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Section A

(Answer all the question)


1.

Graph 1 shows the heating curve to determine the boiling point of substance X.
Graf 1 menunjukkan lengkung pemanasan bagi menentukan takat didih bahan X.
Temperature / 0C
Suhu / 0C

Q3

Q2

Q1

t0

t1

Graph 1
Graf 1

t2

t3

Time / s
Masa /
s

(a) State the meaning of boiling point?


Nyatakan maksud takat didih?
...........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(b)

(c )

Based on Graph 1, state the boiling point of substance X


Berdasarkan pada Graf 1, nyatakan takat didih bagi bahan X.

[1 mark]
State the physical states of substance X between t 1 to t2
Nyatakan sifat fizik bahan X antara masa t1 ke t2

[1 mark]

(d)

Explain why the temperature remains constant from t1 to t2.


Terangkan mengapa tiada perubahan suhu dari t1 ke t2.
.
.
[2 marks]

(e)

Draw the arrangement of particles of substance X at t 3.


Lukiskan susunan zarah-zarah bahan X pada t3.

[1 mark]
(f)

Sketch a graph of temperature against time during the cooling of substance X.


Lakarkan satu graf suhu melawan masa bagi penyejukkan bagi bahan X.

[1 mark]
(g)(i)

(ii)

State a precaution that should be taken during the cooling process of liquid X.
Nyatakan langkah berjaga yang perlu diambil semasa proses penyejukan cecair X.
...
[1 mark]
Give a reason for your answer in (g) (i).
Berikan sebab bagi jawapan anda di (g) (i)
...
[1 mark]

2. Diagram 2 shows part of the Periodic Table of Elements. S, T. U. V.W and X do not represent the
actual symbol of the elements.

Rajah 2 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada Jadual Berkala Unsur. S.T.U.V.W dan X tidak
mewakili symbol sebenar unsur-unsur berkenaan.

Diagram 2
Rajah 2
Using the letters in the Periodic Table of Elements in Diagram 2, answer the following questions.
Dengan menggunakan huruf-huruf yang terdapat dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur pada Rajah 2,
jawab soalan-soalan berikut.
(a) (i)

(ii)

(b) (i)

(ii)

(c) ( i)

State an element that exits as monoatomic gas


Nyatakan satu unsur yang wujud sebagai gas monoatom.
....
[ 1 mark ]
Write the electron arrangement for an atom of element in (a) ( i)
Tuliskan susunan electron bagi atom dalam unsur (a) (i)
.....
[ 1 mark ]
Which element is a transition element?
Unsur yang manakah adalah unsur peralihan?
....
[ 1 mark ]
Give one special characteristic of the transition element
Berikan satu ciri istimewa unsur peralihan.
....
[ 1 mark ]
Element S and T are in the same period of the Periodic Table. Explain.
Unsur S dan T terletak pada kala yang sama dalam Jadual Berkala. Terangkan.
............
[ 1 mark ]

(ii)

(d) ( i)

Write the chemical formula of the compound formed between S and T.


Tuliskan formula kimia bagi sebatian yang terbentuk antara unsur S dan T.
....
[ 1 mark ]
Element V can combine with element W
State the type of bond which formed between V and W.
Unsur V boleh berpadu dengan unsur W.
Nyatakan jenis ikatan yang terbentuk Antara V dan W.

(ii)

....
[ 1 mark ]
Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed between V and W.
Lukiskan susunan electron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk antara V dan W.

[ 2 marks ]
3. Diagram 3 shows an experiment carried out by using a solution of sodium hydroxide to determine
the concentration of an aqueous solution of nitric acid. Aqueous nitric acid of unknown
concentration is titrated with 25 cm3 0.50 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution. Table 3 shows the
results of the experiment.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan suatu eksperimen dengan menggunakan larutan natrium hidroksida untuk
menentukan kepekatan asid nitrik akueus. Asid nitrik akueus dengan kepekatan yang tidak
diketahui dititratkan dengan 25 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 0.50 mol dm-3. Jadual 3
menunjukkan keputusan untuk eksperimen ini.

Nitric acid
Asid nitrik

Diagram 3
Rajah 3
Titration number
Bilangan pentitratan
1
2
3

Final burette reading/cm3


Bacaan akhir buret/cm3
23.10
47.20
30.50
Table 3
Jadual 3

Sodium hydroxide
solution
Larutan natrium
hidroksida
Initial burette reading/cm3
Bacaan awal buret/cm3
1.00
25.00
8.50

(a) Name a suitable apparatus used to measure 25.0 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution.
Namakan satu radas yang sesuai untuk menyukat 25.0 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida.

