful wife. She took every possible care of her fath e r a nd
Mother-in -law devotedly.
The Sll rya-val1sll i (the d escendant of Sun) kings, especia ll y
the rulers of Ayodltya, we re a very powerful lot in the ancient
times. One of them was a very great king call ed Triballdluma (a \so
known as Allarallya). Hi s only son, Satyavra ta was a great d evotee
to his father. However, according to one story, the prince was
very arrogant and impertinent wi th a perverted mind . Once,
. out of blind passion, the prince forcefully abducted a Bra llm ill 's
daughte r who was to be married off in immed iate future. This
angere d the e ntire Brahmillical clan of th e kingdom who
collectively lodged a veh ement protest before the king. The crime
was so he ino us that the king, after cons u lting the famil y pri est
(who w as none other than lhe venerable Ris/ti Vashisflm ), o rdered
the prince to leave the kingdom immediately. The hot b looded
prince, without accepting his own mistakes, squarely bla med
Rislti Vasllistlla for h is misfortune. In the wilderness of <l d ense
forest, he fervently prayed . As a consequence, there was a g reilt
famin e. During the fa mine, Raj Rishi VishiValllit ra wa s d eepl y
immersed in medita tio n, on the bank of the ri ve r Km ;slziki. His
fa mil y w as s ta rvin g in hi s a bse n ce. VisJlluam i t ra wa s a
contemporary ilnd a grea t riva l of Maharishi Vashistha . Unlike
Maharishi Va sllis/ha, V;shwamitra was not a Brahmarishi (a Brahmill
elevated to the status of a Rishi), he was conferred the title of Raj
Rislli (as he was the son of Gaadhi . a noble and great Kshntriya
king). We sh all know more about VislllVllmitra a little later in thi s
chapte r itself. We were d iscussing. that the fa mily of Raj Rishi
VishiVamitra, was .starving in his absence durin g the famine
created on account of hi s deep meditation. KnOWing their pli ght,
the prince Satyav rata came to their rescue. He took upon himself
to bring food for the fam ily every I)ay b y hunting. One day, when
he got no prey, out of sheer reven ge, he killed Nandi" i, the cow
of Rishi Vasl/isOm, and fed her meat to the s tarving fam il y of
VislliVamit ra w ithout their knowledge. NI~ lI dilli was very d ea r to
Rish; Va sllis/ha since she was the progeny o f .'<allladilellll and thus
had all the propensities o f her mother. Hilving come to know
the pli g ht of Nall dill i, Rishi Vashisfha cursed the prin ce to

MahariS/1l ParaS/111m, Ved


allri Mriln'.1/1I

immediately turn in to Chandata (some one totilll y ulltolichab!l..:)

and continue to be tormented by a TriS/lIlI/klt (.1 piercing wnL')
on three co unts; viz. a rrogant beha vio ur with th L' bther,
abduction and molestation of an unwilling gi rl and kill i n~ of
the holy cow.
The erstwhile prince, and now a Chandala, kept on wanderin~
in the forests. His father, having come to know about his piti,lble
condition, called him back and after having handed OVl'r him
the kingdom, went to the fore st for prayers. Safyavrafll, th ough
still a C/uwdnln, but now generally known as king Trislml1kll, was
married and had a son called Harishchandra. In the mean while
he got a very stnmge desire to go to the heaven in hi s physiCill
form. Since Maharishi Vashistha continued to be the famil y pri est,
he approached Maharishi Vasllist/w that he (Satyavrata) should
be sent to the Devaloka in his numan form (since his morta l life
span was not yet over). He was counseled by Maharislli Va shisllw
and hi s son Rishi Slwkt i that since going to Dcvaloka in hume-Ill
fo rm tmnsgresses the Divine law, the sa me should be avoided
at all costs and that he should, instead, tender unconditi ona l
apologies to hi s father.
The re is yet another version of the story about his d esire to
go to the heaven in the human form. It states that after being
banished from his father's kingdom, Satyavrata faced a un iq ue
problem since his father ruled upon the entire world. Hav ing
been left with no choice b ut to go either to the hell or heaven
(since these were the only two places beyond the domain of hi s
illustrious father), he requested the Maharishi to send him to the
heaven . As stated earlier, Safyavrata w as not only chastised by
the Maharishi, he was advised to beg apologies for all hi s
misdeeds. However, Trishanku was too proud to do so. Therefore,
instead o f sobering up, he went to Raj Rislli Vishwalllitra for
fulfillment of his queer desire.
Out of the burning desire of one upmanship above th e
Bm/IlIIarislli Vasllistha, and remembering the help rend('red by
Satyavrata to his family during his absence, Raj Nislli Visl/w/llllill'l1
acceded to the request of Satyavrata . An elaborate and proP('t'
Yagna was performed by Rishi Vis/rwamitm for thi s purpose .1S.1
result of which king Satyavratn was b()c\ iIy lifh'd he.1Venw,lrd s.

Looking at this preposterous act, the God s in the h eaven not

on ly stopped his ascent; they ensured tha t Sal.'ltlvrnta started
falling back earthwards. Enraged by the fact that Sntyat Jmta was
denied entrance to the Dcvn/okn, Rishi Visl1wamitra again exercised
hi s great powers and barred his re-entry to Mrityulokn (the earth).
Not only that, so enraged was he, that he sta rted creati ng a new
heaven around the upside down hanging king Satyavrntn in the
middle of no where! The Gods again prayed to Rishi Vishw(llllifra
that like his previous one, this act too was against the divine
law. Rishi should abandon his efforts to contradict these law s
immediatel y since the Rishi were supposed to be the enforcer o f
these Jaws along with the Gods. Rislli Vislllvomitra, rea li zi ng the
con tradictions, left his mission una ccomplished. But in the
process poor Satyavra ta was left hang ing between the earth
(Mrityu/oka) and the heaven (Devaloka) and came to be known
as Tris/mllkll. Raj Rishi Visliwalllitra, incensed at his failure, cursed
Brnltmarislii Vashisrlm's sons. To avenge the humili ation, thu s
incurred in a futile exerci se, a cruel demon called Hudltira was
sent by Vis/Eluantifra to the abode of Rishi Va sllistlIa. In the absence
of Rishi Vaslt istJta, Rudltirn a te SJmkti Ris/li and killed hi s other 99
brothers. Maharishi Vasllist/ta, a fter coming back, was naturally
nonplussed and not knowing what to do, decided to end hi s
life. Anmdllali, his wife, too wanted to follow hi s foot-steps.
However, Adrisliyall li, the wife of Rislti Sliakli, preven ted them
from doing so. She told them tha t she was ca rrying the chi ld of
Sitakti Ris/li. Maharislti Va sllisll/a heard the unborn child's sweet
and trained voice reciting tht, slllalm from Veda. Lord Vis/mil
appeared in person and told Malta rishi Vashistha tha t the unborn
child was to be a g r,:a t devotee of Lord Shiva and would ensure
that hi s dead father and forefathers (" Pitars") were dul y
propitiated. This very grand son of Maltarishi Va sltisflTa wa s
known as Parnslwra (A far reaching sharp arrow).
Maharishi Parashara was diligently brought up. He was a great
Shiva devotee. Lord SITiva g ranted him a plethora of boons.
Pams/mra was very annoyed with Rlldllira and the demons
(l~ak5Ita) for their ignoble <lnd reprehensible <lets. He decided to
finish them . To nchieve thi s h<lte(ul objective he started a
powerful "agl/a". The 'Rak~/ta ;:;a' stil rted nppea ring and getting

destroyed by dozens is the fire of the "Yagllll" , Vasllisll/(I Nishi

advised his g rand son to stop th:,:; violence ilnd excuse the
'Rl1kslmsa'. Forgiveness is the hallmark of a rea lized soul.
Ris/li Parashara ended this angry "Yaglla" o f his. Maharishi
Plliastya, the Guru and forefather of 'Rakslrasa', apprecia ted Ihi s
forgiveness by blessi ng Rishi Parashara and giving him the
know ledge o f all SIU1st ra.
Maharishi Paras/lara had honed his astrological know - how
to such sharpness that once, w hile he was crossing Yal1llll/fl ri ver
in a boa t, he calcul ated that if impregnation is done now the
resultant child would be a blessed boon for the entire world
The boatman offered his daughter Matsya-Gandlm (one w ho smelt
like fish) for immedia te imp regnation. With the consent of thl'
lady, Rishi Parashara impregnated Mat sya-Galldha on the b(ltlt
itself. Matsya-Gandllll lost her evil smell and became Satya'vall.
The Jyotisha ordained chi ld was our own Rishi Veda-Vyasa. Hi:-;
real name was not Vcda-Vyasa, In fact h ~ was called KrishllnDwnipaylllw . His colour was bluish bla ck as of lord Krisllllll
(therefore Krishna) and that he was born on a Dweepn. an islnnd
(therefore Dwn;payalla).
Vcdn- Vyasa is also called Bndrayal1a as there were ab und an t
Badr; (Ber - oh:) bushes in the area where he grew up. He got his
name Veda - Vyasa because the word mea ns "one who expanded
the Vedas",

Maharishi Maitreya:
Veda Vyasa - the compaSSionate Maltarishi once saw a sma ll insl'ct
hurriedly movi ng about in panic. On being asked the reason fi.lr
thi s panic, the insect said that he is about to be crushed under
the big wheels of the approaching cart. Veda- Vyasa ji suggested
the insect that he should welcome death as he would be frL't'd
from the bondage of this very useless life of an insect. The in ~'....cl
agreed wi th him but had a problem, "What if on de.1th I .1In
born as some crea ture worse than an in sec t? " l~i5"i Vl'da -V)/fI ,<:II,
in his innate kindness, promised the insect to gllidc him through
various li ves till it was born as a Bra/llllill, in human form ,
This promise wa s kept by Veda l(yasa ji and after his karmi c
journey through the lives in many forms hL' was burn in .l Hml/ll/lll

111/ roductiOIl to Astrology

house hold. In this life of his, he was initiated in "Sarswlltll

Malll rail by venerable Veda Vyasa ji. He was instructed to go to
the Tecrtha (holy place of pilgrimage) called "Bahlldaka" and
remove the doubts of the trader Nandblwdra. Nalldblwdra was
doing an extended Tapa at this Teertlln. His doubts were such
that even today most of us are tormented by those. Let us look
at them. Nandbhadra was puzzled to see that some people, who
were really pious and completely devoted to the lord, were
suffering terrible vagaries of life. Every day was a day of tri<'ll
and tribulation for them. On the other hand, there were people,
who were real scoundrels and rogues of the first order, with little
or no regard for any values of life, were flourishing and enjoying
all comforts of life. This apparent contradiction baffled
Nal1dbhadra no end. The Brahmin boy wonderfully explained
the cosmic law of Karma and K11rma - Phala to the trader. Having
accomplished his mission there, he was to come to the world in
a new incarnation now. The boy had contacted the dreaded
Leprosy. He prayed to lord Sun at this Teerllw and died there.
In his next birth he was born to Kushnru and Mitrl1. Being
Mitra's son, he was named Maitreyn. Mnhnrisfti Paras/lI1rrl
instructed Astrology to this souL so lovingly nurtured by his
son Veda-Vyasa. The glimpses of teaching of Astrology is found
in the form of questions and answers in Vishllu Purmll1 and the
compilation known as "Brilwda ParaslUlrl1 Horn SllI1stra".
This is in brief the story of two legends, Maharishi Pnrashara
and Maitreya. All Astrology students need to know this. It is also
incumbent on everyone who wishes to peruse Astrology to leClrn
about the Hindu heritage expounded in PlIrmll1S and Upnl1islll1das.
For the beginner, Shrimada Bhagawada Gita is a sound starting
point for this stimulating voyage as it contains the crux of all


Our Heritage

The Veda and Dasha Avataraa

Astrology is an all encompassing limb of Verla. Therefore it is
ca lled ' Vedanga (Veda -Allga)' a limb of Veda. It is encyclopedic in
it ing ress & synthesizes all branches of learni ng. Since astrology
is a part of Veda let us know about them .
Vedas are our herita ge . In them is stored the essence of all the
knowledge. In ord e r to understand the rea li ty of Veda, it is
<Ipprop riate to kn ow the outlines of the Vedic Scheme and the
Vedic Universe.
The Vedas
The Origin of the word "Veda" is from the root "vid" which
me<l ns knowled ge. Initially there w as only one consoJid.lt L'ti
work called "Veda" . This 'Veda' wa sexp<lnded by Rishi Allgirnsa.
Allgirasa or Angira Rishi incorporated simple daily rituals <lnLl
some esoteric occult Prac tices and thus crea ted " AtI/(/ rl'lI Allgirasa". This ca me to be know n as A t/larva Veda.
The origina l Veda was expanded, expla ined and codi fit'd
by Krishlla DwaipayaHa (Veda Vya sa) The expanded Veda <lrt':(a) Rig Veda - Prayers and Strotra
(b) Yajllr Veda - Kilrma kallda (Rituals) and prayers.
(c) Sama Veda - "Soma" stand s for peace of mind. Thi s VI'dll
explains difficult Portions of Riga V(,da. It is wr itl l'n in .1
lyrica l, pleasant and easy to memo ri ze m.lnl1l..' r.
(d) Atlwrva Veda- Rislli Allgirasa had .1 IrL',\ti y dOlw till' ~ 1"Ht l'

IlItnmu ctioll to A strology

work for this treati se. It has ritu a ls and esoteri c occult

The Six Vedauga:
(3) Shikslza (Phonetics)


Kn/pa (Rituals)
Vyaknmn (Grammer)
N"ukta (Etymology)
Chhalldn (Metres)
/yotis/In (Astrology)

The Vedic Scheme

Verla are the reposi tories of know"ledge. Our forefathers, in the

hoary pas t, and we are ta lking of some 500-750 centuries Before
Christ (BC), buil t up this knowledge, bit by bit. Hundred s of
Sages and Rishi con tributed their mites. It is also worth
remembering Ihat those were the times when knowledge W,lS
stored in memory only, there being no books as we know of
today. The Rishi wanted this knowledge to be stored for pos terity
as well as to be disseminated to theentire population. I:<nowledge
has always been graded; it ca n be partaken strictl y in accordance
with the intellectual calibre. Every person cannot be a Ph.D. or a
doctor or an engineer. The storage imd di ssemination of the Vedic
knowledge is a fascinating saga. Let us take a closer look.
Storage and disse mination
The days were when whatever you wanted to know, you had to
memorize. 'Sltrllfi' and 'SlIlrifi' -listening a nd memori zing was
the only mode of transfer and storage of knowledge. The easiest
way to commit something to memory is to develop it into a
'rhyme', ' a ditty '. Thi s is more use ful when one wan ts to
memorize a large volume of data. For common people, not given
to intellectual pursuits, small, striking sto ries are found to be a
better way of storing informa tion, developing foresigh t, acumen
ilnd an absolute understanding of human nature. The people of
yore und e rs tood thi s differentia l perhaps better th em any
m,magcment expert of the present generation. Therefore, they

syn thesized the entire process and C<lmc out with Wh.ll we IlllW
know as the Vedic Scheme.
In this scheme, knowledge is stored at the apex in the Vell.ls.
The knowledge is in the form of'Ricfla ' and 'Sookta'. Tlw I,mgu ,lgl'
and the selection of words is such that each 'Ridla ' or 'SI"o~II '
can be correctly interpre ted in a number of ways. This h.ld tt llw
done as some portions of this knowledge were mea nt fllr pCllpl ...,
w ho had reached an appropriate state of maturity, intellect .md
developmen t; in imrrature hands these could prove dangerous
to the SOC iety. Vedas w~re, therefore, known only t.) the 'rea Ji zl'd'
Gurus. To make the less dense portions of Ve~'1 available to .1
larger people of some minimum mental development, Upalli~llfld
(a lso known as Vedal1t a - the end of Veda ) a nd Bllas(II/11
(com mentaries) were written.
To take thi s knowledge to a wider circle of people the Rislli .~
develo ped PI/ranas and th ~ two immorta l classics, the Ramayml(/
<lnd the Mahabharata . Here stress was on stories and each story
had a moral as well as an uplifting, humanizing angle.
The outer most circle comprising the children, the vill.lgl'
folk, the work ing class and the housewives was ca tered to by
stories of Pallcilfalltra, Hitopadt"511a and lataka tales. The " Pl/mllll~"
exp lain th e evaluation of mankind. This evoluti on has bee n
linked with Avatara (incarnations of the lord). This linka ge of
terrestrial events with celestial phenomenon is a hall mMk of
Hiudll thought & philosophy. The evolution of life form on till'
earth follows the same sequence as do our" Dasha Avatarn:" the
10 manifestations of the supreme God. This is no accident. Ll'I
us get acquainted with our 'Avataras.
The first Avatara is "Matsya" a fi sh. This fish has a si ng le
h um on its hea d. Thi s fi sh had warned, th e ea rth lin gs of
impending "Pralaya" - the submerging of earth in water. TIll'
fish God also asked the king to prepare a boat in which n pair IIf
each species, the seeds of various plants of the vegetable kingdtlTn
and the Sapta-Rishis were to be taken. After the "Pmla.'lil" it w"s
these people w ho restarted the crea tion . This story is abo
contained in the Bible - the Noah's Ark - remember Ihilt thl'
Bible is barely 2000 year old and the Hindu BIMI WilS launclll'd
at least 30-40 tho usand yeil rs etlfl il.::' r! This sillry .,Iso figuTt.'s in


Int rodu ctioll to/l.stro /(lgy

the Holy Qua ran; on the 3rd day of the c rea ti on it boat, 300 ft.
long and 40 ft. high . was prepared a nd the d evout w e re sa ved
from the seve re sto rms that lashed the area and submerged it in
the wa te r. This Avntara ma rks the beg inning o f this c reati on by
God s.
The next process of evolution w as that as the s ub me rged
l';lfth began to re ~em e rge, as the waters reced ed a mphibious life
stMted. The A va/a m a t thi s stage was " Koorm a" or the Tortoi se.
Thi s is the time when the seas were churned and the Koorma"
bore the brunt of Ma l/dme/wl Mounta in tha t was used as thl:'
The third p hase in the evolution o f the life is the e mergence
o f the land mass. O UT Avatam is " Vamha" or the w ild boar. This
boa r is a lso cred ited with lifting the earth from the w aters a nd
placi n g it accura tely and correctly in its o rbit. The earth is
depicted in the feminine form and a note is taken of her d esi re
to be the wife of "Va ral1a " Blwgwall.
The next stage o f evolution is that man, as known today was
to emerge, h eralding the switch from animalis tic w orld to the
huma n world , is h a lf human and h alf anima l ,f orm of our
"Narsi""IfI" A vatam w ho was half lion and half human .
The next A val am is a p ygm y, as we know in the beginning of
the creation man was a pygm y; the abori gines are o f sm all stature
even in the m od ern era. Thi s is the A vatam "Vamalla" Cod
Vall1fl1m , who wen t to th e king Bali 's court "nd asked him for
th ree steps of lan d. Bali was a demon wh o h ad become the
emperor of the universe by vanquishing all Oevlas, out of sheer
inflated ego, g ra nted the wi sh and in two s tep s Cod Vamana
measured the entire universe. Bal i h ad to offer his head for
p lacing the third s te p.
The life went on evolv ing and w ith thi s the an im alis tic nature
of man ke pt on increasi ng. To protect the human softness and to
d es troy the a nima li stic harshness came " ParaSllU rfl llla". H e
cl ei'l nsed the ea rth of terrorizing kings and their armies.
BllI/gwa n Rama is o ur next A va tam; he is to be the practi cal
livin g exampl e o f a "!' Ilrll shottama"- " Pll rll slw " (humans) +
"U/ /all/a" (the best o f them ). Therefore, he is known as the one
w ill) is the bes t of the huma ns. He al so gave an exa mple of li ving

Ast.rology: Gllr HI'ritagt'


by a code of cond uct "Maryada". The self disciplining hum,1Il

has now arrived.
The next Avatara was Bhagwal1 Kris/lI1n ; He stands a t tIll'
pinnacle of evolution. He had to layout an elaborate codl' of
li ving by hi s d iscourse to the confused, doubting humanit y
represented by Arjlllla. This was done in the mid dle of thL'
battlefield and is popularl y known as the Gila.
The Bllddl/{1 (the awa kened one) is our ninth Ava/nY(!. He
taught the lesson of non-violence to bring some sanity to human
race's violence and greed.
The tenth Ava/am is yet to manifest. He is called Kalki and
he is expected to take us into "Satya Yuga" (the e ra of truth).
Now let us get the Astrology of these Avntara. Pnrrlslmra Hom
Sims/ra says that planets ca me to th is world and manifested
themselves as the following inca rnati ons:
Mc rC/lry

Sa /rllll

Mat sya

We will examine these planets in details in the next chapter. In
the Vedic Scheme, Pllratlas link this Vedallga called As trology to
the Ved ic Universe. The link is yet another interesting facet of
our glorious heritage. Puranas tell us abou t the uni verse and till'
sped,,1 p lace of Blmmfnvarslm in tha t universe. They then go on
a nd te ll us the reasons w hy Jyotislla (As trol ogy) hild tu he
develo ped in this special country of the un ive rse. We now
examine the Vedic universe, the specialty of Bhara/f1 Vflrs/ll1 ,1nil
the consequent development of Jyotishfl in B/lflmtn vnr~ /1(1.
The Vedic Universe
All Malia PI/ratIOS - and there are 18 of them- ment ion so nl('lh in ~
or the other about the universe. We are ta kin g yuu to thL' Vi~J /II1I


Ill/mililcl ion to A:;/mlogy

Pll rllll(/. Mnitrl!ya Rislli is in conversation w ith Mahar ishi ParasJUlrn

w ho is <lnswering Maifreya Risl'; 's query about the description

of eMth .
Maitreya: "You have rela ted to me, 0 reverend Braluwullla , the
creation of Svayambhuva (one who is born out of himself); I am

now desirous to hea r from you a desc ription of the earth; how
many are its oceans and islands, its kingdoms and its mountai ns,
its fo rests and rivers and the ci ties of the gods, its dimension s,
its contents, its nature, and its form."
Parashara: "you shall hear, Maitrcya, a brief account of the
earth from me; a fu ll detail I could .not give you in a century. The
seven great insular continents are Jall/bu, Plakslla, Shalmali, Ku sa,
Km ulle/ra, Shaka and PlIshkra: and they are s urrounded severall y
by seve n grea t seas; the sea of salt water ( lJlval m), of sugar-cane
juice (Ikshll), of wine (Slim), of clarified butter (sarp i), of curd ~;
(DIU/h i) , o f milk (DlIgdJm), and of fresh water (Ja/a)".
See the pictorial description g iven below:
Pushk.ua Islal1
Dtlgdha Ocetlll
tldhi Ocean
Kraunch 1~la l1
Sar ,j On;,an
Kush" Island
Sllra Ocean
Shalmali Islant

Jolmbu Islan





Geography of the Seven Continents ( ~C('1&1cn ~)


Ollr !-!ailll,'>:!'


Malta Rishi Pamslwra further states;

"/alllbu-dw!!!!pa is in the centre of all these: and in the centre
of this continent the golden mountain Mau . The height ot Mt'1"1I
is eighty-four thousand yojans; and its depth below the surf<lce
of the earth is sixteen thousand yojans.lts diameter at the summit
is thirty-tvvo thousands yojans; and at its base, sixteen thousand s
yojnlls; so that this mountain is like the seed-cup of the lotus ()f
the earth.
(a) Bhndrashva (b) Bfmrafavarsha (c) Ketul1I(Jin ilnd (d) lltt(Jrkllrll
clre located on its eilst, south, west and north respectively.
We now go to Matsya Pumll(J which describes these four
countries as under and r quote:
"The word Bhndrashva signifies the Auspicious Horse. White
Dragon is held sClcred in Chinese religion, Folk-lore Clnd art, <lnd
Bhadmsllvn signified China. Bharatavarsha was also known as
Hailllavilfa Varsha, south of the HimClIayCls; Ketlllllin was the land
of the Vankshll River (Ox us) towards the west of Menl; Uttarku/"II
\\'as the vast region from the Ait<lj Mountain to the northern
Merll is said to be four-cornered in which an important
epithet is used, Viz. that Mew is similil r to I'rajapafi in being four faced. The eastern face is white denoting Brahminical virtues,
the southern face is yellow denoting Vaishyas, the western, block
denotes Sudras, and the northern, red denotes KshatriYlls. The
centre where MCnI itself is situated is call ed llavritn.
Let us now concentrate on 'BharalavlIrsha' and notice why
<'Ind how this country was ins trumental in the creation of the
Vedallgn Astrology. We quote Vishllu Pumlla once again:
"The country that lies north of the ocean, and south of the
snowy mountains, is called Bll(lrata, for there dwelt thl'
descendants of Bhllrata. It is nine thousand leagues in extt'nt,
and is the land of Karma, in consequence of which men either go
to heaven, or obtain emancipation."
The eulogy of Bharafn consisted of four ideas:
1. There is no country likc Bharala on cMth.

2. That Bharata is even higher, superior to h eaven, si ncl' thl'

Gods of heaven wish to t'lke birth in [Jill/mill.

ilr l n'llucliOI1 to A.~1fC)1{),'(11


3. Tha t /JIwl"lltn is karl//lI-bh(}() l/lI, the land (or pe rforming

ac tio n .
4. Th at fo r all the fruits o f human li fe, the seeds are sown
in the soil of Bharata.
That B/wrnla is karma -bllOomi and Svrga is bllOga-bllOomi
b<.-'Ca me a w ide sp read idea to w h ich ma ny g rea t w riters of the
period make direct referen ce:
tp~ ~ ~ 'tfilt~~~hVtll
(Brahmfl PlI m a, 27.2)

"""" 100;1",' ~ ., ~' I

.,m; oil "'"'{'IT w;;o!"'!."


(Adhyalma Rall/ayana, 6.4.5 1)

" "ffii1fq """ ....

","1\1, ':l1' 1r..

( Devi Blmgavafa, 8.7.34)

(Mnrknllacya, 57.62) .

,TlTii ..... ~ ~" ..-.'t~1


(fj"I:f~"'If::Q~ ~ : Y}l4QI441 : I
vtrr-'i ftrtQ u l1cf ",rdMI1'i,.1I

(Markalldrya.5.5,2 1-22).

""""" """ .... <itof ~"'I""r.~1

"'""lfirlhl, '!" ~ <itof ~"'lill
(Brltma PI/ramI, 70.2 1).

3!Nfmi ~ '"""- """ ..,; 'l""<" I

",q'lflrraT -O:>l"..r """",...wI"",,,
(Bmllma PI/raila, 79.24)

The sages d eclared Bllllratavnrsha as karma -bllOo mi where men

could get karma-pha/a: Knrma and the karma-plm/a are the domain
of astrology. The persons w ho decl ared Bharafa as karma-b"{lf)/Ili
Wl.! rc al so obliged to lay d own rules that woul d govern the kilrm a
.md the ka rm a-pI/ala . H en ce these sages deve loped As trology.
/lIUlm/a v arshn W,l S d evelo ped as kn rllln -/Jlwo mi by tht:'

Astrolugy: Ollr HaitI/Xc


'pen<lnce' <lnd 'jnpn' of hundreds of Risllis over hundred s of ye..lrs.

These persons of immense intell ects and foresight, these redl
visionaries then worked out an intricate, though well balanced,
scheme of 'Ca use and Effect' where cau ses could be in v isible Of
visible. A scheme of 'Karmic compensation' of the good and ev il
actions was also worked out. How the scheme operates and how
it to be applied is contained in the Vednllga that we know as
We have in this lesson seen that:
(a) Veda are our heritage. Astrology is a Vedanga
(b) To give shape to evolution and to guide it our Ava/nms
manifested themselves. They are also linked to our
(c) Pllrallas contain the details ab o ut the evolution of
Astrology which evolved in Bhnratm.ws/uz b ecause:
(i) Bharalavarslla is the designated Karlllil-blwmi where
karl/w-I'/wla is obtained.
(ii) Specia l lal'a werE' done to make it the knrma-bllllllli.
(iii) How the karllln are to be done in harmony with the
environment- both physica l and mental-and how
these karma will res ult in karllla-phaia is what is
written down in the Vcdallga ca lled !yotishn .


The Planets, Signs and


As trology, in the beginning, was based on constellati ons. The

constellations are vis ible in the sky. They are loca ted is the Zod iac.
Zodiac is elliptica l. The ecliptic (Sun 's apparent path around the
sky, wh ich is the mean pl ane of Earth's orbit around thi s s un)

cuts the celestial equator at an angle of 231h", The conste ll ation

at this p Oint is Ashwini . This is also the beg inning of the sign
ARIES. Fr r the sa ke of convenience, thi s pOint h as been arbitrMily
taken as the point where the Zodiac commences. This is also
ca lled the first point of Aries. All meitsurements of the Zodiac
commence from Ihis pOin!.
Our Rishis divided the 360" of the Zodiac into 27 segments
o f 13"20' each. Each of these 27 segm ents is one" Nflks lll7tra". The
main sta r in this segment is taken fo r naming thi s Nakshat rn.
Moon, one an average, takes one da y to traverse one NnksJlafrn
(If 13"20' . We are <l Isa <lw are thM th e pl<lne ts o rbit the Sun
remaining in the Zod iac. Thei r position at any time ca n be very
accurately determined w ith reference to these cons tellatio ns . The
planets and the con stellations, both are visible is the skies hen ce
f yotisJIa is a scienceth<l t can be shown p hysic<lll y. It is the eyes of
the Veda .
In the course of time Zodi ac was di vided is 12equal segm l'nts
nf 30" each. Each segment wa s called a Zodi aca l sign (Rashi).
Since thi s div ision o f Zodiac w as arbitrary; i.e. it was not re lated
' 10 <l ny v is ible land mark in the Zod iac, the planetary pos itions
rd,lined the re fe re nce to the constell ati ons.
Till' I~ i~ hi , who expounded the fyotisha Sltastm empirica lly,
g.I\( tlw dt.' I., ib of res ults th., t a rc expec ted due to the p lilcem en t

Ti't' r lmu:/:>, 5('<1I5 11I1d COlls/dlll/iolls


of planet s in a partic ul ar constellati on. The entire edifice of

/.1101 is/II/ W<l5 constellation based and to this ed ifice was, for ease
of hand li ng, added the Zodiacal signs or Rashi.
The constellations and the planets are visible in the skies but
the signs are not. There are no landma rks indicating a sign. The
story in the Va mana Pumlla has an interesting account of it. Once
Ul 'vrislTi Narada asked Pulastyn Rishi the reasons of Sati, th
ct<lllghter of Prajapnti Oaksha and the wife of S/1I1I1kam Blmgwal/,
embracing d eath and then getting reinca rnated as the rlaughter of
Hima/aya to wed the sa me SI/(Il1kam Blmgwa lt o nce again.
Puiastya Rishi recounted the tale of the Daks/m Yagl/a. On th.
auspicious Oevo fllapil1i Ekadashi, when the Gods wake up, Dnkslll1
invited all th e Gods, th e Rishis a lo ng with their wives to
participa te in a Yagt/a. Vasltis/ha and Al'lll1dhat i, At ri and A IIl1 sllya,
I<illlslIika and Ollriti, Gal/lama and AI/(I/ya, Bhardwaj and Amaya,
J\/lgira and Chandra came happi ly to participate. Sali ca me a lone
and uninvited to her father's Yaglla. Olkslm insulted B/mgwtJI/
Siial/kam and a sad dnd angry d<lughter chose Lo end her liCe
rather then be a wi tness to the insult. She did so. An infuriated
SJulllkam Bhagwan d estroyed the Yagllli of DaksJIfl .
PII/as tya Rishi, on a further query by Na rada ex pla ins the
"Knnl-roopa" of Bhagwall Shallknra. He says: "Listen to the descripti on of Shal1imm Bhagwal1's "Kanl mopa".
Ashwil1i, Bllamni and one , ltarmta of Kritikn combine to form Ml!sllll
sign. This is Slllwkara BJmgwall's head. The lord of Asilluilli is
AslllUill j KIIII/am . The lord of B/mralli is Yall/a (the lord of dea th).
Krifika's lord is Aglli (Fire). This sign is owned by Mars. The
details, as given by Pulastya Rishi, are tabulated in table 1 (a,b,c)
for ease of unders tand ing.
This stud y o f constell ations, planets and Raslli brings out the
importance of constellati ons and their lords. We are aware o f
the fact the Moon traverses one constell ati on in a day. We also
know that 3rd, the 5th and the 7th constellations, coun ted from
our janulfl Nakshatra, give adverse results. We should note the
s unrise time, find out the constellation prevailing a t the sunrise time and if it is the 3rd (vipata) 5"' (Pmtilmri) o r 7th (VadJw),
we should pray to the Deva/a of that Nakslmlrn . Thi s is the
practical application of as trology.



Body Part

Rash; and its Lord


Tutelary lord of the



Aries (Mars)


Taurus (Venus)


Gemini (Mercu ry)

- 4


Cancer (Moon)

As/noilli (4 Paria = 13"20')

Bllar/lli (4 Pada = 13"20')
Kril ika (1 Pada = 3"20')
(Total 9 Pada or 30")

Ashwilli Kllmara

Kritika ( 3 Pada )


Rohilli (4 Pada)
Mrigashira (2 Paria)
(Tota I 9 Pada or 30")

Chandra (Moon)


Mriga:;hirn (2 Pada)

Chandra (Moon)

A ridm (4 Pada)
PllllarvaslI (3 Pada)
(Tolal 9 Pada or 30'1


PW1(irvaslI (.1 Pada)

PlIshya (4 Pada)


Ashlesiza (4 Pada)
(Tota l 9 Pada or 30")



TABLE 1 (8)


Body Part

Rash, and its Lord


Tute lary lord of the



Leo (Sun)

Maglm (4 Pada)


PI/roo Pim/glllli (4 Pada )

Blmga (Sun)

Utlra Plm/gu ll i (1 Pada)

Aryama (Sun)

(Total 9 Pada or 30")




Navi' l

Virgo (Mercury)

Lib ra (Venus)

Utt ra Pha/glllli (3 Pada)

Aryama (Sun)

Hastam (4 Pada)


Clzitrrr (2 Pada)
(Tota l 9 Pada or 30")

Twas/zta (Vishwakarma)

Chitra (2 Pada)
Swat; (4 Pada)

Tultlshta (Vis/livakarma )
Pmvall (A ir)

Vislmkl1a (3 Pada )

//ldragni (Fire of /Ildra)

<Total 9 Pada or 30")



Abd omen

Scorpio (Mars)

Vishakha (1 Pada)

Illdrngll i (Fire o f fudm )

Alluradha (4 Pada)

Mi l ra (Sun)

/yestl!a (4 Pada)


(Total 9 Pada or 30




Body Part

Rashi and its Lord


Sagittarius (Jup iter)

Moo/a (4 Pada)
PI/rva Aslllldllll (4 Pad ) Jala (Water)





Capricorn (Saturn)

Aquarius (Saturn)



Pisces (JupitC'r)

Rakslza (Demons)

Ultra Ashadha (l Pada)

(Total 9 Pada or 30")


Ultra Ashadha (3 rada)


Shravalla (4 Pada)
Dhallistha (2 Pada)
(Total 9 Patla or 30")


Dltallistlw (2 Pada)

Ek-pada-aja (Shiva)

Slzatabhisaj(4 Pada)
Purva Bltadrapada (3 rada)
(Total 9 Pada or 30")

Tutelary lord of the


Purva Bhadrapada (l Pada)

Ultra Bltadrapada (4 Pada)
Revati (4 Pada)
(Total 9 Pada or 30")


Ek-pada-aja (Shiva)
Allirablldimya (Shiva)
PlIslw (Sun)


the Harmonizer

The earliest w ritings of ou r cu ltural heritage tell us of the vision

and fores ig ht o f o ur fo refa thers. To us they bequea thed the
fo ll ow ing ideas:
(a) Ma n is a crea ture of action. To ac t is to li ve.
(b) An actio n must prod uce a reaction. This is universa l. The
bea u ty of Vedic thou ght is that action an d reacti on need
n o t b e tied to one another as is on the p hysica l p lane. A
reaction can lie d o rma nt and can surface later - a pa rt of a
well conceived d esign, b ut, sepera ted in essence o f karma
and karma-pha/a.
(c) The man has an innate desire to know hi s fu ture-h ow fa r
can the fr agi le man w ith fl awed intellectual equi p ment
u nderstand or take it-therefore a li mit up to which he
could be made privy in this div ine scheme had to be built
into Astrology.
(d) The essence o f livin g is harmony. A ma n in ha rmon y w ith
his en viron ment, wi th his work, with his desi res a nd w ith
hi s famil y can lead a meaning ful life. As trology is the
science tha t helps a ma n in harmo nizing his life.
Astrol ogy is acti on oriented. It came up as a Vedan ga becau se
Bharatovarsha w as declared as "karma-bllDom ;"; where "karmaplm/a" was read ily available.
Bharatavarslm is the karmn-bhoomi w hich was d eveloped and
sa nctifi ed by Tapn and p en ances. It is the onl y country w h ere
the entire popula tion goes for Tirlha on time bound basis. In
Shiva Pumlla b<l th in g in certai n r ivers is linked w ith visible


{"/roetl/clio,, to Astrology

ilstronomicil l pheno menon. The placement of the Sun and Jupi ter
in s pecifit.'(1signs is considered special ly auspicio us. When these
two ar'(' in Aqucuius and Taurus the populace is directed to have
bath in the Gallgl's at Allahabad. When Jupiter is in leo and Sun
comes to Aq uarius people are directed to bathe in the Goda vari.
This was p art o f a well thought out plan where the people from
ViHious parts of the country could mee t and where people could
pra y in groups thereby giving social sancti on to good deeds.
13hnmfa was, there fore, the karma -bh llllli with a difference. Here
one co uld indulge in self-Jess work and work for one's prog rt;>ss
<l nd enli gh tenment wi thout being lau ghed a t. To do th is, Le . to
ri se towards self-improvemen t and taking firs t s tep s to se lf
reali zati o n , o n e need s to harmoni ze hi s d es ires w ith hi s
cil pabilities. Thi s is w h a t is at the b ack of a ll philoso ph y
conce rning Karma, Karma ,Ji1nla a nd is, in a n y h o roscope,
ex pressed throu g.h the integrated medium of h o uses w hose
epicente r is the 10th House-the "knrmabhava".
Let u s now exa mine a h o roscope a nd see how
harmonization of d esires with capabiliti es can be achieved .














