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Overall this math project was not only tough but challenging as well. I

had to acquire assistance from a few people throughout this project in

order to complete this project.

Ong Jin Liang, Chan Jun Cheng, Low Tze Wei, Jason Lem, Abishek

Suresh Kumar, Ngu Bing Han and Leong Wai Hyn who gave me the

most help in completing this project. Despite the arguments we had, we

managed through them and completed the project by working together as

a team.

showed us and guided us by briefing us about the procedures and

advised us in carrying out this project.

Lastly, I would like to thank my mother and father as well for they

were the ones who had gave me moral support in finishing this project.

Nationwide in Malaysia, every Form 5 student taking Additional

Mathematics is required to work on the Additional Mathematics Project

Work 2015. The project is to be done with aims to create a future with

improvements:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

problems.

To improve thinking skills.

To promote effective mathematical communication.

To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a

v.

To use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas

vi.

precisely.

To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances

vii.

effective learning.

To develop positive attitude towards mathematics.

INTRODUCTION

In mathematics, a function is a relation between a set of inputs and a set of permissible outputs

with the property that each input is related to exactly one output. An example is the function that

2

relates each real number x to its square x2. The output of a function fcorresponding to an

input x is denoted by f(x) (read "f of x").Functions of various kinds are "the central objects of

investigation" in most fields of modern mathematics. There are many ways to describe or

represent a function. Some functions may be defined by a formula or algorithm that tells how to

compute the output for a given input. Others are given by a picture, called the graph of the

function. In science, functions are sometimes defined by a table that gives the outputs for

selected inputs. A function could be described implicitly, for example as the inverse to another

function or as a solution of a differential equation.

The red curve is the graph of a function f in the Cartesian plane, consisting of all points with

coordinates of the form (x,f(x)). The property of having one output for each input is represented

geometrically by the fact that each vertical line (such as the yellow line through the origin) has

exactly one crossing point with the curve.

maxima and minima of functions, tangents to curves, area, center of mass, least action, and other

problems in mathematical analysis. According to Andr Weil, Fermat "introduces the technical

term adaequalitas, adaequare, etc., which he says he has borrowed from Diophantus. As

Diophantus V.11 shows, it means an approximate equality, and this is indeed how Fermat

explains the word in one of his later writings." (Weil 1973). Diophantus coined the word

(parisots) to refer to an approximate equality.Claude Gaspard Bachet de Mziriac

translated Diophantus's Greek word into Latin as adaequalitas.[citation needed] Paul Tannery's

French translation of Fermats Latin treatises on maxima and minima used the words adquation

and adgaler.

Fermat used adequality first to find maxima of functions, and then adapted it to find tangent lines

to curves. To find the maximum of a term p(x) , Fermat equated (or more precisely

adequated)

p(x)

and

and then discard any remaining terms involving e . To illustrate the method by Fermat's own

example, consider the problem of finding the maximum of

bxx

notation

with

to denote adequality, introduced by Paul Tannery):

Canceling terms and dividing by

Fermat arrived at

4

b 2 x +e

occurred when x=b /2 .

PART 1

a1)Mathematical optimization

Mathematical optimization,alternatively, optimization or mathematical programming is the

selection of a best element with regard to some criteria from some set of available alternatives.

An optimization problem consists of maximizing or minimizing a real function by systematically

choosing input values from within an allowed set and computing the value of the function. The

generalization of optimization theory and techniques to other formulations comprises a large area

of applied mathematics. More generally, optimization includes finding "best available" values of

some objective function given a defined domain (or a set of constraints), including a variety of

different types of objective functions and different types of domains.

a2) Global maximum and minimum

A function f has a global maximum or minimum at c if f(c) f(x) for all x in D, where D is the

domain of f. The number f(c) is called the maximum value of f on D. Similarly, f has a global

minimum or maximum at c if f(c) f(x) for all x in D and the number f(c) is called the minimum

value of f on D. The maximum and minimum values of f are called the extreme values of f.