[1 mark]
(b) Calculate the average volume of the nitric acid used.

Hitungkan purata isipadu untuk larutan natrium hidroksida yang digunakan.

/
[2 marks]
(c) Calculate the number of moles of sodium hydroxide.
Hitungkan bilangan mol untuk natrium hidroksida.

[1 mark]
(d) Name the type of reaction that occurs in the conical flask.
Namakan jenis tindak balas yang berlaku dalam kelalang kon itu.

[1 mark]
(e) Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang seimbang untuk tindak balas ini.

[1 mark]
-3
(f) Calculate the concentration of nitric acid in mol dm .
Hitungkan kepekatan asid nitrik dalam mol dm-3.

[2 marks]
(g) The end point of a titration is the point at which neutralisation is complete. State two
methods which can be used to determine the end point.
Takat akhir ialah titik di mana peneutralan berlaku sepenuhnya. Nyatakan dua kaedah
untuk menentukan takat akhir.

[2 markah]
4. Table 4 shows the results for an experiment to construct the electrochemical series using the
principle of displacement of metals.
Jadual 4 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen untuk membina siri elektrokimia menggunakan
prinsip penyesaran logam.
Salt solution
Larutan garam
Metal strip
Kepingan logam
Magnesium / Magnesium

Magnesium nitrate
Magnesium nitrat

Y nitrate
Y nitrat

Copper (II) nitrate


Kuprum (II) nitrat

Y
Copper / Kuprum

x
x
Table 4 [Jadual 4]
X : no displacement/tiada penyesaran
: displacement occurs/penyesaran berlaku
(a) (i)

Based on Table 4, arrange the metals in descending order in the ElectrochemicalSeries.


Berdasarkan Jadual 4, susunkan logam-logam mengikut turutan menurun dalam
Siri Elektrokimia.

.
[1 mark]
(ii) Give one example of metal Y.
Beri satu contoh logam Y.

[1 mark]
(iii) Give one observation when zinc strip is immersed in copper (II) sulphate solution.
Beri satu pemerhatian apabila jalur zink direndam dalam larutan kuprum(II) sulfat.
.....................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(b) Diagram 4 shows the set- up of apparatus to investigate the reaction between potassium
iodide solution and chlorine water through the transfer of electrons at a distance.
Rajah 4 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji tindak balas di antara larutan kalium
iodida dan air klorin melalui pemindahan elektron pada satu jarak.
G
Electrode P
Elektrod P
Potassium iodide
solution
Larutan kalium iodida

Electrode Q
Elektrod Q
Chlorine water
Air klorin

Dilute sulphuric
acid Asid sulfurik
cair
Diagram 4 [Rajah 4]
(i) On the diagram 4, draw the direction of the flow of electron.
Pada rajah 4, lukiskan arah aliran elektron.
[1 mark]
(ii) What is the colour change in the solution around electrode P after a few minutes?
Apakah perubahan warna pada larutan di sekeliling elektrod P selepas beberapa minit?
...........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(iii)

Describe a chemical test to determine the product formed at electrode P


Huraikan satu ujian kimia untuk menentukan hasil yang terbentuk pada elektrod P
........................
........................
[2 marks]

(iv)

What is the substance that is being oxidised in the experiment? Explainwhy.


Apakah bahan yang dioksidakan dalam eksperimen? Terangkan.

[2 marks]

(v)

Write the half equation at electrod P.


Tuliskan persamaan setengah pada elektrod P.

[1 mark]

5. Diagram 5 shows the formation of compound X from glucose and its conversion to several others
carbon compounds.
Rajah 5menunjukkan penghasilan sebatian X dan perubahannya kepada sebatian karbon yang
Process I
Process II
lain.
[Proses I] Compound X [Proses II]
Compound Y
Glucose
[Sebatian X]
[Sebatian Y]
[Glukosa]
C2H6O
[Glukosa]
Process III
[Proses III]

Compound Z [Bahan Z]
C2H4O2

Process IV
[Proses IV]

Ethyl propanoate
[Etil propanoat]

Diagram 5
Rajah 5
(a) Process I involves the use of yeast. Name Process I.
Proses I melibatkan penggunaan yis. Namakan Proses I.
......................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(b) Draw the structural formula for compound X.
Lukiskan formula struktur bagi sebatian X.

[1 mark]
(c) Compound Y is formed when the vapour of compound X is passed over heated porcelain chips in
Process II.
Sebatian Y terbentuk apabila wap sebatian X dialirkan melalui serpihan porselin yang
panasdalam proses II.
(i)

(ii)

Write the general formula for the homologous series of compound Y.