The man , b e lo n g ing to this horosco p e, is Dwight D

Ei :o;enhower-he commanded the largest ever army assembled
in o ne p lace nearly 3,000,000 troops in the Second World War
fo r opera tion 'Overl ord ', the Allied invas ion of Eu rope that was
to result in the Germa n surrender, w hich he accepted o n May 7,
1945. He rose to be the Chief of the America n Arm y and more

Astrology the Hanll(lI!izel'














importantly the President o f the United State s for two

consecuti ve terms in 1952 and 1956.
This man achieved the highest goa l that could be there in
wo rldly terms. Let us study th e harm oni zing process. The
horoscope is power packed. At thi s sta ge in 'Jyotisha Alankar' It
is s uffi cient to know that in this horoscope's most notable power
giving combinati ons are .
(a) 'Vargotfall/a' Ascendnnt and the Sun.
(b) A strong Ma rs, 'Dig Btlli' in the 10th house.
(c) Eight Planets from Saturn to Jupiter, in consecutive houses
in an unbroken sequence.
(d) The maximum number of planets are from 7th house
(e) The lords of the houses from 5th house t0 9th house are in
advancing position i.e. 5th lord in 8th, 7th lord in 7th, 8th
lord in 9th, 9th lord in 10th, 10th lord in 11th resulting in
continuous progress.
(f) There are two Viparcefa Rtljayagn viz. 12th Lord Saturn 111
the 6 t1 ' House makes "ViII/a/a" and the 6 th Lord Sun in the
8111 House makes "Harsha" Rnjayogn .
(g) Gaja Kesari yoga
(h) Neccha Bhanga Raj )llga
(i) Blwdra Mahapurllsfw )llga.
(j) Vesi Yoga.


1111 r(ldllctio/l to A st ",{og,1I

(k) S'IIII"w Yoga

(I) Dllr1ll1l1llrf1 Yagil

M.ns, the 2nd and the 9th lord is in the 10th house. Mars is Dig
/illli in the 10th house. Tenth house is the "karma- bhava" . Mars in
the 1Dth hOllse makes one a commander of Army. "Bluil/me Saba/('
51'/lapal; " (fa/aka Ta tua, 7th Viveka, 11th shloka). Ei senhower
be longi ng to a family with no military traditions chooses an
Army career.
Now comes the h armonizing. The Dasha at birth is Rnll!l with
it 7years 10 months 6 days ba lance. It is foll owed by the Dos/m o f
Jupiter w ho is the 10th lo rd , d e bilita ted in the 11th h Ollse. The
d e bilitation may give a m eager start but the cancellati on gives a
remarkable rise. This is followed by the Daslta of Saturn, the lord
of 11th and 12th in 6th house; 12th lord in 6th causes Vipa rcc fa
Rajn yoga (Vima/a Yoga) showing professiona l betterment. By and
large a prep aratory period. The ho roscope is power-packed but
for nearl y 45 yea rs the man gets nowhere-he is a non-d escript
lowly Major till 1935. These 45 yeiITs are the peri od w here th p
desires genera ted by the power packed ho roscope could easily
have impaired the judgment, while the need was to control the
runa way des ires, a nd hannonizing them in a m atched duet w ith
the unfolding Dnslta seque nce. Thi s is the period of tri al-the
examination by Saturn-the wisest and the hardest task master.
ft was after this trial only that thi s man cou ld withstand the
dizzy spiral in Mercury Daslta. Mercury is exalted; 7th lord in
the 7th h ouse giving him BJmdrn MaIm PUYIIslm Yoga. In MercuryMars he commanded the biggest army and scores of officers who
were hi s erstwhile commanders. Mars is the 2nd lord both from
the Lagna and the Moon and when he came with Mercury, the
"karnkn" of s peech, the entire world wai ted with bated breath to
hea r and applaud every word s poken by this native.
'Karmtl-plta/a' is to be harmon ized through 'knmm-bJtava',
the 10th h ouse. In thi s horoscope it is Sagittarius, a fi ery sign,
wilh Mars, a fiery planet, in it. A da zz ling army ca ree r resuits.
'J"cnth ho use is owned by Ju piter, the planet of wisdom. The lord
t,f the 10th house, Jupiter, in Ke"drn from the Moon (lord of 5th)
Im min ~ a Gaja K('SIlri Yoga. Jupiter aspeeting 5th (mind ) and 7th
1I'nsllinn ). the nativl' got hi ghest pOSiti on due to his wisdom


and valour (Ma rs, 9th lord in 10th; 3rd lord Venu s in 9th). Such
horoscopes are fafe and their ' Knrllln~phala' is unu su,,!,
tremendous and dazzling. The karmaphala is to be chann ('li sed
through Mars-the planet occupying the M eridiem. The m iln in
perfect harmony with hi s design<lted kllrlllic pattern joins the
army and patiently wai ts for the Mercury Dasha-exal ted Me rcu ry
in 10th from Mars and Mars in 10th house from the ascendant
propel him to the pinnacle, ba thed in glo ry and accolades. Ei ght
planets in a row cQulet n't helVe done less.
He rose to be the President of the United States of Americathesingle most powerful office in the world in Kcru Dash<l. Ketu
is acting on behalf of Ma rs. Ketu in 9th house and in th e hou se
of Mars, the 9th lord is posited in the 10th house.
What one has to understand is that one must dove ta il one's
acti vities to the karmic pattern as revea led by the horoscope.
Th ere are period s when work is recogn ized; period s w he n
,1ceolad es flow and <'1150 there are peri ods of frustr<'ltion and ennui
when nothing goes right. To be able to look at things in a billa need
Wily- n either getting too elated with good fortune nor getting
depressed with misfortunes is the essence of Astrology. Do not
p ush when pull wi ll open the door, harmonize you r actions, clnd
m<lke <lll round effor ts when the time is ripe. This is the rationale
of Astrology.


What is )yotisha?


"'I1'1T'!i ..,.,,-0\

'I'lT I

t1"~~is~:>IItr.lloli ~ ~ ~II

(Like the plumes of a Peacock and the "Mani" of a Serpent,

Jyotish Shastra is the crown of Vedangas)
When out ancestors looked at the skies, a host of enquires
mllst have risen in their hearts. It is only a progressive mind
that enquires; it is only an enquiring mind that reaches for the
sky and talks to the stars. Our forefathers with simple living
habits and pure minds must also have wondered why the Moon
on "Sharada Pumima" shines so soothingly and Sun in Jycslllhll
shines so cruelly; they also must be wanting to talk to the stars
and reach for the sky. The desire to know what the stars have to
tell us leads to the initial steps in the direction of the discipline
now known as Astrology. Astrology is the language (LOGOS) of
the Stars (ASTER) Aster stands for stars and logos is language
therefore astrology is the derivative of these two words.
Astrology is commonly ca lled the Sltastra which tells us the
f<lcts about the planets. "Jyotisham Suryadi grahaml bodhakalll
s'IlI~lra l/1" (~ ~ %un' m~~) This is a very common
s<ly ing it means that the science which makes the people know
'lbout Sun and the other stars and planets and understand them
I S ilstrology. it is the science of time that records the life and its
1"l'.Ktions to planetary radiations.
Astrology comprises of "Skandhtmya"(~). These three
SA/II/ dllll art;' Hora, Salllhilll and Glll1itn . GllIlita is also called

Whnt is }yoti:;llII ?


Siddllnllta. Let us look at these in some detil il s: Siddlulllla first.

The mathematics of astrol ogy is basica lly Sirldlulll tl1. Gencr.1 l1 y
we co me across five Siddlml1tas. They are:
1. Pil amalm
2. Vashislltlm

3. Lomaslw
4. Paulis/m and
.s. Surya

These Siddllal1tns are of use in the prepara tion of mathematicili

tables, the almanacs or the Panchl1l1ga.
Now we look a t the other Skandha, Hom. The word is a
compound of AHO and RATRI . The rulO word s shed one syll<1 ble
each; AHO sheds the first syllabl e and RATRI sheds the la st
syll able making the word HORA. Hora concerns itself with the
nativities. It works on the basis of pla netary positions at the time
of the h appen ing of a n event. It lays d ow n the rul es for
pred ictions.
5a mf,il a d ea ls with the planeta ry effects on nature and
coll ecti ve issues of the ma nkind . Things like rains, wea ther,
epide mics, noods, munda ne part of astrology as a matter of fact
Snmhila trul y talks of Kings and Cabbages.
Mr. K. N. Rao explains the Sknlldhlraya ('fCfI~) as unde r:
' Astrology is an all encompassing subject- it is the sciencl;'
of sciences because it deals with the influence of plane ts on mil n
and his entire world. ' It is why astrol ogy has been di vided into
three branches:
(a) Ganita Iyoti s /la (Siddlltlllla): It is w hat is ca ll e d
a stro nomy now. It is the calcul a ti o n of the move me nt of
plane ts.
Astronomy has no use for mankind unl ess it is mad e USL' of
for predicting the influence of planets on ma n and hi s world, a
fact modern astronomer has not been able to appreci ah', ThL'
astronomer, taking an un-holistic attitude of th e world, persists
with his attitud e; An un -holistic attitude is an unhol y attitude,.1
di Sintegrated view of the world -in w hich evc r y thin~ h .l ~ to
interac t wi th everything, be it animate or inlln im,ltl'.


IIl/rOOucliOIl to A str%XY

We will have to wilit a few morc dec('Ides to see th e

ilstronomer adopt it different attitude a nd unders tand tha t
ly(lfi~ //(f Shaslrn has more important branches which deal with
the pn. dicative side which alone are useful to mankind , very
illuminating and effectively useful, thiln an astronomer 's fanciful
f1i ~ ht into a n impossibl e sea rch for an explanation of the origin
of the universe.
. (b)Samlzita (Mundane): It is the branch of astrology d ea ling
wit h collectiviti es, nor indi vidu a ls , excepling those very
impo rt a nt persons whose position and poliCies affect th e
conlemporClrY societies.
Do pl anets effect economic poliCies, th e social welfare
programmes of the government, involve a nation in a wa r, show
those rare and strange events which others cannot anticipate of
foresee? The answer is an emphatic Yes. Instances are ava il able
that go to show that what is being claimed above is supported
with substantia l proof, unlike an astronomer's baseless criticis m
of astrology or even of those phys ica l scientists who signed
s tatements aga ins t as trology on ' reli g io u s g round s' . It ha s
amused many astrologers that in a country like the U.s.A. there
could ex ist a bunch of di stingu ished scie nti sts w ho, ins tead of
s tudying astrology and examining its predictive uses, should
have objected to it on relig ious grou nd s. What then is scientific
ilbout these scientis ts is what everyone asks.
(c) Hora (Indiv idual): Hora as trology is the mos t popular
branch of ils trology beciluse it d ea ls with predicti ons about
indi vid ual s, the ir h ap pin ess and unhappine ss, their
achievements and failure s, their h opes and despairs as well as
every other facet of life.
Apart from above three limbs, with the development of astrology,
two more things were added to its fo lds, namel y Shakuna ( ~)
Clnd Pr,lshnil (5f~) making it Sknlldhn Pallcha-Siddhnllfn, Horn,
SlII1IIIiln, Prn~/lIln and Slmkllnn. These are now sa id to be the fi ve
parts of the body of Astrology.

What is Iyotis/III?

Sltakllna (Omens)
It well remains a debatable question as to how f<'lr 'Sltakllllil
should be treated as a part of astrology for it is not directly b<lsl'd
on planetary movements generally. Shakespeare had intuithll('iy
realized appearances of comets in the following word s:
"When beggars die there are no comets seen. The heavens
themselves blaze forth on the death of Princes".

Horary Astrology (~)

Horary astrology is based on the chart of the time of
communication of a question by the questioner to the astrologer.
This is specially useful for those who do not have horoscopes
and want to know about certain specified questions.
Some are inclined to include Ailga Shastra of Kerala-tlw
querist touching any part of his body, or naming of one or the
other flower and answering question on the basis of these. But
ilS these <Ift~ not brlseu uirectly or apP(lrently on astronomicill
pOSitions of planets, it is difficult to accept these systems in
Horary Astrology.
Thus 'Sltakwta' and 'PraslJlla' should be treated as part of
astrology only so long as they are directly or indirectly but
apparently based on astronomical positions, and not beyond thIS
line of demarcation.
'Clairvoyance' and 'Intuition'; not part of Astrology
Neither 'Clairvoyance' (the power of seeing things not perceived
to the senses), nor 'intuition' (the power of the mind by which it
immediately perceives the truth of things without reasonin~ or
analysis) could be a part of Astrology. A truth so perceived is no
part of astrology, though it may be helpful in making predicti(lllS
and observations. Reason is that they do not apparently conform
to the astronomical basis of astrology. Therefore, perhaps, 11\
Skandha-Pailcha neither 'clairvoyance' nor 'intuition' has bt't'll
Astrology, rooted in classical texts, is b<1sl'd (In prl'C1St'
c<1iculations, m<lthem<lticdlly inf<1lltbk. It Cdnnllt t',11 vvrll!1g.


1l1trodllcticm to Astrology

trouble starts when this divine dispensation is given to human

beings to operate. Each astrologer takes Qut from this divine cup
of knowledge what he deserves. It is the astrologer who need s
to come up to the standards of Astrology otherwise he would be
like hundreds of practitioners who are no better than humanized
parrots pulling out 'cards of fortune' on the road side .



An Astrologer-Qualifications

MalUlrislti Parasltam-the leading light of 'Knliyllga' Astrologcrshas laid down the virtues and qualities that an Astrologer needs
to have. These are given in Briltata PllraslJllra Hom SllIlstra (Ch.
27, Sh. 39 and 40). They are reproduced below:
~ 1iI'iitoit ~: 1<lIfl ~-WI:I
~ ~ ~1~1t1ii1 ~,,,
~~ - ~"if~..t{ .IJI'Cf"IlT ~: I




~ Of ~:II

(Ganiteshu Praveeno Yeh, Shabdshastre Kritshra mah

Nyaya vidBuddhiman, Deshdikka lagyo, Jitendri ya
Oohapoh patur Hora Skandha shravan Sammatah.
Maitreya Satya tam Yati Tasya Vakyam na sanshayah.]
Let us examine them in detail.
Mathematical ability (~~ JfcftuTt): An astrologer must be able
to cast a horoscope, its divisional cha rts, the das}/a, A S}/atkavargll
at the barest minimum. In these days of computers, it is all the
more necessary because computers using differen t so ftware
conta in different errors that need to be found out and set ri ght.
There are so many occasions when a horoscope need s to be cast
and comp ute r 's assistance is no t avai lable . Mathe mat ic,, 1
competence is the bed rock of the Astrologica l edifice.
A diligent linguist (:tliG!illbil CfflJPt:): Astrologers ' quest is
unending. The more he knows, the greilter is hi s undl'rstanding .
He has to listen to his consulters and explain hI thcm - l,l1lgl l,'gl'
is an asset. Hard work, diligence separ"tcs " Ill\!ic,l h '\! ,' ... In Iii Igl'r


Illtrodtletiol! to


from it h obbyist. Hav ing m astery over lan g uage eases g rasp o f
va rying nuances of an axiomatic as trological "SlItra".
Nyayavida (~: An astrologer needs to have the judicial
balance so that he can synthes ize conflicting indica ti ons o f
planetary witnesses and yet reach a sound Judgment. It is to
gu ide an astrologer in the developmt:'nt of judiCial balance that
it "G uru " is needed ; for the texts are replace w ith contrad icto ry
interpretati on s.
Bllddltimalla (~ :An intellec t that is probing, shmp and
" li ve makes a n as trologer vie w ith hi s own self for constan t
improvement. One who makes ( ans lim ! improvement s, speciall y
Jeilrning from mis takes is really 'Buddhiman'.

Deshdikk.I'gyo (~ "~~"" <!ftl ),

One n eeds to be

knowledgeable about the geography, the traditions, the culture

and the socia l conditions tha t are preva lent in the con sulter 's
a rea. Wi thout this resul ts can be disastrous.
Jitendroua (~:) : An astrologer is privy to con sulters'
innermos t thoughts. He ca n exp loit these thoughts to ga in
moneta ry, emotional and other advan tages. Moral control and
balance are a must.
Ooha-Poh patu (\MltfliNs): The abi lity to look at a n event
from many ang les. To illumin ate diffe ren t f<lcets of an issue. To
syntheSize contradic tion s a nd co nflictin g views g ives a n
as trologer incisiveness an d clarity.
Hora Skand Shravan Sammatah (~ ~.-Q ~ ~: ) :
Knowledgeab le in Hora Skandlta.
s uch an astrologer is the one who can predict hi s words
bear the imprint oftruth.
We now take a look at Mr. K. N. Rao's lucid and pointed ly
b rief expos itio n of the qualifications of an astrologer as given
by Vllrailamihira.
The qua lifi cat ions given b y Varahamihira o f a good
astrologer are briefly:
1. Purity: It is whe n there is inner puri ty that the refl ection of
planets on the hea rt sti rs the rarest s prings of intuition and
then the astrologer with hi s sa tur.lted technica l knowled ge

All Ast r%XI'r-QlInli(iCtl/wlb










ca n proceed to interpret a horoscopc, w ith humilit y and

clarity of vision.
Efficiency: There is a technical and intellectui'll e ffi ciency
in approach to a s t~per-science .
Gift of Gab: An astrologer should have ri ght com mand
over la nguage throu g h whi ch he co nve ys hi s
interpre tations, and as a sympatheti c counse lor, g uid~ ",
properly hi s cl ients.
Brilliance: An astrologer has to interpret a ve ry vast d il t.l
and come to a sound conclusion. It ca nnot be done in
lackada isical fashion and a perfunctory way.
With inner quietude: He is like a yogi w ith hi s Chiltil
havi ng been purified. It is necessa ry so tha t he d ocs not
get di sturbed whe n he sees some al a rming pl a ne t.1TY
combina tions in a horoscope.
Fearless speech: Armed with a sound astrological insight
into a horoscope he should have the ab ility to sp eil k
fear less ly in any assembly.
Should be ab le to hold his own in any company: In thl'
company of other brilliant men he sho uld be able to hold
hi s own, a nd not to be eclipsed.
Capacity to interpret s igns and omens: A psychologis t
observes these d ays as hi s patient wa lks in, Sits d own, and
talks and infers a good deal about him. In astro logy it has
been a n age-o ld pra ctice . The Psycho logi s t has on ly
borrowed the astrologer 'S technique w itho ut ever openly
acknowledging it.
Freedom from addiction: An addict diSintegrates mentally;
how can he then be of use to others?
Knowledge of Mantras for propitiation of p lanets:
Astro logy is linked to spiritual re m e di es which iHL'
based on Mantras. An astrologer should know the use of
these Mantras fo r restoring clam and peace to di sturbed
Capacity to counter evil forces: There are evi l pr.lC ticL's
indulged in by some persons to harm someo nc throll~h
Tantrik pra c ti ces like Abhi c h<lr, Sa mmnh .ln el e. An
astrologer's sho uld <l lso know how to counter thi:-- .


ill/rodllctiOlI /O Astrofo.'~y

12, Should be a spiritual person: An astrologer m ust himself

leC'ld a spiritua l, disciplined li fe.
13. Capacity to put intelligent questions: An astrologer should
be able to elicit very helpful answers from persons and to
interpret a horoscope deeply.
14. Useful Forewarning: An astrologer should give a very
use ful forewarning to a person and advice him properly
as to the right precautionary measures that should be taken.
15. Depth of astrological knowledge: There should be a deep
und e rsta nd ing of the astrologica l p rinciples a nd their
applica tions to a given horoscope.
Given here is a brief summary of the qualifica ti ons given by
Vnml1//lihim w hich makes it clea r that an astrologer is actua ll y a
versa tile, scienti st, intellectual, spiritual, psychologist and above
all an illu min Ati ng guide.
Su c h astro loge rs mu s t b e ra re th a t h ave all th es e
qualific a ti on s. But th ose wh o have so me o f th ese greil t
qu alifica tions ca n d o so much to help the society.
The time has come for the revival of such a great tradition.
Science and technology have disturbed spiri tual trad itions of
man and have now prod uced that fragmented , neurotic and
despairing ma n, who begins to grope in an emotiona l void .
Modern society hard ly provides filial a nd emotional w armth
provided by an orthodox gout family of yore which was a man's
biggest psychologica l compensa tion and emotional need .
It is here, th at a true and a n honest astrologer can be of
immense va lue to the changing society of ou r ti mes.
These are Sage Pa rnsltarn and Va rl1miflira's words and these
qu a lifi ca ti on ~ need to be striven for by everyone desiring to be
an astrologer. There are no short cuts. If we succeed in imbibing
even 45 o f th e above qua lifi cation s we ca n ca ll ourse lves
aspirants to the title. of Astrologe r. Our effor ts to improve
ourselves and imbibe as many of the above qual ifications as we
ca n, must contin ue foreve r.



Utility of Astrology

Astro logy is the eye of wisdom (~ 4111'111{ ~W . It has always

been held in grea t esteem as an honoured discipline. All ac tivi ties
in an y spehe re, be it social , cultura l, pol itical or rel ig ious; };ain
by the advice o f a /yolirvidya.
In thi s ch ap te r we a re concen trating o n th e utilit y of
Astrology for Hom Skn lldha that is dealing w ith the individual s.
The study of the utiliy of Astrology is proposed to be carried
out in 3 parts as under:
(a) Future planning,
(b) Enri c hm~n t of life and

(c) Maximi si ng of gai nful efforts.

Future Planning
This is the area w here the utility of astrology stands out in bo ld
reli ef. In fu ture planning the help of As trology could be in any
field, however, here onl y three areas-education, profession and
marriage are being taken up to hi ghli gh t th e utility of astrol ogy.
Education and Career Cou nselling

We liv e in a wo rld where visual m ed ia has d e v lnp t.' d

phenominally. The T.V./ internet invasion is ca using a serious
concern.The children are neglecting their studies and are ~(' tting
exposed to exci ting and immoral influences.The yo un~ drC<lIll
of escapisim, get rich q uick, violence and q uestio nOlblc mmanlic
escapad es. Th is p laces an immense soci a l burd(' rn 1m ,111
astro loger. He ca n hel p the parents in S(I b ri~ i n~ up Il wil" c h ih l n 'll


',,/ roouction to Astrology

thi'l! the children can adjust w ith the T.V.! Internet invasion and
yet not loose their cultural and religiou s moorings. A horoscope
tha t is weak and is having the Dasllas tha t are likely to promote
waywa rdness. violence and voluptuousness needs to be shored
up by inculcation of religion, prayers and good deeds very early
in the life. We all are awa re that by the time a child is five years
o ld his "Sauskars" are ing ra ined in his subconscious brain. This
is the period w here an asrologer 's advise can be invaluab le. It
en n correct a future wayward, drug add icted young person.
For young students which vocation to choose is an area where
astrologer 's help can point the direction where their inheren t
inclinations and their work coincide. Harmony between w hat
orie loves to do and w hat one is actually doing is a blessing w hich
can be granted by an astrologer.
In thi s competitive world astrology is of immense utility in
gu iding parents in the upbringing of children, guiding studen ts
to choose the vocation best suited to their inclinations and then
gU id ing them in proper advancement of their careers.

Astrology'S utili ty in guidance for professions is immense. An
astrologer can stud y the inclinati ons and fore tell the likely
fructifications and draw up a ca reer profile. He ca n indicate the
lea n periods, and the periods of rise. Astrology can pinpoint the
time when a man will be first paid for his work-the First Salary's
earni ng. All these have been dealt in great deta ils in the Book
"Astrology of Professions" -by Col. A.K. Gour, w hich should be
persused for deeper insight.
M arriage
A compatible match, likly date of marriage and the happiness
therea fter is what any paren! would like to know abou t hi s
children's marriage, specially girls. The ma rriage can be timed
fairl y accura tely by an astrologer. The utility of know ing this
t.'vent is immense specia lly in the present times when ma rriages
l'n ta il huge financia l ou tl ays.

Utility of AstTO/clgy


The utili ty of Astrology is in its abili ty to do rei i.lbk p la nnin).;

for a blissful conjuga l life and this is a grea t gift to the m.l nkind
by our sages who propounded thi s amazing science.
Enriching Life
There is a popular couple t:

WI iI ~ "" <Oi't, 1.1" if <Oi't 'IT ""'"

.. 1.1" iI ~ -.;1:, WI ~ ,,;r ~"
It is astrology w hich, with ease, picks out your good and bad
periods. It is the ri ght manner of utilising the as trolog icill

know ledge. Invest in spirituality w hen the going is good so that

you ha ve e nough sav ings w hen the going gets bad. Look a t it in
another way. A man's ideal prayer to God could be "0 God grant
me the wisdom to change w hat I can and give met he coura ge to
bea r what I ca nnot change". The utility of astrology stares one
in the face. It is an astrologer's domain to be able to descern
what can be changed and what cannot be. Just re flect on the
profound depth of this prayer and then see how tremendously
useful an astrol oger is.
Maximising of Gainful Efforts
Astrology's utility is exploi ted to the full est when actions are so
organised tha t they make maximum use of a good period . If an
astrologer forecasts the date of marri age of a girl the parents ca n
with con fid ence double their efforts in tha t period to find a
suitable groom. A good period for competitions can, in a similar
fa shi on be used to score profeSSional successes. The utility of
Astrology lies in increasing the efforts for the likely events. This
would maximise the gainful efforts.
Our knowledge is limited. All the sc ientists a nd men of
knowledge agree that there are so many phenomenons that \'Il'
ca n know only vaguely.
Eins tein was ve ry s u cc inct w h e n he de sc rib e d till'
advancement of know ledge as "extracting onl' incomprl.'llt'nsihll
from a nothe r incomprehensible". An Olstrologl.r woul d ,l gn'! '


l'ltrod' let iOl!

to A slr%.'(1J

wi th the intell ectual w ho sa id "We d o no t run thi s place; it ru n s

itself. We are a pa rt of running". The utility of astrology lies in

.ldn pting o neself to the runnin g and in m aking ti mely efforts to

I.:htl nge w ha t one can and stoically bearing wha t one cannot
ch,m ge.



History of Astrology

History is a systematic account of the o ri gi n a nd progress of a n

event, nati on, heritage or science-literally anything. It 's wort h
lies in its truthfulness. In the erstwhi le Soviet Union the zealots
of communi sm regularly rewrote and rea rranged history to suit
their politica l needs. This gave rise to saying "In Russia, it is
impossible to predict the Past". A mere seven decade ru le cou ld
do that great a damage in Ru ssia, just imagine our p light becauSt'
w e hnve bccn rulcd b y culturally diffe rent people for n Cil rly fi \'\;:
centuries and are tracing the history of a science, that is, like th e
Vedas, is anaad i-{w ithou t a beginning). A daunti ng task- bu t
an unexamined heritage tend s to decay.
Our examination of thi s heritage is laid out in the followin g
parts :(a)

Part I Difficulties in tracing

Part II Astrological dating techniques
Part III Ou tline div ision into different peri ods
Part IV The peri ods in details

Astrology is a precise, intellectual science. Its hi story should ,

therefore, be capable of very accurate and reliable chronologie.l l
recording. It is no t so. The reasons are:
Slmlti and Smriti

Printing and pa pers are rece nt inn oviltill ll S. In thl' pil st .1 11

knowledge was stored in memory. It was ' ~' (Slllrili ). TIll'


/lItr(lductioll to Astru/oSY

knowledgabl e m e mori se d phenom e n a l d e tail s . All the

knowledge was passed on by the word o f mouth' ~'(Shruti).
Thi s led to inaccuracies a nd aberrations in the va rious accounts.
Cultural Assault
Our heritage and culture has faced the (lssa ult o f culturall y
primitive and boori sh invaders for close to fiv e centuries. They
burnt, pillaged Cl nd plundred the cultural heri tage with to tal
impunity. Not sa ti sfi ed with this, they reC'l rnmged and rewrote
our his tory to suit their primitive and nascent cultural needs.
Shortcomings of interpreters
The major tragedy of the nation has been the d egradation and
h avoc caused by the educa tional policies o f ' Macau lay'. H e
ensured that the educated Indian was a mere 'Cle rk' hav ing no
regard for the ' Values'-a materialis tic, cultu ra l ignoramu s.
Added to thi s ha s been the dominance o f a few vociferou s ..
' Indologists' whose interpretations of the Sanskri t text in Eng li sh
was given prominen ce. These interpreters, mostly Europeans,
ca me from a re ligiOUS and cultural backg round w hose beliefs
were different, and w hich believed that the universe ca me into
being merely 3000 years before Chris t (BC). The entire hi story
was therefore cond ensed ; unga inl y, w rongly and incong ruou sly
into a 3000 yea rs Be time frame.
Immoral Astrologers
The astrologers in the p ast one hundred years or so have shown
neither hones ty n ot integrty in their astrological writing s.
Dedicated h a rd work and research Parash a ra's ''fCl''lP'1'' (hard
work), were given up and these persons took undue importance
in stunning the people w ith an odd unca nny prediction. They
pl ayed w ith the chronology to suit their needs thus creating
doubts about the correct o rder of the d evlopment of this scIence.

W l'.lrl' ~{ling

to di scu ss two dating techniques:

History of Astrology


(a) Precession of Equinoxes and

(b) Astrological records of major events.
Precession of Equinoxes
Due to the wobble of the Earth's axis the eqinoctial point recedes
by approximately 50.3" every year. The position of a equinoctial
point in constellation discloses the chronological period. The
equinoctial point precesses by 1 (one degree) in 72 years, one
consteJletion (1320') in 960 years and one sign (30) in 2,160 years
India is an agricultural country. Agriculture cepends on rains.
Since time ~, immemorial the Summer Solstice (the beginning of
the Sun's southward journey from the Tropic of Cancer) has been
connected with the onset of rains. Let us understand it with an
example - The Sun entered Cancer (tropical) on June 21, 2000 at
07:18 hrs 1ST. Sun was in Mriga shira Naks hatra (Nirayana). It
left Mrigash ira and entered Ardra on June 21,2000 at 20:32 hrs
1ST. If we cnn get the dntn of the Summer Solstice of any era its
period ca n be fixed.
According to the research of Dr. Padmakar Vishnu Vartak of
Pune, the rains during the Riga Vedic period used to commence
when the Sun would be in Mrigashira. This indicates the period
a.s 27 nakshatras x 960 years =25,920 years from now when rains
again commenced when the Sun is in Mrigshira. Riga Vedic
period, therefore, can be fixed at 25,920 - 2000 =23,920 years Be.
We are not certain where exactly the Solstice was in the Mrigshira
Nakshatra. An error of960 years is probable and can be narrowed
down by further research.
Astrological Records

It has been our tradition that all major events are recorded
astrologically. Lord Rama 's birth was recorded by Sage Valmiki
in his immortal work Ramayana.
We now have the advantage of softwares that are capable of
displaying the actual positions of the stars and planets in the
sky on any chosen day for any chosen city. One such software is
planetarium Gold. Using this softvvare and the information given

IIZ/rOOuclio" to A stro//l,~y


;n Vnfmiki Ramayalla researcher Pushkar Bhatnaga r found the

d <1 le of Lord Rama's birth as 5,114 Be and that of Mahabharata
as 3,137 BC This and o ther developments are ushering us in to
an e ra of unde rsta nding ou r past in a hi storica ll y accurate

For convenience and ease of study, the history of Astrology ca n
be divided into the following periods:
1. The Vedic Period
2. The Purmric Period

4. The Varahamihiric Period

5. The Present pe riod

3. The Paras/tar; period

1. The Vedic Period (23,927 BC-S3S0 BC)

Vedas are "anaadi", wi thout a discernible beginni ng.They contain

all know ledge, astrology bei ng a Vedanga-a part o f Veda s,
developed with them. It took thousands of years of empirica l
observa tions an d studies before the' Rishis' and sages formulated
various shlokas, 'richas' or 'dks' and 'sooktas'.
We have been, as a part o f heritage ha nded over records of
Astrological shl okas of this period . They are:
(a) Riga Veda
(b) YajuT Veda
(c) Atharva Veda

,3649 shlokas
162 shlokas

We had begun u nderstandi ng the planets, their mov ements &

their location in the skies. Astronomically we we re advanCing
in thi s period. O ur understand ing o f astrology was in its infancy.
The most o ften of q uoted shlokas of this period are:
The 'Diva-adhipat is' (the Lord of the week days are from
Sun to Sa turn respectively.)

mm ~ """ ~ 'I .",r.,

'Tl'T1i ~,~~"1,,

11 ""ft;-<rfum,,,

Histvr.1f uf Astm/o.'<..,


The 'Ial/lt/a Naksha/ra' a nd it s co- relatio n wi th o lh l..' l'

Naksha tras
~ 'fiQIR;QI"1 : ~: ~: ~I

-tlFft 'f'trI

~ Q(ql~::t ~ ~II

= '"'" "'I~



1('IiR flmflr "" ~ "!"'it"

We teach this order a nd those ve ry results even toda y withlllil
any change.
2. The Puranic Period (8350 BC-3000 BC )


." .. 41l.. ,a., l'jfuifm

fSfl4Iaa:: ~ . . fi1I1aI"1:11


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It is the Purallas w hich give shape to astrology. This is the l"C<lson

w h y we call today's astrolgy as Hind u Astrology.
This is the period where 18 Prava rtaka ( ~), the sages who
further improved the astrological know ledge and spreild it far
and wide, make their appearance. Their contributions are ., 11
pervading; they wrote Siddhanta (Astronomy a nd Mathem<ltit.'.tl
As t rology) Hora (fa/aka o r Na tal Horscope) and Sam/lila
(Mundane, Meteo ro logica l, etc). These Pmvn rtaka are:

1. 5urya 2.Pitamaha 3. Vyasa 4. Vas/Jisllia 5. Atri 6.Para s/J(lI'l/

7. Kashyapa 8. Narada 9. Garga 10. Maricha 11 . Matlll 12. AIISil'1l
13. Lomasl/a 14. Paulisha 15. Chyav{//w 16. Ya valla 17. Bllrigll and
Astrology during Ram aya ua
In Va/miki Ramaymlfl we find extensive ml'ntion of Astrnlll};}'.
Vili miki Rishi wri tes:-


ilil r('I(iuc/ioll to Astrology

-..T "" """'" ~ -.;q:n' "", """"!, I



~t"'!. ~

~ """"!;!


'11c.4i'1i;}; ~1I I.. II

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mil 'lITiI't ~ ~ ~"'Ih~ T ~"NI

W: "Fl
q 61(q1"1~i04ccm') ~ ~I
~14ql : 11


Six seasons (Ritu) elapsed since the PI/fresht; yagna. In the 12th
month, a fter the yagllfl, BIUigwan Rnma was born on CI/aitm Sh l/kln
Nmm mi in PUllarvn slI Nakshatra (Val mi ki has ca lled Punarvasu
ilS Adit i . Aditi is the Devafa of this Nnksl/a tra) w hen fi ve plane ts
were in their exa lted / own signs (Sa turn in Libra, Venus in Pisces,
Moon in Cancer, Jupiter in Cancer and Mars in Capricorn)
B/wyn la wa s born in Pushya Nakshalra and h a d Pi sces

Ascendant. Sumilm gave birth to Lnksl1manf/ and Shn tmglll1a who

were born in A s/desha Nakshatm, when Sun was in Cancer.
We a re now told by the Ariikavi tha t the four bro thers had
the shine and allure of " Pros/lt-paria" (~) Pyosllt-pada are the 4
bright stars, 2 each in Poorva Blmdra Pada and Utt ara Bhadra Pada
Naks/Jatra . The depth and uJierstanding o f Astrology in that
Horay past stand s out ill bold relief.
There are numerous other instances of the use of Astrology
including 'Slmkllna' o r omens in Rnmaymm.
Astrology in Malwbllarata
In the Anusashana Parva, Chapter 64, a d etailed descripti on of
the constellations is given. The charity (Daan) that needs to be
done during the Nakslmtra's duration is also indicated . MII/lIlrttl
a lso find a mention in Mahabharata.
In this paroa Yudhish tira's birth d etails are given. Ylldhistira
W,lS born on Monday wit h Moon in Jyestlm - the constell ation of
Mt.'rcury. lf was the full Moon (Pllmima) a nd Abllijila M It/lIIyta at
his birth time; astou nding breadth and spread of Astrology!

History of A strology


Sample another gem from Udyoga Parva. Knrna tells Bha~,.,uan

Krishna "Saturn is transiting in Rollini and Mars has just
retrograded into Anuradha from /yestha Nakshatra. Rahu is OOOl!t
to eclipse the Sun - this is an unfortunate period for the king".
Saturn's transit over this Rollini causes wars even now. The
first world war, Second world war, Indo-Pak war of 1971, the 9/
11 terrorist strike in the USA and 13 Dec 2001 attack on Indian
Parliament are all attributable to Saturn's transit in Rollini.
What more proof is required to emphasize that astrology
was a fully developed branch of science even during Malta bharata?