A function f has a local maximum (or relative maximum) at c if f(c) f(x) when x is near c. This

means that f(c) f(x) for all x in some open interval containing c. Similarly, f has a local

minimum or maximum at c if f(c) f(x) when x is near c.

Completing the

square

Ways to find

maximum and

minimum

value

Differentiation

b 2 4 acb2

y=a( x+ ) +

2a

4

a>0

y minimum =

4 ac b

4a

a<0

y minimum =

4 ac b 2

4a

Example:

y = 2x2 + 4x + 5

a=2

a 0

y minimum =

y = -2x2 + 4x + 5

a = -2

a 0

4 ( 2 ) ( 5 )42

4( 2)

4 ( 2 ) ( 5 )42

4 (2)

y maximum =

4016

8

4016

8

=3

=7

Differentiation

= 2a

= 2a

Minimu

m

Maximu

m

2ax +

b=0

2a

2a

x=-

Example:

y = -2x2 + 4x + 5

dy

=4 x+ 4

dx

y = 2x2 + 4x + 5

dy

=4 x +4

dx

4 x +4=0

4 x + 4=0

x=1

x=1

d y

2

dx

d y

2

dx

= -4

d2 y

<0

d x2

=4

d2 y

>0

d x2

2

y maximum=2 (1 ) + 4 ( 1 ) +5

y minimum=2(1)2 +4 (1 ) +5

3

PART 2

a) Encik Shah has been involved in a sheep farming business for several years and he

supplies meats and milk products to the communities. He wished to build a rectangular

sheep pen with two parallel partitions using 200 meters fence. Find the dimensions of the

rectangle that will maximize the total area of the pen. Hence state the maximum area of

the pen.

Calculation

The rectangular pen should look like this, with 2 parallel partitions:

yyy

xx

4 x +6 y = 200

6 y

y

= 200-4 x

2004 x

------ (1)

6

A = 3 y x

A = 3 xy

A=

2004 x

6

3 x

2

A = 100 x2 x -----(2)

Method 1

To find the maximum area, we must first differentiate equation (2), that is to find

dA

dx

.

2

A = 100 x2 x

dA

1004 x

dx =

dA

dx

At maximum point,

=0

0 = 1004 x

4x

= 100

x = 25

Sub

2004 x

6

2004 (25)

6

200100

6

100

6

Length = 3 y

= 3(

100

6

= 50 m

10

Width =

= 25m

The dimension of the rectangle that will maximise the total area is 50 m x 25 m.

Sub

2

A = 100 x2 x

2

A = 100(25)2(25)

A = 25002 625)

A = 25001250

A = 1250 m2

The maximum area of the pen is 1250 m2.

Method 2

Perform completing the square to find the maximum point.

From equation (2):

2

A = 100 x2 x

2

A = 2 x + 100 x

2

A = 2( x 50 x )

2

2

2

A = 2( x 50 x +25 25 )

11

2

A = 2 [( x25) 625 ]

2

A = 2 ( x25 ) +1250

Sub

x value=25

and

y value=1250

2004 x

6

2004 (25)

6

200100

6

100

6

Length = 3 y

100

= 3( 6

= 50 m

Width =

= 25m

The dimension of the rectangle that will maximise the total area is 50 m x 25 m.

Sub

12

2

A = 100 x2 x

2

A = 100(25)2(25)

A = 25002 625)

A = 25001250

A = 1250 m2

(i)

(ii)

The dimension of the rectangle that will maximise the total area is 50 m x 25 m.

The maximum area of the pen is 1250 m2.

b) Reza is helping En Shah to make a box without the top. The box is made by cutting away four

squares from the corners of a 30cm square piece of cardboard as shown in Figure 1 and bending

up the resulting cardboard to form walls of the box.

