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Six Month Industrial Training Report

COMPLETED AT

FEDERAL MOGULGOETZE (I) LTD.


Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of

Degree of Bachelor of Technology


In
Mechanical Engineering

Submitted By:Name: JASPREET SINGH


University Roll No.1281217

SUBMITTED TO
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND INDUSTRIAL ENGG
BABA BANDA SINGH BAHADUR ENGINEERING COLLEGE
FATEHGARH SAHIB
1

TABLE OF CONTENT
Acknowledgement
1. Company Profile
a) Manufacturing Plant in India
b) Location of Plant in India
2. Ring Machine Shop
a) Introduction to Ring Machine Shop
b) Section of Ring M/C Shop
c) Introduction to Piston Rings
d) Various machines in the Ring M/C Shop
3. Project Work

a) Scrap Reduction in moly coated KV1 MaterialPiston Rings


b) TPM (Total Productive Maintenance)
c) NATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY COUNCIL STUDY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thanks the Head of training and Development at FEDERAL
-MOGULGOETZE INDIALIMITED for providing me the opportunity to carry out
my six weeks industrial training at FMG (INDIA) LIMITED

Bahadurgarh , Patiala.

I am extremely grateful to Mr. Upkar Singh, head of PMS Export and Mr.
Suresh kapoor, Manager of die inspection and Mr.Kamaldeep Singh quality
manager in PMS Export, who gave me the project to exercise my knowledge and
increase the efficiency of my personality as a whole.
Once again I would like to express my deep gratitude for all the persons
with whom I came in contact during my stay at Federal-MogulGoetz India
Limited , without whose help my training would have ended as a heap of
unanswered queries.

JASPREET SINGH
1281217
B. Tech. (MECH.7th SEM.)
BBSBEC
Fatehgarh Sahib

Federal-Mogul Corporation

Founded
1899 as the Muzzy-Lyon Company.
Headquarters Southfield, Michigan, USA.
Key people
Jueckstock Reiner, President & CEO.
Industry
Auto Parts.
Products
Pistons, rings, pins, liners, valve seats and guides,
ignition products, bearings, bushings, heatshields, sealing products,
transmission components, brake and chassis components, and

Revenue
Net income
Employees
Website

systems protection products.


6.9 billion USD (2008)
468 million USD (2008)
43,000 (2008)
http://www.federalmogul.com

COMPANY PROFILE
Federal-Mogul

Corporation is

global

supplier of automotive components, systems


and modules serving the world's original
equipment

manufacturers

and

the global

aftermarket.

The

company utilizes

engineering

and

materials

its

expertise,

proprietary technology, manufacturing skill,


distribution flexibility and marketing power
to deliver products, brands and services
of value to its customers. Federal-Mogul is
focused on global profitable growth to create
value for and bring greater satisfaction to its
customers, employees and stake holders.
Federal-Mogul World Headquarters is located
at 26555 Northwestern Highway, Southfield,
MI

48033,

manufacturing

U.S.A.

It

also

sites worldwide.

have

111

Federal-

Mogul has 45,000 employees in 35 countries.


Worldwide annual sales for year-end 2005 were $6.3 billion. In 2005, OE accounted for 54% of our
annual sales, while aftermarket sales are 46%.
Federal-Mogul design, engineer and manufacture a variety of automotive products for its
aftermarket and OE customers. Its products include, but are not limited to, bearings, pistons, piston
pins, rings and liners, valve seats and guides, dynamic seals, hot and cold static gaskets and seals,
liquid elastomer molded (LEM) seals, systems protection, friction products and aftermarket products
(engine components, gaskets, antifriction bearings and seals, brakes, chassis, wipers, fuel pumps,
ignition and lighting).
Federal-Mogul aftermarket products are sold under a variety of power brands, including, but
not limited to, AE engine products, ANCO wipers, Champion spark plugs and wipers, Fel-Pro
gaskets, Ferodo brake pads, Glyco bearings, Goetze piston rings, Moog chassis products,
National Wheel End Components, Nral pistons, Payen gaskets, Sealed Power engine
products and Wagner lighting and brake products. GOETZE (I) LIMITED, BAHADURGARH was
set up in 1954 by Mr. H.P.Nanda with the collaboration of M/S GOETZE WERKE, GERMANY,
which started its production of Piston Rings for automobile industry in 1957. Considering the need of
complete PISTON assembly ESCORTS LIMITED ventured into manufacturing of Pistons. In 1958
6