3. The Parashari Period (3000 BC-57 Be)

Maharishi Parashara has been considered as the foremo s t
astrologer for the Kil/i yuga. Kali yuga commences in 3,102 BC
Malta Rishi Parasluna's monumental work Briltafa Parasltara Hom
Shastra is the backbone of Vedic Astrology and forms the basis of

all teaching imparted by us. The other notable astrologers of this

period were - /ail1lini, Carga, Satyacharya and many others.
4. The Varalzamihiric Period (57 BC-19AD)
This era is dominated by Varahamihira. He was the court
astrologer of Vikramnditya who came to power in 57 BC Vikral1li
Samvata commences from this date. Varal1liltira's Brilll1ta Jataka is
the second reference book forming the basis of teaching. He also
authored definitive works. Brihata Samhita; Paneha Siddhal1tikn
(wherein he has amalgamated the Siddltarlta of Pitamaha, Suryn,
Vashishtha, Lomasha and Romaka); Dnivagya-Ballabha (on Horary
Astrology) are such great works. Some people put Varahamiltira's
period in 5th or 6th century AD.
Our records improve and become more reliable from 8th
century onwards. Notable astrologers of this period, along with
their works, have been indicated as given below:
Kalyana Vanna (57S AD) His most noted work is Saravali which
blends Vedic Astrology with Yavalla /ataka.
Utpal Bhatta or Bhattotpala (Delhi-SSO AD): Though he is most


Illtrudl/cliOIl to Astrology

popularly known as a renowned commentator on the works of

Varahfllllihira, however, his own works, viz. Vivuthi and RahuNivakarmza, are no less significant.
Bhaskracharya (Vijayawada-1114 AD) His noted works are
B"ava Clzandrika and Bhavfl deepika.
Vaidya Nath (Karnataka -14th century) His most s ignificant
work is fataka Parijata, an astounding work on the characteristics
of the Rash; and various other details about the planets, houses
Narayan Bhatt (Udipi-14th Century) His mos t noted work,
Chl1matkara Chintall/ani, is a treatise of predictive astrology. This

book not only contains the dicta of various noted astrologers of

yore, it also summarizes the results at the end of each statE;>ment.
It is really a unique book of its kind.
Venketesh Sharma (North India -16th Century) His detailed
work on Dasha-pl1ala, popularly known as Sarvartha Chilltamalli,
is yet another land mark in the history of Indian Astrology.

Dundhi Raj (Nasik-16th Century) His mos t noted work is Jatkn

Bliarann which is a brilliant work on Natal horoscopy based on
Ynvan(l and Bridllyavana Jatakn.
Mantreshwara (Chennaii formarly known as Madras - 16th
Century) His p!l(I/adeepikn is a most definitive work on natal
Astrology, which is basically a Condensation of Jataka Parijata.
Nilakantha (Maharashtra-16th Century) He pioneered
Varshapha/a (Tajik) by writing the great book called Tajika
(1526 AD -1707 AD)
The Mughals ruled over India from 1,526 AD, the first battle of
Plll/ipllt where Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, to 1857 AD when
th e English arrested and deported the last Mughal King Bahadur
.'i/ll/il Zafar. In this the reigns of Akbnr (1556-1605), Jahal1gir (16051(127) <lnd Shaht'jalmll (1628-1658) were periods when the rulers

History of Astrology


a m assed fabulo us wea lth , li ved in d azz lin g s plend ou r,

cons tructed som e of the most splendid architectural wond ers
like Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Sikri etc. This was the
gold en period of the Mughals. From Aurallgzeb the decline set in
and then Mughals were finally ousted by the British after the
I 857 Mutiny (Gadar).
We, in this country from times immemo ria l, have assimila ted
the invaders. The " Fi za" (the atomosphere) o f the country is stich
that it win s over those w ho come in con tact wi th it. The hard
nosed Turk horsemen, liv ing life of plunder, loot and constan t
movement, were ta med into culturally aware kings. Such was
the influence tha t the Mug hals becom e keen foll owers and
practitioners of Astro logy.
The details about the influences of Astro logy on the Mughal
kings from Babur to Au rana gzeb (1526 1707), w h ich is fo r a
period o f nearly two centuries, ha ve been appended at the end
of the book as the a nnex ure 1. We also s tud y the influence of
Astrology on the culturnl climate in thi s peri od by examinin g
the works of tw o representa tive p oets on extreme ends of the
literacy and cultural rainbow' Bihari' the rank roman tic and
"Til/sidasa" the devotee and the Bhaktn. (See Annexure).
Ganesh Daivagnya (Gujarat18th Century) His most popu lar
work Jataka Afnllknr is ba Sically a wonderful cond en sation of

Shuka Jatka .
Mahadevji Pathak (Ratlamborn 1842 AD) Jataka Tatt wa is his
fine work on n atal horoscopy.
B. Surya Narain Rao (born 1856 AD) H e was a prolific w riter
and h as w ritte n va rious commentaries, the popular ones <Ire o n
Brilmta fataka and Jaimi"i Sutra m.
Ram Dayalu (Punjab1861 AD) Smlket Nidhi is hi s famou s
Pandit Mahesh (Kashmir-1874 AD) His two well known works
are RalllVeer and fy ot ish Mahalliballdha res p ec ti ve ly. The
con tem po ra ry astrologe rs have bee n di scu ssed in th e next
chapter. Howeve r, to concl ude, thi s one, it is felt necessilry to


illtrodllc/iol1 to A~trol(lgy

glimpse astrology in other parts of the world, almost during the

pe riod that astrology was at its glorious bes t in India.
Astrology in other Civilizations

Sumerian (5000 Be-2000 Be) Lunar Calendars,

Knowledge of constellations.

Babilonian (3000 Be-IOOO BC)

Assyrians (1690 8C-60 Be)

Greek (1500 Be-200 BC) Totally influeced by Sumerian
who extensively borrowed from Vedic and Babyloni<lIl




The Present Period

The present period is characterized by the advent of the printing

press. Thi s permitted writings to reach out to entire worl d .
Astrology was given a pla tform from w here a large gro up o f
people could savour its subtle and aromatic nu ances. This period
saw the emergence of the celebrated and widely read Dr. nv
Raman. He, with th e Astrologica l Magazi ne, reached a lmost
every astrology loving home in the country. His Books ha ve been
instrumental in teaching astrology to thmlsands of students Hi s
p lace in the modern time is secured .
We now take two of the classical Astrologe rs w ho have
helped shaping the events in the coun try; they a re Srj Surya
Narayan Vyas and pundit Hardev Sharma Shastri Trivedi.
Silrya Narayan Vyas

He was trained in Ujjain and honoured w ith Padma Vibhll shmw;

the only 'astrologer to have received such a n honour. Though
the irony is tha t thi s honou r ca me to him for hi s Sa nskrit
Scholarship !
flardev Sharma Shastri Trivedi

He was the found er publisher of "Vis}nua Vijay Panchanga". He

had memorized Brihata Samhita of Varaltamihira and Tajik
NeeJ/amthi. He had mastery in the use of Chakra. He, along with
S ilrya Narayan Vyas, advised the Power tha t be that the best time
for Indian independence was midnight. This is recorded by Sir
Woodrow Wyatt.


illtrodllCtiol1 to Astrology

Gems of the Purest ray serene

We must mention the astrologers who quietly, in comparative
(,bscuri ty, did sterling astrological work. They came close to the
!lId time classical astrologers who were devoted, selfless and
divine guides. These are;
(a) Samant Chandra Shekhar : This Orissa astrologer is
unique. With crude instruments he could workout the
longitudes of planets with amazing accuracy. He had
authored a book "Siddh<'.n ta Darpan" that is awaiting
translation and publication in English by Orissa Govt. This
man's work was recognized by the then British rulers but
he has been ignored hy the present Indian masters.
(b) K.P. Sharma: A brilliant astrologer in the court of Bikaner.
He would not have come to light had Sir Woodrow Wyatt
had not mentioned him in a detailed article in the Times,
in May 1988; the article was titled, "Who Does Not Consult
Stars". He defended the then U.5. President Ronald
Reagan for consulting astrologers. K.P. Sharma gave a
brilliant prediction to Sir Woodrow Wyattin 1944 that
sardar KM. Pannikar, the then Dewan of Bikaner, would
one day go as an ambassador. India was not even free then.
(e) Vemuri Ramamurty Shastri: A brilliant Andhra Pradesh
astrologer who was an expert in Jaimini.
(d) D.V. Subbarao : Andhra's gift to astrology. He could
demonstrate every word with examples. He was master
of Birth Time rectifications.

Shri K.N.Rao imparts astrological knowledge in the class room.
Hi s place in the annals of the Hi story of Astrology has been
<;ecllred by his unique achievement of attracting hundreds of
intellectuals to learn and gain frotn the study of Astrology. Here
i:-;" dedicated, totally selfless teacher who is master of hi s craft.
Th is m,1n of great humility has been able to motivate, guide and
inspire a team of 21 teachers because he is knovdedgeable, is
willing tn sh<ue his knowledge and is utterly spiritual. Though

The Present Period


he has been imparting astrological knowledge to different groups

fo r nearl y two d ecades, his form a l class room teachin g
commenced in August 1987 w ith first 10 students enrolling for
Jyotisha Praveen at Bharti ya Vidya Bhawan, New Delhi. It has
gone on uninterrupted and today his classes a re so much in
demand that is Janu ary 2007 there were over 300 applicants for
about 200 sea ts. These classes are easil y the biggest organi zed
astrological classes anywhere in the world. In other centres in
India if some o n ~ can attract even a dozen students for an odd
yea r or so it is an achievement. Even in Delhi no one else has
been able to sustain astrological classes at a comparative scale.
Shri K.N. Rao ha s become a legend in his own life time
because he has the wi t, the lucidness, the dept h of knowledge
and that tremendous force of spirituality giving him ego free
hum ility. He is the teacher who, whil e bein g deeply rooted in
the classica l texts, ca n still romanticize it and adapt it to the
standard of hi s stu de nts-be it the green horn s of Alankar,
knowledge see kers of Acharya, researche rs of hi s ma ssiv e
research group or the veterans of the fa culty. He appeals to reason
and, there by, hundreds of doctors, engi nee rs, academician s,
bureaucra ts, journalists, artists, lawyers, banke rs join his classes
and their number continues to grow. Wha t better reason can be
there before including the legendary Shri K.N. Rao in the history
of Astrol ogy. These classes are a li ving tribute to this geniu s.
Teaching is Shri K.N. Rao's forte. He is unsurpassable. But
that is not all. He is the best known writer of stimulating articles
in various Astrologica l magazines. He is an ou tstanding speaker
who ca n have a discerning and critica l audience in complete
thrall, ad mi ri ng hi s appeal to reason. He is the only one in this
egOisti c Astrologer'S world w ho parts w ith his resea rches of a
life time and unhesita tingly permits others to use it for thei r
articles a nd books. He is historica l as for the first time, in the
history of Astrology he is show ing replicable techniqu~s standing
up to rigid statistical and scientific probes. Mr. K.N. Rao has
ilu thored over twenty four astrologica l books and has guided
as trologers in writing their books.
Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan today has a thriving research setup
which is providing ra re inSight into ri ch astrological m~te ri al.


Illtrodri ctioll to Astrology

Research is essential for any discipline to progress. This research

is conducted under the guidance of Shri K.N . Rao and he is
assisted by Col. A.K. Gour, S.Ganesh, M.,K. Pathak, Nava l Singh,
K.K. Joshi besides few others. The resea rches are regula rl y
pub li shed in the Journal o f Astrology. We are too close to these
rt'searches to properly evaluate them. History would g ive its
verdict a little later.
We a re lucky that we are livi ng in the times when an institute
like Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan is actively helping the spread of
astrology and has such able people like Sh. K.N.Rao and hi s band
of dedicated fa cul ty members to carry o ut this task. The Bhavan ,
the facu lty, the students are all writing his tory ri ght n ow. It is
good and humbling to be a part o f history in the making.
We are lucky tha t we have a role mode l to guide and inspire
us . We o ught to m odel o ur astrologi ca l activities o n h is
d emonstrated pattern. Dedica tion, hard work and humbleness
stand ou t as beacon li ghts for all of us .



Fate and Freewill

"A man can do what he wills, but,

he cannot will what he wills".
Man has been eternally debating the interrelationship of Fate
and Freewill. Is man a helpless bystander just watching events
unfolding in front of him and reacting to them in a pre ordained
fashion? Is he just a puppet on the string of destiny being tossed
about? Alternatively, can he design his own destiny? It is an
interesting and never-ending debate. Let us examine the two
sides; first Destiny or Fate:
Destiny or Fate
Is there a thing called Fate? Or is it a screen behind which the
clever, the crooked, the weak-willed persons hide their
misconducts by holding God or Karma responsible for their
faults? Is Fate a way of shedding responsibilities and claiming
redressal for wrong doings by explanations that 'Nature' or 'Fate'
compelled them to do what they did? This dilemma is to be
examined in the lightuf the following facts:
(a) Tasked Lives

The universe is an intricately organized and meticulously run

operation. The operation is run smoothly because every
constituent of this gigantic operation is allocated a specific
task(s). Each human birth takes place to carry out its allocated
task in accordance with its Knrma. This allocation of task(s) is
'Fate' or 'Destiny'.


In t roduction 10 AS/flJ/ogy

(b) Birth

TIll' circumstances and the environment of the house w here one

is bo rn are prede te rmined . To be born w ith a s ilver sp oon in the
mouth or in poor, p overty.laden ci rcumstances is 'Fate ' o r

' Des tin y'.


Predictiveness of events

I( events aTe not p reord<l ined, they cannot be pred icted. Th e

fil et that something. som e event, d ue to take place CI t a futu re
d.lte. ca n be pred icted, g ives cred ence to the existence of ' Fa te'.

Now read thi s shloka ca rried on the mast-head of each issue'

of The Astrologica l Magazine:

q, Hlf.,

1) \!

iOllt 01


Q.,lf\jul : 1

q;l Cf'CRIT 1'11{I'1LllfQ ~ c)~ ftRrll

"Those w ho know Astrology can only ind ica te in a way w ha t

may take place in future. Who else, except the creator Bralmw,
c<t n

~d y

with certa inty what will definitely hap p en? "

This explan ation SUCCinctl y puts ' Fate' in its pl ace. There is a
fo rce, ca ll it w h a t you m ay, that s ha pes hu man li ves. Hind/l
Astrology takes a g iant intellectual s tep and identifies thi s fo rce
as Karma . The present is cond itioned by the pa st knrma and the
Karma, w h ich we do in the present, sha pe o ur future.
N ow let u s exa mine Freew ill. Reduced to basics, man is a
(fea ture w ho cannot avoid action . To act is to li ve, and action is
w ithin the freed om o f a human being. Freew ill is a misno me r.
The re ca nnot be freedom sans limitations. As we ha ve alread y
seen that the universe is an intricately run opera tion where each
one of u s is tasked s pecifica lly. Our actions have to conform to
the limitati on s laid out by the actions of others. Universe is a
h;u moni ous place and to be in harmony one h as, of n ecessity, to
accept limitations. It is here that As trology steps in to ill uminate,
to t.'xplain thi s complex link between Fate a nd Freew ill. Look a t
it like thi s if everything is pre-determined of fa ted , w hat is the
m il' o f astro logy? Is n ' t it red uced to the role of watching events
unfold ? Simila rl y. if freew ill is not li m ited the n w ha t s tops a
111,111 from achieving w h at ever he desires? H e can act and act

Fate and Freewill


until he gets what he wants. In life, neither of the above happens.

Astrology explains it. It can calculate the limitations so that one
can know the best time for a certain type of action.
It can gauge the task that a particular man has been allocated
rind then it can match the two, so that the man's actions are
dovetailed into hi s ta sks in a harmonious fashion.
This harmoni zing of the patterns of action with the life's task
can be explained uy an example. Imagine a cow tied to a peg by
a tether. The peg is ' Fate' or ' Destiny'. There is nothing the cm"
ca n do about it. The tether is Freewill. Its elasticity and its leng th
are decided by past and present Knrma . The cow can do wh at
she wants within the area covered by the tether. If she decid es,
she ca n fall in a pit o r carefully avoid d oing so.
We have seen tha t there is some pre-orda inment in a ll lives.
We ha ve also seen that free will exists, of course, regulated by
karmic limitations. What need to be understood is that am
nCltmes, our inclina tions, our outlooks are conditioners that have
been granted to us by our past. Freew ill is the agency th Clt
produces activity, action, th e Karma and prep a res th e
conditioning for the future, the two are totall y interlinked. M<ln
neither is a pawn on nature's chessboard nor is he an architt.'Ct
of his own future.
This is a theoretica l ex position of fate and free wi ll. For the
benefit of students Mr.K.N. Rao has, for the first time ever, linked
thi s subject with as trol ogy. Readers are adv ised tocarefulty study
the exposition of fat e and freewill in Shri K.N. Rae' s VMinus
books on the subject.
I a m heartened by w hat Nani A. Palkhi va la, one of the most
incisive and sha rpes t of brains, a lega l luminary, a nd a n
economist respected the world over and our former Ambassador
to the USA says in hi s book "We the Nation". This book has
been published in 1994. His introduction to the book aptly titled
'Are we masters of our fate ' conta ins passages that are, most
unusua lly, a very appropria te summary of this lesson. I q uote
them wi thout any comments.


II/trOOuctiOI! to A strology

" ) believe tha t the ba sic pattern of an indiv idual's or of a

Il ,l tion 's life is predetermined .... There is existence of freewill
bu t that is again within the preordained pa rameters.
The case is similar to that of a dog on a long leash- the dog
has the freedom to move about as far as the leash permits, but
not beyond ". It has become the fashion to aver that you d o not
b elieve anything w h ich science cann ot prove . I ad mi~ tha t
skepticis m is hea lthy .. , How ever there are incontrovertible
exa mples of a uthe ntic h a ppenings and phenom ena w hi ch
science is w holly unable to explain."
I close this postscript with another quote from page 243 of
thi s book:
"The sense of the mysterious is the hallmark of a perfectly
ed uca ted m an w ho has learned to keep his spirit wide awake" .


The Karma Theory

The Vedic Astrology goads the fallib le, the impressionable, the
fragile and the weak human being to be fearl ess. The Veda teach
us " Do not fear" . Our Gods bless us in Abhaya Mudra (fearless
posture). UpanisJtada tells us, "Mokslw is not for cowards". We
fear death, we fear misfortune, we fear the unknown and we
fear everything. Knrma Theory puts things in a perspective where
we begin to rea lize tha t we are the part of a properly conceived,
meticulously planned and brilliantly executed 'grand design '.
We are acting out our roles as sketched out by the great designer.
The Knrma theory rests on three pillars and they are:
(a) Reincarnation
(b) Man's inescapable propensity to do Karma; an ac tion less
existence is not possible.
(c) Fruits of action have t9 be enjoyed / suffered. That is the
only way in which the cycle of action and its results gelS
spent. Smriti says:

... ,01 ."..,.,.. '"" ..,q 'lom:l""-'

q;q Cf!t"Qq;)f};IA t f,w

'Of ~ ~

"A man inevitably enjoys the good. or bad results of his Knrma ,
unspent they do not decrease even in eons"
These three pi lla rs very subtly but in a very perceptible
fashion encourage the human beings to gird up and fight the
'fea r' and attain Moksha, without reincarnation there can be no
Astrology. For Astrology is merely reading the karmic pattern
which has a link with the past Iife(s) and also w ith the future
life(s) .


Tlltroduction to Astrology

The karmic pattern is woven skillfully in a horoscope. So as

to indicate the balance of Knrml1 that the native is carrying as
well as his mission or task in this life. How is it done? Let us
take a look.
All of us aTe "a replica of universe. (~) The five elements.
fire, water, earth, air and ether (a very improper word for AakJ1S11n
clement) constitute the universe and we are also an amalg<1m of
these five elements. It, therefore, stands to re<lson that we are a
small part of a grand design, placed in a fashion so that we can
make our contribution. Each one of the humans has desires and
wishes to fulfill them. Each one of us is motivated differently
and reacts in a different manner to a given situation. It is outer
manifestation of the karmic pattern and the inner motivations
to exhaust the fruits of past Knrmas and todo Karmas that lead to
emancipation is seen in a horoscope when we divide it into four
pa rts as under:
(a) Dharma (b) ArU/a (c) Kama and (d) Moks//a

In a horoscope houses 1s t, 5lh, 9lh are lhe houses of Dlltlrfllll,

2nd, 6th, 10th are the Arfha houses; 3rd, 7th, 11th are the Kama
houses and 4th, 8th, 12th are the Mok~ha houses.
The signs ilnd the planets occupying and influencing these
houses indicate the KaYIIII7 pattern. If the majority of planets are
in Artlm and Kama house s, the native's inclinations and
motivations are oriented in that direction. He has desires (Kama)
and the money (Art//a) and if they match at the right time in the
native's chronological growth, he can enjoy them to the full. This
is the pattern, which is laid out in the horoscope. On the other
hand, a native due to achieve emancipation wou ld have a
planetary distribution in his Dharma and Moksha segments.
Various combinations are possible and that is why we see people
having differing outlooks and motivations.
In this revelation of the karmic pattern, two Dharma houses
viz . the 5th and the 9th playa noteworthy role.

The Fifth House

This Dharma house is the one, which maintains and shows our
link with our past. It is also the house \vhere the balance of our

Tile Karma Theory


Knrllla that we are ca rryi ng from our past are indicated . It is the
house o f Poorva /m1llJ(l Pllllya.

The Ninth House

Thi s 01/(/r1l1a house is 5th from the 5th house. It indica tes what
Knrma we wou ld be inclined to perform in the present life, and
also ties us to the future life.
O ur Knmia a re classified into three segments. These arePrambdll(l, 5ancilita and Aagallli. 5a1l:I,ifa are those Karma that
ha ve a lread y been performed and w e are now wai ting to enjoy
their fruits. Since these Knrma hil ve illready been done there is
nothing o ne can d o about them now. The Gi ta has told us tha t
ou r task is restricted to performing of Knrma we play no role in
deciding the quality, quantum or the timing of result. Sal1chita
Knrma are the ones that link us with fate. If you now go back to
the lesson on 'Fate a nd Freewill' the Sallchita Karma are the o nes
tha t have shaped the destiny.
Prarabdl/(/ Karma are the ones that we arc motivated and
inclined to perform in this life. These arc w hilt cons titute the
freew ill porti on . This is the area w here a na tive can by h is
exertions and acti ons rise above the Karmic pattern ind icated in
the horoscope. It is here, that judiciOUS application of freewill IS
exercised to pe rformance of meritorious deeds. Freew ill is
exercised in stoica lly enjoying or suffering the result and thereby
exhausting the previous Karmas. Jt is here that a man's is g iven
the chance to g uide hi s own destin y. It is the PrarabdlJ(l Kn rma
tha t ma ke man capable of deciding and making his ow n future;
but remember the analogy of the lesson on " Fate and Free Will "
the tether of free will is firmly fixed to the 'peg' of destiny. Aagami
Knrll1a are the ones that are still being contemplated and w ill be
done in future.
Ju st see the utter simplici ty and yet the deep profund ity of
the concept. A native arrives in thi s world with some balance of
his Karma. This places him in the society, gives him a home and
environ ment w he re his past Sallcllita Karma gets linked to hi s
present Pra rabdlf(l . Once he starts performing, the Prarabdlw
Knrllla, he has to, firstly, reap his Salle/,ita Knrma i.e. the link with
hi s past, second ly, exhaust his Knrmn allocated for the present;


l'lirvdllctiollio Astrology

and thirdl y, think about his future and do actions so that the
ba lance for the future is good.
Karma have also been named as Dridha, Adridha, and DridhadridlUi. Dridlm Karma are the ones whose resu lts can not be
altered whereas Adridha are those Karma whose results can be
made bearable by proper and timely action.
In the third category are the Karmas whose resu lts can be
changed by propitiation of the planets ("Graha shanli)".
At the end of this examination, we can conclude that Karma
are akin to living. All Karma fructify. The fructification follows
the uni versal 'Cause and Effect' principle. In Vedic Astrology,
this cause and effect principle has been show n to be operative at
a plane higher than the mere physical one. On the physical plane
an effect flow s immediately from a cause. Push a ca r it moves.
Astrology takes thi s principle far above the gross physical
plane- it shows that, whereas for any action the reaction is
inevitable, the timing of the reaction as well as the result of the
action are held by that supreme Divine Will.
Cyrus D.F. Abayakoon writing in the Astrological Magazine
commented on the workings of Knrma in the life of a man thus.
"Knrma is not just 'as a man soweth so shall h~ also reap',
state of unfoldment. It is fa r more deep because, be fore a man
can sow, he has to have seeds gathered in the previous harvest
whetherShe / he has accumulated merit can be gleaned from the
twelve houses of a horoscope"
Thi s theory of Karma \vould have achieved its aim if it
contributes to the bridging of the chasm that exists between, the
man's physica l being and his inner core, hi s soul. The Knrma
theory puts the soul into the body and links the man to the Divine
will as a part of living, evolving and dynami C universe .


Why Believe in Destiny

Astrology and Karma

In a ll the w ritings of writers on Astrologica l subjects sometime
or the other, the relation between astrology and Knrma has been
discussed. However, no writer has posed the most important
question whether the two great authorities we follow, Maha Rislti
Pomshora and Varaltamiltira, have or have not directly related
astrology to Knrma. A further questi on to which the writers
should have addressed themselves is whether astrology gets
directly related to the belief in the past, the present birth and the
future births.
Briltata Parasham Hom Shastra starts w ith reference to the
Avafara Krama supporting the Hindu belief that God reincarnates
himself in thi s world whenever the balance of evil begins to
heavi ly outw e igh th e vir tu es. In su ch situations, nin e
incarnations take birth under the beneficent influence of a
particular planet. Lord Rama from Sun, Lord Krishna from the
Moon, Lord Na rsimha from Mars, Lord Buddha from Mercury,
Lord Va mana from Jupiter, Lord ParasllUrama from Venus, Lord
Koorma from Saturn, Lord Varalm from Rahu and lord Mntsya from
Ketu. 1t should be remembered that Brihata ParasllUra Hora Shastm
starts w ith the story of divine reincarnation.
Where and how does Maha Rislri Parashara refer to human
reincarnation? Such references are scattered in many places in
Parashara texts, some of which can be seen first. The eighth house
is referred to as 'Purvapara Janur Vrittama', which means the
occupation, the profession of the past birth. The next important


Illt roduction to Astrology

reference is when Maim Risllj Parasllara deals w ith the marnka or

the first four yea rs because of the evil deeds of the mother, in the
next four years beca use of bad karma of the father and in the last
four years up to the 12th year child's own bad Karma. The nature
of death is also d ecided of every individual becau se of the Knrma
of the past life. It can be because of roya l punishment, incurable
diseases, through weapons, pOisoning, drowning in water, by
fire or by a fall from a height etc. Whether at the ti me of death it

person would be conscious or unconscious and whether he

would die at home o r while in movement or in a foreign country
etc, are directly referred to. ParaslwTfl and Varahamillira both a lso
referred to the pas t, present and future births in dearest terms.
Past Birth
To find out the w orld from where particular human-being has
come to take his birth in the world of mortal s, the Drekkmw of
the Sun or the Moon is to be seen. Here Jupiter represents Heaven
or the hi gher region, the Moon and Venus the Cllalldra Loka (also
referred to as Pilra Loka), Sun and Mars from our own world of
mortals, while Saturn and Mercury from lower worlds.
Future Birth
The presence of Jupiter in the 6th, 7th and 8th house has been
praised by Paras/lOra for attaining to a hi ghest s ta te after d eath .
VarallOllli/lira pra ises Jupiter if. the 10th house. If there are no
planets in the 6th, 7th or 8th houses, the lords of 6th and 8th
houses and their DrckJall1a are to be examined.
Present Birth
When Parasharn refers to both the pa st birth and the futLlre birth,
how and where does he refer directly to the present birth? There
are direct references in many places but the most significant
reference is made in the chap ter dealing with the curses o f the
previous life as a result of which a person can be deprived of
children in the present life. Here Mandi and the 5th hOllse alo ng
with other planets, is to be made use of and the particula r nature
of the cu rse, of the prev ious life analyzed. For ins tance, if in s uch
a curse, the Sun is associated, the curse is of the father, if the

Wily Belit'Vl'ill Dt'S l illY


Moon, of the mother etc. and if Rahu is with Mandi, it is d escribed

as Sarpa Doslw o f the prev ious birth . Parashara even prescribes
the methods of the propiti ation of pl anets o f 'G raha Sitall fi' fQr
each type of curse.
There sh ould, therefore, be no d oubt left if the minds that
o ur astrology is d irectly rela ted to the pas t. the present and the
future birth, and these w holly ilnd s ubstantially support the
theory of reincarnation.
If astrology s upports the theory of reinca rna tion, we shall
see it bein g re ferred to in every Hind u scripture, and h as been
m entioned repeated ly in th e Gita . Two ques tions will arise :
(1) W ha t a bo ut those w ho d o no t believe in reinca rna tio n,

(2) Wha t a bout !'cicntifi c proof in modern terms o f such

re inca rniltion .
Th is ques tion can be answ ered in two ways.
The firs t is to quote from the Hindu scri ptures w here there
Me re fe re nces of hundred s of cases o f reinca rnation . Na turall y,
the immediate objection that would be made is whether non
Ind ians and non Hindus ca n believe in reinca rnation at all . Afte r
the researches of Dr. Ian Stevenson, in cases of reinca rnation,
there shoul d be n o doubt left about su ch reinca rnation.
Reinca rnation immedi ately reinforces belief in three other
in ter--connected obse rvati ons and trad itiona l Indian belie fs. The
firs t is w ha t is known as the Karnm Phala or the resu lt of the
Kar ma o f the pa st life. The second is the Knrlll fl -Snlllsknm or
psychementa l em otional te nd encies o f the p rev ious life and the
th ird is the b irthmarks. In m ore then 600 thoroughly inv(>stigCt ted
C,lses of Dr. Ian Steven son, covering the entire world " lmost all
religions a nd m ost o f the continents, no d oubt should be left
<lny more in the mind s of even those w ho d em <lnd the scientific
proof for verifying cases of the reincCt rnation . Some of these Ci\SC:-;
briefly are as foll ows:
Shanti Devi
Th is is a case fro m Delhi. Sh anh, in her prev iou s li fe, was in


IntroductiO/J to Astrology

Mathura and had met the children of her previous life who were
much older to her. This was a case, which came to the notice of
the world when Mahatma Gandhi got a committee constituted
under Delhi's Deshbandhu Gupta to investigate thoroughly into
the veracity of Shanti Devi's case. For many decades, this was
the most widely reported case in the world. Shanti Devi died
sometime in 1987 or 1988.
Gopal Gupta
The most celebrated case for our generation is that of Gopal
Gupta of Delhi who in his previous life was Mayor of Mathura
and was shot dead in 1948 after his own wife of the previous
birth hatched a conspiracy with her brotherin-Iaw to get her
own husband murdered. The name of Gopal Gupta (born on
August 1956 in Delhi) was Shakti Pal Sharma (was born on
December 30",1913). (p.77)
In all the cases of people who remember their previous life,
the death in the preceding life has invariably been violent. How
the Samskarn of the previous life re-appear in the present life is
clear in the case of Gopal Gupta from amongst many instances.
When as a boy, he was asked by his father to remove a cup had
been used by someone and had become 'pol11,lted' (ucchishta),
he objected say ing that he could not do so s ince he was a
Brahmin. It was the odd reply of Gopal Gupta, which led to
detailed investigation into his past life.
Gopal's mother, Omivati Gupta had an unusually strong
desire for fruit juices, especially, orange juices during her
pregnancy with Gopal (p.96). Dr. Stevenson investigated into
this and found out that Shakti Pal Sharma was particularly fond
of fruits and especially orange juices.

Kum Kum Varma

In the Darbhanga district of Bihar, there lived a woman called
Sundari who was poisoned to death by her daughter-in-law in
1950. Sundari made a cobra her pet, which she fed and allowed
to sleep in her own room. Five years after her death she was
born as the second daughter and the third child of Dr. B.K. Varma


Why Bdit-ve ill Dt'stillY

and his wife 5ubhadra who lived in Bahera, a plil ce nol wry fM
from Darbhanga . When Kum Kum was two and half years uld ,
she started asking about her prev iou s life in Urdu Ba Z<lilf,
Darbhanga. Kum Kum had by birth, some m arks on the lobes uf
her cars, w hich in her previous life had been pierced for earrings.
When Kum Kum w as four years old, she showed an unusu<1l
interest in snakes. Once when she w as at he r schoo!' a cobra fell
form a tree. Other children panicked and ran il way bu t Ku m
Kum went up to the snake, Patted it on the hood and cuddl ed it.
The snake, which had been sunned by its fall, recovered and
q uietl y crawled away. This was the result of the Samskn m of the
previo us life.










In Astrology, we can easily trace Kn rma- PlwJa throu gh thl'

Ma lia Dasha system. For instance, chart 1.
In 1990, this lad y was passing through the Das/m of MoonVenus.
It can eaSil y be seen:
(a ) From the Lngna the 7th lord Jupite r in the 6th hOll!'l'
aspected by Mars.
(b) The 7th house has Saturn again aspected by Mars.
(c) From the Moon 7th lord Venu s has gone into the 6th hOll Sl'
while the 6th lord Mars has gone into the 7th hOllse.
(d ) In the Major period of the Moon, w hich is in the 6th house
from the Lagna with Jupiter, which is the 7th lord and in
the sub-period of Venus, wh ich is the 7th lord from the


Introduction to Astr% g.'!

Moon, is in the 6th house, there had to be strong difference

o f opinion with her husband.
Fin ally, she had to d ivorce her husba nd. Astrologers C<ln

eas il y see that certain p lanetary pattern in every horoscope

represents unavoidable p roofs of predestination .
Simila rly, a person bo rn with a horoscope (Chart 2) : in the
ma jo r period of Mercury sub-period o f Sun and sub-s ub period
o f Mars, there was a big theft in his house, as a result o f w hich
jewellery w orth nea rly Rs. 40,000 of his wife was stolen. Such
a n incide n t is ex pl a inable only throug h the appli ca ti on of
astrological principles. This person has been suffering from losses
and the fts of property repeatedly.






' UN

The p h ysical Astral and Causal Bodies

W ha t th e n is sa lva ti o n ? Fo r the p urpos e s o f ou l
understanding let us remember that the re are three bod ies: the
p hysical body (Sthu la sharira), the subtle astral body a nd the
Karma sharira. The transmigration o f sou l is d irectly related to
the astral body. So long as the astral bod y, which is called the
liHgadeha is not d estroyed, the cycle of birth s and rebirths does
no t end . There is an in teresting story in the Mahabharata . Arjzl/1a,
w ho had Lord Krishna as his guid e anl...I G u ru. and listened to
the hi g hest s piritu al w isd o m throug h t>e preaching of the
H/mgmvada Gita on the battle field of Kurrukshe.:-a, forgets all these
it.'sstms, and long after, he once aga in r~ques ted Krislma to help


Wily Bt'lit'Vl' ill Destilly


him re fre sh those lessons. Krishna admoni she!; /I. /'jll lla for
forgetting those lessons and re-expJa ined the essence of the Gila
through, wha t is known as 'Brahamana Gifa'. Arjlwa Aga in forgot
these. However, after the departure of Lord Krishlla from the
world of mortals, Arjlwa got immersed in deep spiritual practice.
The Shrimada Bhagva fam describes that it was now th at the astral
bod y of Arjlllta was destroyed and he reme mbered each cm d
every lesson of the Gita. It is through such a destruction of the
astral body that mortals get liberation or IIIl1kti.
Again, some objecti ons can be raised . Why should nonHindlls believe in astral body at all ? Such objections w ill be less
now than they were two decades ago because of the recorded
instances of the out of body experiences given by Dr. Raymond.
Many people who suffer a severe heart attack see their 'astr.,!'
body getting detached from the physical body and watching a ll
the activities of the doctors and nurses. Dr. Raymond has recorded
man y such instances. Dr. Raymond gives an interesting instance
of a person who was in volved in a terrible car-accid ent a nd saw

his astral body getting out of the physical body. Afte r he was
re!;tored back to life, one day, he happened to be wa lking in an
area of criminals of USA. Someone suddenl y ca me, put a pistol
on hi s chest, and threatened to kill him. When this ma n showed
no reaction, the criminal was surprised and asked him, why he
was not afraid of death? The answ er of that man wa s the end of
ph ysica l bod y had n o meaning fo r him becau se h e had
experienced that there was life after death or death after life.
It is not possible for a n astrologer to trace out wi th any
confid ence what an indi vidual was in his prev ious life though
in the Bhrigu Samhita of northern India and Nadi of southern
India , there are references to the previous life. An astrol ogical
cl assic known as the Knrma Vipakt! Sa m/,ifa traces a ma n's pa st
life accordin g to the chama (quarter) of hi s birth -Nakslmfra

All these lead to the inevitable conclusion that astrology is

' integrally' related to the previous births, the present birt h and
the future birth. It is for this reason tha t astrology <lnd astnll(lgcrs
refer to three types of Knrma: the Sallcllita, the Pr(l ra/,,/JIII n!ld
/l.agallli. The Satlcllita re fe rs to the accumul .lted Karm(/ o f ., 11


,,,traduction to Astrology

previous lives, the Prarabdha represents that part of Knrma of the

previous life as is allotted for enjoyment or sufferings of the
present life and the Aagami is a direct offspring of the Karma of
the previous and present life. Until all these Knrmfl of the previous
and present life are liquidated totally, there is no liberation or
lIIukti. The total liquidation of the Karma that Parashara and
Varahamihira referred to the past, present and future incarnation
or every person. Interestingly, in laimini Astrology from the
Karaknmsha and Amatya karaka the examination of a horoscope
can be done to find out whether a person would get final
emancipation or not.
It is necessary for us to stress that theory of astrology is based
100%, on the theory of Knrma and reincarnation. Clues that are
more scientific are now coming from the West about
reincarnation while for Indians is has been only a matter of
traditional belief so far.
The Mahabhamta refers to the Karma of previous life and states
in the clearest terms that none can escape the consequences of
the Knrma he has done or is doing. The Knrma is like a calf which
knows how to search his mother-cow, even in a herd. The Karllla
chases its doer unmistakably. Itis for this reason that it has been
~a~<!:iq1 ~
~ ~ ~

'Ffi Cf>'t




Knrmas have to be suffered (or enjoyed).They do not get

liquidated otherwise.
Similarly, again the Mahabhara refers to the relation between
astrology and Knrll1l1 through the planets thus:

~ 'Wl!\l'l't '! ..-.'tfu "l'ml"'"

mft{ ~ 'Cf>"lf. C"IICf)C1I~ lJ6T lffiu
Which means that it is not planets and Naksltatm alone which
give auspicious or inauspicious results. It is all the
res ult of one's own Karma though the popular belief is that it is
Imly planets that impel or compel a person into a right or wrong

Why Bdieve ill DestillY

Astrology, Fate and Freewill

For non.astrologers the debate about fate and freewill is purdy
philosophical. Most of the Writers produce wnfusing volumes
of book on the subject and mesmerize their reader' s with their
For the astrologer, it is not a debate but only a question of
developing more a nd mo re of his ability to see it, as he alone Cil n
see it, since astrology, better described as Iyotis/la, is a Prat yakslUl
Silastra or a proofsfilled subject of classical learning.
Whatever can be seen astrologically, can be divided into
three following parts:
(a) That area where destiny must prevail and m an 'has no
(b) Tha t part whe re man can exercise his freewill to improve
the best of the predestined results or overcame the pre
destined mi sfortunes, partly, may be, even ove rcome
completely his pre-destined misfortunes.
(c) That mixed area where the astrologer cannot see himself
where strokes of destiny become more mightily d om in ate
over freewill o r vice versa.
All these can be illustra ted and m(lny volumes produced by a
team or astrologers. Here only some astrological illustrations arc
being given to explain what exactly the three areas mean .
NonDebatable Points about Destiny
Eldest or the youngest among Brothers/Sisters
An astrologer: should see the following six horoscopes given
here (Chart 16) and ask himself what is the common feature he
sees in them.
What has been given here is only a thumb rule but thi s thumb
rule applies to over sixty percent horoscopes and therefore is il
va lid rule, which can be depended on. What is the co mmon
feature in all these horoscopes?
1. The first horoscope is of a ma le who is the ),Olmg('st child
of his parents.