13

Solution:

Volume ( 302 h ) ( 302 h )( h )

4 h3120 h2 +900 h

dV

dh .

dV

=12h 2240 h+900

dh

At maximum volume,

dV

=0

.

dh

12 h2240 h+900=0

2

h 20 h+ 75=0

14

( h15 )( h5 )=0

h=15,5

dV

2

=12h 240 h+900

dh

d2 V

=24 h240

d h2

When h=15 ,

d2V

=24 (15)240

d h2

120>0

Volume is minimum if

When

h=15

h=5 ,

d V

=24 (5)240

2

dh

120< 0

Volume is maximum if

h=5

15

5003000+ 4500

2000 cm

PART 3

A market research company finds that traffic in a local mall over the couse of a day could be

estimated by the function P(t) = -1800cos

[ (t )]

+1800 where P, is the number of people going

6

to

the mall, and t is the time, in hours, after the mall opens. The mall opens at 9.30 am.

When cos , x should be an angle. An angle has two units, that is degree and radian. To solve

this equation, we must first confirm if the angle is in degree or radian.

A clock is divided into 12 parts, each part representing an hour.

16

1

For example, if it is 1 hour, the angle will be 12

2

12 of the clock.

3

12 of the clock.

of the clock.

t

Thus, as a conclusion, we can say that if it is t hours, the angle will be 12 of the clock.

For angle in unit degree, the calculation to find the angle will be:

Angle =

t

360

12

= t ( 30

As for angle in unit radian, the calculation to find angle will be:

Angle =

t

2

12

(t )

6

17

Based on both equation above, it is proved that the angle is in radian mode, as the angle is as

same as in equation P(t).

(We take

Time

9:30 a.m.

as 3.142)

Hours / t

0

[ (0)]

P(0) = -1800cos 6

+1800

18

= -1800(1) +1800

= -1800+1800

=0

11:30 a.m.

P(2) = -1800cos

[ (2)]

+1800

6

= -1800(0.49991) +1800

= -899.84+1800

= 900.16

900

(since number of people cannot be a

decimal number, thus the nearest integer is

taken)

3:30 p.m.

P(6) = -1800cos

[ (6)]

+1800

6

= -1800(-1.00000) +1800

= 1800+1800

= 3600

5:30 p.m.

P(8) = -1800cos

[ (8)]

+1800

6

= -1800(-0.49956) +1800

= 899.21+1800

= 2699.2

2699

9:30 p.m.

12

P(0) = -1800cos

[ ( 12 ) ]

+1800

6

= -1800(1.0000) +1800

= -1800+1800

=0

19

Hour / t

20

A: 9:30 a.m.

B: 11:30 a.m.

E: 9:30 p.m.

C: 3:30 p.m.

D: 5:30 p.m.

(ii) When does the mall reach its peak hours and state the number of people

From the graph, we can see that during the 6th hour, that is by 3:30 p.m. , the graph reaches its

maximum point, which is 3600.

The mall reaches its peak hour by 3:30 p.m. and has 3600 people

From the table drawn, at 7:30 p.m., there is estimated 899 people in the mall.

21

(iv) Determine the time when the number of people in the mall reaches 2570.

(t)

-1800cos [ 6

] +1800 = 2570

(t)

-1800cos [ 6

] = 2570 1800

(t)

-1800cos [ 6

] = 770

(t)

cos [ 6

]=

770

1800

(t)

cos [ 6

] = -0.42778

6

3.142

( t ) = 2.0128

6

t = 2.0128

6

3.142

t = 3.8437

t = 3 hours + (0.8437x60) minutes

t = 3 hours 51 minutes

The time the number of people in the mall reaches 2570 is 9:30 a.m. + 3 hours 51 minutes

= 1:21 p.m.

22

FURTHER EXPLORATION

a) Conduct a research on Linear Programming (LP) and then write notes of your findings.

You may include the historical aspects and its importance to real life situations. You must

also give at least two examples on how the LP is being applied in various field of study.

Introduction

Linear programming (LP; also called linear optimization) is a method to achieve the best

outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a mathematical model whose requirements

are represented by linear relationships. Linear programming is a special case of mathematical

programming (mathematical optimization).