with the collaboration of M/S MAHLE, GERMANY, this delivered the Indian automobile industry its
Piston in 1960. ESCORTS entered in collaboration with M/S SUKO, GERMANY, for Piston Pins in
1967 and manufacturing started in 1968.To meet the increasing demand of market, in 1977 a parallel
unit for manufacturing Pistons and Pistons Pins was set up in BANGLORE.
Technological leadership matched with innovated thinking has made ESCORTS and
GOETZE products to enjoy a high degree of customer confidence and are the first choices of
discerning for application ranging from BI-WHEELER to BATTLE TANKS. The plant manufacture
over 3.4million & 2.9 million Piston-Pins & Crank Pins annually .Around 50% of its production is
being fitted by original equipment manufacturers of Automobile, Bi-wheelers, Tractors, Stationary
Engines, Generator etc. Among its biggest customers are the MUL for which it manufactures pistons
for Maruti-800, Esteem, Zen etc. Other customers include Peugeot, Escorts Division-Faridabad, Bajaj,
Hindustan Motors, TVS, Rajdootand many others. The company also directly supplies its products to
all the authorized dealers of the spare part for the above companies throughout INDIA.
From 1st October, 1996, ESCORTS LIMITED entered into joint venture with M/S MAHLE
GmbH, GERMANY with the formation of new company, ESCORTS MAHLE LIMITED. In 1998,
GOETZE also became the part of FEDERAL MOUGAL, a well known group of U.S.A.
In June 2000, both ESCORTS MAHLE LIMITED and GOETZE have become QS 9000
certified companies. Wide range of pistons and pins are also exported to U.K., Iran, Bangladesh, SriLanka, Egypt, Singapore and Malaysia.
In October 2006 name changed Goetze (India) Limited to FEDERAL-MOGUL GOETZE
(INDIA) LIMITED because majority stake holding acquisition by Federal-Mogul Corporation.
Federal-Mogul Goetze (India) Limited is the largest manufacturer of pistons and piston rings in India
Pistons are varying from 30mm to 300mm diameter. The most modern production facilities at
Federal-Mogul Goetze (India) Limited Patiala is certified TS 16949, ISO14001 and OHSAS 18001.

Company Perspectives:
Federal-Mogul has over 250 locations, across 6 continents, in 24 countries, with 56,000
employees worldwide. Headquartered in Southfield, Michigan, Federal-Mogul is a $7 billion
automotive parts manufacturer providing innovative solutions and systems to global customers in the
automotive, light truck, heavy-duty, railroad, farm and industrial markets. A century of people serving
customers through manufacturing mastery has made Federal-Mogul a global leader in the automotive
industry. Recognized by our customers as the supplier of choice for powertrain systems, sealing
systems, and general products of leading edge innovation and technology, Federal-Mogul is a
dynamic, growth-oriented company dedicated to delighting customers.
7

FEDERAL MOGUL GOETZE (INDIA) LTD.-

Goetze (I) Limited, Bahadurgarh was set up in 1954 with the collaboration of M/S
GoetzeWerke, Germany, which started its production of piston rings for automobile industry in 1957.
Considering the need of complete piston assembly ESCORTS LTD. ventured into
manufacturing of pistons in 1958 with the collaboration of M/S Mahle GmbH, Germany, which
delivered the Indian automobile industry its piston in 1960.
ESCORTS entered in collaboration with M/S SUKO GmbH, Germany, for piston pins in 1967
and manufacturing started in 1968.To meet the increasing demand of market, in 1977 a parallel unit to
manufacture pistons & piston pins was set up in Bangalore.
Technological leadership matched with innovated thinking has made Escorts and Goetze
products to enjoy a high degree of customer confidence and are the first choice of discerning customer
for application ranging from bi- wheeler to battle tanks.
From 1st October 1996, ESCORTS LIMITED entered into joint venture with M/S Mahle
GmbH, Germany with the formation of new company, ESCORTS MAHLE LIMITED.
In 1998, Goetze also became the part of federal mougal, a well-known group of U.S.A.