I ll /mellietillli tu Astrology


The second one is of a g irl w ho is the youngest (seventh )

child of her pCl rents.
The third horoscope is o f a male w ho is the elder o f the
two sons o f his parents.
The fourth is of male w ho is elder of the two sons o f hi s
fMher though he has a sister elder to him.
The fifth is o f male who is younger of two sons of hi s
The last is of a lady w ho is eldest among the fi ve children
of her parents.




Now w ha t is the com mon fea ture in these ho roscopes?

1. In the first horoscope the eleventh lo rd is in the third housc.



















2. In th e second horoscope also the eleventh lord is in the

third house.











Why Bc1iroe ill DestillY


3. Aga in in the third horoscope the eleventh hnd is in tilt'

third ,






MFJ{{ .


SU, VI:.





4. In the fourth horoscope the third lord is in the eleventh













5. In the fifth horoscope the eleventh lord is in the third hou se.
6. In the six th horoscope the thi rd lord is in the eleventh
The thumb rul e, which can be replicated with Six ty percent
s uccess, is that if the third lord is in the e leventh h ouse or till'
eleventh lord is the third, the person will either be the eldest or
the youngest child of his parents; or will be the eld es t or till'
youngest among sis ters or brothers.
Since we a re talking of destiny, <15 k one imp<lrl .ln t qlll.':-.t il ill .
Does il person ha ve a choice to be born as Ilw ddl':-. I or Ih. '

IIrtraduction to A sl rofog,1l





































youngest child of his parents o r is it d ecided by destiny? What

the n is destiny? Whether o ne believes in destiny o r no t, the
a rgument must start with the question w hether one had any
choice to be born at a particular time, in a pa rti cu lar fami ly w ith
particular parents and in a particular surrounding? Atwhat stage
could one ha ve exerci sed any choice to selec t one's parents,
brothers, sisters. the famil y to be born in, be it a wealthy o ne or
a poor one. If a man sits down to list out what in his life has
happened without his having any choice in them, the re is no
reason w h y he shou ld not believe in d estin y.
The ninth' house in astrology is representative of father and
reli gion, Now see in the four horoscopes given here how the
ninth lord is pl aced .
1. In the first homscope the ninth lord is in the eighth house

Why Bdieve ill DestillY


with Ketu. The n ative, Sri P.Y. N aras imha Rao went int o
adoption (Ch ang ing hi s father ) in hi s childhood, OVl'r
w h ich h e cou ld no t h ave had a ny con trol. Was it no t
p redestined as the pl anets ind icate?






M E(R)








2. The second h oroscope belongs to Congress member of tht'

Indian Parli <l men t. Mr. Choka Ra o Whose ninth lo rd is in
the t'ighth h o u se . He too went int o adoption in hi s
childhood-a decision over which he h ad no control, it
being pre~des t ined.













3. The thi rd h oroscope belongs to a m u ltimillionaire. In thi s

horoscope there is an exchange between his e ighth and
ninth lord s. H e is a Parsi, fo ll ower of the Zorna s tri,m
religion but he took his spiritual initi ati on in H indu ~lldllllllll
from a Guru in Girntlr H ills of G ujrnt.


ill troductioll to Astroiosy
















4. The fo urth horoscope resembles the third horoscope and

here too there is an exchange betvleen the eighth and ninth
lords. He is il Hindu Brahmin, doing intensely i'I Buddhist
sad/mila after accepting a Japanese guru .




















What astrology reveals is that what is pre-des tined h a ppens.

Timing the event is the on ly problem of an astro logers a nd he
shuuld ha ve no d oubt that what planetary patterns reveal have
10 manifest in some form or the other in man' s life though when
it happens, the person claims, "I d ecided to accep t a g uru o f
diffe rent re li gion beca use he appealed to me".
We il strologers a re famili ar with good ilnd bad events in the
life of il mil n and we predict on that basis successfull y becau se
pl ,~nctary patterns revea l the pattern o f d estiny, w hich nond ~ trnlog e r s ca nnot sec.


Hundreds and thousands of such ins ta n CCSCiln be gi ven fmm

all aspects and walks of a man's life to shaw w h y des tin y IMS hi
preva il giv ing m an no choice to decid e milny events of hi s ii fL'.

There are areas in which a person can exercise his freewill but
within the orbit o f ,the pre-destined, not outsid e it. This (<I n be

illustrated in many different ways on di fferent horoscope. For

out exa mple let us ta ke the role of as trologica l co unse ling for
career counseling s tarting w ith pinpo inting the edu ca ti on al
choices be fore a student.

To do it no t d own :
(3) The Nnksifafrn in which the fifth lord from the Lilgl1{/ is

posited and the influence of other pl anets and the lord

of the house involved.
(b) Then see the influences on the fifth h ouse and the fifth
lord from Mercury.
(c) Combine both and the influences of p lanets d ecide the
va rious educa ti onal choices available .
(d ) The s trongest of those choices and the Maim Dnslw
runnin g will ultimately decide the choice of h igher
educMion and the career pattern.
Thus w ithin the pre-destined orbit, a pt'rson ca n exercise some
choi ces. It is being illustrated here.
The First Example
The fifth lord is Sa turn in his own Nakshatrn clOd in the hou se of
the Moon; the fifth h ou se from Mercury is Ca pricorn whic h
rece ives the aspec t of both Saturn and Mars an d the hou st.'
involved is Capricorn (owned by Saturn). Totaling up, S" turn
comes into play thrice, Mars once a nd the Moon o nce. The
education h as to be technical. The Moon, which represents
vehicles, led thi s man into completing a dipl o mrt i n il ulomobi lt.'
engi neC'ring.


In troduction to Astrology






j U, MA



Here the cho ice could even have been irrigation or electrica l
eng inee ring. However, the M o ti on in the third h o u se o f
communica tions d ecided it in favour of automobileengineeri:1, "
The Second Example



















Here the choi ce is not m uch as both fro m the Lngnfl and Mercu ry
the fifth ho use has Sa tu rn, Mars and the Moon a ll o f which are
in the Nakshatrn of Mercury. He lea rnt mechanical engineeri ng,
kIlter l~a rnt about petrol pump management and finall y settled
w ith an independent b usiness in construction work.
The Third Example
I-il' rl' the fifth ho use has Saturn aspeeted by Jupiter and the fifth

Wily 8eliev(' ill DestillY


house is Taurus owned by Venus; the fifth lord Venus is in hi s

own Nakshatra but with the Sun and Mercury aspected by M'trs.
Tota ling up the influence of Satu rn, Jupite r and Venu s show
Venusi.m influences predo minating. The conjunction of Mercury
w ith the fifth lord Venus shows accountancy, commerce,
economics etc. This girl was advised to do a course in fashi on
designing, after d oing her B.eom. (a course in commerce).









She has successfully comp leted he r d iploma

des ig ning and had started her business.


fashi on

T he Fou rth Exampl e


















Here the fifth lord, Mercury is in th e Nnkslmtra of Rahu, who in

turn is in the sign of Jupiter and with the Moon. Tht.' fifth ho use
from Mercury is Gemini w ith Ketu in is receiving the aspects of



ti l Astrnlo~y

the Moon, R"hu and Mars. The fifth lord with the Sun and Venus
s howed all the o ther influe nces. This w.oman studied economics,
hi sto ry, learnt music, dance and finally underwent training in
tax-administration professionally after she beca me an incometa x o ffi cer.
These four instances, like hundreds, will show that the d eeper
an astrologer works on similar lines, the fine r and cleare r become
the choices available. This lad y could develop interest in her
professiona l s ubjects and also arti stic s ubjec ts, on e taking
precedence over the other as the Daslm changes.

The versatile talents of a person can thus be pointed out and

the person ca n be adv ised properly when to concentrate on what,
n ot one at the cost o f the other, but foll owing a well -planned
sche me of changing pri orities.
In all these examples the choices are w ithin the predesti ned
limits only.
fu; ...t fl>;.",~r.. """",,""'" -.Tfl<n,
Kim Karl/In Kim Akarma Eiti Kavayo Api Atra Mohitah .
'The Gi ta' IV-16

Wh at Kam In is and wha t is no t Karllln, is very diffi cult to

understand s ince it ba ffles even the seer.
Astrotogers should remember that is would never be possibl e
fo r them to trace the Knrmn and Kn rma-Phnln full y, success full y
and correctly ever as even the bes t of the seers do not know it.
We come ac ross baffling cases where we do n ot know what to
p redict. It is, in such cases, that no o ne can say, " Lo, here the
borde rli ne of destiny d isappea rs and the dom ain of freewill
b\!gins" .


~ : fSfi4ttHUtF., ~ Cfiqffbt ~: I

Prakriteh Kriyamanani Gunaih Karman i Sarvashah

'The Gila', IIJ-27

Wily Believe ill Des/illy


All the qu alities, Satwika, Rajasika and Tamsikll, inherent in

nature are the m otive forces of all the Knrma.
If a man thinks that he is doing an y Knrma then he is mi stnken
beca use he should know that he d oes wha t his inhe rent Salwika,
Rnjnsika or Tnm sikn qua lities impel him to do. Th us, no man C,l n
rea ll y accept fa te and remain idle.
Nevertheless, how a re the two, fil te and freew ill , to be
reconciled. The best is to quote the Mnllnbhnrnta in thi s contex t,
w here in to the q uesti on of the eldest Palldnvn, Yliddhisht ra, the
grea t Bllis/11I1n answered thus:
The Seed: The Karma is the seed, w hich sprou ts into a pl ant,
tree, leaves, fl owers and frui ts and all that.
The Fan. ~ : Freewill is li ke farming witho ut w hich no seed ca n
sprout. Fa te is the seed and efforts (freew ill ) are the farm, on
which is g rown the harvest of life. Both, fate and efforts have to
co-exist. The word used for efforts is pUnlshnr fha .
Results of Karma: Every man has to enj oy o r suffer the resu lts
of his good and bad Knrma, himself. It is well know n and has
been observed by a ll .
Good Karma give good results and bad Karma bad results.
O ne's ow n Karma a lways yield resu lts.
The Hard Tri er: The person who wo r k~ hard gets respect and
d igni ty according to his own destiny, and luck.
Through ha rd work, which includes sp iritual practices <IS
wel\ , a person gets honour and dignity.
The lazy one, w ho puts in noefforls, is like a foo l w ho a llows
sa lt to be spilled on the wounds of his misfortunes.
Thus through hard work one gets enjoy ments, heavenly bliss,
intellectuali ty and steadfastness. The idler, depending o nl y o n
fa te and chance, achieves no thing.
Money, ci rcle of friend , glory and grea t achievement s ,1ft',
reserved onl y for the hard trier.
If there w ere 10 be no such thing as the res ult s of KII I'III II, tlH'
en tire w orld would become idle and eve ryonl' woul d \V,l il for
his luck to give him whatever is du e to him.

Inlroductioll to Astr%xy


It is the efforts put in that follow fa te. Nothing can be given

by fate if no effo rts a re put in.

The Witness of Kanna

The sole wi tness of all Knrma of a person is hi s own soul. Soul is

hi s fri end or his enemy.

Therefore, very determined effort can render the results of

many karma of the past totally nuga tory, as though no Karma
was d one.


Di v in e p e rs ons d o o nl y good Karma. Eve ryt hin g

ilchievab le is achieved through good Karma. Fate wi ll be

less inscrutable for the divine person. (What has been

given here is a libera l of li teral tra nsla tion from the
Maftabhara ta)
In the grea tes t book of spiritual w isdom in the world, The
G ita, the instructions are clear: Yoga is dficien t Karma; a
true devotee of Hi s is efficient but non-attached. Therefore,
man's duty is to do his Karma and not expect-the results to
be according to hi s w ishes. He should accept grace fully
the resul ts of his Kilrma , but shou ld neve r stop doing hi s
Karma di spassionately and efficiently.

Astrology is the only super-science known to mankind whi ch

helps man know the trends of results and the role of destiny
whose importance is stressed in the Gila thus, "There is a project,
there is a project manger, there is the act of implementati on and
there are implements of action but there is that fifth; unknown
fac tor, Destiny. Tha t role ca n be seen only by an astrologer,
sometimes very successfully and sometimes very wrongly."



Astrology and Psychology

And God created the world. He made Man. He gave him a bod
a mind and an intellect. He also made six enemies- the" Shar I
Ripu" ( ~. These are Anger, Lust, Vanity, Greed, Attachment
and Jealousy. The design for happiness envisaged tha t the Horse
like powerful " Jlldriya " (the body) would be re ined by the mind
and directed to perform Satwika by the in telligence as the rider.
The Body-Mind-Intelligence combine nef'ds to constantly nver
come the" Shad Ripu" to ga in happines3.
Gila says:!tlcH1R1

fcf It:

...... .m .......

~ qlCWlihl'atilaJUffill

-t>i .. '!;O;~ 11"" ... ,"

5\ 23

"Withstand the impulse of desire and anger and be a

happy man".
This 5eE'mingly simple direction of BJragwan Sri Kris/ulil needs to
be examined in a little more depth. "Desire" is the bosom w here
"S/lad Ripu" live and operate from. "Desire" releases an avalanche
of thoughts sweeping down from the mountains to ps of our
intellect to pressurize our mind like person to enjoy the fun and
frolic in the placid Va lley of the objects-of-desire. When thi s
avalanche of thoughts is barricaded and stopped, the blast w ith
which it shatte rs the obstacle is called " Anger". The grea ter our
desires, the grea ter are the anger against the obstacle(s) in the
path of fu lfillment of that desire.
Our behaviour is controlled by the in tera cti on of Body, Mind
and Intell ect with the "Shad Ripu ". Psychology is il behavioral


introductioll to A strology

Science. It is of recent origin . Philosophy used to have a branch

dealing wi th " Human understanding" w hi ch was la ten
d eveloped as an independent s ubject Psychology.
In 17 Century, the British Philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1586~
1679) studied hum an behavi our ex tensively. H e laid the
found ation of this behavioral science. Johan Locke, in 1790, wrote
a paper "Human understanding", The paper contained ideas
tha t a re the corner sto ne of the edifice ca lled Psychology today.
La ter day psychologists like skinner, Watson, Pavlov, Freud, Jung
etc. cons tructed their behavioral models improvising a nd

improv ing the Locke model.

In a major new thru st, in 1923, Sigmu nd Freud traced the
m a lfunctions o f mind - the Phob ias, the depressions, the
anxieties, th aberra ti ons to the sub-conscious mind and linked
dreams w ith it. His studies and deductions focus on sexual
maladjustment, w hich causes d eviant mental behav iour of a
We now look a t the Astrological stance on behaviour.
Astrology has recommended that a horoscope be analyzed from
the Ascendant, Moon and Sun. The Ascendant represents the
body-Body is where the sense organs (the il1driya) are. These are
the tea r away horses that run after each desi re. They are reined
in by the mind. Mind is Moon. The rei ns are in the hand s of our
intelligence-the Atman-the Bllddh i-the Sun .
This three-way look permits an Astrologer to have a quicker
and more comprehensive assessment o f the behaviour pattern
o f a person.
We now see it is operation',
Th e horoscope given is of a lad y. The lad y is teaching
Psychology in a prestigious univerSi ty in the USA.
This lady came to consult Sh K. N, Rao when she was running
the Da sha of Venus and anta ra-dasha of Moon.
Her horoscope Shows that:(a) Saturn is in the 7th house. Saturn i.::.8L. This8L is aspected
by Mars, the 6L, placed is the 12H.
(b) Jupiter, the 7L, is placed in the 6H, Jupitf'r is also aspected
by Mars, the 6L Placed in the 12H.
What is becoming ev ident here is tha t bolil the 7H and

Astrology and Psychology



VpN .














7L are under malefic influences mainly generated by

Mars, the 6L placed is 12H. 6th is the house of litigation
and 7L Jupiter placed here with debilitated Moon
Indicates mental aberration. Let us probe further.
(c) From the Moon we find that Venus is the 7L. This Venus
is placed is the 6H From Moon, Venus & Mars (the 6l
and 7L) have exchanged houses. Mars is in the 7H.
We need to remember that the 7th houses, both from Lagna
and the Moon, have malefic-Saturn and Mars in them. These
malefic are the lords of 8th and 6th houses. The 7th lords in both
cases are benefic- Jupiter and Venus-placed in litigation prone
6th house.
When the lady got to Venus/Moon Dasha her 6th house shot
into prominence. Moon is in 6th house from ascendant and both
Venus and Moon are connected with their 7 lords. Moon is
conjunct with Jupiter (the 7L) and Venus (7L himself from the
Moon) has exchanged signs with Mars the 6L Mars is the 6l,
from both Ascendant and Moon, and this Mars is afflicting
Jupiter and Venus, the respective 7L from Ascendant and the
The lady was surprised when she was told that me nt<'l l
friction and total incompatibility should have dragged the sacred
bond of marriage to a court. Divorce is very much on GIrd s.
The psychologist lady was ful-some in hl'r praise of KNR.
She mentioned that in psychology a Psychologist would Ill'l'd
more than 2 or 3 hours of questioning to uncil'rslilnJ Iht' pnlbll'TTl;

il!trorillction to Astrology

here an astrologer has done it in five minutes! Of course the

caliber of the Astrologer matters. Shri K N. Rao can and has
done this.
We find that the Psychologists are a well-organized grou p.
These people get recognition and funds to encourage them and
to further propagate this subject. The progress is rapid.
An astrologer, as a counselor, is not acceptable to either the
Government or the trend setting, decisior. making public. The
reasons are manifold-primaril y the shallow knowledge a nd
holl ow promises. Astrologers are keen to do some meaningless
sensational predictions and scaring people with Kaal-Sarpa, S1falli
and their ilk. The Astrologer community needs to reach ou t to
the educated elite of the world that reading a mind and behaviour
of a person can be done accurately and quickly by astrology.
The idea l solution may be that all psychologists learn astrQlogy
and a ll Astrologers lea rn psychology.


Astrology and Science

Sc ience is d e fin ed in a s ta ndard dictionary as:- "Knowledge

ascerta ined by observations and experiments, crit ically tes ted ,
systematised and brought under general p rinciples".
Astrology is the knowledge of planetary movements gained
throug h observa tions that have spanned m illeni um s. These
obse rvations have been linked with natural phenomenons li ke
change of seasons, rains, calamaties like earthquakes, tornadoes
and floods . Astrology also recorded the effec t of p lanets on
individuals. The knowledge is tested many tim es every day. [t is
systematised - Tex t books ate becoming increasingly available and
is now being ta ught in universities. Astrology is a vib rant scien tific
d iscip line.
Replication is the touchstone of any scient ific diSCipline. The
replication in astrology can be unders tood in many ways. The
s impl es! way to apply the double tra nsit (p ioneered by our
respected Guru Shri K.N. Rao). A child is born w hen Saturn <'I nct
Jupiter establish a PAC connection with parent's 5th house/5th Lord
and / or 9th House/9th Lord. This rule is universal. No.one ca n bl'
blessed with a child unless he gets Saturn and Ju piter to i n fll l L'IKt,
his 5th House/ Lord or 9th House / Lord . See it in the eXflmpll'.
In f(lther's horoscope we notice that 5th house is Scorp io w hnSl'
lord is Mars. The 9th house is Pisces whose lo rd is Jupiter. SO WI'
can say:
(a) 5th house - 5th lord Mars
(b) 9th house - 9th lord Jupiter
The planetary posi tion at the time of birth o f Ih ~ d.lughil'r shows
Sat urn in Cancer and Jupiter in a retrograde mo tion in Tilurus. WI'
now transpose them to fathe rs horoscope and th is is Wh.lt Wt' gl'l :


Illtmal/ctio/! t o A st rology


RAI-t t.:













Ju r (R)









We notice that transiting Saturn (shown in Cancer) aspects Mars,

the fifth Lord of fa the r by its third aspect. It fulfi ll s the stipula ti on laid down. Jupiter, from its transitting position in Taurus,
aspects Mars (the fifth lord ) with its fifth aspect; and the fifth house
Scorpio wi th its seventh aspect. The principle stands fully app lied.
Shri K.N . Rao is now pioneering research in the fi eld o f
valid a ting simple rep licable astrological laws. The first book in this
field d ealt with ascertilining if a person is the fi rst born (eld est)
child of his parents. The pilrrtmeters were:(a) Examine the 11 Ih house/ lord from the Ascendent
(b) ExCtmine the 11th house / lord from Jupiter
If three or four out these fo ur points Ctre afnicted the person wou ld
be the eldest child of his pCtrents. The results were Ctstounding.
As tro logy CtS Gene tics Ctstrology 's ra mifi ca tions are be ing
e xplilined hereunde r through our genetic links.

Astrology mId Science

' R':c::c__r


_ _cDO
8/l950 TaB" 1"49 J~b~lpur

















ooB"14/9/1957 TOB " 735





















6 lUI'

TOB"4 " 1~








l UI'


[{A ll l)








If one tries to look at the ramifications, where Astrology , <111

take one to, one is simply wonder stuck! There is no ,In', l of life


Introduction to Astrology

POB: Mumb<. i


000, \9/12/1984 TOS-7"20













' AT


which As trology cannot a nd does not touch ! We s hall brie fl y

understand the astrological links that exist between me mbers of
the same fami ly through an example:
Here we have shown the horoscope of the father, mot her and
the two sons.
Look at the 5th lord (venus) of the father. It is in the lagna of
the first son . The 5th lord (Saturn) of the mothe r aspects and
disposits the moon of the first son . The 9th Lord (Moon) of the first
Son, which rep resents the father, aspects the fifth lord (ve nus) of
the fdther in the fa the r's horoscope. The fourth lord (S<t turn) of the
first son, which represents his mother, is the 5th lord of the mother's
horoscope and aspects he r 5th house!.
The second son shou ld be seen from the seventh hsuse since
this is the 3rd house fro m the 5th hOllse. In case of both the mother
and the fathe r, the ir 7th lord is Jupiter whi ch is the lagna lord of the
second son and is posited in his lagna! The second son's 9th lord,
representing his father, isSun. In the father's horoscope it is aspected
by Jupiter, the 7th lord (and not the fifth lord). The fou rth lord of
the second son is Jupiter which is the 7th lord of mother's horoscope
and aspects the 7th from the lagna. The linkage is uncanningly very
strong and is es tab li shed without any difficulty. The mode rn
medical science would need lot more information and perhaps quite
some time too, besides some b lood samp les, from a ll the fou r
persons to come to some definite conclusion which the As trology
did wit h three basic in formation viz. Date o f Birth, Time of Birth
and Place of Birth about the natives .


The Panchanga

Once one has entered the field of Astrology, it becomes

imperative to have nodding acquaintances with the Pallchanga.
Panchanga comprises of five (Paneha) limbs (Anga). These fi ve
are:(a) Vaar: The seven week days. (Sunday to Saturday)
(b) Titlti: The thirty lunar days. (Pratipada to Pumima or
(c) Nakshatra: That constellation out of the the tv...'enty-seven
constellation where the Moon is. (From Ashwini to Revati)
(d) Karana: Half of a Tithi (Total sixty in numbers out of

which four are fixed and seven repeat eight times in a cyclic
(e) Yoga: The twenty-seven auspicious/inauspicious
conditions (From Vishakumbha to Vaidllriti), worked out
by manipulating the longitudes of the Sun and the Moon,

The Pandtal1ga, on its front page indicates Shri Vikrama 5111111/11/11

and Shaka Samvata. Let us understand the Sa/1lvata first.
We all understand the Gregorian calendar. We ,1re now in
year 2007 AD. This Calendar has 12 months from J,llllh.ry tn
December. A similar calendar is followed by the Indian sys1L' m
where a year is called a Samvatsara which means one yeM,
Salllvata is the short form of Samvatsara. This is based on Sun's
completion of one round of the ecliptic. First point of Aries is
taken as a fixed reference point in the ecliptic. The intcrvtl l


Introduction to Astr% g,V

between two su ccessive passages of the Sun at the fir st point of

A ries deno tes one year. 5amvatsara is b ased on luni-solar year.
In the Indian system 60 Samva/ sam exis t. These are divided
into 3 parts. Part I comprises 1 to 20 5amvatsara and is called
Bralima-Vimsilatikn; 21 to 40 Samvatsnra gn to Vishnu and 41 to 60
are ca lled Rudra Vim sha fika . Brallma C rea tes in the firs t 20
Sa mvntsara, Vishnu nurtures in the next 20 Sa mvatsa ms and Rudrn
cleans up in the last twency Samvafsaras.
The Extra and the Expunged Months
(AdltikalMala and Ks"ya ",a 5a):

In Indian system, the seasons are according to the solar yeM

where as the festival s are celebrated according to the lunar year.
Lunar year has 354.37 solar days.
a Luni-solar year, w hich
o ur Samvata a re, difference is accounted for by addi ng a month
called "Mala Masa" a fter the interval o f every 2 or 3 yea rs . This
addition is not arbitrary but is done in accord ance with a


pri nci ple. The principle is tha t when tw o new moon days (all in

the same solar month, there will be two lunilr mon ths in the
na me of that solar month . For example in the yea r 2004, Sun
entered Cancer on 16 Jul y at 08:26 h rs a nd Leo on 16 August a t
16:48 hrs. In this month the new moons were on l7th Jul y at 16:54
hrs and again on 16 th August at 06:54 nrs. This resulted is two
lunar m onths ca lled Shraval1a (A dlli ka or Mnln) and ShravflllIl
(S/lII ddhn) . Ad/likn Masa is also addressed as Pu'rusl!oftl1la Masn.
Let us furth er understand the scheme of things. It is not that
these two months i.e. the S/t uddlw and Adhika Ma sa, follow one
after the other. The system is that at the time o f commencement
of the month, the first ~ortnight (which is the dark one) is known
as th e S/lI4ddha Ma sa. Thereafter th e Adhika Ma sa or th e
PI/rlls/wllma Ma sa fo ll oW's w hich continues in o ne go. It
commences in the bright half and continues for one w hole month
a fter which again the bright half of S/lIlddha Masa begi ns. The
sacred texts state that wha t ever Punya (good deed s like prayers,
fasting, selfless service to others, charity etc.) is performed during
I'l/ru s/w llma masa, th e res ults a re e nj oyed fo rev er. In
RhavisJlyotta ra Pura17a Lord Krish na has sta ted that he is the cause
tlf Ihi." month. Therefore, it is called as PllrllS/lOttma. In the yea r

The Pallc/ulIlga


2007, after about 32 months and 16 d ays of the prev ious A tlhikll
Masa, we have two fyestha Masa. The Shuddlm fyes tlln beg ins on
3n:1 of May 2007. The first half of Jyestlln (Shuddha) is over on 15"'
May, 2007. Therea fter Adhika fyestha (Shukla) begins on 161h MilY,
2007. The next fo rtnight is also Adhika Jyestha (Krishna ) w hi ch
shall be over on 151h June, 2007. Thus, the w hole PUYllsllOttma Ma~a
is over in one go i.e. from 17"1 May 2007 to 15111 June 2007. Of
course, therea fter the S}wddha f yestha (Shukla) begins on 16th Ju n\..'
and is over on 30lh June 2007; the cycle o f next months continu e.
O ne remembers that Amamatl! yatra, w hich is normally open for
only one m onth, had to be extended to two mo nths in the year
2004 as there were two lunar months of the same name. Thi s
continues till d ate for two months even tho ugh every yea r there
would not be two SI,ravmm months in the sa me yea r. As ont.'
may recoll ect, in the yea r 2006, there was a big uproa r about
non-formation of Shivn-Lillgam since the cave was opened before
the Shravana m on th. In fac t the accusa tion was also hurl ed thilt
an artificia l Lil1gam was installed there. Therefore, one can very
w ell appreCia te the efficacy of A dl!ika Masa and Ks hyn Mnsa
A com pa nion of Adhika masa is a 'Kshya' masa. '_'<shya' mea ns
loss o r peri sh. This occurs w hen two solar ingress (Sankral/t i)
ta ke place in the same Luna r mon th .
Thi s well tho u gh t o ut in tegra ti o n o f Lun a r and Solar
movement ensures that in every Sall/vata the festiva ls and seaS(lI1S
maintain their ba lance by occurring around the same time eVl'ry
year. On the other hand, in a totally lunar calendar, a fes li vi1 1
like Id, preceded by the gruelling period Ramadan, can be in
December one yea r and ho t June in another yea r.
Vikrama Samvnta commenced in the peri od of the grea t Ind i.l ll
king Vikramaditya. This is the date o f his corona tio n. Its fi rs t d ,IY
coincid es w ith OmUra Shukla Prat ipnda. This Salt/Vnlll is 57 yt.',lf:->
older than the curren t G regorian (Julian) ca lenda r.
The Gove rn ment o f Ind ia, in a b id to st.1nda rd ize Illl'
Ca lendars, has accepted the "Shalcn" Salllvnta. This slMled J:"\~
years after the commencement of Vikrn mfl Sa mvII/ a. Slmkll SIll/lVII/II
first day coincides w ith the Vernal equinox nn 22nd Mnrrh.
One ca n get Shnkn Snl1lvatn b y s ublril r li ng 135 yt'ilfS fm l ll

Introduction to Astrology


Vikrama Samvata or by subtracting78 years from Gregorian

(Julian) calendar.

Ayana, Ritu and Months

Ayana: Ayana would literally mean motion or movement. In the
Indian Panchanga system the word Ayana has different
connotation. It refers to the direction of motion of Sun. Sun has
to travel between the tropic of Cancer and the tropic of Capricorn.
Cancer is the North most point and Capricorn the South most
point on the ecliptic. When sun commences to move in to
Capricorn, though it continues to be in the Southern hemi-sphere,
its journey begins towards the north. This is referred to as
Uttarayana or the motion of Sun towards the north. In 2007 Sun
does so on Jan 14 at 18:06 hrs. This is called Makara Sankrallti,
Similarly the Sun commenced the South ward move in 2006 by
entering in to Cancer on July 16 at 20:39 hrs to usher in the
Dakshinayana. Therefore, there are two Ayana namely - the
Uttarayalla and the DakslJinayana. Utfarayana is called the day of
devfas (Gods) and Dakshinayana is the night for them.
Ritu: The literal meaning of Ritu would be the seasons. In
Vedic times each Ayana was given 3 Rifu as under.

Uttaraya"a - Shishira (winter), Vasa"ta (spring) and

Grishma (summer)

(b) Dakshi"aya"a - Varsha (Rains), Slwrata (End of rains)

and Hemal1ta (fall).

Further, each Ritu has two months as under:Uttaraya"a

(a) Shishira
(b) Vasanfa
(c) Grislwla

Tapa and Tapasya

Madhu and Madhava
Shllkra and Shuchi

(a) Varsha
(b) Sharafa
( c) Hcmal/fll

Nabha and Nabasya

151w and Uja
Salla and Salzasya.

The Pa/lchangll


Over a period of time a new method of reckoning of months

was introd uced. This named the month in accorda nce with thl'
constellations. The constellation occup ied by the Moon on thl'
Purnima Tithi (full moon night) gave the month its name. O wit m
month meant tha t Moon on Pllrnima was in Chitra and SlImvlTIliI
meant that Moon was in Slmlvana constellation o n the PUrl/illll/
Titlli. These months are:
(a ) Chaitra
(b) Baisaklta
(e) lyes"tha
(d) Ashadlta
(e) Sltravalla
(f) Biltidrapada

(g) Ashvina
(h) Knrtika
(i) Margsheers/w

(j) Pausha
(k) Magha
(I ) Phalgulla.

Raja (The King), Mantr; (The Prime Minister) and other titl e
holders for the year.
Raja of the year: The lord of the day of C/ltlit ra SllU kll7
Pratil'ada is d esignated as the "Rnja" of tha t Samvatsara. He is
also ca lled the Varsheslm. 1n Vikrama Samvata 2063 (2006 AD) the
Chaitra Shukla Pratipada fell on Wednesday, the 29'h March, ,11
15:45 hrs. However, the Raja is decided by the lord of tha t day
on which the Pratipada prevails at the time of Sun ri se. Th is
happe ned on the next day i.e. the Thursday. Varsllt!slw is,
therefore, Jupiter. The pred ictive results of the Varshesha are a\:-;(}
available is the Panchanga.
Manlr; (The Prime Minister): The planet tha t rul es thl' d<ly
on which Sun e nters Ari es (Mesha Sallkrnllti) is the designaled
Malltti. In Vikrama Samvata 2063, the Sun entered Mc!>hn (A ri es)
a t 06: 19 hrs on 14 April 2006, w hich was a Friday. The lord of
that weekday is Venus who got the portfolio of Mantr; for Vikmma
Salllvata 2063.
S asyes/la : Sasya m ea ns greeneries. The refore, Sasycslm
controls green crops. It is the lo rd of the d ay of Knrka (Cance r)
Sallkrn llti-Sun's entry in Ca ncer. In 2006, the Sun entNed Ca ncer
on 16 July at 20:38 hrs, whi ch was a Sund"y. Therefort.', Iht., Sun
got the portfolio of Sasyeslm.


Introduction to Astrology

Durgeslra: Durgn mean s the fort. Simha Sankrallti i.e. Sun's

entry in Leo d ecides the Durgeslm. In Vikrama Salt/vata 2063Simlm
Sal/krant; was on 16 August, 2006 at 29:03 hrs, on a Wednesday.
The time 29:03 hrs. should not confuse the readers. By the western
system it would mean 05:03 hrs. on 171k August 2006 and the
day would be Thursday. However, the time is before the s un
rise, therefore the Sankranti shall be d eemed to have occurred
on the Wednesday. Therefore, Mercury gets to be the Dllrgesha.
DllQllesha ; Sun's entry in Vi rgo d ecides the Dhallt's/ra, the
wealth giving lord .

Rases/fa: Sun's entry is Libra decides the Rasesha, the lord

of juicy fruits, sugarcane e tc.

Dhmleysha : Dhanya refers to paddy crops Sun's entry is

Sagittarius decides the DlJalleysha.
Nira sesha: The dry th in gs, espec ia ll y metals etc, are
re presented hy Nirasesha. Sun's entry in Capricorn decides the
Meghesha : The lord of the day on w hich Sun enters Ardra
Nakshatra is called the M eghesha, i.e. the rain giving lord. We have
dealt the rains in a separate c ha p~r.