More formally, linear programming is a technique for the optimization of a linear objective

function, subject to linear equality and linear inequality constraints. Its feasible region is

a convex polytope, which is a set defined as the intersection of finitely many half spaces, each of

which is defined by a linear inequality. Its objective function is a real-valued affine

function defined on this polyhedron. A linear programming algorithm finds a point in the

polyhedron where this function has the smallest (or largest) value if such a point exists.

Linear programs are problems that can be expressed in canonical form:

where x represents the vector of variables (to be determined), c and b are vectors of (known)

coefficients, A is a (known) matrix of coefficients, and

is the matrix transpose. The

expression to be maximized or minimized is called the objective function (cTx in this case). The

inequalities Ax b and x 0 are the constraints which specify a convex polytope over which the

23

objective function is to be optimized. In this context, two vectors are comparable when they have

the same dimensions. If every entry in the first is less-than or equal-to the corresponding entry in

the second then we can say the first vector is less-than or equal-to the second vector.

Linear programming can be applied to various fields of study. It is used in business

and economics, but can also be utilized for some engineering problems. Industries that use linear

programming models include transportation, energy, telecommunications, and manufacturing. It

has

proved

useful

in

modeling

diverse

types

of

problems

in

planning, routing, scheduling, assignment, and design.

History

The problem of solving a system of linear inequalities dates back at least as far as Fourier, who in

1827 published a method for solving them, and after whom the method of FourierMotzkin

elimination is named.

The first linear programming formulation of a problem that is equivalent to the general linear

programming problem was given by Leonid Kantorovich in 1939, who also proposed a method

for solving it. He developed it during World War II as a way to plan expenditures and returns so

as to reduce costs to the army and increase losses incurred by the enemy. About the same time as

Kantorovich, the Dutch-American economist T. C. Koopmans formulated classical economic

problems as linear programs. Kantorovich and Koopmans later shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in

economics. In 1941, Frank Lauren Hitchcock also formulated transportation problems as linear

programs and gave a solution very similar to the later Simplex method; Hitchcock had died in

1957 and the Nobel Prize is not awarded posthumously.

During 1946-1947, George B. Dantzig independently developed general linear programming

formulation to use for planning problems in US Air Force. In 1947, Dantzig also invented

the simplex method that for the first time efficiently tackled the linear programming problem in

most cases. When Dantzig arranged meeting with John von Neumann to discuss his Simplex

method, Neumann immediately conjectured the theory of duality by realizing that the problem he

had been working in game theory was equivalent. Dantzig provided formal proof in an

unpublished report "A Theorem on Linear Inequalities" on January 5, 1948. Postwar, many

industries found its use in their daily planning.

Dantzig's original example was to find the best assignment of 70 people to 70 jobs. The

computing power required to test all the permutations to select the best assignment is vast; the

number of possible configurations exceeds the number of particles in the observable universe.

24

However, it takes only a moment to find the optimum solution by posing the problem as a linear

program and applying the simplex algorithm. The theory behind linear programming drastically

reduces the number of possible solutions that must be checked.

The linear-programming problem was first shown to be solvable in polynomial time by Leonid

Khachiyan in 1979, but a larger theoretical and practical breakthrough in the field came in 1984

when Narendra Karmarkar introduced a new interior-point method for solving linearprogramming problems.

Uses

Linear programming is a considerable field of optimization for several reasons. Many practical

problems in operations research can be expressed as linear programming problems. Certain

special cases of linear programming, such as network flow problems and multicommodity

flow problems are considered important enough to have generated much research on specialized

algorithms for their solution. A number of algorithms for other types of optimization problems

work by solving LP problems as sub-problems. Historically, ideas from linear programming have

inspired many of the central concepts of optimization theory, such as duality, decomposition, and

the importance of convexity and its generalizations. Likewise, linear programming is heavily

used in microeconomics and company management, such as planning, production, transportation,

technology and other issues. Although the modern management issues are ever-changing, most

companies would like to maximize profits or minimize costs with limited resources. Therefore,

many issues can be characterized as linear programming problems.