In

June 2000, both Escorts Mahle Limited and Goetze have become QS 9000 certified companies.

OPERATIONS DONE AT FEDERAL-MOGUL GOETZE (I) LTD


PISTONS Melting, Alloying, Casting Machining, Anodizing, Inspection.
PISTON RINGS Melting , Alloying , Casting , Machining , Chrome Plating, Moly Coating ,
Inspection.
PISTON PINS Machining , Heat Treatment , Inspection

HISTORY OF GOETZE WERKE


1954 Incorporated as a JV with GoetzeWerke
1957 Ring & Liner Production

Patiala

1958 Piston Production as Escorts (Automotive

Patiala

Division) (Collaboration: Mahle)


1960

Cast Iron / Forged Piston Production

Patiala

Started

1968 Pins / Ring Carrier Production started

Patiala

1977 Piston / Ring Production started

Bangalore

1982 Steel Rings / Large Bore Locomotive Piston

Bangalore

1985 Light Alloy Products

Patiala

1989 Auto Thermic Pistons Production

Bangalore

1990 Moly coated / IKA / Chrome Oil Rings

Patiala

1992 Large Bore Rings / Pistons for Battle Tanks

Bangalore

1994 Composite Pistons / New Ring Foundry

Bangalore

1996 Escorts (Automotive Division) hived off into joint venture with M/s
Mahle, Germany

PLANT LOCATION

1997 Goetze TP (India) Ltd. setup for manufacture of Steel Rings


2000

Merger of Federal-Mogul Sintered Products Ltd. with Goetze (India)


Ltd.

Key industrial township in


Most prosperous state in
Well connected by rail/road

OCATION OF PLANT IN INDIA


BHIWADI

Industrial township in Rajasthan


Proximity to
Located on key highway [NH 8]

Capital city of
s IT Hub
Well connected across

RODUCTS MANUFACTURED AT PATIALA PLANT

10

PISTONS

RINGS

PINS

11

An Introduction to Piston Rings


Piston:The Piston is a cylindrical plug that moves up and down in the engine
cylinder. It has the piston rings to provide a good seal between the cylinder wall
12

and piston. Although the piston appears to be a simple part, it is actually a very
complex design. The piston works with piston rings to contain the compression
and combustion pressure within the cylinder.
Piston Rings: A metallic circular spring with a high relative outward expanding
strain. It fits to an annular groove that fits its section. The reciprocating and/or
rotating piston ring seals against a pressure differential of gases or liquids
between the ring and a cylinder bore and one side of the ring and groove.

Functions of Piston Rings:

The piston rings in I.C Engines have to perform the following functions:

To form a seal for the high pressure gases from the combustion chamber against
leak into the crankcase.
To provide easy passage for heat flow from the piston crown to the cylinder
walls.
To maintain sufficient lubricating oil on the cylinder wall throughout the entire
length of the piston travel, minimizing the ring and the cylinder wear. And at the
same time, control the thickness of the oil film so that satisfactory oil control is
maintained. The oil is not to be allowed to go up to the combustion chamber
where eventually it would burn to leave carbon deposits.
A good seal must be maintained between the piston and the cylinder wall to
prevent blow-by. Blow-by is the name that describes the escape of unburned airfuel mixture and burned gases from the combustion chamber, past the pistons
and into the crankcase. These gases blow by the pistons. The piston cannot fit
in the cylinder closely enough to prevent blow-by. Therefore, piston rings must
be used to provide the necessity seal.
The rings are installed in grooves in the piston. Actually, there are two
types of rings, compression rings and control rings.
The compression rings seal in air-fuel mixture as it is compressed. They also
seal in the combustion pressure as the mixture burns. The oil control rings
scrape excessive oil from the cylinder wall and return to the oil pan. The rings
have joints so they can be expanded and slipped over the piston head and
13

grooves into the piston. Rings for automotive engines usually have butt joints.
In some heavy-duty engines, the joint may be lapped, or of the sealed type.
The rings are slightly larger than in diameter than they will be in cylinder.
Then, when the rings are installed, they are compressed so that the joints are
nearly closed. Compressing the rings outs them in tension. Then they press tight
against the cylinder wall.
The distance between the ends of the rings when it is compressed in the
cylinder is called the ring gap.