Yoga in Panchanga
Pallchanga gives the details o f Sarmrtha siddhi, Amrita siddlEi, Rnvi
yoga, Dwi-Pllshknra, Yrj p"shkara, Ravi Pllshya and Gllru PlIsllyti
Yoga . These a re u seful in "Mullllrta" delineat ion . These are
tabulated in the next page (Table 1). Mlllwrta has been extensively
covered by Shri KK Joshi in his book on the subject.
It is seen from this table that Alllrita Siddhi, Ravi Pllshya a1ld
Gum Pushya are specifi c Sarvartha siddlE i yoga . It is further
important to remember here that while as Vaar and Nakshatra
combina tion gives cise to the wonderful Amrita Siddhi yoga, these
a re ruin ed and co nvert ed in t o a malefi c Yoga ca ll e d
Madlwsarpishn. The same has been explained in the table 1. Let
us assume that on a Sunday, the Nakshalra was Ha sla. This is a
com bination fo r AI/nita Siddllj Yoga. However, if on s uch a n

Table 1- Sarvartha Siddhi Yoga




Hasta ... Moola, UF, UA,

UB, Pushya#, Ashlesha

"Ameita Siddhi
#Rav i Pushya



Shravana, Rohini, Mrigashira

Pushya, Anuradha

.. Amrita Siddhi




Ashwini, UB, Kritika,


"Amnia Siddhi

Rohini, Anuradha, Hitsta,

Kritika Mrigashira

Amrita Siddhi


RevaH, Anuradha, Ashwini,

Punarvasu, Pushya"#

..Amrita Siddhi
#Guru Pushya


Revati Anuradha, Ashwini,

Punarvasu , Shra vana,

Amrita Sidd hi

Shravana, Swa b, Rohini'

Amrila Siddhi



The Tith; when

Amrila Siddhi
turns in to a
malefic Yoga


Construction o f
or entering in to
a house







Illtroduction to A stTology

a uspiciou s combina tion , the Tillr; happens to be a Panel"lI; <of

any Paksha), Amrita Siddhi Yoga is poisoned and turns in to the
malefic Madhu sarpisha Yoga. Similarly one can conclude that
through Pu shya Nakshatra and Thursday make a great
combination o f both Amrita Siddhi and Guru Pushya, but god
forbid, if it turns out to be a Navami (of any Pales/In), the whole
edifi ce of goodness cr umbles in to th e u g ly rubbles of

Madhusarpisha Yoga (Honey turning in to poison).

Dwi-pushkara and Tri-p"sllkara yoga
These are beneficial yogas. They are fo rmed by the combination
of Titll;, Vaar and Nakshatra. The combination shou ld be that of

Bhadra Tilh; (Dwitiya, Saptami or Dwadshi) falling on a malefic

da y i.e. Sunday, Tuesday or Saturday coinciding with Moon is
Dwipada or Tripada Nakslwtra. We are aware that each Na kshatra
has four equal parts; each is called a 'Paqa ' or a 'C1wrmw '. The
literal meaning of both the words are the same i.e. foot. Thus
each Nakshatra is a four footed system.
Those Naksltatra that h ave two Pada is one sign (Rasi) and
the next two Pada in the next sign are ca lled Dwipqda Nakshatra.
We have three such Naksllatra namely. Mrigashira (w hich has two
Pada or Clwralla in Taurus and two in Gemini), ChUra (which has

two in Virgo and two in Libra) and finally Dlwrlisittha (whose

two Chararla are in Capricorn and two in Aquarius).
The Nakshatra of Sun and Jupiter have one Pada (Charal1a) is
one sign and the remaining three Pada (Chara1la) is the next sign.
Th ese 6 constellations of Sun and Jupiter are ca ll ed Tripada
Nakshalra. Krilika, Ullam Phalgulli and Ullora A sllada are Sun 's
Tripada constellations whereas Punarvasu, Vislwkha and Poorva
Bhadro-pada a re Jupiter 's Tripada Naks'Totras.

Rav i yoga: This yoga is formed when the Moon enters the
4th, 6th, 9th, 10th, 13th or 20th Nakshatra from the NaksJwtrn
occup ied by the Sun . This is a beneficia l yoga.
The Marriage: The Panchanga h as usefu l information about
the traditional marriage preparations and the ceremonies. The
Paudlfl1lga can tell us the period s uitable for marriage a nd the
best Muhurta in that su itable period for sap/apadi (the seven s teps

The Panchnnga


walked together by the couple). Panchanga also carry a ready

reckoner for matching the horoscopes of the girl and the boy.
Let us see them is some detail. The horoscope matching first.
In the northern part of India, Horoscopes are matched in an
eightfold examination. The eight parameters used is matching
has been traditionally given the name "AshtaKoota". These eight
parameters, their broad meaning and their interse importance
is as given in the table 2 below:
Table 2




Degree of mutual spiritual




Natural mutual attraction



Fortune or luck, one brings

for the other



Mutual physical affinity



Psychic and deep rooted


affection for each other



Temperamental compatibility



Overall mutual happiness



Biological and Physiological




In the scheme of these eight" Koala" the last three viz . the
Cana, Bhakaota and Nadi account for 21 points. Their importance
is evident and needs no stressing.
In every Panchanga a 'ready to' use table called" Ml'l{/p{/ka" is
given . In this table the Janma Naksltatra of the girl clOd the boy
are to be matched and the resultant figure gives the matched
numerical value out of 36 possible gill/a value. In today's world,


introductioll to Astrology

! 8 Gillin are being passed fit for marriage. A 22 plus matching of

the "Gulla" heralds the commencement of excellence.

An extract of the 'Melapaka' is given in table 3:

Let us read it. For Boy we go to the right as his signs, the
constellations and their "Charana" or "Pada" are progressed
horizontally. For the girl we go down vertically as her Rasi,
constellations and their "Charana" progress Vertically. For our
example case we take the Boy's Moon at l S810'. This makes his
moon sign (Rasi) as Taurus and his fanma Nakshatra becomes
Kriti"f. The Proposal to be matched has the girl whose Moon is
at 10 1210'. This puts her in moon sign Aquarius having the
Janrna Nakshatra "Shatbishaj". Now get to the Melapaka. Proceed
horizontally to Taurus and then identify Kritika. In this column
start moving vertically down till you reach Shatbishaj in Aquarius.
You would notice 32II written there. This would mean the
matching of 32 and a half guna. The two vertical lines next to 32
are a hangover of our past notation systems. In that system one
vertical line (I) next to a numeral indicated 4 annas or 1.4; the two
(II) vertical lines indicated lh or eight annas; and three (III)
Vertical line stood for three quarters or %th or twelve annas.
In the Melapaka the lower figures indicate the .'Koala Dosha'
or the Koala which is not'tnatching. For example if the girl had
been born the Taurus Rasi and Rohini Nakshatra and the
prospective groom had Aries as his moon sign and Kritika as the
larlma Nakshatra, the Melapaka shows the guna matching entry
as 11/341. Meaning thereby that only eleven Ollt of thirty six
guna are matching and the 'Koala' indicated by notations 3.4 and
1 are not matching. As would be seen from the table, 3 stands
for Nadi Dosha, 4 means Dwi-Dwadasha (2/12) Dosha and 1 stands
for Carla Dosha. If one finds 2, 5 or 6 written instead of 3 or 4 or 1,
their respective meanings are Yoni, Nava-panchama and Bhakoala
(6 / 8) Dosha. In some places "0" is written. This means that
though the CUria are matching but the order of the Nakshatra has
the bride's Nakshatra preceding the Nakshltra of the Groom. This
is called "Stree dura" Dosha. The theory is that the Grooms'
Nakshatra should be minimum 9 Nakshatra aVlay from the bride's

Table 3 'Melapaka'

Boy ~

Girl J.







...... D'"


















"" ,

18 11


14 11






161 1










-, ,









23 11

14 II










18 11





U. Bh








, ,






























19 11














29 11

31 11

24 11

24 11

, -1




29 11






.. .







Table 3 (contd .) 'Melapaka'

A'I u,





30 11












32 11


...... 28









...... 33










22 11





P.Hh .





16 11

28 11


30 11

P.Dh .









,~ .



31 11





. 143411


16 11


- 14

24 11




- 14













" ,.
















...... 14



29 11













Tile Pal1chal1ga


One a lso find s (-) a nd (+) signs. The (- ) sign indica tes tha t
the Doslla is the re but may be condoned or over looked. The ( +)
sign d enotes tha t the Dosha is serious.
The Possibl e days of marriage:
After having matched the horoscopes; w e shall look for options
for appropriate day of marriage. This is done on the basis of
'Tribala SlIuddhi' (the three pronged purity).
Trib a la Shuddlli
1. Chal1dra Bala : The transit Moon should not be in 4/8/ 12

houses from the na ta l moons of the bride a nd the bride groom.

Moon is considered "SlIuddha" in other houses.
2. Slfrya Bala : Sun, like the Moon is avoid able in 4/8/ 12houses

from the natal moon. Sun is weak is houses 1, 2, 5, 7, and 9 from

natal Moon and can be strengthened by prayers.
3. Gum Ba la: Jupiter is considered weak if in bride's horoscope
it is in the 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 houses from her natal moon. If
becomes happy a fter prayers. (~ ~). These are given in the
Pa nchanga. From the table of Tribala Shuddhi' in Panchanga,
one would notice following days suitable in the month of Januat;;r
2007 for the boy of Taurus Rashi - 14, 15, 20, 23, 28 and 29' .
Simila rly,
for the girl of Aquarius, the clear da tes are 14, 15, 20
and 23 January. Let us select the 23rd Janurary 2007 as the date
for marriage. Now we shall work out the MU/fUrta for marriage
on tha t d ate. This is also done through a ready reckone r from

We now go to our reading of the Muhurta for marri agcsPal/changa indica te shubha and ashubha M uh urta. We should ,
obviously choose a shubha Muhurta. Take the current Pand ulI/sa.
Vishwa Vijay Pancha nga of Vikrama Sam vata 2063 (yea r 2006-20(7).
In 2007, 23r<l January is Tuesday, the Titfli is Pallchm i of Sil l/kill
Pakslm. On this day the not"tion is '3 .'I{T . II IIIISill ~.~ . It m{'a ns
tha t out of ten pOSSible "Dosha" for ma rriage, only one is p resent .
The nota tion is being deciphered.
First i3. 'IfJ- : This d enotes the ap prop ri a te constellation
(Naks/ratra) on thi s d ay for marriage. It is /lUI/am BJlt/lim " lid,,"


Illtrodllct ioll t o A strofo:<?y

Second: The '5' and T d e pict the existence o r non-existence

o f a "D05I1a". '5' stands for the existence of the Doslta where as 'I'
indicates clearance as this "D05ha" d oes n ot exist.
There aTe 10 possibl e ' Dos/w' for any marriage Mulwrta .
Unlike Koofa matching, where a differenti al strength of m atching
or non-matching exists, here each Dosha is equally potent. For
an idea l marriage MIl/lUrta there should be no Dos/Ia . However,
tha t is a very rare possibility and a Mulwrta h av ing up to four
Doslm can be accepted. These ten DOS/In are always taken in the
order as given below:
1. Latta 2. Pata 3. Yllti 4. Vedha 5. /amitra 6. Mrityuballa 7.
Ekargaln 8. UpgraJJa 9. Krantj Sa mya & 10. Dagdlm Tithi.
Now the notation on 23 rrl January 2007 indicates\3'."lT. 1111115111
~.ifr. This m ean s that the firs t six Dosha i.e.]. Lntta , 2. Pata 3. Yllti
4. Vedha 5. Jamifra a nd 6. MrityllbQlla Dos1la do not exist. Nor do
the las t three Dosha viz. 8. Upgrahn9. Krmlt; Samya and 10. DagdJ/tI
Tithi exit. The only Doslla, indicated by'S', Dosha no. 7, i.e. Eknrgala
is present.
We need to know here is that in Bhart iya Vidya Bhawall 5hri
KN Rao is often quo ted that Devrishi Narada who is one of the
"Parvartaka" of lyotislia, kept looking for a to tally pure MII JJ/lrta
and he is s till looki ng for it!
The notation ~ .tit . indica tes that the suitable 'Lagt/a' is "Godhuli " which literally m ean s, the dus t from the hoof of the
returning cows after grazing in the forest, Le. the evening, before
the sunset or the dusk.

Mangli - Mangal Dosha

'Mmlgli' is a term tha t is used in marria ge ma tching. This term

to the uninitiated m ean s something that is s inister and h avoc
creater. Now that the readers are learning astrology it is but ri gh t
to unde rstand this term 50 that its damage potential can be
ga uged and explained to the parents! boy or the girl.
Firstly what is Mar/gli? Con ventionally it is s tated that any
pe rson h av ing Mars in the houses: 1, 2, 4, 7,8 and 12 from the
Ascendent (Lagna) or the Moon is Manga/i. Secondl y, what is the
dfl'Ct o f Mars in these hou ses? Mars is considered to be a ma lefic

The Pallchanga


planet. Mars has 3 aspects. The aspects are the 4th, 7th and the 8'h
The result of Mars being in any of the 'Mangal Dosha' producing
houses is tabulated in table 4.
Mars in each of the twelve ascendents has different lordships.
The likely effect of Mars in each of these ascendents along with
the effect on each houses that it aspects is tabulated in table 5.
The antidotes:

Mangal Dosha is nullified by the following antidotes:

(a) Dosila Sr.mya: A 'Manglj' horoscope is matched with
another person having the same dosha. If the male has Mars
in the 4 th house it can be matched with Mars or any other
malefic like Saturn or Rahu in the 4 1h house in the female
(b) 28 Years: It is widely believed that marriage gets delayed
till 28 1h year due to this Dosha. The effect of doslln lessens.'>
after the completion of 28'h year.
(c) Mars in Aries in the 1>1 house, in Sagittarius in the 12'"
house, In the 4'h house in Scorpio, in the 7th house in
Capricon and in Aquarius in the 8'h house causes no doshll.
(d) Saturn placed in Mangnl Dos/la houses effectively counters
the dos/Ia. The houses are 1, 2, 4, 7, 8 and 12'h.
(e) A debilitated, combust or retrograde Mars causes no dos/w.
(f) A strong Jupiter or Venus in the 1"t or 71h houses nullifies
the dosha.
(g) Mars in conjunction with Jupiter or Moon loses its
(h) Rahu and Mars conjunct in a Kendra nullify this Doslla.
(i) In the horoscope of a Girl placement of Laglln Lord in the
71h house or Rasllish in the 7th house from Moon lends
stability in Married life, subduing the effects of M,lng,l\
Dosha .
(j) In Ashtakoot matching 30 points or more permit one to
ignore this dosha.
(k) Mars placed in his own signs - Scorpio ilOd Aries <Inti in
the raslli of its exaltation - Capricon removes this do:;hll.
(I) M<'lfs in Leo does not cause Mallgal DoslllI.

Table 4
Ma rs"4th Aspect

Placement of Ma rs
House Effect



Mars 7th Aspect

House Effect


on the body


Happiness o f family 7,h


em the family
(Longevity of spouse)


on children


Happiness of family



Marital life


Mars 8th Aspect

House Effect

On Marital life


Longevity of
ma rriage


Longevity of


on Fate antl.Dharma

on Marital life


On the Karmas


on gains


On the Karmas

Lagna Bodily felicity


on fami ly

Longevity of Marital


on gains


On family and
longevity of spouse


on efforts

Bedroom fel icity


on efforts


Accident pronncss


on ma rital life

Table 5
Sign of Asc. Aries Taurus Gemin Cancer

I Mangal
, Dosha is

! more if

is in











Libra Scorpi











Benefi Maraka Malefi Benefic Benefi Malefic Malefi Neutra Benefi Malefic Malefi Benefic

















Introduction to A strology


It is worth noting that Mnngn/ Dosha is considered to be also

present when one takes Venus as Lagna and in the Navamsha

al so. Therefore , Mangal dosha will be found in m ost o f the
horoscopes. Added to thi s is the fa ct that any malefic planet in
these houses is equally capable of causing disturbances to the
married life. The male fic planets are the Sun, Saturn, Rahu and
Ketu. The combined effect of these four malefics plus Mars has
been studied. The malefic effect has been quantified and is
tabulated in tab le A, below:

A: Dosha Points given by Dr. B.V. Raman

In H ouses

AWil s th a

l ~t.

7th and 8th


Sat, Rah ll, Ketu


[n Houses 2nd, 4th and 12th

Mars Sat, Rahu. K ~lu Sun

ha lted







Own House









Neu tral
















75 .00





E" ..m y





Mal/gal Dosha is a common phenomenon and dOes not cause

the problems that are ascribed to it. Careful matching solves most
of the problems associated with this Dos/Ia.
Table of Ascendants from Panchanga
A very useful part of Panclmnga is the tables of the beginning
of different Ascendants on a particular day.
We know that 12 Ascendants, each conforming to the signs
from Aries to Pisces, needs to rise, in 24 hrs, on the eastern
horizon. This leads us to give approximately two hours to each
sign in 24 hour period from one sunri se to the next. Thi s is
erroneous. Each Rasi is of 30 but due to the 23lho tilt of the earth
on its axis the signs even at equator take different time spans to
rise. On the equator Aries, Virgo, Libra, and Pisces rise in 279
'pa /a' (lhr 52 min approx) Taurus, Leo, Scorpio and Aquariu s
rise in 299 paJa (2hrs approx) and Gemin i, Cance r, Sagi ttariu s
and Capricorn take 332 pala (2 hrs 9 min) to ri se. Thi s time
changes as we keep progressing toward s the poles. At the latitude


Tile Pancllal1Sil

of 60oNOO Pisces would rise in 28 minutes onl y where as Ca ncer

or Sagittarius would take 2 hrs 36min.
The significant pa int to note here is tha t at fi xed L.,titUdL'
or in other words in a particular town, a sig n wou ld take the
same time to rise yea r a fter year. For example Aries takes 1h r 3(1
min to rise in Delhi, which is true for all seasons and all times.
Aries would rise with the Sun in April in 1 hr 36min. Aries would,
in Oc't ober rise on the eastern horizon at Sun set as the Sun would
be is Libra but again its time taken would be lhr 36 m in. A
comp rehens ive table ca n be prep a red w hich can also g ive
relevant corrections for other towns. At the end of the book, one
such rea dy reckner table has been appended.
Other information in Panchanga
A Pallel/allga a lso gives the plane tary positions at 05:30 1ST
besides the Tit/Ii, Vaar, Nakslwtrn, Kilrana a nd the yoga, the five
consti tuents of a Pallchnllga. The Panc1umgn provides informa tion
about Sunrise, Sunset, Moon ri se\se t, diffe rent imp or tant
occasions and festivals etc. In fact this is an excellent and fai thful
companion for any sincere Astrologer.
A unique method of working out the Vanr for any given date.
It w ill be appropriate here to give an easy, useful method to know
the day (Vanr) of any g iven date. This method was explained by
a polite, humble, but outstanding astrologer Shri BhaiTiwi'I ]h'l,
of Bihar.
First see the table:
Monch Constants

Jan Feb Mar Ap' May Jun Jui Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec



Leap year

The above mentioned table is divided in to two secti ons viz. the
non. lea p year and the leap year. Let us take up an example in
which we shall work out the day (Vaar) of 15th August 1947. 1947
is a nonleap year. Therefore, the upper ti"lble shall be w';t.,d . TIll'


IlZtroduction to A strology

va lue ascribed to the Month Augus t is 3. We shall now work out

the Vanr on 15 th August 1947 in a s tep by step manner.

Step 1: Look at the last two d igits of the yea r first. The last two
dig its of the year 1947 are 47. We sh all call this as 'A' ,
Slep 2:

Div ide this number by 4 and find Qut the quotient.

When we divide 47 by 4, the quotient is 11. We sh all
call this as '8'.

Step 3:

Add ' A' and 'B'. In the given exampJe it would be 47+11
== 58. We shall ca ll this as 'C'.

Step 4: Add the ca lendar d ate to 'C' . In the g iven exa mple. the
date is 15 th , There fore the new total shall be 58 + 15 ==
73. We shall call it 'D'.
Step 5:

Add the va lue for the month as ascribed in the table

above to '0'. As we have a lready seen, this is 3. 3 + ' 0'
= 3 + 73 = 76. We shall call it ' E'.

Step 6: Di vide 'E' by 7. The remainder shall be the day or the

Vaa r in case we consider 1, 2 ,3, 4, 5,6 and 7 as Sunday,
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursd ay, Friday and
Saturday respectively. The remainder would be 6, when
we divide 76 by 7. Therefore, on the IS' h August 1947,
the Vaar was Friday.
In case of Leap yea r, all the steps are the same. Only difference is
that the val ue for the month shall be adopted for the leap year.
We shall understand it through another example. Let us work
out the Vaar for 1S1h Ma rch 1996. We shall ta ke 96 first (the last
two digits for the year) and divide the sa me by 4. The quoti ent
is 21 on to which we add the last two digits of the year. The total
works out to be 21 + 96 = 117. Now we add the calendar d ate i.e.
15 to 117. The total is 132. From the table above, add 3 for March
(leap year) to 132. The new total is 135. Divide this by 7. The
rema inder is 2 Le. Monday. Therefore, on 151h March 1996, the
Vaar was Monday.
For the 21 >1 Century, the method remains the same with a
slight modifica tion that the last two digits are to be considered
with il base of 100 i. e. we take year 2000 as 100. Therefore, the

TII/~ Pallel/anga


la st digits for 2007 shall be 107 as 'A'. Let us work out Ihe Vaa r

for 1>' January 2007.

Step 1:

Here 'A' shall be 107 since the base year 2000 is 100.

Slep 2:

Divide this number by 4 and find out the quotient.

When we divide 107 by 4, the quotient is 26. We sha ll
ca ll this as 'B'.

Step 3:

Add' A' and 'B'. in the given exa mple it would be

107+26 = 133. We shall call this as 'C.

Step 4:

Add the calendar date to 'C. In the given example, the

date is 1st . Therefore the new total shall be 133 + 1 =
134. We shall ca ll it'D'.

Step 5:

Add the value for the month January as ascribed in the

table above for the non -leap year to 'D'. As we havt'
already seen, this is 1. 1 + '0' =1 + 134 =135. We shall
call it 'E'.

Step 6:

Divide 'E' by 7. The remainder is 2. Therefore, Monday

is the day or the Vaar on 1st January 2oo?

Sri Bhairava Jha gives an interesting method to approximately

find out the Nakshatra in case the Hindu month and the Titlli is
known. This is overvvhelmingly simple. According to this theory,
the counting shall be done from Kartika. Therefore, Kritiko.
Margshirsha, Pushya, Maglla, Phalgllni, Chaitra, Vaishaklta, ]yes/llll ,
Asilada, Shravalla, Bhadra Pada and Ashwina shall be addressed as
1.2,3.4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 and 12 respectively. We have to find out
the distance of the Hindu month from Kritika. The next set of
information required would be about the Tillti. We consider
Krishna Paksha Pratipada as1. Thus Amavasya and Prmtiml1 would
be 15 and 30 respectively. Let us work out the Nakshatra for 22,,,1
October 2007 i.e. AshwillQShukla Pratipada. Ashwina is 11 mtmths
nway from Kritika. Multiply this with 2. The result is 22. Now
add the number of Tit1ri to this value. The Tithi is Shukla Ekadll:;/li
i.e. 26. Therefore the result is 22 + 26 = 48. Reduce th(' multipk's
of 27 from this va lue. The remainder shall give the numbt.'r (If
Nnksha tm elapsed. He re, when we subtra ct 27 from 4H, tht.'


!"troduction to Astrology

re ma inder is 21.Therefore on that day the moon should be in the

22,1<1 Nakshatra Le. Shravana. However, from the Panchanga it
appears that the Naksllatra running on that day was Slmtbislmj.
Thus there are very small errors in this method .


Casting of Horoscope by
Modern Method

1. First requirement for casting of horoscope is to determine

the <tscenda nt (Lag na) which is the rising sign on the

Eastern Ho rizon at the time of occurrence of any event (in
this case birth). Due to rota tion of the Earth on its axis once
duri ng 24 Hrs approximately, a ll the twelve Zodiac signs
get a chan ce to rise a t some p oint of time. The exact degree
of the Zodiac, at w hich the sign is rising, is required to be
known . The rising degree is dependant on the Sidereal lime
(ST). ST is- the true time of complete revolution of a p lanet
around the Sun with reference to a fi xed distant star.
2. Fo r the purpose o f calcula ti o n of releva nt d a ta, the
fo llowing w ill be requi red (use of Chit rapaksha AyaUttrtlsJUl
is recommended ):-

(a) Lahiri's Indian Ephemeris for the relevant years.

(b) Lahiri's Table of Ascendants

Steps for calculation of ascendants from Table of Ascendants

3. Sidereal lime (sT) fo r Northern Latitudes

(i) Table I give ST at 12 hrs Noon local mean time for
different d ays of the year for 82 EJO longitud e for the
year 1900 AD.
(ii ) (Year correction) Table II gives correction to be applied
for different years. Note the signs + I - ca refull y. (Table
II (a) gives corrections fo r older centu ries as well ).


Introduction to Astrology

(iii) (Longitude correction) Next correction to be applied

for localities based on longitudinal difference. Pages
100 - 111 at the end of the Table of Ascendants, gives
correction to Indian sidereal Time of Principal cities in
the relevant column. Again sign must be appropriately
applied. The result so obtained, called' A' is the ST for
the relevant data and place of birth at 12 hrs noon LMT.
(iv) Work out the Time of birth (based on 24 hrs system
and not AM / PM) in 1ST / ZST. Apply LMT correction,
given under relevant column against each place of
birth, at the end.
(v) Find difference of this LMT from 12 hrs noon i.e. if
before noon, deduct time from 12 and if afternoon
deduct 12 from this LMT and get TI (Time Interval) .
(vi) From Table IV page 5, apply correction to this TI and
get the result of increased TI Called '8'.
(vii) If TOB is afternoon then add B to ~ (A+B) and if before
noon then A - B. The result will be ST of birth.
(viii) Calculate the ascendant from relevant page as per
latitude (pages 9-79).
(ix) To this ascendant apply Ayanamsha correction from
pages 6 and 7. Result is the exact longitude of Lagna.
4. Calculation of Ascendant for Southern Latitudes
(i) To the Sidereal Time calculated for Northern Latitude
at step VII above apply + / -12 hrs to the ST.
(ii) Treating this as the new ST calculate ascendant as per
step VIII above and apply Ayanamslta correction.
(iii) Add / subtract 6 signs (i.e. 18:00 hrs) to the result above
to get Ascendant for a place in Southern Latitude.

Calculation of longitudes of planets

5. From Table of daily planetary longitude in the Ephemeris
for each month at 05:30 1ST, note the longitude of each


Note daily motion for each i.e. motion in 24 hrs. from

Ephemeris itself.

CJst;IIg of Horosco~ by Modem Md//(/(I


7. Calculate motion for the duration elapsed between TOB

and 05:30 for day of birth.
8. Add this interpolated proportional motion to that obtained
from tables at 05:30, get exact longitude for each planet
which is same for both northern and southern latitud e.
9. Any pl ane t if found (except Rahu and Ketu which are
always in retrograde motion) in retrograde motion, Su(fi'
it by ' R' .
10. Last step is to draw the horoscope with Signs, planets and
their longitude.
The following illustrations are given :.
1. NiraYflllfl ho roscope of a nati ve born in Jaba lpur on 26
January 2007 at 17:58 1ST.
2. Nirayana horoscope of a native born at Calcutta (Ali pur)
on 18 February 2007 at 23:54 1ST. (~ote change of date and
time here).
3. Nirayana horoscope of a nati ve born in a Foreign Cit}
OITAWA (Canada) on 9 March 2007 at 21 :35 ZST.
4. Nirayana Horoscope of a native born in sou thern lati tu de
in Jo hannesburg (South Africa) on 23 Ma rch 2007 at 10:(1('

Introduction to Astrology


Illustration 1: To cast horoscope of native born in Jabalpur

Data, TOB 1758 1ST on 26 January 2007
Latitude: 23 N 09'

Longitude: 79 E 57'

ST Correction for Jabalpur


Ayanamsha correction for 2007


LMT Correction for Jabalpur

Correction for 2007

(-) 10m 12 5
(+) 125





1. ST at 12 LMT at 82 E 30m

on 26 January 1900

2. Correction for year 2007


3. Correction place Delhi




36 'A'

S. Time of birth 1ST

6. LMT correction






7. LMT at birth






4. ST at 12 noon LMT at 79 E 57'

on 26 January 2007

8. Difference from noon


9. Correction to increase
TI (Table IV)

10. Corrected TI
11. ST of birth (A+B)

12. Ascendant from p 37 for 2 hrs 8 min .



45 '8'







- 24








41 '
+ 18'

for another Imin. 2Isee.

13. Ayanamsha correction for 2007

14. Ascendant or Lagna




Castillg of Horoscope by Modem Met/lOd

11 5


Ta B 17:58 1ST; difference from 05:30= 12:48 =748 minutess
d ivided by 1440 minutes (24 hr5); 748/ 1440 = 0.519
Factor to be applied to dail y motion = 0.519

, ... 1 21~'7
In 24 hI>
M .... im'n

74S mil1"'''''


\1'11 "41"


31'4) -



M, "



~ 'I R I

0' 12"U

8' 11'47

9' 2 ~ -b'



~ ' !~




5) '








7 ')Ht.-


22'S I-




9":24" ;G'2Ii'





10"22'"58'8' 4'!!'!'I< "

t' ,'ply 1.<'01)


9'12',nl 0'19'"274.-

IIJ'O.!",r 1"28"'$.\'

, o/112'~ '7

Illustration 2: To cast horoscope of native born in Kolkatl a

Data: Ta B 2354 1ST on I B Feb 2007; Difference from 5:30 a. m, =
1104 minutes.
La titude

22" N 32'

Longitud e

88' E 20'

ST Correc tion for Kolkatta

(.) 45

Ayanamsha correction for 2007


LMT Correc ti on for Kolka tta

(+)23m 20 s

ST Correcti on for 2007


1. ST a t 12 noon LMT at 82" E 30'
on 19 Feb 1900
2, Correction for yea r 2007
3. Correction place Kolka tta
4. ST a t 12 noon LMT at 88 E 20'
on 19 Feb 2003
5. Time of bir th 1ST 18 Feb 2007
6. LMT Correct ion

21 : 55 :



'A' 21 : 55 :
23 : 54 :
+ 23 :


Illtroduction to Astrology



7. LMT at birth Next day Le.

19Feb 2007

17, 20
17, 20-x

8. Difference from noon; since TI is

=11 : 42,
+0 : 1,

before noon 12-X'

9. Correction to increase TI (Table IV)



10. Corrected TI

'B' 11 : 44,



11. ST of birth (A - B)


12. Ascendandrom p 36 for 10 hrs 8 min.

for additional2min 33 sec



58' 00
33' 47"
753 31' 47"

13. Ayanamsha correction for 2007

--",5~5_'_ _ _ __

14. Ascendant or Lagna (Scorpio 2 20 / )

36' 47"



In 24 ht.
).\otio " in 0.767


OT5'H' IO'n5'Or


] (r'40r




Ve n


s" t(R)



I O'2l'U '

~ '22"lr

]"I S'









11l"22"11 '


11'I OSS'







l"18' 12"


11(>4 m i nut~'
(,,,ply [,ctor)
Pu,ition.t 17:58 10' 5".7

10'15' 43'41 " 9'0"3J')O'

0'16"19'12 7'22":10"

Illustration 3 to cast horoscope of native born in OTTAWA

Data, TOB 2U5 ZST on 09 Mar 2007
45 N 24'
75" W 43'
ST Correction for the place
(+) lm44s
Ayanamsha correction for the
year 2007
LMT Correction
-2m 525
ST Correction for Ottawa
1ST from ZST
+10 hr5 30 minutes

Casting of Horoscope by Modem Mt'tlllld

11 7

TOB in Indi a = 21:35+10:30 ::: 32:05 = 8:05 a. m. next da y Ll'.


23, OS,
on 9 Mar 1900
Correction for year 2007
Correction place OTTAWA (Canada)
+ 01
ST at 12 noon LMT at 750 W 43 1
on 09 Mar 03
'A' 23, 07 ,
21 , 35,
Ti me of birth ZST 9 Mar 2007
02 ,
LMT Correction
21, 32 ,
LMT at birth


1. ST at 12 noon LMT a t 82 E 30'


8. Difference from noon
Time interval afternoon
9. Correction to increase TI (Table IV)
10. Corrected TI








'8' 09: 33,

32, 41 ,
11. ST of birth (A + B)
08, 41 ,
12. Ascendant from p 66 for 08 hrs 40 min.
6s70 IT
for 1m 38sec
6'7" 35'
13. Aya namsha correction for 2003
14. Ascendant or Lag na
6 6 31'




i.e. Libra 6 37'

TOB 21:35 ZST or 08:05 10 Mar 07 1ST d iffe re nce from 0530 =
155 mins; fac tor = 155 / 1440 = 0.108

I'ltroductioll to Astrology



111'25-4'] 8' 7'0'"4 2'1)8"


[" 111m
I,,~ ' hf>






M. ..
9' I S'lIO'



M ..<


7'U-' 2'





1l'2 6~6'



7'TO', y

'1"15"11 '

10'1")5"2'1 r '"U '3!





H I!"

,~ -




l~~ m'"''''''
,1 . <1",0. 103)

1',,,,,,,,,,, .f


l'l5-37 1(1'22""57 -22",,'57

1'2 ~"'3)s) )'25"')6"

111'22"1'51 ' l 2" Y'52"

21 II

Illustration 4 to cast horoscope of native born in Johannesburg

(South Africa)

Data :T08 10:00 ZST on 23 Mar 2007 Southern Latitude


ST Correction
Ayanamsha correction
LMT Correction

Correction for 2007

1ST from ZST

26 5 15'

28 E
(+) 365

(+ )12
(+) 3 Ius 30 minules


0 , OL


3. Correction pl ace Johannesberg


4. ST at 12 noo n LMT at 28 11 E
on 23 Mar 07

0, OL


1. ST at 12 noon LMT a t 82 E 30m

on 23 Mar 1900
2. Correction for yea r 2007

+ 24

5. Time of birth ZST 23 Mar 2007

6. LMT Correcti on
7. LMT at birth
8. Difference from noon

'A' 24, 01,

10 , 00,
09, 52,



Casting of Horoscope by Modem Met/lOci

Time interval before n oon

02, OR ,


9. Correcti on to increase Tl (Table IV )

+0 :



10. Corrected TI

'8' 02, 08,



01 ,


-D2, 08,


21 , 53,


ll . ST of b irth (A B)

being in southern zone add

or substract 12 hrs


12. Ascendant from p 44 for 09 hrs 52'

(fo r lat 26 N 30') for 1m 37sec

09, 53,
6 28 OS'











13. For la titude 26 North from p age 43

14.For la titud e 2615' by interpol ati on


15 . Ayanamsha correc ti on (or 2007







16. For southern zone

Ascendant or Lagna


Aries 27041'


TO B 1000 hrs 23 Mar 2007 ZST + 1ST Correction 3.30 = TOB 13.30
Difference fro m 0530 = 8 hrs or 480 mi nutes
Facto r to be applied 480 / 1440 = 0.333

In N 1If>-



44 '


1\ '

Mo'i~n In


. ". 5'32"



n o'

.lIn m;nut",
{I.",or 0.33-.l1


Casting Horoscope
by Traditional Method

Casting of horoscope by traditional method may appear to be

obsolete at present but the ingenuity displayed by the seers and
their power to relate time and distance in unique manner is still
a matter of awe and respect.
Before we go in to the actual process of casting the horoscope
traditionally, it is worthwhile recapitulating that Vedas did not
mention about the Ascendant or Signs. In fact two great epics,
The Ramayana and the Mahab/mrnta only mention about the
placement of planets in Constellations (and not in signs or the
However, Valllalla Purana and Narada Malta Puralla mention
about Signs and their relationship with Constellations. In Narada
Malia Pllrana it is mentioned that Rishi Narada meets his four
elder brothers, namely 'Sanaka', 'Sal1andana', 'Sal/ata kumar' and
'Sanalmm' on the bank of holy river Ganga where Rislti Narada is
described about the six limbs of the Vedas. Rislli Sal/al/dllllil
describes very lUCidly the 'Tri-skmldha fyotisha' (the three limbs
of Astrology viz. 'Ganita', 'Jatakn' and 'Smnhita' which could be
translated as Mathematics, Predictive and Mundane aspects of
Astrology) to Rishi Narada. In the 'Gallila' sub-section the relation
between time and distance has been unequivocally established
through which the Ascendant can be worked out properly
(though not very accurately when compared with the modern
method of working out ascendant. Further, the Puranic method
of working ou t the longitudes of various planets is rather
complicated and arduous which do not yield very reliable results
L' ither). Keeping the above facts in mind, an effort has been made

Casting Horoscope by Traditiollal M!'lhnd


to present the method which, though, is not eXilctly based upon

the Narada Maha Purana's disposition, however, mnst of the
traditional Astrologers use the same to cast the horoscope . We
may as well describe it as Panchanga based traditional method .

Panchanga based traditional method

The tools and the data required for casting a horoscope by this
method would be, of course, the date, the time and the place of
birth besides the 'Panchal1ga' which is applicable for the given
place for the said year.
The Time of Birth the 'lshtakala'
In the modern method of casting of horoscope, we refer to the
time of birth at any particular place in relation to the Zonal
Standard Time of the place where the clock starts at midnight of
the Gregorian calendar every day. Though this system is quite
convenient for day-to-day purpose, it has no relationship with
the place of birth and therefore, in casting of a horoscope by the
traditional method. Therefore, few corrections are required to
be made to make this time fit for the purpose of casting of a
horoscope. In the traditional system, the time of birth is always
referred to as 'Ishtakala' which is the time elapsed since the
time of sun rise at that particular place. 'lshtakala' literally
means the desired time. This makes lot more sense since here
we directly relate to the local time of birth. Since there is very
little in our traditions free from controversy, the time of sun-rise
has also been a matter of debate.
The Time of sun-Rise
Without wasting any time on merits/ demerits of various views,
we shall consider the appearance of the centre of the sun disc
on the horizon as the time of sun-rise. It has further got to be
remembered that the time of sun-rise shall vary from place to
since the apparent path of sun, the ecliptic, is inclined at
23 27' to the equator. Therefore, the time of s un-rise sh"ll differ
for even such place, which hilS Silm longitud e but different


Ilitroductioll to Astrology

latitude . Not only that, the time of sunrise shall differ for even
s uch places, which have same longitude but different latitude.
Also, the time of Sun-rise would vary with sun's declination .
Therefore, at two different places, but on the same day, and at
the same place on two different days, the time of sun-rise shall

not be the same.