25

Example 1:

Suppose that a farmer has a piece of farm land, say L km2, to be planted with either wheat or

barley or some combination of the two. The farmer has a limited amount of fertilizer,

F kilograms,

and

insecticide, P kilograms.

Every square

kilometer

of

wheat

requires F1 kilograms of fertilizer and P1 kilograms of insecticide, while every square kilometer

of barley requires F2 kilograms of fertilizer and P2 kilograms of insecticide. Let S1 be the selling

price of wheat per square kilometer, and S 2 be the selling price of barley. If we denote the area of

land planted with wheat and barley by x1 and x2 respectively, then profit can be maximized by

choosing optimal values for x1 and x2. This problem can be expressed with the following linear

programming problem in the standard form:

Maximize:

function")

Subject to:

(limit on fertilizer)

(limit on insecticide)

(cannot plant a negative area).

Maximize

subject to

26

Example 2:

You need to buy some filing cabinets. You know that Cabinet X costs $10 per unit, requires six

square feet of floor space, and holds eight cubic feet of files. Cabinet Y costs $20 per unit,

requires eight square feet of floor space, and holds twelve cubic feet of files. You have been

given $140 for this purchase, though you don't have to spend that much. The office has room for

no more than 72 square feet of cabinets. How many of which model should you buy, in order to

maximize storage volume?

The question ask for the number of cabinets I need to buy, so my variables will stand for that:

x: number of model X cabinets purchased

y: number of model Y cabinets purchased

Naturally, x > 0 and y > 0. I have to consider costs and floor space (the "footprint" of each unit),

while maximizing the storage volume, so costs and floor space will be my constraints, while

volume will be my optimization equation.

space: 6x + 8y < 72, or y < (

1

2 )x+7

3

4 )x+9

volume: V = 8x + 12y

This system (along with the first two constraints) graphs as:

27

When you test the corner points at (8, 3), (0, 7), and (12, 0), you should obtain a maximal volume

of 100 cubic feet by buying eight of model X and three of model Y.

b) Aaron owns a shipping company. He plans to move into his new office which is near to the

city centre. He needs some filing cabinets to organize his files. Cabinet x which cost RM 100 per

unit, requires 0.6 square meters of the floor space and can hold 0.8 cubic meters of files. Cabinet

y which cost RM 200 per unit, requires 0.8 square meters of the floor space and can hold 1.2

cubic meters of files. The ratio of the number of cabinet x to the number of cabinet y is not less

than 2:3. Aaron has an allocation of RM 1400 for the cabinets and the office has room for no

more than 7.2 square meters.

i) Using the given information,

(a) write the inequalities which satisfy all the above constraints.

Cost

Floor space

Storage volume

Cabinet x

RM 100

0.6 square meters

0.8 cubic meters

I)

x 2

3 x2 y

y 3

II)

Cabinet y

RM 200

0.8 square meters

1.2 cubic meters

x+ 2 y 14

III)

3 x+ 4 y 36

(b) construct and shade the region that satisfies all the above constraints.

28

3 x+ 4 y=36

3 x=2 y

x+ 2 y =14

ii) Using two different methods, find the maximum storage volume.

Method 1

From the storage volume of both cabinets, we can form an equation:

Volume = 0.8 x+1.2 y

As volume can be any constant, well take the constant by multiplying 0.8 and 1.2 together.

0.8 x+1.2 y

= 0.8 1.2

0.8 x+1.2 y

= 0.96

2 x +3 y

= 2.4

A ruler is used to find the maximum point by moving the ruler parallel to the line and the

maximum point is the point where the ruler last touched in the shaded region.

29

3 x+ 4 y=36

3 x=2 y

x+ 2 y =14

2 x +3 y

= 2.4

The maximum point is (8, 3).

Thus, this means that the maximum storage volume obtained is by having 8 cabinet x and 3

cabinet y.