Properties of Piston Ring

The piston rings must have the following properties in order to ensure they
function as required:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Not loose its tangential tension at high temperatures


Good conductor of heat
Have good wear resistant property
Maintain radial pressure distribution
Slide freely even under poor lubrication

14

15

FITTING THE RINGS TO THE PISTON

This is done with help of special fixtures. Each unnecessary removal and
replacement impairs the tension of the ring. If subsequent removal and
replacement cannot be avoided, it may only be done with the piston ring pliers,
as by excessive spreading permanent deformation is caused and in consequence
the sealing action of the ring is adversely affected.

PRECAUTIONS

The cylinder bore must be perfectly round.


Good cross having with proper surface roughness is necessary.
Special attention must be paid to good lubrication (formation of oil film)
Absolute cleanliness during assembly is required.
If necessary rings with special surface protection coating should be selected.
Attention should be paid to good filtration of the air and fuel.

FITTING THE PISTON COMPLETE WITH THE CYLINDER:


This process must be done in such a manner that the rings are introduced into
the cylinder bore when compressed by a ring clamping strap in no case with
screw drivers. The ring gap should then be set opposite one another.

16

Ring Material

The material generally used for piston rings is fine grained alloy cast iron
containing silicon and manganese. It has good heat and wear resisting qualities.
The hardness on Rockwell B scale is about 110.
Alloy steels have also been used as ring material. Chromium plating
further helps the rings to resist scuffing because it is difficult to bewelded to
cast iron cylinder. However, these rings should not be used when the cylinder
bore itself is lined with chromium or any such hard material.
Rings with molybdenum-filled face have also been introduced recently.
The molybdenum surface has larger oil carrying capacity. It is therefore
provides better cylinder wall lubrication with resultant longer engine life. The
higher melting point of molybdenum enables the ring to withstand higher
temperatures than other ring metals and thus reduce scuffing.
Stainless steel oil rings resist pitting and corrosion to remain clean and
do not clog with carbon as quickly as other rings. Further, these resist excessive
tension at engine operation temperatures.

17

Types of Rings

Single piece rings: A ring formed from only one part, which is intended

for installation in a single ring groove.


Multi piece ring: A ring comprising two or more component parts,

which are intended for installation in a single ring groove.


Compression Ring: A ring intended primarily to prevent the leakage of

gas past the piston.


Oil Control Ring: a ring having oil return slots or an equivalent and

intended to scrape oil from the cylinder.


Rectangular Ring: A compression ring with a rectangular crosses

section; with its geometrically simple form, it provides adequate seal


under normal operating conditions.
Keystone Ring:a compression ring with both sides tapered; it is used in

those cases when ring sticking can be expected. Due to its wedge
shape, any radial movement of the ring will alter its axial clearance
and thus minimize the build up of combustion chamber.
Half Keystone Ring: A compression ring with one side tapered; usually

the tapered side is the one, which the combustion chamber.


Scrapper Ring(Stepped):A ring which has a step on the lower peripheral

edge to scrape oil from the cylinder wall. It can also act as a lower
compression ring.
Scrapper Ring(Napier):A scrapper ring with an undercut step.
Slotted Oil Ring:A slotted oil control ring with parallel sides and two

contact lands of this type of ring, a high unit pressure is achieved.


18

Beveled-Edge Oil Control Ring:A slotted oil control ring with parallel sides and two
lands. The peripheral edges of both lands are chamfered. In order to achieve a further increase
in unit pressure and thereby a better oil scrapping effect.

Double-Beveled Oil Control Ring: A ring similar to beveled edge oil control ring,
except that both lands are chamfered on their upwards facing edges of both lands in the same
direction, the oil scrapping effect is further improved.

Coil Spring Loaded Slotted Oil Control Ring:A ring similar to slotted oil control
type, the radial pressure of which is increased be means of a cylinder coil spring. This spring
acts equally in all directions against the inside of the ring.

19

S.No.

Cross Section Configuration of Rings

1.

Rectangular Ring

2.

Keystone Ring

3.

Half Keystone Ring

4.

Scrapper Ring(Stepped)

5.

Scrapper Ring(Napier)

6.

Slotted Oil Control Ring

7.

Beveled Edge Oil Control


Ring
Expander/Segment Oil
Control Ring

8.