The Traditional units of time measurement
Some of us may be aware that in the traditional system, time is
considered in 'Chati' or 'Danda' (Chati and Danda are the same
unit of measurement of time). The time between two s uccessive
sunrise had to be 60 Chati or 60 Dm/da . Earlier an earthen pot,
with a measured hole in the bottom, to be filled with water or
sand, was used to keep a record of time. Since a pot in Sanskrit
is called 'Ghat am' therefore, the unit of time was called as 'Ghali' .
The design of the size of the pot and the hole was done in such
a controlled manner that the time taken for emptying the pot
would be equal to one Glmti. therefore, between one sunrise to
the other, 60 fillings would be required. On the other hand,
'Danda' in Sanskrit means a s taff, preferably made up of wood .
There was yet another method of knowing the time by measuring
the shadow of the 'Dandl1'. One 'Glwli' or 'Danda' is equal to
modern 24 minutes. Therefore in one Hour, there would be 2.5
24 Hrs.


' G h ~ t i'


' O~n da';

IHou r ..

25 'GhMi ' u r 'O,l nd a

IM in u t('=

~. 5

I 'Gh;l!i' Or

'O~nd~ ~


I 'Ghah ' or


24 Minu tes

'Pal~' ;


1 'Pa l.l ~


"Vip .,l~ ,

24Secn" ds

' Pa la '

I s..: " nd = 2.5 'Vipala'

Ghati or Danda, In other words, 24 hours is equal to 60 'Ghati' or

'Dnnda'. The subdivisions of 'Ghati' or' Danda' and their relations
to modern time divisions are mentioned in the table in the
previous page. One can notice that the traditional time divi sion
is smaller, and therefore more accurate, than the modern one.
Working out 'lshtakala' and the time of sun-rise at any place:
The first s tep towards casting the traditional horoscope would
be to work out the ' Ishtakala' for the nCltive. For this we need to


Horoscapc by Tradilimllll Mdltod


know the time of sun-rise at the place of birth. Gener.l ll y, the

local time of Sun-rise, along with the time sun-rise for various
major cities is available in the 'Panchanga'. However, for any other
place also the time of sun-rise can be worked out without any
difficulty with the help of details given in the' Panc!wl/ga'. The
corrections required to be done are called' Samskam'. We Ml'
aware that the time of sun-rise at any place remains more or less
the same on a given day of Gregorian calendar every year.
Therefore, every year, let us say, on 26th January, the sun shill l
rise approximately at the same time in Delhi (or for that matter
any other place in the world) with very minor variations. We
shall now learn to work out the time of sun-rise for any place
with the help of a 'Panel/allga' through an example. Our readers
are aware that unless mentioned otherwise, all references in thi s
book have been made to famous' Sri Visl/wa Vijay Pal1el/allga'
\vhich is valid for Delhi and the adjacent areas. Since every year
the time of sun-rise shall remain more to less the same on a
particular day, therefore, data from' Pallchanga' of any year shall
be valid. However, for present example, 'Pancilanga' for the year
2006-2007 is being referred to.
Example: To work out the time of sun-rise for Jabalpur on
26th January, 2007.
The following data have been taken from the 'Pal1c!wllga'



TIme of Sun-rise in
Delhi on 26.01.2007.

7:17 AM




Latitude of Jab~lpur
Longitude of Jabalpur



Time Difference of
J~bdlpur from Delhi.

(+) ()(]"11"'O4.



Ded in~tion







of Sun nn
5:30 AM.

C,lrrection on ~eeqtlnt
of the Wtitude of the
pldec ,md D.'C1inalion
of ~\ nI.

Friday, Ashtmi (till 15:37),

Ashwini (till 30:22 Hrs.)

(+) sign ind ic<lles th ,lt j,lb,llpH

is East of Dl"lhi.

Has been
~~ step tl

The corTe,tion is in rnilluks.

Tht, first t'Oh lll1H ,1Ild tIll'
first row r!'fl"r tll D" l' liIMllllll
of SIIIl ,HItt 1,llilll<l .. of Ilw
rl,K" n'~I"~'l1l"'\Y




Illt rod ll ctiofl to A sl r(1/ogy

Step I: Since Jabalpur is east of Delhi , therefore, the sun

would ri se 00"11 m 04"ea rlier in Jabalpur than Delhi. The re fore,
the time of s un-rise, at Jabalpur, on account of diffe rence of
Latitude, w o uld be (7": 17m :OO'-OO" :11 m : 04~ = 71\ : 05m :56~)
Step II: Corrections for Latitude of place and Declination
of sun: N ow we shall refer to the table on page121 ('CharmTtara
Sarilli' o r the table o f difference of time in minutes a nd
appli ca bl e for Northe rn He mi sphere onl y) to account for
variatio n o f Declinatio n o f Sun and Latitude of the place. As
has been explained at s l. no. 6 of the ta ble above, the fi rst column

refers to the declination of the Sun. On the given date (26.01 .07)
the declination of sun is 18DSS2'.We ca n round it off to 19G5.
One may further notice in the table that up to 290 latitude, in
case the declination of sun' is south, a (-) sign is to be considered
in the correction while as under simila r circumstances, for
longitude 300 or more, a (+) sign is to considered for corrections.
Meanin g th ereby that a t latitude, less th an 300 , whe n the
declinati on of sun is south, the sun w ould rise early and the
vice versa shall also hold good. Laced with this informa tion,
we explore the above me ntioned table. The latitude of Jaba lpur
is 23t1 N1 0'. It lies be twee n 23 uN and 24N. The Values o f
corrections a t 190$ declination at these la titudes are 10 and 8
minutes respectively. By interpolation, the value of correction
at 23NI 0' works out to be 9 minutes and 40 seconds wh ich
shall have to be subtracted from the value ca lculated a t step I
above i.e. 7h '" 05 mts 56- . Therefore, the correct time of sun-ri se
at Jaba lpur on 26.01. 2007 sha ll be 6 h'"56"'t] 6-.
The ' Ishtakala' for a child born at 17:58:00Hr5. at Jabal pur on

Having known the time of sun-rise on a particular day, now

the next stage is to find out the ' Ishtakala' which we have de fined
as the time elapsed from the sun-rise up to the time of epoch,
say the birth of a child . th is has been illu strated hereunde r.
Time (H rs. Mts. & Sec,)
51. no. Description (at }aba lpur)

Time of Birth (On 25.01.07)

Time of Sun-rise (On 25 .01.07)
IshtClka la (1 -2)


Cnsting Horoscope by Traditiol1al M!'Il1od


Thus the 'Ishtakala' for the native is 11 hr> OI ",j'44"". We shilll

covert these in to 'Ghati' 'Pala' and 'Vipala' .
44 Sec. :


02 Mts.;::;

02 x2.5: 005 Pala

11 Hrs.=

llx 2.5



110 Vipala

27.50 Chati


Pala Vipal.l










Thus, the' Ishtakala' for the native is 27

1654 Pala.

C h aj i

34 "'20

V 'l" " "


To work out the Ascendant for the native

This is the most fascinating part of traditional method of casting
the horoscope. We are aware that the Zodiac has been divided
into 12 equal signs of 300 each, commencing from Aries and
ending at Pisces. Even though each sign is equal in length, those
do not take equal time of 2 hrs. each to rise on the eastern
horizon due to the following reasons.
Firstly, the ecliptic (and therefore the zodiac) is not at right
angles to the axis of rotation of earth. The equator, instead of
being parallel to the zodiac, is inclined at 2327'. Secondly, the
Zodiac appears as an ellipse instead of a perfect circle.
As a result of the obliquity of the Zodiac, the seasonill
variations and different duration of days and nights at different
times of the year are experienced.
No wonder, therefore, that the time taken by the signs to
remain on the eastern horizon is called 'ObJ ique Ascension' .
In the ancient texts, Oblique Ascension has been mentioned as
'Rashimana'. The literal meaning of 'RaslJimana' would be the
measurement of sign (in terms of time).
Rashimana, is defined as the time taken by any' Rasi' (sign)
to rise completely on the eastern horizon. The unit of time is
either 'Pala' or 'Ashu'. 'Ashu' is also called 'Pra/Ia'. One 'AS/III'
or 'Prana' is equal to 10 'Vipala' or6 'A su' is equal to one 'Pn{a'.
The fact that 'Rashimana' for different Signs are different WilS
quite well known to the authors of 'Narada Maim Plirmlll' ilS
would be evident from various verses of the Silnw.


11I1 rexillctioll 10 Astrology

It is another astounding fa ct tha t in the re mote past, the

seers had worked out the' RashimalIa' so very acc urately at the
equator. In the traditiona l ~ y s tem, the time taken by any sign
to ri se completely a t the Equator is called 'Lankodaya' or the
time ta ken to rise at 'La nka'. One school o f thought advoca tes
tha t in the olden times the actual ' Lanka' extended up to the
equato r and th at the sa me has been s ubmersed in the Indi an
Therefore, the' Rasll ima lla ' at the equator is still addressed
as 'Ln flkodaya' and Lallka is referred to as 'Niraksha Desha' (th e
land of zero Latitud e). The values of 'Lankodaya' for all the 12
sig ns a re mentioned hereunder.

Lankodaya in

Signs { Rash is)


Ash u or rrd lla



Vi rgo (+J

Libr~( + J


T~urLI S (-)

Leo (+)



Gem ini (-)


:5<'lglt tilrlliS (+)








i1prlco m (-)



Pisces (-J
A q l1~ ritLs

In the Northern Hemisphere of the ea rth, if we rpove above

the equator and towards the pole, the time required to rise
completely for Aries, Ta urus, Gemini, Capricorn, Aquarius and
Pi sces a re reduced with re ference to ' Lankodaya', Therefore, in
the tab le above, these signs are preceded by (-) marks. Furth er,
the time required for Ca ncer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio and
Sagitta rius t o compl e te ly rise on th e eas tern horizon art!
increased. Therefore (+) sign had bee n ascribed after each of
these Signs. As would be seen from the above table, Pisces and
Aries a re two adjoining signs, besides the o the r two adjoing
signs Virgo and Libra w hich take equal time to ri se. These pairs
are opposite to each other. Similar is the case a t s1. no. 3 whe re
Gemini/Cancer pair, posited bang oppos ite to Sagittarius /
Capricorn pair, takes equa l time to rise. SI.no.2 consists of signs,
which flank the signs of sl.no.1 and 3. If one moves from Ari es
to Tauru s, the time take n is more. Furthe r, Gemini takes longe r
time to rise than Taurus. At the end of Gem ini , the s un en te rs
in to Southern sojourn , though still remain s in the northe rn

Castillg Horoscope by Traditio/wi Met/tod


hemisphere. Cancer and Gemini take same amount of time t(1

rise on the eastern horizon. Leo takes lesser time than C<!n(('r,
but equal to its mirror image, Aquarius. Still lesser time, th,lll
the Leo, is taken by Virgo, which is the mirror image of Pi SCl'S.
The same has been explained in the figure no.1 given herCllndl'r.





The reasons of difference of 'Rashimana'

As we are aware, the movement of earth around the sun is

elliptical and not a perfect circle. As a resuit, what is seen of
the zodiac from the earth is also an ellipse and not a perfect
circle. Therefore, for the same angle of 30 sustained at the
centre of the earth, the chord lengths on the zodiac shall be
different. This has been shown in the sketch given above.
As one moves away from the equinoxes, the apparent
distortion of the zodiac becomes more and more pronounced.
Consequently, some of the signs take much longer time to ri sc
ilt the eastern horizon, while as S0me others remain on the
eastern horizon for very little time. It may be interes tin g to
know that at600N latitude, the signs Pisces and Aries tilke only
about 28 minutes while as Leo, Virgo, Libra and Scorpio takes
more than 3 hours to rise completely though Pisces, Aries, Virgo
and Libra take the same time to rise completely at th t' ('quil ln.-.
For the northern hemisphere the type of corrections in the
'Lflllkodaya', whether positive or negative, hil S illre,l(ly bel'n
indicated in the above stated table.


11llraductiol! to Astrology

'ClUlraklzanda' - the corrections in the 'Lallkodaya' to obtain

the ' Rashimana ':

'Charakhanda ' (Ascensi onal Difference) are th e co rrection s
reqUired in the 'umkodaya ' to find out the 'Rasltimalw' at any
particular pl ace. Since a t the equator, no correcti on is required
in the 'Ullikodaya', therefore, the 'Omrakhallda' at theequator sh all
be zero. To work out 'C/l(I rnkhanda', at <m y placewe shall have to
len rn a new term ' Patabha',
' Palablla':
' Pnfablla ' would literally mean the m easurement of the shadow
(of a shaft at local mid-noon) in 'Pala', Technically it is a location

speci fic parameter, depending upon the latitud e of the place,

w hich , whe n multiplied w ith s pecific cons tants, gi ve the va lue
o f 'Cltarakllfl l1da' . The ' Palabha' is medsured in 'Angula' ' Prnti A I/g ula' and 'Tat -Prati A Ilg llla , (distance). One 'Ang ula ' means a
fin ger width and wou ld be approximately equal to 20 mm. it is
simply amazing to find that how the ' Palablta ', w hose unit is
time, has been related to Lo ngitude of a p lace, w.hose unit is
di stance.
To determinate the ' Palabha' at any place, the method
me ntioned in 'N(l rada M(llia Pll r{l//fl ' is brilliantl y indi genous. It
s tart s with the description of a 'S l ta nkll' whi ch w o uld be
required to meas ure the ' PalaMa'.
'Shank l/'

The word 'SIIQllkll' has many meanings. The most accepted one
is a cone. However, it al so means a 'dried up tree trunk' and
va rious other such things which are cylindrica l in shape. The
' SJIIlJ1ku', required for measuring 'Pa/ablla ' is basicall y a wooden
cylinder of 12 ' Ang ula' in height and 2 'Allgu la ' in diameter.
The 'Narada Malia Pu ral1a' further s uggests that e ither a flat
stone should be chosen or a equal flat surface should be prepared .
In the centre, a circle, 12 'Ang ula' in radius i.e. equal tothe height
Df the ' Shankl/ ', is drawn on this flat s urface. At the centre of thi s
ci rcle . the 'Slml/kll ' is placed . The length o f the shad ow of the

Casting Horoscope by Tradit ional Mctlu"t

'S llllllku ', at the local mid-noon on either of the 'Sl1yall l1 ' equinox
days, shall be the 'Palabha' of the place.

Pa lablla


shadow of
th(' Sllnllku
formed by
the Sun in
the N-S
di rection at
\ocfl l noon.





-' ':/:'

Shallkll is a

cylind rical
shaft of 12
height <lnti
2 ang ula
d iameter
ve rtica ll)'
in the
centre of
the circle.

In the diagram above, O A is the ' Shallktl', OA is the shadow

of the 'Sha l1k ll ' a t local m id-noon on one of th e equinoxes. The
rad iu s of the circle is equal to 12 ' AI/guJa ', i.e. the height of the
' SJulIlkll '. We a re a lso aware that the equino xes occur tw ice
iln nu all y viz. the Verna l and the Autumnal Equinoxes. These
are called 'M eslla ' and ' Tu la' 'Sm1kranti ', whi ch occur 0 11 2)'"
Ma rch and 22,,<1 September every yea r respecti vely. These fl re
the two dates in a year when the entire world over the durfltion ~
of the day a nd the ni ght are equa l.
Relat ion between Latitude and 'Palablla' of any place
It is very interesting to note that ang le of incident of the sun

ra ys on the equinoxes at local noon is exactl y the Latitud e o f

the pl ace. In the above shown sketch angle 0 is the iln gle of
incident of s un-ray~ on the equinox day at the loca l mid-noon.
Thi s is a lso the latitude of the place where thi s 'Slml/kll ' hil S
been pegged in. In case the latitude of the p lace is know n, it is
no more necessary to wait for the loca l mid-noon on the equinox
day to know the 'Pa/abha ' of any place. Simple trigonometry
shou ld tfl ke away all the vows in thi s regard! If we look back a t
the sketch o nce mo re, we sho uld no tice thilt
Tfln 0 = OAJ OA


IlltrOOllclio" to Astralog,,!

o r, OA t = OA x Ta n0
Also, we are aware that OAt is the' lPa/ablla' of the place
<Inti OA is the length of the 'Shanku ', whic h is equal to 12
'Angula'. Therefore, 'Palabha' for any p lace shall be equal to 12
Titn 0 where 0 is the lati tude of the place. Here the valu e of
'Pn /abI,a' is d irectly in 'Pa la ', The Va lues of ' Pa labha' for
different latitudes have been worked out and enume rated in
the table given hereunder.
LJ tit ud.,


P~I~b h .l

Lat itud.,

' Pa:~bh~'

Lat itud.,

in 'rala'

ill Gcgrt'CS

in 'Pala'

in d.'grl..,s

0. 20'1


).44 0


0 .-1 19




H 98

0 .629




7 792



4. 132






S , ~ \\2



H 3';l


8.71 8



4 1W!


9 . 0~O





9 .342





9 .7 11


2. 115










10.43 \


















11 .590







' 1'~ I~b tH'"




L~tih , d t"

in dli'gre ..s in '1'.11,, '



11 190


13,3 27
13 1104
U .](l l

14 .819
15. 329
1 3~

~ 7i'!

1 'l . :U~

"Fo r lower val ues of latitudes,"the ' Pa/ablta' can
'" be in ter



I'J 'I I I


pola led from the g iven table . Howeve r, for hi gher latitudes,
exac t o f Tan 0 shollid be adopted to work out the 'Patab/ul' .
Example: to w o rk out the 'PalaiJI/a ' for Jabalpur: Thl'
lilti tude for Jabalpur is 23'\ N 10'. The la lu e of 'PalabI1l1' for
J"billp ur, ther~fon~, shall be 12 x Tan 231\10' = 12 x 0.427912071
= 5.134944854, sa y 5.135 ' Pala' .

To work out 'Clta rakltallda ' on th e bas is of Palablra ': We

h,1\'(' ,ll ready It-amt th at to convert the 'Pn/ablla' in t (l

Castillg Horoscope by TraditiO/wI Met/IUd

13 1

' Clmrakltanda', these sh a ll have to be multiplied with cons til nts,

The cons tants of mu ltiplica tions for various signs are 10, 8 .md
10/3 respectively.
The 'Charak}umda ' for Jabalpur has been worked out il nd
indicated h ere under,





'Cb .. r"kh.""I,, '


' P"I ~ '





Aries (.)

Virg"( +)

Libra ( +)

Pis<:<'!\( )


Ta urus (oj


ScOrpll' (.)

Clprt~... rn

Gemini (-) Canel'r ( +)

s..g l ttMI"~(+)









~ (~)


4L(tt s,1\


~ I


We have once ag;lin indicated in the table abovt' that to work

out the' Rasllimal1a' at a ny place, the respective 'Charak}lIwdn'
for six sig ns, Commenci ng from Capricorn to Gemini (signs
10,11, 12, 1, 2, & 3) are to s ubtra cted from respective 'Lallkodaya '
w hile as the 'C/Ifl raklwllda' for remai ning six signs, commenci n g
from Cancer to Sagittarius (signs 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 & 9) are to be added
to the respective ' Lallkodaya'. Let us work out the 'RasJllmalla '
for Jabalpur. The values have been worked out and tabu lrlll:'d
in the tabl e on the next page,
It would be noticed that the sum o f ' Rashimlll/a ' for six Signs
wo rks ou t to 1800 'Pala' , Therefore, the sum of 'Rashimalla' fo r
all the twelve signs a t Jaba lpur sha ll work ou t to 3,600 ' Pala '
w h ich is equal to 60 'G lmti' or ' Dal/do', This is the time bet\vccll
one s un-rise to anoth ('r sunrise. Following the same p rocess.
Oflec<m work o ut the 'Rashimana' at any place wi th the help ( If
. Pallchanga'






(in t',11aj

Ut,,~' ~I~Y" Cha,~Hf/I"dn

1m !',,1al

1m Pd!~)

( 1,,)


.. .

Rash,"UI"" _

R.l,I""',/lM ~



0", ",ll',''''/'1

CJ", , ',II"II~",~,'






T ." ru ~ & '\II\I~"U~

I,_~'IT"'" &




"'il'S &



I. "" &


c~rr",' nl
S~);tl I MIII


Vi ' g" & 1.,hr,l




Tnt ! ",I',.!.

- -- II')"VI) " (I''''

'" -

~ .N



T" ...!

\(. ~




Introdu ction tv A st rology

To work out the Ascendant at 17:58 Hrs. al Jabalpur on

26.01.2007 by traditional method

The Ascendant is the Sign rising at the time of epoch on the eastern
horizon. We are aware tha t in the morning, at the time of s un-rise,
the ascendant would be the same sign w here the sun is posited.
The traditi on al method takes adva ntage of thi s informa ti on
brilliantly to w ork out the Ascendant at any point of the day. The
da ta shall be used from the Visllwa Vijay Pallchanga. This we shall
understand step by step through the example.
Step 1

First of all w e shall find o ut the 'N i myana' longitude o f sun at

the time of s un-rise in Jabalpur on 26.01.07 from the 'Pajlchallga' .

On page?? of ' Panclmllga' two horosocope are show n at the

bottom, corresponding 105:30 AM on the 'A slltm i' (26.01.07) and
' Pztnl ima ' (23.01.07) o f ' Hindu' month 'Mogho'. In th e fi rst
h o rscop e, th e ' Ni ro yol1a ' longitud e o f Sun at 5:30 AM is
9' 11 u40'51" and the d ail y m otion of the sun h as been m entioned
as 60'59". Now the longi tude o f sun on 26t t. January a t the time
o f sun-rise i.e. 6 h n; 561111 16M'<" s hall be worked out.
Da il y m o tion o f sun =60'59"; Mo ti on betwee.n 5:30 AM and
6:56:16 AM i.e. for 1:26:16 (01.438 h rs.) on 26.01.07 h as b een
worked o ut here under.
= (01.438 x 60'5n/24 = 0"03'39"
The tota l m o ti o n o f su n from 5:30 AM o n 23.01.07 to
6:56:16AM on 26.01.07 is =(J' 03'39"
Thu s, the longitude "of sun on 26.01.07 at 6:56:16 A M I S
9' 11' 40'51"+ 0"03'39" = 9' 11' 44'30"
Step 2
We shall now con vert'the lon gi tude of s u n from 'Nira ymm' to
'Saya na' by a dding the 'Ayanamsha' for 26 .01.07. Fo r thi s
purpose, the 'Ch itrapaksha Ayanams/za' on the given d a te from
the 'PalZclmnga' shall be worked out. It may be o f in terest to
recapitul ate that w here as for p redicti ve p u rpose the lo ng itudes
of all the p la nets a nd the ascenda nt are to be considered in
'N imyfll1fl ' sys tem , the astron om ica l ca lcu lation s are don e in

Casting Horoscopt' by Traditional Metliod


'Sayana' System. On page 130 of Pal1chmlga the 'Chitrapaksl/(/

Ayanal1ls!w' in 2007 is 23%6'59". The precision of equinox on
23.01 .07 is 3". We are considering 23rd January since this is closest
to the given date 26.01.07. Thus, the 'Chitrapaksha AyallaU/slla'
on 26.01.07 shall be 23(156'59"+3" = 2357'02". By adding the
'Nirayana' longitude of sun to this value, the 'Sayana' longitude
of Sun on the given date the at the time of sun-rise shall be
worked out. Therefore, the longitude of Sun at the time of
sunrise on 26.01.2007 = 9s11044'30''+231157'02'' = 10s0541'32". This
is the exact sign rising at the time of sun- ri se on the given date
and place.
Step 3
To find out the sign rising at the time of the birth, we s hall take
help of the fact worked out earlier as step - 2 that at the time of
sun-rise Sayana Capricorn was over and 05(141 '32" Sayana
Aquarius had already risen on the eastern horizon. The
remaining 24(118'28" of Sayana Aquarius was yet to rise. From
the' Rasimnna' table for Jabalpur it would be seen that Aquarius
takes ::58 'Pala' to rise comp lete 30 at Jabalpur. The time,
required for the remaining part to rise can be worked out as
(258 Pal a x 24.308")/30" = 209 'Pala'.
Step 4

To find out the Ascendant at the time of 'Ishtakala'. We sha ll

keep on adding the time of rise of successive signs to the ending
time of Sagittarius till we reach the' Ishtakala' which is
27ch.ti34r.I 20vip" I.This can be round off to 27x60+34 = 1654 ' Pa/a'.
SI. No.



Cumulative Rashimana
(In Pala)
to rise (In Pala )






Illtroduction to A st rology

From the above table it would be clear that sig n Leo shall
start ris in g after 1567 'Pala' o f the s unrise a nd shall conti nue
to be on the eastern horizon till 1907 ' Pala' afte r the s un rise.
Since the' Islrtakala' li es between these two va lues, therefore. at
the time of the epoch, Sayana Leo was the rising sign.

Step 5
The difference between the 'Ishtakala' and the co mmencemen t
of sign Sayana Leo is (1654-1 567) = 87 'Pa/a', Since Leo takes
340 ' Pala' to rise complete 300, in 87' Pala' it would r ise (87 )( 30)
/ 340 = 7040'35", Thus the 'Sayalla' Ascenda nt, at the ti me of
epoch, is 4s7"40'35".
Step 6

Th e 'N i rayal1a ' Asce nd a nt ca n now be worked ou t by

s ubtracting the 'Ayrmamsha' 23%7'02" from the 'Sayalla' va lu e
of 4 s7'40'35". The 'Nirayal1a' Ascendant, t herefore, shall be
(45 7'40'35" - 23 1157'02") = J '1353'33", Thi s value is close to the
value w o rked o ut by the modern me thod , using tabl e of
Asce nd ants.
Longitud e of Planets: A fter having wo rked o ut th e
Ascendant. the last ritual remains to fix the position o f planets.
The method given in 'Malia Narada Purana' is quite complicated.
However, placement o f planets in the horoscope w ith the help
of ' Pancilanga ' is very simple. We have a lready discussed the
two horoscopes, men ti oned a t the bottom of the page 96,
corresponding to the planetary position and their daily motion
on the 26th January and 2nd February 2007 at 5:30 AM. This is
very useful for working out the 'Nirayalw' longi tud e of all
planets. We shall work out the longitude o f sun at the time o f
epoch. We have already calc ulated the positi o n of sun at th e
time of s un-rise on 26.01.07. In the similar fa shion, the longi tude
ca n be worked o ut a t ' Ishfaka/a' .
Motion from 5:30 to 17:58:00 of 26.01.07 for 12:28 (l2.47hrs.)
= (12.47 x 60'.09") / 24 =0"31 '41 "
The total motion o f s un from 5:30AM on 26.01.07 to 5:58PM
o n 26.01.07 is -= 0"3 1'41". Thus, the 'Niraymla' )o ng itude of s un
n n 26 th Jan uilfY 2007 a t 5:58 PM is 9s11 40 '5 1"+Q031'41 " =

Castillg Horoscope by TraditiO/lal Method


9:'1212'32". For all other planets, except for the moon , same
steps can be fo llowed to work out their 'Nirnyana' longitude.

For the longitude of moon, we can use two routes. The first
one could be through page 77, where the daily motion of the
moon has been mentioned under the column 'Chandra Sil l/cham'.
It would be noticed from there that the moon enters 'Mesha'
(Aries) on 25.01.07 at 8:42 hrs.1t furth er enters in to 'Brisham'
(Taurus) on 27.01.07 at 12.09 hrs. Thus the moon remained in
'Aries' between 8:42 hrs of 25.01.07 and 12:09 hrs. of 27.01.07 i.e.
for 51 hr. 27 mt or 3,087 minutes . This is the time requ ired to
trave rse 300 o f 'Aries'. The time of epoch is 17:58 hrs. of 26.01.07.
The refore, the moon was in Areis only. The time elapsed was
33hf~ 16m on or 1,996 min . Therefore, the motion of the moon in
1996 minutes sha ll be w orked out as 300 x 1996/ 3087 = 19"23'51".
Thus, the 'Nirayalla' longi tude of moon at the time of epoch
shall be OSI 9"23'51",

The other method of working out the longitude of moon is

also ' Pal/changa' based. The details are to be taken from the
Table for motion 's e ntrance in to variolls 'Charana' of
Constell a tions, given between pages 204 to 207. It would be
noti ced on pa ge 207 that on 26.01.07, the moon enters into the
second and the third 'Charana' of 'Bha rill i' Conste lla tion a t 13:09
and 18:52 hrs. respectively. Since the time of epoch lies between
these two va lues, the moon was in 'Bharilli' second ' CltarnlIa '
('Aries') a t the time of epoch . The moon took (1 8:52-13:09)
5:43 hrs. or 343 minutes to traverse one 'CJtarana' (320' = 200').
Therefore in (17:58 - l3:09) = 4hrs 49 mln = 289 minutes, it wou ld
traverse 200x289/343 = 168.51 = 248'31". Thus, the longitude
of moon sha ll be (}~l3<>20 ' (Ashwini) + 3~O' (1st Cha ralllll/a of
Bharilli) + 248'31" =OS1928'31 ". Here, the value is 5' more than
the oth er one. However, in thi s me thod , one works out
simultaneously the constellation and the 'Cllaralla' also. Further,
since here closer time interva l is taken in to consideration for
calculations, the worked out values are more accurate .



Me teorol ogy is the stud y of wea ther and cl imate. Wea ther is
defined as the atomosphericconditions prevailing at a p lace and
time, a combin atio n produced by heat or cold, clea rness o r
clo udiness, dryness o r moi sture, wind o r ca lm , high or low
pressure and electrica l state of local air and sky. Meteorology is
the study of the mo ti o ns and phenomenon of Cltmosphe re,
especially for wea ther forecasting.
Climate is a long term regime of atmospheric va riables i.e. a
yea rl y cycle of tempera ture and precipita ti on . La titude will
influence clima te, determining whether a reg io n is basica lly ho t
(nea re r the Eq uator) or cold, and w hether it has pronounced
seasonal changes. Climate is a lso innuenced by the preva iling
winds and ocean currents, by altitude, and by the na ture of the
terrain. Although there are exceptions and ex tremes, there is
enough simila rity betWeen climates o f different regions to group
them together and classify them as 'clima te zones. Types of
climates tha t a re widely di spersed across the Earth's surface are
polar, sub arctic, cool temperature, warm tempera ture, arid,
tropical and hi gh altitude.
Ancient Ind ia n trea ti ses contain descriptions of wea the r and
climate of those bygone days. The Rigveda provides us glimpses
of the clima te of no rthwest India. Rnmayallfl a nd Maltabltarala
conta in several descriptio ns of weather. The r(l infall fi gures of

A sl ro--Mt.1{'Or%S.lf


Vi\T iou s geograp h ica l reas for agricultura l purposes a re

mentioned in the Ar fhashasfra, written in the third century B.C.
Kafidasa presents a picture of the transformation of the land due
to the effect of the different seasons in his Rithu.samhara and
portrays the onset of the southwest monsoon in hi s Meghdoota.
Several his tori ca l accounts and travelogues of Indian writers and
foreign visitors con tain a wealth of weather information.
Varahamihira in 6 th cemury AD. wrote a comprehensive treati se
by the name Brihata Samhita on weather.
Local observations and inferences drawn there from were
the firs t conscious and concrete attempts to unde rs tand nature.
FolklorE', fa rmers' sayings etc are all products o f observations
and experience o f observent men.
The my thology and epics of every civilisation have presiding
Deities for most natural phenomena. In o ur mythology htdra is
the lord of thunderbolt, Vanilla of water, Parjanya of clouds, Manlf
of storms, VaYIl of winds, Agni of fire and Savita of Sun. The
Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Mayans etc. had th eir own Gods of
the Elements. Examples are: Aurora and Eos of Dawn, Aeolus,
Auster, Notus, and Boreas of winds, Iris of rainbow, Jupiter of
thunderbolt, Nep tune and Poseidon of the oceans as well as
Huracan of sto rms. In the early d ays man propitiated the Gods
b y prayer and su pplication through hymns and Yagllas for timely
rains for his crops and to ward off d ea th and devastation by
storms and fl oods, and in war, even to unleash the fury o f the
Elements o n his enemies. Our epics menti on weapons such as
vanmas/ra (rain), aglleyastra (fire) and vajrayudha (thunderbolt).
Tf..1 d ay m an is trying not only to understand but also to alter and
even control the weather.
References to rainfall figures found in Kalltilya's Arathasastra
show that rainfall measurements were mad e in ancient India,
nearly three centuries before Christ. It is believed tha t there was
a weathercock installed at the top of the Tower of Winds at
Athens (ci rca 35 B.C.). Meteorological instruments in the modern
sense came very much later. Though Ga lil eo cons tructed a
te mpera ture m easu ring device in 1607, the fir s t me rcur y
thermo me ter was made b y Fahrenheit in 1714. The mercury
baromete r was invented in 1643 by Evangeli sta Torricelli, a pupil


tlltrod lIelion to Astrology

of Galileo. These instruments paved the way for the regular

measurement of important meteorological parameters.
In modern times temperature is meas ured by thermometer.
It is generally a maximum & minimum thermometer. Barometer
lS used to measure pressure. The winds go from high~pressure
areas to low.pressure areas. A fall in the "bar", the unit o f
measu ring pressure, indicates additional flow of wind. A big
fdB would automatica lly indicate the inflow of wind at high
speed, which is a gale, hurricane or a tornado.
Humidity is measured by a hygrometer. Thi s is an esseotiol
ing redient of climate. H ot and humid climate is worse that hot
dnd dry climate.
Wind direction and speed are meas ured by wind vanes and
anemometers respectively. It is the winds that move the climate
around the globe. It is in nutshell the basic and very broad
introduction to climate.
In the modern sense of the term, the first meteorologi cal
observatory of India was started in 1793 by the British East India
Company at Madras, though famous astronomical observations
such as the /mllar MantaI' of Jaipur, Delhi etc. existed much earlier.
Ind ia is a land of contrasts, of relief and climate. India is a
peninsular extension of the great Eurasian landmass. NorthSouth the land s tretches 3,200 km from latitude 37'6' to 08"4'
North and 3,000 km West-East between longitudes 68"7' and 97'2'
Cli matologically India covers tropical, subtropical and
temperate regimes. The Inner Himalayas present sub polar
conditions in winter due to the altitude effect. Southern peninsu la
comes under direct maritime influence. No major ocean current
affects the climate of the s ubcontinent.
Meteorologically, there are wide contrasts. Snow storms and
blizzards rage over the Western Himalayas in winter. Glaciers
and dll odd avalanche are familiar sights in the Great Himalayas.
Sand storms and dust storms are a common feature of western
Rilja s than in s ummer. Sand dunes and s hifting sand iHt'

Ast ro-Ml'leoroJogy


ubiquitous in the Rajasthan desert. Minimum temperatures go

d o wn to minu s 4S"C in Kt> s hmir, while the m ax imu m
temperatures in Rajasthan soar up to plus SO"c. The mean ilnnu"J
rainfall is as high as 1,000 em over the Khasi hills and as low as
10 cm in western Rajasthan. Devasta ting floods in one part coexis ting wi th parching drought in som e other part of the
subcontinent are not unusual. A complete reversa l of the pressure
and Wind systems takes place in the course of the year between
the summer southwest m onsoon and the winter northeas t
Traditionally the year in India has been conceived as (1
progression of six ritilus or seasons. The rit/lUs have bee n
described in terms of the changing moods of nature. The seasons
are as follows:
(n) Varsha (Wet Season) - June to September (Southwest

(b) Sha mdn (Cool Season) - October, November (Retrea ting

(c) Sh isilira (Cold Season) - December to February
(d ) Greeshma (Hot Season) - March to May

Hemnntn is the ea rly part of w inter and vasallia is the first

part of summer, just after win ter.
Deviations do occur in individual years when a particul ar
season may commence too early or too late compared to the usucll
d,!te or even month. Once in a while the seasons march in perfec t
rhythm with text book precision, but this is an excep tion.
The demarcation between any two riiJllls is not always sharp
and one may imperceptibl y merge in the o ther as a in the case of
III!mflllia and shishira.
The Astra-Meteorology discussed in this chapter perta ins
more to the Wet season of India i.e. the Monsoon. Hence, it would
be prudent to understand the mechan ics of the occurrence of
monsoon. Monsoon is the most important season for our coun try
because the success of the agricultural sector and subsequent
economic growth is directl y related to time ly and norma l/
abundant rainfall.


Illt rodl/ctlm! to Astrology


From the poorest fa rmer to the meteoro logist in India, the on set
of monsoon and quantum of rain are the most important clim atic
phenomenon of the year. To understand the occurrence of
monsoon, the hydrologic cycle needs to be understood.
4.1 Hydrological Cycle
The 'hydrologic or water cycle' is the circula tion of water from
the oceans through the atmosphere back to the oceans or to the
land and thence to the oceans by overland or subterranean routes.
The hydrologic cycle is an intricate com bina ti on of evaporation,
transpiration, air fl ow, precipitation, run off and ground water
movements including infi ltration s tream fl ow and subsoil water
trclnsport as seen in fig 1.

Fig. 1 Hyd rological Cycle

E::vapora tion is the process by w h ich liquid wa ter o r ice is
converted to water varpour. The atmosphere gets water vapour
throu gh evaporation from water bodies (oceans, lakes, rivers or
any other water body), falling rain and moist ground s urface.
Another way water vapour enters the air is through ev apotranspiration i.e. the evaporation from the leaves or plants.
Condensatlo ns
Whe n the conce ntration of wa ter vapo ur in the a tmosph ere
exceeds the sa turation limit, the excess water vapour ch ang~s



into the liquid or solid pha se in a variety of forms e.&. dew, frost,
mist, fog or cloud. This process requires the aid of some surface.
This is easily ava ilable on the ground. In the free atmosphere,
suitable surfaces are not readily available.
In the atmosrhere there are millions of minute particles of
various substa nces which remain suspended . Some of these
particles are h ygroscopic Le. they absorb moisture. Water vapour
initially conde nses on h ygroscopic particles and change into
droplets of liq uid wa ter. The particles are there fo re ca lled
'condensa tio n nuclei '.