Volume = 0.8 x+1.2 y

= 0.8 ( 8 ) +1.2(3)

= 10.0 m3

Method 2

To find the volume, the formula Volume = 0.8 x+1.2 y

is used.

Since every points in the shaded region is a possible answer, thus every point is being

calculated to find their storage volume.

Number of cabinet x

0

1

Number of cabinet y

0

0

0.0

0.8

30

1

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

6

6

6

6

6

7

7

7

7

8

8

8

8

9

9

9

10

10

11

12

1

0

1

2

3

0

1

2

3

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

0

1

2

3

4

0

1

2

3

0

1

2

3

0

1

2

0

1

0

0

2.0

1.6

2.8

4.0

5.2

2.4

3.6

4.8

6.0

7.2

3.2

4.4

5.6

6.8

8.0

9.2

4.0

5.2

6.4

7.6

8.8

4.8

6.0

7.2

8.4

9.6

5.6

6.8

8.0

9.2

6.4

7.6

8.8

10.0

7.2

8.4

9.6

8.0

9.2

8.8

9.6

As we can see from the table above, the highest storage volume is by having 8 cabinet x and 3

cabinet y. The storage volume achieved is 10.0 m3.

31

iii) Aaron plans to buy cabinet x in a range of 4 to 9 units. Tabulate all the possible combinations

of the cabinets that he can purchase. Calculate the cost of each combination.

The cost can be calculated by the formula Cost = 100 x+200 y .

Number of cabinet x

4

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

6

6

6

6

6

7

7

7

7

Number of cabinet y

0

1

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

0

1

2

3

4

0

1

2

3

Cost (RM)

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

500

700

900

1100

1300

600

800

1000

1200

1400

700

900

1100

1300

32

8

8

8

8

9

9

9

0

1

2

3

0

1

2

800

1000

1200

1400

900

1100

1300

iv)If you were Aaron which combination would you choose? Justify your answer and give your

reasons.

I would choose the combination of 8 cabinet x and 3 cabinet y. This is because:(a) It has the maximum storage volume compared to other combination, thus I can store

more files.

(b) Although its price is RM1400, which is the highest price among all combinations, but it

is still in the range of allocation of money, which is the maximum of RM1400. Thus it

can be accepted.

(c) It occupies 7.2 square meters, which still satisfies the maximum floor space given.

33

CONCLUSION

Prior to the end of this project, it was such an extensive temporal length

to go through to finish the task. Much time was spent but it was worth it.

Time management had become an important habit to adopt along the

entire time I worked to complete the project.

One of the benefits of doing this project is the improvement of the

mathematical skill which may be helpful in solving mathematical

problems. As it turns out, the concept of differentiation, trigonometric

function and linear programming become clearer in our mind. We

understand them well and learned their application in real life.

Now, for us additional mathematics is not just a subject for exam

only but we are keen to apply what we had learned to real life. All the

work of many mathematicians should certainly be appreciated as many

34

that out when researching for the history of linear programming.

REFLECTION

POEM

Many years ago I say, Math was just so fun,

Fun to do, easy to learn, and always useful in life.

Now after years of learning it, after PMR was done,

Add Maths came into my life and "cut" me like a knife.

It's interesting oh yes it is, this cannot be denied,

But it's just too hard and complicated and annoys that brain of mine.

The answers and working are just too long, though yes, it is its pride,

Sometimes, no choice, I have to give up, and tell myself I've tried.

Add Maths, I have a question to ask, should I love you or should I hate

you?

Because when I believe I understand I realise I'm still a jerk.

But sometimes no matter how much I try, I never get a clue,

Therefore I choose to close my book, look at it and then just smirk.

And then again, it pops in my mind, there's SPM ahead,

No choice, no choice, not a choice at all, I can't laze around anymore.

Okay friends and everyone, now that I have said,

I'll just do my Add Maths homework now, and see what my brain will

store.

35

REFERENCES

https://www.google.com.my

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_programming

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxima_and_minima

http://www.ithink.org.my/Home/Index

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigonometric_functions

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_de_Fermat

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APPENDIX

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