20

The rings are generally of two types:

Compression Rings

Oil Control Rings

The top compression ring i.e. the ring nearest to the combustion chamber) has to do hard
work of gas sealing and transfer heat form the of piston crown to the cylinder walls. They
must seal and transfer heat and also assist the oil rings in controlling the oil.
The function of the oil control ring is evident from their name. To perform this
function effectively they must prevent excessive amounts of oil from passing:
Between the ring face and the cylinder wall
Through the ring end gap
Around behind the ring

Compression Rings

Compression rings are usually made of cast iron. The material has good wearing
qualities. It also provides good ring tension, or force, on the cylinder walls. Some heavy duty
rings are made of ductile iron. These rings are more flexible than cast iron. Ductile iron rings
are widely used in racing, diesel turbocharged other high performance engines.
Compression rings, besides reducing blow-by, also help control oil. On the intake
stroke, compression rings scrape all the thin film of oil from the cylinder walls. Then on the
exhaust stroke the rings are moving upward and tend to skate over the oil film.

Coatings of various substances have been applied to compression rings to help wearin and prevent rapid wear of rings and cylinder walls.

21

Oil Control Rings

The oil control ring or rings prevent oil from working up into the combustion
chamber. Oil thrown off the main and rod bearings lubricates the cylinder walls, pistons and
rings. Some connecting rods have an oil split hole, which spills oil onto the cylinder wall
every time it lines up with the oil hole in the crankpin.
Most of the time more oil is thrown onto the cylinder walls than is needed. It must be
scrapped off and returned to the oil pan. If too much oil is left on the cylinder walls, it works
its way up into the combustion chamber, where it burns. This increases oil consumption and
so the engine requires extra oil quite often. Also the burnt oil fouls the spark plug, hampers
the action of the compression rings and increases the possibility of engine detonation.
The oil that is scrapped off the cylinder walls does several things. It carries away
particles of carbon, dust and dirt. These particles are then removed by the oil screen or filter.
The oil also provides some cooling effect on the cylinder wall. Therefore, as the oil circulates
it lubricates, cleans, cool and seals.
Ring grooves for oil control rings have drain holes or slots which allow the oil control
rings scrape off the cylinder walls to drain to the inside of the piston. There the oil drops off
and falls down into the oil pan. Some lubricates the piston pin.

22

Ring Machine Shop

Ring machine shop is a production unit at Goetze India Limited,


Bahadurgarh. In this shop special purpose dedicated machines are
used for the processing of ring blanks (rings obtained from foundry)
to the finished rings as per requirements of the customer. Ring
machine shop has strength of approx. 500. Some machines run around
the clock.

Classification of rings processed

Based on type of ring


Based on material of ring
Based on coating to be done

1. Based on type of ring

Compression Rings
Oil Control Rings

2. Based on material of ring

Standard K1 material
Standard GOE-13 material
Standard KV1 material
Standard IKA material

23

3. Based on coating to be done

Chrome ring
Molybdenum ring

In Goetze India different rings made are cast iron rings or alloyed
rings and steel rings:

Ring
Mat.
K1

KV1

IKA
GOE13

Chemical Composition(in %age)


C

Si

3.5-

2.4-

3.9

3.1

3.7-

2.4-

4.2

3.2

3.1-

2.3-

3.7

3.1

2.83.8

Mn

Cr

Cu

.5-.9

.3-.6

.4 max

.5max

.5 max

.3 max

.2 max

.5-.8

.4 max

.3-.7

.7-1.3

S
.15
max
.05
max

.1 max

Mg

Ni

Mo

.1 max

.3max

.4-.9

.7-1.2

.2max

.15
2-3

.5-.9

.3-.7

.15-.6

.2-.8
max

24

Sections in Ring Machine Shop

Ring machine shop is divided into the following sections:

1. Rough Section

2. Finish Section

3. Chrome Section

4. Moly Section

5. CNC Section

6. Coil Winding

7. Quality Assurance/ Inspection Department

8. Tool Store

25

Process Flow Chat

Rough Section:

Grinding Before
splitting

Rough Grinding

Splitting of Double
Blanks
Medium Grinding

Grinding after
splitting
Heat Treatment (only
KV1)

Finish Grinding

Medium Grinding
Ring Blanks from Foundry
Finish Grinding

Double Cam Turning & Gap Turning

Oversi
ze

Axial Width Inspection


Undersize
(Scrap)

Send to Finish
Section

26

Finish Section:

27

Semi Finish Ring


The rough section includes
axial grinding
of the ring blanks received from the
fromtheRough
Section

Oil control

piston ring
ringfoundry along with the process sheet.