A cloud is a visible aggregate of minute particles of w ater or ice

or of both in the free air. The appearance of a cloud is determined
by the nature, nu mber, size and di stributi on in spa ce of its
constituen t particles. The intensity and colour of the light falling
on the cl oud, as also the relative positi ons of the observer and
the source of lig ht affect its appea rance. Clouds are in a process
of continuous evolution and therefore display an infin ite variety
of forms as seen in Fig 2.
4.2 Southwest Monsoon
The wet season o r Varsha is fro m June to September when the
southwest summer monsoon holds sway over the entire Ind ian
subcon tinent. The country outside the Hima layan belt and the
southeast peninsula receives nearly 75% of its annua l rainfall
with the largest number of rainy days during thi s period and
hence the name 'wet season'. The southwest monsoon sets in
over the extreme southwestern tip of the peninsu la by end May
o r early Jun e and a dvances inland in s tilges, reaching
northwestern India by mid-J uly. It starts withdrawing from there
by ea rl y Sep tember and gradually recedes sou th wards till it
lea ves the ex trem e southeast penins ul a by the middle of
December. However, by October it is o ut of the major portion of
the country and hence the period June to September is considered
to be the southwest monsoon period, taking the country as a
who le. This period is often referred to simply as ' monsoon', since
most people associa te rainfall w ith mo nsoon a nd since this is


IntroductiQn t o Astrology

Fig. 2 C loud Types and Heights

the main rainy season for most pa rts o f the country. Averaged
over the pl ains of Ind ia, the rainfa ll of th is period is 925 mm
where<l s in the rest of the tl months put together, th ~ rainfali is
only 145 mm .

It is important to know in ad va nce the da te of the onset of rains,

which in thi s context means the onset of the sou thwest monsoon_
The variou s synoptic features which preced e, accompany or
fpllow the onset and establi shment of the summer monsoon have
bl'en assiduously s tud ied by several workers for long. No unique
u itcriclO has yet been evolved to fi x the monsoon onset with
pIL'c i ~i(l n ti nct confiden cf'. \Nea ther sa tellite ima gery h as been



used to identify situations which indicate the onset. Large cloud

ensembles or cloud clusters have been found to be a characteristic
feature of the southwest monsoon regime.
The synoptic practice has been for fix the date of onset of the
summer monsoon as the date when strong southwesterly winds
set in with high dew point, accompained by moderate to heavy
Strength of the Monsoon
The criterion employed for describing the strength of the
monsoon is the speed of the prevailing surface winds over the
seas and rainfall amount over land areas. The criteria to denote
the activit" are:

' -"

Monsoon activity

Over sea (wind

speed in kt)

Over land (24 hr

Rainfall amount)


upto 12

Less than hi'llf the normal


13 to 22

\t2 to 4 times the normal.

23 to 32

Ih to 4 times the normi'll;


widespread rainfa!l, at least 5

em along west coast and 3 em




33 ond O b ]Mmethan4 time, the noem,l;

widespread rainfi'lU, atleast 8
em along wes t coast i'lnd 5 em

Progress of the Monsoon

It is important to understand that the progress of the monsnon
i~ neither steady nor smooth once it has set in over Kerala. The

pattern of further advance varies from year to year. In some ye<1rs

it advances right upto the north west of the country in one or
two s tages, whereas in some others there may be several spurts
before it completes the onset. Usu<tlly, after the first advance,
there is a weakening and the Monsoon remains s tationary for
some d<lyS or even recedes. A fresh surge is needed fo r tht"
';UDst'qUl'nt adva nce. The liMes of onset of till' different r('gi(1n

of the

l/lt roductioll to Astrology

COLIn try

can sh ow w ide varia ti ons, as can be seen from

some examples below:

Date of Onset


Mos t delayed

Coastal Kamalaka



14 June

North Konkan

8J une

20 may

25 June



27 may

23 June


12 June

4 June

26 June

East U.P.

15 June

S lune

3 July

West U. P

25 June

10 June

9 Ju ly


Brea k mon soo n Conditions

During the prevalence of the southw est monsoon, particul arly

in July and Aug ust, there a re period s of a week or more whe n
cl o uding d ecreases and r<linfall prac ti cally ceases over th e
coun try outs ide the Hima layan belt and southeast penins ul a.
Thi s is referred to as 'break monsoon condition ', Heavy rain fa ll
occurs over the sub-Himalaya n regions and the southern slopes
of the Hima layas, leading to hig h fl oods in the rivers with
c" tclunent areas thre. Thus though there is no rain over the plains,
dll the major northern and eastern Indian ri ve rs rise a nd nood s
The outsta nding featu re of the rainfall distribution is o rographic
control. Heavi est rainfall occurs on the wes tern coasta l upland s
o n the wind ward slopes of the Wes tern Ghats, particularl y
between la titude 10 and 20" N, the southern slopes of the Khasi
Jaintia hills and the sou thern slopes of Eastern Himalayas. The
va ria tions a re striking. Over the Western Ghats, rai nfall tape rs
off to 40 cm on the leeward side from 500 em, within a distance
of nea rly 80 km . The orog raphic effect is discernible even in the
co mparatively smaller Anwa lli ra nges, where Mt. Abu gets a



rainfall of 169 em while the surrounding plains have only 60 to

80 em. From Bengal there is a progressive decrease of rainfall
westwards. Ladhakh is another rain-shadow region.
Interestingly, statistical analysis lends credence to the popular
belief that there is an increase of rainfall on new moon and
full moon days.
The unpredictability of the rainfall pattern during
Monsoon will become dearer and predictable with the aid of
astrology as discussed in the subsequent paragraphs.
In astrology the meteorological forecast, primarily pertaining to
rains, is done in the following manner.
a) Long Range forecast: It is done by drawing the chart at
the time of "Ardra Pravesh" and will be dealt in detail in
the subsequent paragraphs.
b) Medium Range forecast: Thp forpCi'lst is bi'lsed on
observations made 195 days (a little over 6 If.. months) in
advance. Thus, for the monsoon rains (June - Sept.) the
observations of cloud formation, wind directions and the
rainfall will be made in Nov IDee- Mar I Apr. These
observations will provide the forecast of the rains in the
Monsoon period.
c) Short range forecast: This is done by using Rohini Yoga;
Moon's entry in Rahilli Nakshatra in Ashadha Krishna Pakslza
(within 10-12 days of Ardra Pravcsha) and Sapta Nndi
ClIakra. The details of these will be discussed in subsequent
paragr~phs. We also have a collection of miscellaneous
planetary configurations, Mandalas, Duars and Chakrns,
which would also be examined and explained.
Long-range predictions C.re made on the basis of Sun's entry into
Ardra Nakshatra (Gemini Rasi at 6 40'). This takes place around
21'1 June every year.

Varalta Mihira's Brihada Samhita Chapter XXVIII, Sloka 20

Tlltrodllctioll to Astrology


says there will be rains generally when p lanets set and rise, get
conjunct with moon, on entering a Mandala , end o f fortni ght;
and on a regul ar bas is on Sun ent~ring Ardra. Mercury-Venus,
Me rcury-Jupiter, Venus-jupiter conjunctions a lso s pell rain. The
Sun's entry into Ardra duri ng the 3 years heralding the 21 st
century a fe given below:

June 22"' 02-42 hrs Uune 21" 26-42), 2001

June 21 " 20-32 hrs, 2000
June 22"<1 14-13 hrs, 1999
When Sun ente rs Ardra the rainy season is born. The
ascendant de termines the rain's p otential o f the yea r. The other
determinants of rain a re:
(a) The wa t'e r content of the signs
The water content of the 12 signs is:
Cancer, Capricorn, Pi sces

Taurus, Sagittarius, Aquarius


Aries, Libra, Scorpio

Gemi ni, Leo, Virgo

(b) The ra in induci ng potential of plane ts a nd their PAC

connectio ns.
The planets, their nature and their rain inducing traits are:Planets













Dry & hot, Helps storms and
. hurricanes; retards rains.
Watery, induces rains.
Fiery Stormy and droughty;
retards rains . .
Watery w ith watery p lanets &:
dry with dry planets
Helps wa tery planets.
Modcrah.!~ 'e xtreme conditions.
Watery (Bril:'!s rains)
Dry &: cold



Notes:- Sun and Mars obstruct ra ins, hel p cause to rnad oes,
and hurricanes. Sa turn induces cold wintry conditions, Mercury
is a helper, Moon and Venus are the rain inducers .
(c) The geographic loca tion of a particular area in the Ardra
praveshn chart.

A study of the Ardra Pravesha chart lays o ut the general trends

for the year.
Why Ardra?

Ardra means w et. Ardra, commonly used in Hindi, also stand s

for eyes becoming watery w ith emotion. Rains in India are from
Ardra to Swati. Acco rd ing to the legend , these are fe ma le
constella tions and being unable to bea r the brilliance of Sun, cry
& weep. The tea rs o f these a re the rains.
5.1.1 Ardra Praveslla for 2001
In the yea r 2001, Sun entered Ardra on June 22 nd at 02-42 hrs
(given in Lahiri 's Ephemeris as 21 >1 June 2642 hrs). The planetary

pOSitions and the horoscope of that moment were drawn fo r

Delhi is as under:
5.1t MerR









The Ascendant is East, 7'" house is West, lO'h House is South and
the 4'" house is North .
Applied to Ind ia, it would be like the diag ra m shown in Di agra m 1.

illtrnductioll to Astrology







indian States on Horoscope for Mundane Purposes

NE r---------~E~~~~~
"""'" ",<>,
Par' 01 ~.'p.,.
..... " .n,h.1



O,.;, ...

Rih." lh"'.nd. W, ..

r.,, ~r:-;.r'"

' .. ..,1.4" .

~k~ k .l.y.

SllJdm,8h." .
.. ,,,.0lI<II01


P"d.,h. Pondk .... Cj

".~.'.nd .


"".n .




Andk .... r, ....... h.


r." . 1~ II""r.",.


(;.n",' .~,b.

boomu ' nd
li .. hml<PllnJ. b.

SMI.. k.. Too.;' " . d. ,

" ""kon. K.... t., P .,')'

""p.' Pu".!

k " ""'k,

No"h( ' ,P.

Prod .. h,Dtlhi.

NMh P,kl",


"," M.h.... h'

B.'o<hht.1I, P....

" " n.k.,.




ofo!l.j."h . ... SI ... h


"i .,b Pak;' ... ,



" .....k"

M,h,.;,,, .

P ...",5outh

i'orlh ... " . ,






Now examine the Ardra pravesha horoscope. Aries has risen

in the Ascendant. Aries has 25% water content. Venus is in it.
Lagna lord Mars is in Scorpio, a 100% water content sign, so the
rain potential goes up. Venus is watery planet, and it aspects
Libra, it's own house. Libra, like Aries, is 25% water content sign.
Venus fully watery, influencing 25% watery signs is to produce
beneficial, average rainfall in the East and West of the country.
Rains in the West are also likely to be helped by the placement
of Mars, the Lagna lord in his own sign.
The sign in the South, the 10 lh house, is Capricorn, a
100% water content rashi and its lord is placed in Taurus, a
50% water content sign, implying increased water potential.
Saturn is cold and windy - storms and gales are likely in the
North has 5 planets in the North/ North-East directions. The
sign is Cancer, a 100% water content rashi and its lord is in
Gemini, a zero water content rashi, with Jupiter & Sun. Saturn
& Mercllry Uf:' in Taurus, a 50% watpr contpnt sign. Vpnus, the
lord of Taurus is in Aries. Saturn represents cold and Mercury is
an impressionable planet. Hence, cold conditions in rainy season
of average rains in the areas of Haryana, Punjab, Himachal
Pradesh & Kashmir.
The northern parts of the country may get about normal
rainfall with excess in the plains. Good beneficial rains in the
eastern and western portions. Thunder, strong winds and cooler
climate in North-Northeast and South-Southwest directions.
Karnataka, Goa, Western ghats and the West coast (Mangalore
area) and Therai, Northeast of Uttaranchal and Northwest of
Bihar excess rains. Rest of India may get normal rains.
Ardra Pravesha provides general trends based on the location
of watery signs - the directions in which 100% water content
signs are, get good rains generally. The planets bring in their
characteristics of cold and wind by Saturn, hot & violent winds
and storms by Mars, and heat by Sun. The planets also indicate
the geographical areas, which would be influenced by them
during the year.
The predictions made before Ardra Pravesha came to be


Introduction to Astrology

5.1.2 Ardra Pravesh 2006

At the time of updating this book, we have made the Ardra
Pravesh Chart for the year 2006, which was on 22 nd June 2006 at
09:22 hrs Delhi. The Ardra Pravesha 2006 chart is given below.
~______r -____~D_l






oj M E






















Ardra Pravesh 2006

Forecast of 2006 rainfall through Ardra Pra:vesh Chart

In this Ardra Pravesh Chart, Lagna rising with Cancer rashi
which h as 100% water content. It has 3 planets i.e. Saturn,
Mercury and Mars. Saturn and Mars are within 2 degrees of one
another. Mars is the Yog Karak of this chart. By nature Mars and
Saturn are the planets which control Prachand and Dahan Nadi's



of Sapt Nadi Chakra. Weather will take their signification and

would thus lead to excess in rains, excess in heat, excess in
disturbances. The news on 9th June 2006 was "Fog in the hot
month of June in North India". It is the gift of Saturn and Mars
closing up in Cancer, Meerut was fogged out.
We have had in end of October 2006 the strange sight of
Haridwar being white washed by inscecent hail strom - extreme
cold is Saturn's gift.
Jupiter in Kendra in Libra is aspected by Mars (the 10t h Lord)
and the Moon (the Lagna Lord from the 10 th House). 10 th House
of a Horoscope denotes South. Moon is a watery planet and Aries
has 25% water content. Aspect of Jupiter and Saturn on 10th and
10 th lord being placed in a sign which has 100% water content
should provide average or higher than average rainfall in
southern states during this monsoon. The north of the country
(4th house) Jupiter is placed, which will control the w~ather and
this part will be devoid of extremes. Jupiter is retrograde and a
planet in this awns/1m gives rise to erratic behaviour. Mar~ is ahead
of the Sun. The conjunction is on 23'.1 october. We have a Bhaddri
folk saying that" Aage Mangal Pichey Bhan, Varsha have os
saman". So rains are likely to dry up around 23,d september one month before the actual degree conjunction. The rain
followed simi lar pattern in South.
The 9 th lord of the Ardra pravesh chart rises in the the
Navamsha.lndian agriculture depends heavily on the quantam
and quality of monsoon. 9th House rashi rising in the Navamsha
lagna promises timely rains. The Navamsha lagna lord, Jupiter
is in the 12th House, which indicates national expenditure related
to agriculture. The country may give a higher procurement price.
The agricultura l inputs may need higher subsidy. Jupiter's
retrograde motion till July 2006 is likely to make monsoon erratic.
The monsoon was truly erratic.
Sun and Mars in the Navamsha are in the lOUt House. The
rashi is Sagitarius. 10 th House traditionally dictates south.
Sagitarius, in the natal chart, has risen in the sixth house.
Monsoon is likely to be accompained by Windy and tornado like
conditions (Pawan and Prachand). [This monsoon is likely to
provide cover tl) the activities of insurgents who are likely to


IlltrodUclion to Astrology

move from no rth weste rn part of the country towa rd s southe rn

pa rt o f India threa tening the Government (Sun) a nd the Security
Forces (M ars ). Thi s is confirmed by the Rahu 's asp ect o n lO'h
house in N av a ms ha from 6 th Hou se . Thi s a lso mea n s that
Government and Armed forces will hav e diffic ult time this
monsoon in these parts of the country.]
The Western portion of the country carries no pl anets (5-8'h
house). The area h as the aspect on its extremities - Venu s aspecs
Scorpio and Jupiter aspects Aquarius. Therefore, the are<l is not
tota lly arid . Rains in the Western portion of Indi a a re likely to be
less than n ormal.
Specia l Note fo r Mumbai and Goa: Saturn is the 7'h Lord ,
whi ch is in Cancer (100% w ater content rashi). lt is aspecting its
ow n house. It is a lso the S ih Lord . Therefore, w hatever goodies it
give, will be with a hefty price. Early rains has alread y cau ght
the BMC on the w rong foot. (June 06)
The observa ti ons for the medium range predicti on commence
in the month o f Margasheersh at the time when the M oon enters
Purva Ashadh a n aks ha tra in the Shukla pa ksh a. The d a te is
somew h ere aro und the las t wee~ of Novem ber or the first \
second w eek o f December. Moon's entry in the cons tella tions in
\.v hich clouds w e re observed and water d etected during the
observati on period N ov./ Dec. to Mar./ April will yield rain on
being vi s ited by the Moon in June /Sept p eri od . The gap is
generally 195 days.
The Purva A shadha nakshatra's lord is" Aa p " Aap is water,
or' Ambu' yet another name for water. It is, there fore quite logical
to believe tha t thi s con stellation would, in some w ay, contribute
to the rains. The othe r con stellations th at h av e prop en sity to
s timulate the cl oud s into yielding the water stored in them are
Purva Bhadrapad , Uttara Bhadrapad, Rohini and Utta ra Ashada .
These 5 con s te ll a tio n s are " Bahutoyad " ( g ivers o f ple nt y of
wa ter}.
Satabhis ha, Aslesha, Ardra, Swa ti and Magha a re a lso good
and fa vnumble nakshatras that assist the clo uds in sto ring w ater



and releasing it as rains, 195 days latcr. The cloudy or rainy

conditions observed during the stay of Moon in these 10 constellations are generally very promising for rains 195 days later.
Moon's entry in the constellations in which clouds were
observed and water detccted during the observation period
Nov.! April will yield rain on being visited by the Moon inJune!
Odober period. The period of the observation and its consequent
rcsult, 195 days later are as shown below:Observation (a)

Resultant rains (b)

Paushya Krishna paksha

Shravan ShulJa paksha

Magha Shukla paksha

Shravan Krishna paksha

Magha Krishna paksha

Bhadrapad Shukla paksha

Phalgun Shukla paksha

Bhadrapad Krishna paksha

Phalgun Krishna paksha

Ashwina Shukla paksha

Chaitra Shukla paksha

Ashwina Krishna paksha

Chaitra Krishna paksha

Kartika Shukla paksha

What is observed in (a) is repeated in (b). Rains observed in

the period (a) are repeated during the period shown in (b).
Clouds pregnant with rains observed in the months at (a) rain
for the duration as indicated below in the period shown at (b):-


8 days
6 days
16 days
24 days
20 days

The sages have recommended that observations be done at a

distance of every 10 yoganas. (one yojana is equal to nearly 14
Moon's entry into Rohini nakshatra in Ashadh Krishna Paksh is
called Rohini Yog. In the year 2002 it was on 07 July. It was on


Illtrodu ctiol! to Astrology

10l h July at 26-17 hrs in ] 999 and on 30t h Ju ly at 12-17 hrs in 2000.
In 2006 moon entered Rohini on 23rd June at 15:19 hrs. Thi s is a
defining day. Observations made on this one single day provide
the d ata for fo recasting wea ther for next four m onths. This is a
mute testi mony to the genius of OUf Sages and Rishi s.
On the da y of the entry of Moon in Rohini in Ash adh month,
the di rection of wind, ch an ges in the directions and speed of
w ind M e observed as they are the determinants to predict the
time and amount of rainfall dUTing the next fou r months. The
cl ouds, their shape and colou r and their water bearing content
I S noted . The observations are restricted to the day light ho urs.
The da y is divided into 4 parts each o f approxima tely 3 ho urs
duration. Each part is called a " Praha ra". Observations of the
First "Pahar" predict the results of Shravana month . The second
3 ho ur peri o d 's observ a ti o ns give the like ly weath e r o f
Bhad rapad month . The third " Prahnra" relates to Ashvin month .
The observa tions in the last 3 hours prior to the s unset relate to
Kartik month . If the wind is sweet smelling and is of mod t.' ra te
strength and the re are good. looking clouds, it a ugurs w ell for
ra in. Wind blow ing from East and West ca uses good rains. Wind
blow ing from South causes obstruction to the rains. Wind fro m
southeast is bad. Winds from North & Northeast are also good.
All directions, except South & Southeast are considered good.
Rohini Yog observa tions like the others are restricted to the loca l
area (10 yojanas).
O n this ve ry s pecia l day, seed s a re sown in s uitabl y
"Abhimantrit" ea rthen vessels. Their time of sp routing, the size,
colour a nd vibrancy of the seedlings determines the quality and
the q uantity of the crop pertaining to that seed and that area .
Also noteworthy are the remarks of Shri. Chi dambara Iyer
that are contained in the Brihad Samhita translation by Shri. M.
Ramakri shna Bha t "that the wea ther indica tions o f one si ng le
da y in a year sho uld form the subject o f so much ca lcula tio n
with the Hindu s in determining the future agricultura l prospects
of the land, while to the inexperienced eye of a western man of
science, the day a ppears as ind ifferen t o r otherwise as any other
d ay o f the yea r arg ues tha t modern science is still far behind in
her investigations o f the Iil ws of nature./I




5.4.1 Mandalas
Solar ingress into a Sign is called "Sankranti". Moon' s positi on
in a particular constellation (Nakshatra) during "Sankranti" sets
the tone for that month. Note the Mandala, the Moon is in at the
sola r-ingress time. The name of the Mandala decides the weather.
The Mandalas are:



BharanL Krittika, Pushya, Magha, Purva Phalguni,

Purva Bhadra & Visakha


Ashwini, Mrigashira, Punarvas u, Uttara Phalguni,

Hasta, C hitra & Swati


A rdr a, As lesha, Moola , Purva As h ad h a,

Satabhisha, Uttara Bhadra & Revati


Rohinl, Anuradha, Jycshta, Ultam Ashdha, Abhijit,

Shrawln & Dhanista

Varun & Mahendara Mandalas promote rain. Agni Mandala

sto ps it, Vayu makes it stormy, wind y with gales.
5.4.2 Meghduar
At Sankranti the Moon's placement in a specified "nakshatra"
would cause it to be in a Megh duar as under:Meghduar:
Bharani, Krittika, Rohini, Mrigashira, Ardra,
Punarvasu, Pushya mi & Aslesha
Magha, Purva Phalguni, Utta ra Phalguni,
Hasta & Chitra

Swati, Visakha, Anuradha

Jyesta, Moo la, Purva Ashadha, Uttar
Ashadha, Abhijit, Shra van
Dhanista, Shatabhisha, Purva Bhadra, Utrara
Bhadra, RevaH, Aslesha

Megllduar foretells good and beneficent rains.

VaY fiduar there are good clouds but the rains are elusive.

/lItrodJ/ ctiOI1 to Astrolom


Dllll rmaduar Very good for plentiful rains.

Rl'fdllQr Totally deceptive clouds rain is elusive.
H l'l1ldllar Beneficent and bountiful rains.
5.4.3 Planets and Rai ns
Some n otable occurre nces and their effect on the rains:1. Mars stayin g in Swab, Purva Ashadha, Uttara Ash ada, Ardra,
Rohini, Uttara Phalguni stops all rain.
2. Jupiter ahead of Sun & Venus causes ex tremes cold.
3. Moon in Can cer, Capricorn and Pisces induces good rain.
4. Mars, Mercury, Satu rn ahead of Venus cause winds, no rains.
5. Moo n ~ Venus conjunction or oppos ition causes ra ins.
6. Moon in 5, 7, 9 from Sa turn causes rain .
7. Mars ahead o f the Su n obs tructs ra ins.
S. Chan ge of signs by planets cause rain .
9. Retrogression of p lanets ca uses rain .
10. Setting & ri sing of planets (other than Sun and Moon) cause
This is the "Chakra" that indicates d aily rainfa ll. It is u sed if one
w ishes to find o u t whether it would ra in o n a particu lar d ay. It
is the daily / weekly diary of the rain . This is used. in rainy season
w ith greater fe lici ty.
This is h ow it is prepared . 'Sapta ' mean s seven and 'Nadi.' is
a channel. Prepare a ch art of seven vertical columns as given
below and name them as indica ted.


SWAn 15











U. BHAO.27





U PHAl CU,,"1 11 P.PHAteUNI 11

A.'.l RIT



SR,o\VAr..: H

P. 8HAO 26



1. Abhijit is included in the reckoning of con stellation s. It

comes in as 22, ...1 nakshatra p laced between Uttara Ashadha
and Shravan in the chart above. Its extent is 6 40' to la' in
Uttara Ashadha na kshatra.

A stro-Mekoro!ogy


2. Rains commence when Sun enters Ardra and cease when

Sun leav es Swa ti. Both these naks hatras are Rahu 's
nakshatra s. Another interesting fea ture is that from Ardra
(6) to Swati (15) are all fema le nakshatra s. These so ft ,
feminin e constella tions are unable to bear the hea t of Sun.
They cry and the ir tears are the ra ins. 16th, 17'h nakshatra s
are eunuchs and 18 th to 5"' are all male nakshatras.
It is also noteworthy that Southwest monsoon ca uses 70% of

rains in the country. Northeast monsoon ca uses the balance 30%,

ca lled winter rains generally in the southern areas o f the country.
The genera l pri ncipl es that govern rains in the context of
Sap ta Nadi Cha kra are:
a) Planets' transit into the constellations shown in the Nadis
of the C hakra activates the respective nadis.
b) The planeta ry ing ress in Prachand would mean transit of
any planet in the constellation Krittika (3), Visakha (16),
Anuradha (17) o r Bharani (2). The res ult would be
cyclonic, violent stormy weather. This would be definite
if two or more planets are simultaneously transiting in
the same Nadi.
c) The results of p lanetary ingress in the other constellation s
of a Nadi induces it to give results as under:
Wind s, gales, storms
Hot. fiery wea the r
Pleasant, cool & cl oudy
Good rains
Beneficial. timely and light rains
The best rains.
d ) Mars is the planet, that can single handedly induce a Nadi
to g ive its results. All other pl anets need support.
e) If the re are 2 o r 3 pl anets in a nadi, the rai ns will occur on
the d ay the Moon joins this group.
f) Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, Moo n induce r.ain s more
g) Weather changes when:
A major planet changes its sign (Sa turn , Jupiter, Mars,

IntroouctiOt! to Astrology


Whenever plane ts set or rise, retrog rad e o r direct,

weather is affected accord ing to the sign, nakshatra,
planet and the posi tion o f Moon .
Mercury in rainy season is capable of inducing rain
single handedly when it changes Signs, sets or ri ses or
re trogrades/ directs.
If a planet were in itsnadi, Moon's entry in a ny of the
fou r Nakshatras constituting that nadi would cause a
weather change.
If maximum number of planets (five) are in Neer nadi
and Moon joins it, rains w ill last for 6 d ays . Sa me
situ ation in Jal nadi will lead to 12 days rai n and in
Arndt nadi 24 days rain.
Malefics (Sun, Saturn & Mars) ca use clouds and do
not permit rains.
Moon, Mars, Jupiter in one nadi cause excess rains.
Lel us no w exa m ine 3 Rainy days. Firstly 11th April 2001.

The planetary position was:

Mercu ry

Revati (DC\ han)

AnurC\dha (Prachand)
Moola - (Dahan) Changed sign on 10111 April
at 18-15 hrs.
Utta ra Bhadra (Sjumya)
Roh ini (Pavan)
Utta ra Bhadra (SC\ umya)
Krittika (Prachand)

1. Mars changes the sign

2. Mercury & Venus in Uttara Bhadra - a water producing
naksha tra and in Pi sces, a 100% water sig n.
3. Ga le & rains are indicated.
26 th Ju ly 2005 (Maha rashtra, Konkan had the heaviest record

brea king rains)

The p lanetary positions were:

Pushya (Cmcer- 100% water) - Jala



Uttara Bhadrapad(Pisces 100% water)

Ashwini (Aries 25% water) - Pawan
Ashlesha (Cancer 100% water) - Amrit
Hasta (vigro 100% water) - Soumya
Magha (Leo 0% water) - Amrit
Pushya (Cancer 100% water) - Jala

1. Sun/Sat conjunction on 23rd July in Jala Nadi.

2. Mercury retrograded on 23rd July and was Set (Asta) on
25th July.

September 2006

U. Phalguni (Leo 0% water) - Neera

Rohini (Taurus 50% water) - Pawan
U. Phalguni (Virgo 0% water) - Neera
U. Phalguni (Virgo 0% water) - Neera
Vishaka (Scorpio 25% water) - Prachand
P. Phalguni (Leo 0% water) - Jala
Ashlesha (Cancer 100% water) - Amrit

5 Planets in Neera, Jala and Amrit Nadi's and 4 out of these 5 in

0% water content rashi, which caused a short duration rain.


Sun at sunrise is benign and is looked at by hordes of Sun
worshippers. It is an excellent cure for eyes to look at the Sun at
its rising time with naked eyes. However, if rain is due in a
few hours, the rising Sun becomes so bright that one cannot
look at it. "Durnireekshayo" this gem has come from Varalla
Mil/ir in his Briltaf Samhita. I can do no better than to quote it

BRTHAT SAMHITA, Chapter XXVIII - Signs of immediate

Slok no. 3: If in the rainy season, the Sun, even when rising,
cannot be looked at on account of his dazzling brilliance and
appear like molten gold, or possess the pure luster of beryl, or if


IIlfroductiOll to Astrology

he burns with intense heat at the Zenith of the sky, there will be
rain on the very same day.
S/ok no. 4: Tas teless water, the sky with the color of cow's
eyes or crow's eggs (white and blue), the quarters being
uncontaminated, salt becoming moist, subdued wind, much
tumbling of fishes ashore and the repeated croaking of frogs.
Slok no. 5: Immediate rain is indicated by cats scratching the
ground vehemently with their nails, accumulation of rust on
iron or bronze vessels with smell of raw meat ,or fish, and
construction of bridges on the roads by children.
Slok no. 6: Mountains looking like heaps of collyrium or their
caves wrapt in vapour, and haloes round the Moon with the
colour of cock's eyes (deep red), are symptoms of rain.
Slok no. 7: Ants shifting their eggs without any trouble,
mating of snakes, climbing down the trees by snakes and cows'
Slok no. 8: If the chameleons perched on the tops of trees fix
their gaze on the firmament, and cows (or bulls) look up towards
th~ Sun, there will be rain ere long or in near future. (It is
recognized by scientists that certain animals have uncanny
powers of foreknowledge of coming events. Nowadays the
police department employs dogs in tracking criminals).
Slok no. 9: If the domestic animals like cows are unwilling to
go au t of the house and shake their ears and hoofs, or if the dogs
behave in the same manner, it should be declared that there
would be rain soon.
Slok no. 10: When dogs stand on the roofs of houses, or bark
continuously looking up towards the sky, or when lightning
appears in the north-east at day time, then the earth will be
submerged in water.
Slok no. 11: When the Moon appears with the red hue of the
eyes of a parrot or pigeon or of honey, and when a second Moon
shines in the sky, there will be immediate rain.
Slok no. 12: If there be pearls of thunder at night and bloodred streaks of lightning standing erect like rods at day-time, and
if there be a cool breeze blowing from the east, there would soon
be rain.
Slok no. 13: If the sprouts of creepers are turned up towards



the sky, birds bathe in water or dust, and reptiles or worms art:'
seated on the tips of grass, there will be an immediate fall of
Siok no. 14: If the clouds at dawn or twilight possess the same
colour as peacocks, parrots, blue-jays or Cataka birds, or have
the luster of roses and red lotuses and resemble in shape wave,
hills, crocodiles, tortoises, or fishes, and are piled up in many
layers, they will pour down rain before long.
Siok no. 15: If the clouds are as Nhite as chunam or the Moon
at the edges as dark as collyrium, or the bees at the center, glossy,
have many layers, dropping particles of water, and are cut up
like the steps of a staircase, and being formed in the east, sail
westward or vice versa, they will drench the earth for long with
plentiful rain.
Siok no. 16: If at the time of sunrise or sunset there be a
rainbow, a cross bar of clouds, a mock Sun, a straight fragmentary
rainbow, flashes of lightning, and haloes around the Sun and
the Moon, it should be predicted that there will be plentiful rain
in the near future.
India has a treasure trove of folk sayings. A traditional SOCiety

has these "Paramparic" bits of wisdom contained in pithy and

telling couplets. Ghagh and Bhaddari, a husband wife team, are
remembered to this day for their witty, wise and superbly
accurate couplets that predict nature's future course. For rain
forecasts rural India would any day line up behind these geniuses
forsaking the totally unreliable Met Office's forecast. The real
taste of these sayings is in the local language. Translation in
English makes them insipid. Sample a few of them.
1. "Vayu chalegi uttara, maand piyenge kutra": In rainy season
should wind blow from the North it brings such beneficial

rains that even the stray dogs get to eat rice.

2. "Magh poos jo dakhilJa chale, to savan ke lachchan bhale":
Southerlies in winter months indicate a blessed rain filled
July- August.
3. "Dakkhini kullankini, magh poas sullakkhini": Southerlies are
harbingers of ill luck, except in Winter months Gan-Feb).

Itlt roduction to Astrology


4. "Uttar dlamke bijuri, purabballti vnyu, Gaglt knllyesu1l Blmddri

barglm hlli/ar falll1. ": Ghagh asks Bhad dari that the~e is
lightning in the North and the wind is blowing from the
East, I think rain is round the corner. Sha ll I bring the
b ullocks inside the house?
5. " Ug!! Agas ta pilUle btl" kaans, ab cIJodo barkha ki ntis": The
sta r " Agas ta " has ri sen (this is a southe rn star which rises
a ro und lO,It Sep). It'sconnection w ith rains iswell know n.
Even Goswa mi Tul sidas has w ritten " Udit agasta panth
jalil sokha " meaning Agasta has ri sen water wi:! now be
sucked dry.

n. "Poos (/I/{ther; saptami j o paam l/all;lI dei,

tall Ardra horse sa/Ii

Ja /a tllata t'k kare;": PODS represents December. If there is no

nHn on the Krishna Paksha S.'p ta mi then there would be
plenty of rai ns during the end o f ensuing Juae. This a lso
indicates the acceptance of the 195 d ays rul e based on local
knowledge and reliable replicity.
7 "Aage nUl1Igal pic11chey bllan, varslm hove 0 5 Samail " In
monsoon months if Mc:rs is ahead o f the Sun rains get
retarded. This has been experienced a number of times
a nd is correct agai n proving the d epth and vision of the
Sages and Ri shis.

O n Earth, heat from the sun w arms the equator much more than
the poles, and then the a tmosphere and oceans move thi s hea t
tow ard the poles. The mo ~i on in the atmosphere is powered by
hea t from evapora ting sea w ater. The warm, moist a ir rises,
pu lling in dry air and crea ting giant atmosphe ric loops ca lled
convection cells tha t transfe r heat awa), from the equator.
The phenomena ca lled "Southern osci llation" re fers to a
seesaw shift in surface air pressure at Darwin, Australia and the
So uth Pacific Island of Tahiti. When the pressure is hi gh a t
Darwin it is low at Tahiti and vice versa. El Nino, and its sister
event - La Nina - a re the extrerne phases of the southern
oscillation, w ith El N ino referring to a warrning of the eastern
tropica l Pacific, and La Nina a cooling.
The El Nino/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) may have more
far-reaching effects on the global climate th an researchers used



to thin k. Not onl y the Pacific Ocean, but the Indi an Ocea n
experiences cyclica l flu ctuations in upper ocea n temperature that
have repercussions for the world 's wea the r, new analysis of
surface a nd s ub surface tempe ra ture, d a ta confirms thi s
phenomenon for the first time. It has been discovered that an EI
Nino pa ttern in the centra l Indian Ocean, is locked in phase to
that of the Pacific Ocean. Related e ffects were also observed in
the Atl antic that trail the El Nino in the Pacific and Indian oceans
by about 12 to 18 months.
For a long time weather analysts have wonde red about the
rol e th at the Ind ian Ocean plays in the El N ino cycle, yet they
have been unable to identify recurrent and robust patterns of
sea surface vari ab ility in the Indian Ocean on EI Nino timescales.
An EI Nino begins in the Paci fic w hen w arm surface wa ters
and heat in the upper layers of the ocean build up in the central
equatoria l Pacific and subsequentl y are transported eastward
toward the coast of the Americas. When this movement / wave
propa ga tion, reaches the coastline, it is reflected and moves back
across the Pacific in the form of a wave that continues to affect
climate and ocean circ:.lia tion. The net effec t brings disruptive
floods to some areas, while bringin g droughts to others, ranging
from eastern Australia to Brazil and Africa, and from North
America to India.