Tuliskan formula am bagi siri homolog bagi sebatian Y.
..............................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
Describe briefly a chemical test to identify compound Y.
Huraikan secara ringkas satu ujian kimia untuk mengenalpasti sebatian Y.
............................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(d) Compound Z liberates carbon dioxide gas when calcium carbonate is added to it.
Bahan Z membebaskan gas karbon dioksida apabila kalsium karbonat dicampur kepadanya.
(i) Name the functional group of compound Z.
Namakan kumpulan berfungsi dalam sebatian Z.
.
..................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction in Process III.
Tuliskan persamaan seimbang bagi tindak balas yang berlaku dalam Proses III

...................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(iii) Name a reagent that is suitable to be used in Process III.
Namakansuatureagen yang sesuaiuntukdigunakandalam Proses III.
...................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(e) Describe briefly the method of preparing ethyl propanoate from compound X in the laboratory.
Secara ringkas terangkan kaedah penyediaan etil propanoat dari sebatian X dalam makmal.
...............................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
6.

Diagram 6 shows the apparatus set up to determine the heat of precipitation of silver chloride .
Rajah 6 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk menentukan haba pemendakan argentum klorida.

50 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3


sodium chloride solution
50 cm3 larutan natrium klor
Diagram 6
Rajah 6

Table 6 shows the result of the experiment.


Jadual 6 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen ini.
Description
Penerangan
Initial temperature of sodium chloride solution
Suhu awal larutan natrium klorida
Initial temperature of silver nitrate solution
Suhu awal larutan argentum nitrat
Highest temperature of the mixture
Suhu maksimum campuran

Temperature (0C)
Suhu (0C)
27.0
27.0
30.5

Table 1
Jadual 1
(a) What is the meaning of heat of precipitation?
Apakah maksud haba pemendakan?
.......
.......
[1 mark]
Calculate :
Hitung :
(i) The heat released during the reaction.
[Specific heat capacity of solution, c = 4.2 J g-1 0C-1 ; Density of solution = 1 gcm-3]
Haba yang dibebaskan semasa tindak balas.
[Muatan haba tentu bagi larutan, c = 4.2 J g-1 0C-1 ;Ketumpatan larutan = 1 gcm-3]

(b)

[1 mark]
(ii)

The number of moles of silver ions, Ag + in silver nitrate and chloride ions, Cl- in
sodium chloride solution.
Bilangan mol ion argentum, Ag+dalam larutan argentum nitrat dan ion klorida ,Cldalam
larutan natrium klorida.

[2 marks]
(iii)

The number of moles of silver chloride, AgCl precipitate.


Bilangan mol argentum klorida, AgCl yang termendak.

[1 mark]
(iv)

The heat of precipitation


Haba pemendakan

[2 marks]
(b) Write the ionic equation for the reaction
Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi tindakbalas ini.
....
[1 mark]
(d) Draw an energy level diagram for this reaction
Lukis rajah aras tenaga bagi tindakbalas ini.

[3 marks]

Section B
(Answer one question in this section)
7.

Diagram 7.1 above shows two marble statues, Statue A and Statue B.
Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan dua buah patung marmar, Patung A dan Patung B.

Statue A

Statue B
Patung A

Patung B
Diagram 7.1
Rajah 7.1

Statue A was placed as a monument close to an industrial area. Statue B was placed as a
monument in a housing area.After two years, one of the statues had corroded.
Patung A dijadikan sebagai tugu berhampiran dengan kawasan perindustrian. Patung B
dijadikan sebagai tugu di kawasan perumahan. Selepas dua tahun, salah satu patung tersebut
terkakis.
(a) (i)
(ii)

Identify the statue which corrode faster. Explain your answer.


Kenalpastikan patung yang lebih cepat terkakis. Huraikan jawapan anda.
[4 marks]
Write a chemical equation to show the corrosion process of the marble statue.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang menunjukkan proses kakisan patung batu marmar.
[2 marks]

(b) Two experiments are carried out by a student to investigate the rate of reaction.
Dua eksperimen telah dijalankan oleh pelajar untuk mengkaji kadar tindakbalas.
Experiment / Eksperimen
Set 1

Substances / Bahan
20cm hydrochloric acid 0.1 moldm-3 + zinc powder
20cm3 asid hidroklorik 0.1 moldm-3 + serbuk zink

Set 2

20cm3 hydrochloric acid 0.5 moldm-3 + zinc powder


20cm3 asid hidroklorik 0.5 moldm-3 + serbuk zink

Table 7.1 [Jadual 7.1]

i)

Compare the rate of reaction between Set 1 and Set 2. Explain based on the collision
theory.
Bandingkan kadar tindakbalas antara Set 1 dan Set 2. Huraikan berdasarkan kepada
teori perlanggaran.
[5 marks]

ii)

Suggest another way to increase the rate of reaction in Set 2.