Chrome
Ring sheet is:
Major information obtained from the process

Inside Chamfering
Finish Turning
Quantity
of rings issued and quantity required
(wherever
& Outside
required)
Breaking
Specifications
of ring blank/finishEdge
ring
Drawing of ring

Stamping
Material
of ring

(orADA

Compression
Ring

Inside Chamfering
(wherever
required)
Stamping

Sequence of operations to be performed


& tolerance
to be maintained at every step of
Gap
Sizing
production

Outside Grooving
Special product characteristics

Finish Turning

Chrome
Slotting
Ring Blanks are cast in quantity Plating
larger then as per requirement taking
intoSizing
scrap
Gap

Special Instructions and remarks

considerations. Depending on the type of material of ring and operations to be performed a


multiplying factor is decided for casting of ring blank. Usually this multiplying factor varies

Finish Turning
from 1.05 -1.15.

Trapezoidal
Grinding

Blanks made in foundry = (1.05 to 1.15) x Quantity required

Gap sizing

Notch milling

Beveling (wherever
specified)
1. Axial Width Grinding:

Final Inspection

Rings obtained from foundry have poor surface finish and less dimensional accuracy.

Inside Grooving

Ring blanks are grind axially to achieve the dimensions required. To grind rings axially
center-less grinding machines are used. These are very robust, rigid, heavy machines. In this

processInspection
ring blanks are fed through a magnetic feeder to the two revolving grinding wheels,
Final
separated by a distance which is equal to the thickness of the ring required.

28

Axial width grinding is carried out in two or three stages as per requirement and
different special purpose, dedicated centre-less grinders are used for grinding the ring blanks
to achieve required size as per process sheet.

Machine
HMT

Grinding Stage

Number of

Rough/Medium
Grinding
Rough/Medium
Grinding

DFS

Finish grinding

Kaefig

Finish grinding

Besley

i.

HMT/Besley Rough grinding Machine


Used for rough/medium grinding of axial width of rings
Working principle is centre less grinding with horizontal spindles
Parameter controlled is axial width of ring
Manpower 2 persons per shift
Angle between grinding wheels 3 to 5
Coolant used CIM cool (6-10%) mixed with water
Difference between HMT and Besley is only of the production targets and the shape of
machine.

29

ii.

DFS finish Grinding Machine


Used for finish grinding of axial width of rings
Working principle is centre less grinding

Parameter to be controlled is axial width of rings


Manpower 2 persons per shift
Angle between grinding wheels- 3 to 5
Comparator gauge with dial gauge having least count of .001 mm calibrated with master
gauge is used for inspecting the axial width of rings with a sample size of 2 and frequency is
at setup, 6-8 times in shift and end of production

iii.

Kaefig (CNC) Finish Grinding Machine


Used for finish grinding of axial width of rings

Working principle is centre less grinding with horizontal spindles

Parameter to be controlled is axial width of rings


Manpower 2 persons per shift
Angle between grinding wheels - 3 to 5
Comparator gauge with dial gauge having least count of .001 mm calibrated with master
gauge is used for inspecting the axial width of rings with a sample size of 2 and frequency is
at setup, 6-8 times in shift and end of production

30

2. Splitting
It is the operation of cutting a single Double Blank into two single blanks. This
operation is not carried out on all types of rings. Usually this operation is carried on KV1
rings. KV1 rings are hardest of all the materials used for ring manufacturing and it is usually
cast in double blanks, from a single double blank, two rings can be obtained.
KV1 composition is such that during casting maximum metallurgical and casting
defects like slag inclusion, blow holes and porosity lie in the middle of the ring. The
maximum probability of observing these defects is at a distance of 1 mm between centers.
Therefore with cutter of thickness 1.25 mm, these blanks are cut from the middle. Eight
double blanks are loaded on a mandrel, covered with appropriate rubber sleeve, matching
with inside diameter of ring. The cutters are fitted on another mandrel with appropriate
spacers with in the cutter. The cutter and rings are rotated in opposite direction. The required
depth of cut is set and the cutting is performed. There are 4 semi-automatic and 1 CNC
splitting machines in ring shop. Manpower is one per machine.

