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7/7/2015

Chapter 1 Boilers

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CHAPTER 1

BOILERS
Learning Objectives: Describe the principles and theory of steam generation.
Identify different types of boilers and the design requirements for boilers. Describe
the purpose and operation of the different types of boilers and their fittings and
accessories. Describe the methods and PRO CEDURES
for the testing and treatment of
boiler water. Describe methods and PRO CEDURES
involved in fireside and waterside
cleaning.

A boiler is an enclosed vessel in which water is

cannot GET
pressure.

heated and circulated, either as hot water or steam, to

any hotter as long as it remains at the same

of boiling water. T he lid prevents the steam from


escaping from the pan and this results in a buildup of
pressure inside the container. However, when you make
an opening in the lid, the steam escapes at the same rate it

gas, oil, or coal as fuel. T he steam generated is used to


heat BUILDINGS
, provide hot water, and provide steam
for cleaning, sterilizing, cooking, and laundering

is generated. As long as water remains in the pan and as

operations. Small package boilers also provide steam


and hot water for small buildings.

long as the pressure remains constant, the temperature of


the water and steam remains constant and equal.

A careful study of this chapter can help you


acquire useful knowledge of steam generation, types

T he steam boiler operates on the same basic principle


as a closed container of boiling water. By way of

of boilers pertinent to Seabee operations, various

comparison, it is as true with the boiler as with the closed

fittings commonly found on boilers, and so on. T he


primary objective of this chapter is to lay the
foundation for you to develop skill in the operation,

container that steam FO RMED


during boiling tends to push
against the water and sides of the vessel. Because of this
downward pressure on the surface of the water, a

maintenance, and repair of boilers.

temperature in excess of 212F is required for boiling.


T he higher temperature is obtained simply by increasing

STEAM GENERATION THEORY


Learning Objective:

Construction News

Now suppose you place a tightly fitting lid on the pan

produce A
source for either heat or power. A central
heating plant may have one or more boilers that use

the SUPPLY
of heat; therefore, the rules you should
remember are as follows:

Describe the principles and

1. All of the water in a vessel, when held at the

theory of steam generation.

boiling point long enough, will change into steam. AS


LONG AS T HE PRESSURE IS HELD CONST ANT ,
T HE T EMPERAT URE OF T HE ST EAM AND

T o acquaint you with some of the fundamentals


underlying the PRO CESS
of steam operation, suppose
that you set an open pan of water on the stove and turn

BOILING WAT ER REMAINS T HE SAME.

on the heat. You find that the heat causes the


temperature of the water to increase and, at the same

2. AN INCREASE IN PRESSURE RESULT S IN


AN INCREASE IN T HE BOILING POINT
T EMPERAT URE OF WAT ER.

time, to expand in volume. When the temperature


reaches the BOILING POINT (212F or 100C at sea
level). a physical change occurs in the water; the water
starts vaporizing. When you hold the temperature at the

A handy formula with a couple of fixed factors will


T he square root of steam pressure

prove this theory.

boiling point long enough, the water continues to


vaporize until the pan is dry. A point to remember is that

MULTIPLIED
by 14 plus 198 will give you the steam
temperature. When you have 1 psig of steam pressure,

T HE T EMPERAT URE OF WAT ER DOES NOT

the square root is one times 14 plus 198 which equals

INCREASE BEYOND T HE BOILING POINT . Even if


you add more heat after the water starts to boil, the water

212F which is the temperature that the water will boil at


1 psig.

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Chapter 1 Boilers

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