Cadangkan satu cara lain untuk meningkatkan kadar tindakbalas dalam Set 2.
[1 mark]

8.

(a)

iii)

Calculate the maximum volume of hydrogen gas released at room condition in Set 1
[1 mol of gas occupies 24dm3 at room condition]
Kirakan isipadu maksimum gas hidrogen yang terbebas pada keadaan bilik dalam Set
1.
[1 mol gas menempati 24dm3 pada keadaan bilik].
[5 marks]

iv)

If the hydrochloric acid in Set 1 is replaced with sulphuric acid with the same
concentration and volume, predict the volume of hydrogen gas released. Explain why?
Sekiranya asid hidroklorik dalam Set 1 digantikan dengan asid sulfurik yang
mempunyai kepekatan dan isipadu yang sama, ramalkan isipadu gas hidrogen yang
terbebas. Terangkan kenapa?
[3 marks]
Why pure metals are alloyed before used?
Mengapakah logam tulen dialoikan sebelum digunakan?
[ 4 marks ]

(b)

Diagram 8.1 shows the apparatus set up to investigate the hardness of X and Y block
Rajah menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji kekerasan bongkah X dan Y

X/Y Block
Bongkah X /Y
Diagram 8.1
A steel ball bearing is taped onto the X block using cellophane tape. A weight of 1kg is
dropped at a height of 50 cm to hit the ball bearing. The diameter of the dent made on the
X block is measured. The experiment is repeated by replacing X block with its alloy, Y
block. Table 8.2 shows the results of the experiments.
Satu bebola keluli dilekatkan pada bongkah X dengan menggunakan pita selofan.
Pemberat 1kg dijatuhkan dari tinggi 50 cm ke atas bebola keluli. Diameter lekuk yang

terhasil pada bongkah X diukur. Eksperimen diulangi dengan menggantikan bongkah X


dengan aloinya, bongkah Y. Jadual menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen itu.
Type of block
Jenis bongkah
X
Y

(i)

Diameter of dent / cm
Diameter lekuk /cm
0.5
0.2

Table 8.2

Based on the results of the experiment, suggest a suitable substances for X and Y.
Compare the hardness between X and Y.
Berdasarkan keputusan eksperimen, cadangkan bahan yang sesuai untuk X dan Y.
Bandingkan kekerasan di antara X dengan Y.
[3marks]
Explain the difference in hardness between X and Y.
Terangkan perbezaan kekerasan X dengan Y
[6 marks]

(ii)

(iii)

Draw the labelled diagram to show the arrangement of atoms in Y.


Lukiskan rajah berlabel untuk menunjukkan susunan atom dalam Y.
[2marks]

(c)

(d)

The body of aeroplane is made from an alloy of aluminium. State the name of the
alloy of aluminium used. Explain why the alloy of aluminium more suitable to make
aeroplane body than the pure aluminium.
Badan kapal terbang diperbuat daripada aloi aluminium. Nyatakan nama bagi aloi
aluminium yang digunakan. mengapa aloi aluminium lebih sesuai untuk membuat
badan kapal terbang daripada aluminium tulen.
[3 marks]
Table 8.3 shows the major component and foreign atom for each

alloy.
Jadual 8.3 menunjukkan komponen utama dan atom asing bagi
setiap aloi.
Alloy
Aloi

Major Componen
Komponen utama

Foreign Atom/
Atom Asing

Bronze
Gangsa
Brass
Loyang

Copper/Kuprum

P
Q

Copper/ Kuprum
Table 8.3 [Jadual 8.3]

Name the foreign atoms of the alloys above


Namakan atom asing untuk aloi di atas.
[2 marks]

Section C
(Answer one question in this section)
9.