3. Turning and Boring


Outside turning and inside boring is a very important process. In this process turning
and boring are done simultaneously. This step is of maximum importance because a number
of parameters are dependent on this operation. These are:
Major Diameter
Minor Diameter
Radial Thickness
Oval-ity
Closed Gap (after gap cutting)
Free Gap (after gap cutting)
Tangential thickness
Light passage
Visual appearance
31

Rings in the form of packets (30 -80 rings per packet) are aligned on the horizontal
bar with a wire rotating with a motor. Ring packet is aligned such that flat surface faces
upwards. After aligning, rings are held in a clamping device called carrier, then ring packet
is moved to the machine spindle and is clamped pneumatically. At a time, six cutting tools are
mounted, three tools on boring bar for internal cutting and three on tool post for external
turning. The usage of three tools in single pass allows saving of time and good results.
Selection of cam to suit the ovality of rings is mentioned on process sheet.
Machines used for turning and boring are named as DCT (Double Cam Turning)
machines. These are 15 in number in the ring shop. These machines are semi-automatic. One
operator is employed for each machine.
After turning and boring the ring is clamped on carrier and removed from machine
spindles by releasing the air pressure and moved to gap cutting machine.

4. Gap Cutting

Gap cutting operation is performed on the same station as of


turning and boring. It is a semi-automatic machine. In gap-cutting, the
rings are held pneumatically in gap-cutting machine and a milling
cutter is used to cut the gap in two passes.
In first pass, one end of gap is cut with a rotating cutter and the
cutter is then moved backwards. The other end of the gap is then
aligned with the cutter, and this step is a part of the automatic cycle of
the machine.

32

Process Flow Chart for Chrome Plating


Rings from Finish
Section
Gap Corner Sizing (wherever
specified)

Mandrel Preparation

Sand Blasting

Mandrel washing

Passivation (wherever
required)
Etching (wherever required)

Initial coating (wherever


required)

Chrome Plating

33

Mandrel Washing

Neutralizing

Stage inspection

Process Flow Chart for Moly Plating


Rings from Finish
Section
Auto Gap Grinding
Lapping)
Deburring

Axial Width
Inspection
Mandrel
Preparation
Finish Turning

Sand Blasting

Moly Spray
34

Outer Diameter
Profile
LabGrinding
Inspection
Grinding

RING TERMINOLOGY

A. RingLand: The part of the piston between the ring grooves and above the top ring that confines
and supports the piston rings.

B. Heat Dam: A narrow groove in the top land used in some pistons to help control heat getting to the
top ring. It actually fills with carbon in normal operation and limits heat flow to the ring.

C.Compression Height: The distance from the pin centerline to the top of the piston.

D.Ring Belt: The area on the piston between the top of the pin bore and the top of the piston where
the ring grooves are machined.

E. Piston Head: The top area of the piston where combustion gas pressure is exerted.

F. Piston Pin: Either press-fit or floating, the pin connects the rod to the piston with bearing surface.

35

G. Skirt: The part of the piston below the ring belt.

H. Major Thrust Face: The side of the piston carrying the greatest thrust load. Looking at the piston
from the front in an engine rotating clockwise, this is the left side.

I. Minor Thrust Face: The side of the piston opposite the major thrust face.

J. Piston Pin Bushing: If used, the bushing between the pistons pin bore and the pin.

N.Scuff Band: One or more raised bands of piston material used in some piston designs to reduce
scuffing.
36

O. Groove Depth: The distance between the back of the ring groove and the cylinder wall with the
piston centered.

P. Groove Root Diameter: Piston diameter measured at the back of the groove. May vary on the same
piston between ring grooves.

Q. Land Diameter: Diameter of a given land. Can sometimes vary by design from top to bottom.

R. Land clearance: The difference in diameter between the cylinder bore and the land diameter."R" is
1/2 the total.

S. Skirt Clearance: The difference in diameter between the cylinder bore and skirt diameter. "S" is
1/2 the total.

T. Skirt Groove: A ring groove cut below the pin bore to carry an oil ring.

U. Pin Bore Offset: The distance the pin bore is offset from center.

V. Groove Spacer: Used on reproved pistons to return a ring groove to specs or in some performance
applications to facilitate the use of narrower ring sets than the grooves were originally cut for.