/Iltrodilctioll to Astrology

For example, when the warm water pool in the Pacific is

centered at a longi tude o f about 160 o W, the warm water pool in
the Indian Ocean is beginning to be displaced eastward from
about 500 E longitude of the tip of Iridia. When the pool a rrives
during the course of a 3- to 7-year cycle a long the coast of the
Ameri cas in the Pacific, the pool in the Indian Ocean is off the
coast of India. During thi s state, droughts are seen throughout
India, while floodin g and its related economic and health perturba tions are occurring across Central and parts of South America .
What's more, the scientists hypothesize that the ENSO cycles
in the Indian and Pacific oceans may influence each other. Study
and constant monitoring of EI Nino events in the Indian Ocean
may help pred ict rainfall patterns in the Austral-Asia region 612 months in adva nce in the way tha t scie ntis ts are now
attempting to make better predictions of climate variations due
to Pacific ENSO phenomenon.
Nevertheless, the dynamic processes within each ocean
appei'lr to be different, the scientists observe. For starters, the
wa rm pool propaga tes more slowly along the eq uator in the
Indian Ocean than that w hich the pool does in the Paci fic Ocean.
After the full-n ecl.:~ed EI Nino in the eastern Pacific diSSipates,
the wa rm pool in the Indian Ocean continues eastward to
Ind ones ia a nd southeas twa rd into the Timor Sea north of
Australia. In addi tion, the circulation of the pool in the India n
Ocean appears to be linked w ith the 3- to 7-year perturbation in
monsoon winds .that blow along the coastlines of East Africa,
India, and Indonesia. During an Indian Ocean El Nino, the
southwesterly summer monsoon is much wea ke r, and less
moisture is being advected ov.er India.
This is a brief introduction to Astra Meteorology. We are lucky
that the forem ost exponent of this science Shri K.N. Rao is
regularl y explaining its use in his articles in various newspapers
a nd the Journal of Astrology. The readers must read them then
on ly would they understand the depth and the superiori ty of
this ancient science.




1. Mughals and Astrology

l.et us take a birds eye view of Mug hal rule. Babar was the grand
son of hvo of the most notorious names in the world historyChangez Khan and Taimur the Lame. Changez was his maternal
grandfather, and Taimur his paternal grandfather Taimur had
invaded India in 1398 but he didn't stay. His memory however
stays on as the ba rbaric, ruthless looter and savage invader.
Babur ruled India for 4 short years 1526-1530. His
technologically advanced weaponry; guns; were used for the
first time on the battle field-earned him a touch and go victory
over the numerically superior army of the Ibrahim Lo(ii. His
companions did not like the heat and dryness of India and
wanted to return to the cool environs of Kabul.
Babur pressed them to stay on. Rana Sanga of Mewar
attempted to root out these Mughal invaders. On 16th March
1627 he engaged Babur in the Battle of Kanua (40 miles West of
Agra). The Rajputs lost and the Mughals struck root. There is a
record of Babur taking Astrological advises. The astrologer was
Mohammed Sharif; His advise was that Babur would lose hence
he should desist from-waging war. Babur reacted by the dramatic
renunciation of alcohol, his breaking the wine goblets and the
decJaraion "with fame even if I die I am content; let fame be
mine. Since my body is death's". Babur won. Mohammed Sharif
was given one lakh rupees for his services and banished.
Babur has written about the birth of Humayun that "On Tuesday
4 Zikad 913 Hijari (6 March 1508 AD) when Sun was in Pisces



con stellation, Humayun got birth in the inner fort of Kabul.

Maulana Musnadoun, a well known poet, worked out the name
s ultan Humaun Khan from the date of birth, another poet worked
out Shahe Feroz Kadr as the name. From the numerological
interpretation of these names and checking their compatibility
with date of birth, Humayun name was selected for the boy.
Birthday Celebrations
Every year, the birthday of Humayun was celebrated by
weighing him in gold and distributing the Gold to the masses.
The Palace was decorated in the form of Zodiacal signs. People
sat in an arrangment, which was totally astrological. This was
in the form of a massive carpet. The seating arragment was
circular and made of precious stones. The firs t (outer) ring was
white, second ring was blue, third connected with Saturn was
black, fourth connected with Jupiter was Kesri, fifth representing
Mars was re~i, sixth for Sun was golden, seventh connected with
Venus was purple, eighth connected with Mercury was bright
green and ninth enclosure, related to Moon, was white. After
Moon, the enclosures of Fire, Air, Earth and Water- were laid in
The Bad shah used to sit in the golden area of Sun. Every
group was related to the seven planets. This way Hindu Amirs
and Sheikhs sat in black region of Saturn, Syeds and Aalims in
Kesri region of Jupiter. Similarly all other persons were seated
according to their rank and profession. King also used to employ
a dice to select the sitting arrangement. The figure on the dice
used to decide whether the person has to sit, stand, lean or take
rest on the pillow (musnad). Each planets enclosure was divided
into 200 parts; therfore there was arrangement to accomodate
1400 persons.
Humayun's Character
Humayun's predicted age was 51 years. His reign lasted for over
25 years. He was full of all skills besides astounding external
and spiritual qualities. He was second to none in astrology,
Nakshatra-Vidya (Astronomy) and all secretive studies. He was

MlIglJd/S dlld Ast rology


supporter of lea rned, skilled, pure and saintl y people. He was

also a ttracted to poems and poets and he himself used to create
good quality ve rses. He w as never without ablutions. He never
used to take the name of Allah without purity. He used to spend
nights in conferences and never used to display miserlyness.
He never used to scold or abuse anyone. He never used to take
left foot forward first ~ ithe r at home or at Masjid. In his durbar
also if someone enered w ith left foot he used to ask him to enter
w ith hi s right foot. He never used to laugh heartil y but used to
sm ile in public.
Omens and Shakuns
Omens and Shakuns are pa rt of Astology. Even w hile teaching
Astrology today, O mens ans Shakuns form a Skand ha out of the
five. Shakun and omens were practices by Muslims as FALL,
which is exp lained in ' KANUN E HUMAYUN I' as under:"There are two types of Shakuns. Good Shakun is ca lled FALL
and bad Shakun is called TIARAH."
Hazra t Muhammad declared to believe in FALL and di sca rd
TIARAH. When asked what is a FALL, Paighambar (Prophet)
replied that any good w ord you hear is FALL. He also mentioned
tha t running of anima ls, the fli ght of birds a nd throwing of
stones, w hich are considered FALL a mong the idol worshiping
Arabs, should be shunned.
Humayun was a firm believer in Omens and Shakuns and
would, like the believ ing people even today, seek and be on the
lookout for a good omen. Two such incidents have been recordl..>d
in ' KUNUNE H UMAYUNI', a book w ritten by Khawa nd Mir.
The book has been Published by The Department of History,
Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh in 1962.
Humay un was out riding when he wanted to take out a
FALL. He mentioned it to his companion Maulana Masihud din
Rouh alla tha t the next three persons, w ho they w ill come across,
should be asked their names and FALL ascertained on that basis.
The first pe rson, Hu mayun came across, was a n old man and he
was asked to give his na me. He mentioned his na me as Murad
Khawaja. The nex t person was a woodcutter ca rrying w ood on
his d onkey. He gave his name as Daul at Khawa ja. Humayun



said that if the third person were named Sa-adat it would be an

excellent FALL indicating great good luck. About the same time
they came across a small child tending hi s cattle. He gave his
name as 5a-adal. This made everyone happy and they belived
that with heavenly blessings Humayun-would rise and achieve
his goa ls.
KANUNE HUMYUNI goes on to explain the implications
of these three names as indicated hereunder:
Ehl e Murad - Good Looking, handsome, Singers and
musicians w ere put under this category.
Ehle Daulat - All the position holders and the leaders of the
community, the relatives, the-Amirs and the soldiers were called
the Ehle Daulat.
Ehle Sa-adat - Syeds, Amirs, Q azis, the learned, the-poets
and the respectable folk were all classified under Ehle Sa-adat.
Murad followed by Daulat followed by Sa-adat was thus an
extreme ly fortunate FALL.
Just before going to batie, Humayun wi'lnted to take out i'I
fall and he thought if a white rooster comes and sits on his right
sh oulder, Victory w ould be his. Within few minutes of thi s
tho ught crossing his mind, a w hite rooster came and sat o n his
ri ght shoulder. Humayun was so pleased with this FALL that h e
even announced impending Victory to his soldiers.
Division of Weeks Days
Humayun divided the weeks days according to "Ehle Daulat"
or "Ehle Sa-ad at" or " Ehle Murad". He had kept Friday for rest
and Ibadat.
Saturday and Thursday: Saturday and Thursday were classified
for " Ehle Sa-adat" Le. for ~ience and knowledge or Ibadat
(prayers) . These two days were chosen for this purpose because
Saturday is associated with Saturn who is the supporter of
Adorable Mashayakh (ancient heritage) and Jupiter is associated
with thursday and it supports Syeds, Alims and honorable
foll owers of Shariat (prescribed rituals).
Sunday and Tuesday: Sunday and Tuesday were classified
under " Ehte Da ulat". The matters reatting to administration of

MughaIs and Astrology


the Kingdom, maintenance of law and order and issuing of

Farmans (royal orders) etc. The reason for choosing Sunday
for this purpose was that Sunday is associated with Sun who
is related to Kings and Haakims by the grace of Gdd. Tuesday
is associated with Mars who is the supporter of brave
Monday and Wednesday: Monday and Wednesday were
clssified for. "Ehale Murad". In these two days the Nadimi
(reliable subjects) and "Ehale Murad" (special people) were
called in the Durbar and their desires were fu1fiJ~ed. These days
were chosen because Monday is associated with Moon and
Wednesday is associated with Mercury.Therefore is was more
appropriate to listen to the beautiful Moon like persons speaking
the-language of Mercury i.e. Music on these days to increase
Humayun's Administration: Division of Departments of
Sultanate According to Tattwas
Humayun divided the departments of his Sultanate according
to fO:.J.r Tattwas i.e. Aatshi (Agni or Fire), Hawaii (Vayu or air),
Aabi (Jal or water) and Khaki (Prithvi or earth). He had appointed
one minister for each of these departments.
Aatshi or Agni or Fiery Deparment: the department that deals
with fire most of the time like Gunnery, Weapons, Managment
of War Equipment etc. is classified as Aatshi department. Khwaja
Amidul Mulk had been appointment the Vazir of minister of
the Aatshi Deparment. He used to wear Red clothes in the
Hawaii or Vayu or Airy Department: Department dealing with
the managment of Kirkiraq, Kitchen, Royal Stable and Mules &
Camels etc. was classified as Hawaii or Vayu or Airy Department.
Khwaja Lutfullah was appointed the Vazir or minister of this
department. He used to wear yellow clothes in the Durbar.
Aabi or Ja! or Waery Department: Management of Sharbat
Khana, administration ofSuchi Khana and routing & digging of
canals and all such managment which is concerning water were
classified uner Aabi or Jal or Watery Department. Khwaja Ha san



was appointed the Vaziror Minister for this d epartment. He used

to wear blu e clothes in the Durbar.
Klwki or Prithv; or Earthy Department: Ag riculture, Building
Constructi on, Civil Works and adminstration o f land etc were
assigned to the Khaki or Prithvi or Earthy Department. Khwaja
Ja laluddin Mirza Beg was appointed the Vazir or Mininster o f
thi s d ep artment. He used to wear g reen clothes in the Durba r.
Humayun's Visit to Tabrez

When Humayun reached Tabrez; he was show n few astrologica l

ins truments whose Persian names are ' Ustarlab' and 'Kufrah',
These were used for meas uring the planetry distances. He w as
told tha t since Tabrez was a very old low n , many ins truments
used in obse rvatories could be found there. Humayun was
intcrsted in Astrology and ordered that these be searched and
b ro ught to him.
Birth of Akbar

Akbar was born o n 4 Rajab 949 Hijari (14 October 1542 AD) a t
Amarkot in the morning. Moon was in Leo. The birth in Leo is
considered very auspicious. Astrologers say that the son born at
th is moment will be regal and have long life. Humayun named
hi s son Jalaiuddin Mohammad Akbar in accordance w ith the
drea m he saw in Lahore on 4 Rabbi Usa ni 947 Hijari (8 Aug 1540
A D ).

Oneof the reliable subjects of Humayun mentioned that o ften

Humayun would look at the Horoscope of his son in seclusion
and get pleased. Once this man had visited the secluded place
where Humayun was a lone. He hea rd the footsteps. Since no
one could visit the pl ace, on pondering it was realized th at Hazrat
Pad shah (Humayun) was extremely pleased and dancing. When
Huma y un rea li zed the know led ge o f his s u bject about his
d ancing, He explained that the reson for hi s rejo icing w as the
pleasure, which he got after seeing the Horoscope of hi s fateful
Huma yun had sent Akbar on a campa ign w ith Balram Khan .
Some time later, He started worrying about hi s son's welfare

Mr rghnls nlld Astrology


.lnd to feel relieved he call ed for his son's horoscope, which is

the sa fe repository of destiny. Humayun studied the hOl'oscope
and examined the planetray configurations for longevity, Victory
over the ene mies, and his luck. The exa minatio n relieved him of
all stress and he felt good tha t due to the luck of Akbar and the
bless ings of hi s desti n y, v icto ry a nd success o f Akba r was
Huma y un appo inte d Maul a n a Ba izeed, who wa s a n
astrologer and a kinsm(l n of Mirza Ullah Beg, a famous Turk
Astrologer, to teach Akba r.
Sher Shah Suri was in Eastern Indi a i.e. Bengal, Bihar and Orri ssa.
Sher Shah heard tha t a famo us astrologer wa s there in the service
of Ki ng o f O rissa. He wa nted to call him and consult abo ut his
fu ture plans. King had no t spared the astro loger. How ever, the
O riya Jyotishi predicted in writing that Sher Shah Suri will not
get victory in Bengal for one year and gave him a time and d ate
to cross the river Ganges and leave for Benga l for success. Sher
Shah Sud fought and defeated Humayun on 10 Muharram 947
Hija ri (1 7 May 1540). Huma yun had to fl ee and leave India fo r
Sher Khan or Sher Shah Suri and his Afghans.
This indicates the depth to which astrology had pervaded
the normal psyche and behaviour of Humayun who was just
the second Mughal Emperor. It must be borne in mind that
Humayun was on the run for most of the time of his reign and
had faced some comprehensive defeats. These ups and downs
made him a firm follower of Astrology because this is a
definite, replicabl e way of determining the ebbs and tides of
At the time of Akbar's birth Chand, the astrologer, was consulted
who correctly predicted about the auspicio us moment of Akbar 's
birth. The horoscope that we get in Chapter III of Akabar Nama
w as cast in accordance w ith the Greek Astrolabe . The horoscope
of Akbar cast by Maul ana Chand was as-under:



N<lme: Akba r

Pl ace o f Birth : Amarkot 25N 15; 69E 40

Date of Birth : 15 th October 1542 Time of Bi rth: 2 AM







MAr~ s











Ma uJana C hand also cast the horoscope of Prince Sali m

(E mpe ror Jahangir) in the 14th yea r of Akba r 's reign in 1570.
Akbar's horscope as per Hind u astrology and prepared by Joti k
Rai, the cou rt astroiD er, is as g iven below

vEN Jur











The d iffe rence in two horoscope is on the basis of two

different system followed by two astrologers.
In Chapter V of Akbar Nama another horoscope is g iven
which was p repared by Azdu-d -Dau lah Amir Fa thu-I-Lah of
Shiraz who was consulted by Akbar w hen he joi ned Akba r's
cou rt in lS83.The ho roscope prepared by-him was as under"


Mughnls alld Astr%KY













j U, VI:


The horoscope cast by Maulana Alyas of Ardabil (the ca pita l

of Aza rb a ijan ) follow e d the II khani ta b les. Alyas Wn S
ma themetcian of repu te who belonged to the country of Tabrez
where Nasir-ud -din Tusi had his observatory. The birth chart of
Akbar by him was as given below:












The difference between the Greek philosophers and India n

astrologers about Akbar's horoscope is due to the fact that Ind ian
p laced the Ascendant with horoscope in Leo while the Greek
placed it in Virgo. This was due to the difference of opinion
among philosophers about the movement of zodiacal Heaven.
The difference persists even today.
During the p e riod o f Akba r following two boo ks o f
"Astrology" were produced:



Joti sh- This was a book on Phalit Jyotish written by Abdu r

Ra him-e-Khane -Khana in Mansavi (story) form with
s tanza s alternatively in Persian and Sanskrit.
Ta jik- This is a translation of an astro logy book in Pe rsian
by Mukkammal Khan Gujrati on the order of Akbar. Tajik
is the name of mid Asian race speaking Persian language.
This word was also used in Arabic" Ta jikneelkanthi " is a
high order phalit Jyotish book in Sanskrit. The reason for
na ming this book Tajik was that "Tajineelka nthi " was so
popular that the word "Tajik" became a synonym for Phalit
Jyotish .
(Akbar by Ralr ul Sanskralyall PP 308)

Coronation Horoscope of Akbar

In the idgah of Kalanur (Kalanur is near G urdashpur in

Punjab a dilapidated structure marks the corona tion place. In
a n ausp iciou s hour, near noon of Frid ay according to the
second Rabi-as-sani 963 of the lunar year (14th February 1556)
but by calculations the middle of the third (15 th February) 10
Isfand arnaz of the Jalai year 477, 15 Tir of the Yazdajirdi year
925, 14 shabar o f the Rumi (Syro-Macedinian), year 1867, that
glory of his lofty lineage put on his person a golden robe and on
his head a dark (mashkin) tiara, and sat with good auspices and
prestige o n the dia s o f soverei g nt y a nd the throne o f the
Ca lipha te.
14 Feb 1556 Noon KALANUR










Mug/wls and Astrology


Description of the scheme of Horoscope of the Accession of

H.M. the King of Kings.

Various delightful points emerge from the consideration of this

auspicious hroscope. The first is that in the tenth angle which is
the house of sovereignty, the Sun is showing increase of light,
Now, the main point for consideration with regard to the hour
of an accession is the propitiousness of the tenth house, Viz that
there should be propitiousness befitting the approach of world
Imam-Abu-I-Muhammad of Ghazni, who was one of the
great masters of astronomical prognostication, has laid it down
that it is good to have the ascendant in Scorpio so that the tenth
angle may be Leo, the house of Sun God. Here we have the Sun
come of his own accord into the tenth and spreading the rays of
auspiciousness and fortune.

A Siwh who was ti,e fulfiller of hope,
His heart shone with eternal light.
How can his ray not brighten the world,
Who have the Sun for a guardial1?

The second house, which is that of property, is Cancer and

the Moon, which is the Regent of the house, has attained in the
eleventh house, which is that of hope, the position of fauq-alarz (ascension above the earth). This is the proof that the keys of
earth's treasures will, without difficulty or effort, corne into the
hands of the treasurers of his fortune.
The third house, which is that of kinsmen and connections,
is Leo and its dominant the Sun, is in the tenth angle. All reltives
will be obedient to order and submissive to the commands of
the Shahinshah.
The fourth house is Virgo, which is called the terrestrial angle,
and conversant with the final results of actions and with
possessions. The dominant (Mercury) is in Ninth house vvhich
is that of travel. This is a proof of excellent eventualities and of
stability of conquests.
The fifth house is Libra, which is that of children, and



enjoyment and parents. Its regent Venus, is in Pisces, which is

her house of exaltation.This proves that auspicious children will
be near to the King and will show affection,'and will grow up in
the shadow of dominion and grace, that the cup of social joy
will brim over, and that caravans of gifts from the four quarters
of the world will unload at h is threshold.
The s ixth hou se is Scorpio, which is that of s laves and
serva nts a nd of di sease. Its Rgent Mars is in the house of
sovereignty (the tenth). TItis indicates equability of temperament,
numerous faithful slaves and devoted servants. Though Jupiter
is in Sagittarius, yet, by vi rtue of equal distribution of houses,
he is imparting blessing to the sixth house .
The seventh house, Sagittarius, is the Western angle and the
nadir (Nazir) of the ascendant. It is the house of enemies. As by
the equal distribution of houses it is void of an auspicious s tar,
there is s trong evidence that the e nemies of the s tate will be
The eighth house is Capricorn, which is conversant with
heritages. As its dominant (Saturn) is in the eleventh house, this
is a proof that hereditary bleSSings will be attached to the perfect
condition of his personality.
The ninth house, is Aquarius and has to do with knowledge,
faith and travel, Mercury who is the lord of the Ascendant (as
Regent of Gemini) is there. He has a kind aspect to the Ascendant,
and causes the acquisition of the lights of wisdom. He tells of
sincere inquiry into the affairs of realm and religion. Soundness
of plan in matters of travel and conduciveness thereof to the
confirmation of-dominion.

A king, whom for his wisdom we call Zir fanun (Master of Sciellcl.'s)
We call him a guide to the road to God
Though kings be God's shadows
He is God's light how then call him a shadow.

The tenth house, Pisces, is called the tenth angle and is the
house of sovereignty and of mothers. The Sun, Venus and Mars
are there. The d ays of sovereignty will alway~ pass pleasantly,
and the owner will have daily increasing source~ of splendour

M IIg/ra/s al1d Asl rolog..,


and glory. Mothers of hi gh rank will attain thei r desires thought

good fortun e.
The eleven th house, Aries is associated with hopes and w ith
s incere fri e nds. It is the Sun 's house of exa ltation, and the
swiftly movi ng Moon is Waxing there. Every hope that a ri ses in
the holy soul wi ll be fulfilled quickly and thoroughly, and friends
wi ll become successful from being associa ted wi th hi s grea t
The twelth ho use is Taurus and is house of enemies. It is
void of stars, and Mars is in aspect from the tenth house. The
enem ies of realm and religion will drink blood from the sha rp
sword of Mars. The Moon is in Aries, the Sun's ho use of
exalta tion. the g reat men of thi s science have declared tha t in
accession horoscope, the Moon, which is the intermedia ry for
conveying light from the superior heavenly bod ies to the inferior,
should be in Ar ies. Th ey have considered this to be a
circu mstcmces greCl tly to be relied upon. The Su n is in conjunction
with Moon. The Regent of tenth house (JupitcrHs in the seventh
house. The house of ascendant is aerial. These things indiacate
that the victori ous troops will be well disciplined and that there
wi ll be increase of the royal splendour and g lory. The part of
Good Fortune is strong for it is si tuated in Leo, w hich is Sun's
house, a nd its regent is in the tenth house. Jupiter who is stro ng
evidence of loya lty, is in the seventh in his own house and is
most auspicious. The regent of the tenth house is ascend ing. The
a ffa irs of the sta te shall daily advance and be proper. A po rti on
of the hou se of the ascendant is rising in the mansion of the
Moon . Mercury has a friendly aspect to the Moon. These are
clear indications tha t thi ngs w ill turn out the bes t,-that fortun e
w ill increase and desires be attained.
The inte rpre tatio n of the good po ints in this horoscope, and
the lvonders of it, is beyond the power of description. Acu te
scrutinizers of celestia l tab les and corne rs of degrees on the
surface of astrocables know by the schedule of thought and the
ca lend ar of intelligence how few of such grea t and greatenessconjuring hours, in which so many everlas ting blessing a re
unfolded have occurred sice the time of the first motions of
heavens and the constellations and since the conduct of the world


A ll neXIln:'S

of mankind, which is quintessence of creation. has been in the

charge of the heavenly bodies.
One of the poets has said with respect to the chronogram of
the glorious occasion

Tile pu lpit was exalted by the King's Khutba

And by a just mintage deeds become golden
By Akbar Shall's sitting on sovereigll ty's throne
The accession of the word protecting lord also points to the
yea rs ending in bliss.

Jahangir had fi rm belief in astrology. Jahangir Nama makes

it clear that Jahangir himself had the knowledge of Astrology
and he knew the d ifference in calculations between the Hindu
Astrolog y and G reek As trology. Jahang ir N am a h as b een
authored by Jahangir himself and he describes in de tail the
period of his rule. Jahangir Nama is written in persian language,
which was later translated into English and Hind i. We are giving
few extracts translated from the Hindi translation of the Jahagi r
Nama', w hich reveals that Jahagir used to practice astrology and
consult the astrologers for day.to-day works as well as for taking
important decisions, Nagari Paracharini Sabha, Kashi, published
thi s Hindi translati"on of Jahangir Nama and second edi tion was
published in 1990, In this treatise relevant extracts have been
taken from thi s edi tion of Jahagir Nama.

Jahagir ca me to the throne after the death of his f"ther Akbar

after taking out the auspicious time:
"Now we w ill describe some portion of the proceed ings, so
tha t is remains inscribed in pages of the world . On the morning
of Thursday 20 Ja madiulavval 1014 Hijari at the appointed
auspicious time according to Jyotish at Agra city at the age of 38
years accepted the Badshahi throne and-became Badshah ". (First
Julusi Year, Page 1)

Mughals and Astrology


Julusi year of any King begins with the coronation of the

king and goes till his death and thus called first, second, third
year respectively. However, Jahangir started his second Julusi
year from the day of Nauroz when Iranian first month Farvardin
starts. This day also marks the entry of Sun in Mesha Rashi. Here
it is not clear whether this is the entry of Sayana Sun in Mesha
or Mesha Sankranti according to the-Iranian calculations because
Jahangir has mentioned the entry or Sun in Mesha on 19, 20 or
21 March in many years, but at least on two occasions he talks
about Mesha Sankranit on 10 March. Otherwise, Iranian year
was used to be solar year and was equal to 365 days and 15
Ghati. But the remainder one-fourth of the day (15 Ghati) is
'calculated in one additional month after 120 years. Beside this,
Jahangir used to celebrate his Julusi New Year with lot of fan
fare every year on the Iranian New Year Day 'Nauroz'. Jahangir
has also described the planetary position at the time of his birth.
Akbar had sought the belssings for son at the Dargah Sharif of
Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti of Ajmer. Jah;mgir describes about
the incident as follows:"Father's request for son was made with pure heart, that's
after 6 years of the death of my brother, on Wednesday 17 Rabiul-avvaI977 Hijari when 7 Ghati day had passed and Tula Rashi
had risen by 24 Darja (degree) God had sent me in this world."
Jahangir had mentioned at-least two Muslim Astrologers,
who were the contemporaries of Akbar and himself:"His name was Sheikh Abdullah and he was second to none
in knowledge, intellect and analytical ability. He was an
extraordinary expert in Astrology but his fate Nakshatra had
not flourished with my father."
"Second example was the chase of Khousro (Jahangir's
revolting son), where I had not waited for finding out the
auspicious moment (Shubh Muhurat) and I had not rested till
he was caught. This is strange that when I consulted the
mathematician astrologer Hakim Ali about the moment of
beginning of the chase, after starting the chase, then he replied
that even if you had asked for the right moment to start the
actions for fulfilling your desires then probably you would not
have found a better time for many years to come."



Jahangir usedto get the Muhurat for all the events. Journeys,
entry in a city, on New year, Coronation, and even on proceeding
for hunt:
"On getting the strong desire for AheT (Hunt) at the
appointed time selected by the astrologers when one Praha r six
Ghati were passed on Friday night on 15 Ram za n which
coincides with fifth Julusi year's 10 Azar Month (name of Iranian
Month) we proceeded for the Aher (Hunt)."
Jahangir Narma also mentions Samudrika Shastra:"His (Emperor Akbar) nose had a mole on the left side which
used to appear good. The learned people of Samudrika Shastra
say that this mole represents extreme wealth and good luck."
Jahangir had good knowl edge of Hindu Jyotish and Greek
Astrology:"Ujjain is one of the old cities and included in the seven
Tirthasthans of Hindu's King Vikramajit who started the custom
of looking at the sky and Nakshatras and h e also dwelt in this
city. Today whpn 10211 Hijari is going and our Julusi eleventh
year is running, 1675 years have passed. Indian Astrologers make
their calculations based on his observations only."
"According to the calculatins of Hindu Astrlogers on Sunday
evening of 12th, when Dhanu Rashi reaches 27" Angle and 37
Pala later and according to Greek calculations on Makar reaching
15" Angle, from the womb of the d a ughter of Asaf Khan
(Shahjahan's-wife) a precious gem had come to the world."
Jahangir belived in the influence of Lunar and Solar Eclipse
and used to give alms on this occasion with full faith:"Satuday the 13 th when the day was left by 4 Ghati, then
Chandra Grass (Lunar Eclipse) started and gradually whole
lunar body was effected. To ward of the evil effect we had
Tuladan, wherein silver, gold, clothes, food, elephants, horses
and other items were distributed in alms."
"Sunday 9th was Solar Eclipse, when day had passed by 12
Ghati. This started from west side and Rahu afflicted 4 parts
out of 5 parts. From the beginning till end for the fuJi sunshine
it took 8 Ghati. Different varieties of metals, animals and
vegetables etc. many articles were given in alms to Fakirs and
poor people."

Mugha/s alld Astrology


The custom of Tuladan was prevalent in the Mughal dynasty

since the period of Akbar. This had no relevance with eclipse.
As per this custom, the equivalent weight of the male royal family
members in gold, silver, clothes etc were distributed in alms.
the astrologers were consulted for this occasion also:"My father (Emperor Akbar) had this practice that he used
to get his Tuladan tvvice a year, once in accordance with Solar
Year (Iranian Solar Year) and second in accordance with Lunar
Year (Islamic Hijari Year). This year when Khurram (Shahjahan)
entered his 16th Lunar Year, all Jyotishi (astrologers) and Rammal
(who take out Fall) requested that this year is very important
according to the Janam Patri (Horoscope) of Khurram and as
the prince who was not keeping good health, therefore I ordered
that-as per practice gold, silver and other metals will be
distributed in alms to poor-after Tuladan."
Jahangir had at least this much knowledge of-jyotish that
Sun is exalted in Mesha Rashi. He writes about the beginning of
the third yeilr of his rf'ign:"Thursday 2 Zee-Hijja, First Farvardin (19 March 1608 AD)
when Sun which provides light to the entire world and keeps
everyone warm with his warmth is moving from Mina Rashi to
happier Rashi of Mesha which is the abode of pleasure and
happiness. This has given world the new light. New Year
celebrations were held in the village of Rangta, which is 5 Kos
far from Agra and J sat on the throne with regal pomp and show
during the transit of the Sun."
Jahangir used to consult Jyotishis (Astrologers) in almost all
matters and also believed in them:"On Tuesday 13 th I called the daughter of Khusro (My son)
and found her similar to her father as no one had seen. Jyotishis
told that she was not lucky for her father but was lucky for me.
At last it was revealed that whatever predictions were made by
them had come true. They advised me to see her after the period
of three years so I saw her after she attained the age of three
Jahangir has mentioned number of times about Jyotish Ram
in Jahangir Nama whom he considers being expert in jyotish
shastra and his predictions were accurate. Jahangir mentioned



the incident of the fall of Shah shuja (Son of Shahjahan) from

window while playing, when he fell by his head but landed on
the thick Jazim (carpets, mattresses etc) and thus his life was
saved and he did not get hurt. According to Jahangir Jyotish
Ram had already predicted this incident:" It is strange that three months in advance Jyotish Ram, who
is expert in his Sh astra knowledge, told m e wi th ou t any
interpreter that from the Janam Kundli (horoscope) of the prince
it is evident that coming three four months are not good for him,
and it is possible that he may fall from a high posi tion but thi s
fa ll will not bring any danger to his life,"
" Badshah Begum left for her heavenl y abode on Tuesday
21 th and I deeply mourned . I pray to Almighty God that he w ill
provide her a place in the abode of forgi veness. Strange thing is
that Jyotish Ra m had predicted two-months in advance to out
servants that some prime lady of Harem will go to the land of
nonexistence. This he predicted based on the calculati ons from
my Janam Kundali and it came out true. "
Similarly there is a mention about the intersting prediction
about Shah Shuja (Son ofShahjahan) w homJahangir loved most:" In these days only Shah Shuja was affli cted with such a
boil that he cou ld not even drink water and there was no hope
for his s uviva l. It was written in hi s father 's Janam Kundli that
his son would die thi s year. Therefore a ll Jyotishis were
unanimous in say ing that he will not s urvive, bu t in opposition
to this, Jyotish Ram sa id that even the dust of dea th would not
be able to touch hi s lap. I asked what is the Proof for thi s? He
answered that in my horoscope it is mentioned that this year no
sadness will effect the heart of the Badshah and since 1 have so
much love for this boy no untoward thing wi ll happen to him
even if some o ther child may go. As he predicted, It happened
and he was saved from the cl utches of death. The son born from
Shanawaz Khan's daughter died at Burhanpur. Thi s way Jyotish
Ram's predictions mostly came true."
Jahangir has w ritten that his grandfather Humayun w as also
hav ing good knowl edge of Jyotish:"The same time Abdu-sattar presented a collection written
by ex-emperor Humayun, God's li ght is its evidence, whe rein

Mugha/s and Astrology


some prayers, Jyotish Knowledge related preface and other

interesting topics were covered, which were meditated by him
and practiced also."
Jahangir was so much impressed withJyotish that he ordered
minting of coins as per Jyotish:"It was a practice earlier that while casting coins from metal
on one side my name and on the other side place, month and
Julusi year was embossed. It came to my mind that in place of
month they should emboss the idol of that month's Rashi, as in
Farvardin (Iranian Solar Y~ars first month which starts from
Mesha Sankranti) Month Sheep and in the montJl ofUrdibihishit
(Iranian Solar Year's second month which starts from Vrisha
Sankranti) Ox shape be embossed. Similarly, in whatever month
the coin was cast, the symbol of the Rashi for that month be
embossed on the coin in such a fa shion that Sun seems to appear
from it. This practice is my own and has not been followed
Reflection of Astrology in Literature

The literature mirrors the society. The wide reach of astrology

among the general public in the 16th and 17th centuries, when
the Mughal empire was at its zenith, can be seen by the examples
taken from two renowned, respected and above all widely read
poets of that time. The poets are Tulsidas and Bihari. Tulsidas
was born in Rajapur near Banda in Eastern UP in 1589. He
composed his immortal classic "Rama Charita Manasa" in 1631 .
There are numerous references to Astrology in this classic which
even today is about the most widely read, commented and talked
about work. When Rama was born here is how Tulsidas
described it:
"Naumi lithi Madhumas Puneeta,
Suklapaksh, Abhijit hariprecta.
Madhydiwas ali Sheet na ghama,
pavan kallok vishram"

This is pure astrology-here you have the elements thdt

constitute Panchanga laid out in a poet's format. The"Tithi" is
here as is the month and the Moon's waxing period and the



ti me n oon and the Muhurt abhi ji t all are there. These are read
and understood by the masses . Now look at the descripti on
Tul sidas gives of the commencement o f the writing o f Ramcharit

"Sam vat somhsauikteesha knraul1l, katha pad dlmr; Seesa

Nallmi, Bhaumivar, Madhll masa, AvadhplIri, Yell cI,rit prakasa."
Tuls idas comm enced the w riting of Ramacharita Manasa o n
the sa me "Tithi" and Vaar as were present when centuries ea rlier
Rama was bo rn and he record ed it. The readers loved it for they
were a lso like Tulsidas steeped in Astrology.
We now proceed to the Romantic spectrum of the litera ry
rainbow. We a re talking of 16th and 17th centuries . The kings
and the high o fficials were licentious. Passions and indulgences
we re a hallmark of a person's pl ace in society. In thi s period
Bih ari, the c1ebra ted poet o f the Ja ipur court, composed hi s
fa mous" Sa t SaL" The book is compulsory reading in almost all
Hindi curricul a across the country even today. Bihari is a court
poet. He was to appeal to the alcohol revaged, woman dominated
senses of hi s m aster s. He uses astrologci ca l s imil es a nd
metaphors. This underscores the reach and of astrology in those
times. We take one example from the Sat Sai:

"Mangal bindll sura l/g,

Mukllsasi kesari aad gllrll,

Ek naari lalli sangu,

Rasmai kiye lochan jagat"
Translated loosely this wou ld mea n, The red " Bindu" is like
Mars, the fa ce is like Moon and the complexion is " kesa d " a
slightly reddish orange mix. This represents Jupiter. When these
three combine in one "naad" (lady), the eyes o f the entire world
become " Rasma i" (full of delight, passion, tende rness and love).
Now exami ne astrology at two levels, the Gross and the
Subtl e. At the G ross levesl Mars is the lord of Scorpio. Moon is
the lo rd of Cancer and Jupiter rules over Pisces. These three signs
represent the watery " ta tva". It is natural tha t w hen the ge t
together in lady the water of love w ill gush out of all the eyes
that happen to behold her.

M!lglwls and Astrology


Now take the subtle. India is an agricultural society.The

scholars and Pundits devised ways and means by which the
gains of hard work of agricultural operations in the farms could
be maximized. One-of these was Astra-Meteoralogy. The rustic
farmer could time the extent and quantum of rains by
Astrological observations. One of them was the "Sapta Nadi
chakra" a device, a charka, by which the-probability of rain is
ascertained. In this Chakra if Mars, Jupiter and Moon combine
in one "Nadi" rains are inevitable.
There is very little doubt that Bihari was well versed in
Astrology. What is of interest in that the romanti c poet could
i1ddress his target audience with verses that rested on a5trologic<ll
knowledge to be understood and get due recognition. Thi s is
adequate proof of the wide spread influence of astrology on the
Kings and the courtiers, the lay public, and the opinion makers.
The rulers were Muslims and they practiced and propagated
Astrology. This needs to be taken note of.
The use of Astrology was widely prevalent in the Mughal times.
BabLlr, who ruled for four years only is known to have had
consultations with astrologers prior to important battles.
Humayun was well versed in Astrology. He used it almost
compulsively. He was fond of "Fall" or "Shakun". He had even
tried to harmoni ze his adminsitration along the astrological
Akbar took steps to promote the use of Astrology. Astrologers
\vere given respect and were widely consulted. He even tried to
bring the different counting points to a standard sys tem.
These differences continue even today. We have the lunar
months starting from Shukla paksha as well as from Krisha na
Jehangir knew and believed in Astrology and practiced it.
Jehagir Nama written by Jehagir gives ample proof of it.
Jehangir took over the reigns after working our an appropriate
Muhurta. He was like his grand father Humayun in taking out
"Fall" or Shakun for big as well as for sma ll events like going for
a hunt.



Shahjehan and Aurngzeb ruled over an astrologically alive

populace. And Tulsidas and Bihari are the proof o f the wide
extent to which astrological influences had spread in these times.
History tells us that Astrology has been a Secular and all
presvasive branch of knowledge since very early times .