Metals are extracted from ores. An ore is a rock that contains enough of a mineral (metal
compound) for the metal to be extracted from it. Most metals are extracted from an ore by
reduction with carbon or by electrolysis. When a metal oxide is heated with carbon, a
displacement reaction takes place leaving a pure metal and carbon dioxide. This only works
when a metal is less reactive than carbon in the reactivity series. Diagram 9 shows the extraction
process of iron in a blast furnace using carbon.
Logam diekstrak daripada bijihnya. Mineral adalah sejenis batuan yang mana logam diekstrak
daripadanya. Kebanyakkan logam diekstrak daripada bijihnya melalui penurunan dengan karbon
atau secara elektrolisis. Apabila oksida logam dipanaskan dengan carbon, tindakbalas
penyesaran berlaku menghasilkan logam tulen dan karbon dioksida. Ini hanya berlaku apabila
logam tersebut kurang reaktif daripada karbon dalam siri kereaktifan. Rajah 9 menunjukkan
pengekstrakan besi dalam relau bagas menggunakan karbon.

Diagram 9 [Rajah 9]
(a)

Based on Diagram 9, describe an extraction process of iron from its ore (haematite
Fe2O3) by using suitable chemical equations.
Berdasarkan Rajah 9, huraikan proses pengekstrakan besi daripada bijihnya
(heamatite ,Fe2O3 ) dengan menggunakan persamaan kimia yang sesuai.
[4 marks]

(b)

The reaction between lead (II) oxide and carbon is a redox reaction.
Tindakbalas antara plumbum (II) oksida dengan karbon merupakan tindakbalas
redoks.
(i)

Write the equation for this reaction.


Tuliskan persamaan dalam tindak balas ini

(ii)

The change in oxidation number for both the reactants


Perubahan dalam nombor pengoksidaan bagi kedua-dua bahan tindak balas

(iii)

The role of each reactant in the redox reaction


Peranan setiap bahan tindak balasdalam tindak balas redoks yang berlaku
[6 marks]

(c)
The position of carbon is above metal X and below metal Y in the Reactivity Series
of metal.
Kedudukan karbon adalah di atas logam X dan di bawah logam Y dalam Siri
Kereaktifan logam
You are provided with oxide of metal X (XO), oxide of metal Y (Y 2O3), carbon powder
and apparatus needed. Describe an experiment to verify the above statement.
Your answer should consist of the following:

Diagram showing the set-up of apparatus

Procedure of the experiment

Observation

Chemical equation.

Conclusion
Anda dibekalkan dengan oksida logam X (XO), oksida logam Y (Y 2O3), serbuk karbon
dan radas-radas yang diperlukan. Dengan bantuan gambarajah huraikan eksperimen
untuk mengesahkan kenyataan di atas adalah benar. Jawapan anda mesti melibatkan
segala pemerhatian dan persamaan tindakbalas yang sewajarnya.

Gambar rajah menunjukkan susunan radas


Prosedur eksperimen
Pemerhatian
Persamaan kimia.
Kesimpulan
[10 marks]

Red
litmus
Paper
Kertas litmus merah
10. (a) A patient complained of a pain due to an excess of acid in the stomach. Suggest the substances
Dry ammonia will help to relieve the pain . Give three reasons for your suggestion
Seorang pesakit mengadu sakit disebabkan lebihan asid dalam perut. Cadangkan bahan yang
gas dissolved boleh membantu melegakan sakit itu. Bagi tiga sebab bagi cadangan anda
in propanone
[4 marks]
(b) kering
A student
carried outdalam
an experiment
to investigate the properties of two solutions. Diagram 9.1
Gas ammonia
dilarutkan
propanon
shows the results of the experiments
Seorang pelajar menjalankan eksperimen untuk mengkaji sifat-sifat bagi dua larutan. Rajah 9.1
menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen itu.
Red litmus
Paper
Test tube
Y
Kertas litmusXmerah
Tabung uji

Apparatus set-up
Susunan radas

Observation
Pemerhatian

Dry ammonia gas dissolved


in water
Gas ammonia kering dilarutkan dalam air

The red litmus paper turned blue.


Kertas litmus merah bertukar biru
Diagram 9.1/ Rajah 9.1

No change
Tiada perubahan

Explain the difference in observation between test tube X and test tube Y.
Terangkam perbezaan pemerhatian antara tabung uji X dan tabung uji Y.
[6
marks]
(c) You are required to prepare dry lead (II) sulphate crystal salt. The chemicals supplied are:

lead (II) oxide powder


dilute nitric acid
sodium sulphate solution.
Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare the salt. In your description, include the chemical
equations involved.
Anda dikehendaki menyediakan hablur garam plumbum (II) sulfat yang kering. Bahan kimia
yang dibekalkan adalah :

serbuk plumbum (II) oksida


asid nitrik cair
larutan natrium sulfat
Huraikan satu eksperimen makmal bagaimana anda dapat menyediakan garam tersebut.
Dalam huraian anda sertakan persamaan yang terlibat.
[10 marks]