37

RING TERMS & MEASUREMENTS

A. Free gap: The ring end clearance when the ring is uncompressed.

B. Compressed gap: Also known as ring gap, it is the end gap measured when the ring is installed.

C. Radial Wall Thickness: the distance between the inside and outside faces of the ring wall.

D. Ring Diameter: Measured with the ring installed.

E. Inside Diameter: Measured with the ring installed.

F. Ring Sides: The top and bottom surfaces of the ring.

G. Ring Face: The part of the ring in contact with the cylinder wall.

H. Side Clearance: Clearance between the ring groove and the ring.

I. Ring Width: It is the axial width of the ring.

J. Torsional Twist: A built-in imbalance between the way the upper and lower sides compress that
causes a twist in the ring when compressed. Used to sea both the ring in the groove and the ring to
the cylinder wall.

38

MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS

INSIDE CHAMFERING: The good after the two types of inspection are then passed
through the process of inside chamfering in which the inner sides of the rings are chamfered
according to the desired angle.

OUTSIDE CHAMFERING MACHINE: The good after the two types of inspection are
then passed through the process of outside chamfering in which the outer sides of the rings
are chamfered according to the desired angle.

STAMPING: In this process the rings are given stamps of the company on the sides of the
rings like GOE.

GROOVING: The process of grooving is done after stamping. This process is carried out
only for the oil piston rings and not for the compression rings. In this process firstly the rings
are closed with the help of compressed airs pressure which is used to close their gaps so that
while the process of grooving the grooving tool should not interfere with the gap. The tool
used for grooving is a multi-tool which is used to save the time.

SLOTTING: The grooving process is followed by slotting. In the process the rings are again
packed closed by the compressed air pressure to remove the gaps and a mandrel is formed
which is then placed between the headstock and tailstock. Here the rings remain stationary
while the slotting tool rotates and makes a slot in the rings, when one slot is completed the
pack of rings is rotated for other slot, this all is automatic process. The tool used here is also a
multi tool and this process is assorted of milling process. Both the above said processes viz.
grooving and slotting are done only for Oil control rings.

FINISH TURNING: This process is same as above i.e. the mandrel formation is done in the
same manner as in the above said process. The difference is only for the type of tool used that
is the tool used here is turning tool used for finish turning. The mandrel of rings is rotated
39

GAP SIZING:The following procedure to the finish turning is gap sizing, as the name
indicates in this process the gap of the rings is made according to the desire. In this procedure
a cutter having teeths on its surface is rotated and the rings are pushed with the help of a ram
against it and the gap is made of the required size.

BEVELLING: This process is carried out for the oil control rings and is also known as
inside chamfering or outside chamfering. Here in the chuck a die is fixed suitable to the ring
size and single ring is kept inside the die which is rotating now and with the help of a
stationary tool the process is proceeded.

INSIDE GROOVING: This process is very sophisticated so it is carried out on the CNC
machine in which a bunch of rings is placed in a die, suitable to the size of rings, and is
rotated. Thus the process is carried out and inside grooving is done.

NOTCH MILLING: This process is done for the compression rings in which a semicircular
notch is made with the help of a face cutter. This process is done for each and every ring.

LAPPING: The lapping operation is on the axial width of the ring. The two grinding wheels are
operated at a quite high speed. The upper grinding wheel is lifted and the rings are unloaded.

40

VARIOUS MACHINES USED IN THE RING SHOP

Following are the detailed description of various machines used in


manufacturing operations of the processes involved in making a piston ring
after they come from Ring foundry.

1. ROUGH GRINDING SECTION

Rings obtained from foundry have poor surface finish and less dimensional accuracy. Ring
blanks are grinded axially to achieve the dimensions required. To grind rings axially center-less
grinding machines are used. These are very robust, rigid, heavy machines. In this process ring blanks
are fed through a magnetic feeder to the two revolving grinding wheels, separated by a distance which
is equal to the thickness of the ring required.
Axial width grinding is carried out in two or three stages as per requirement and different
special purpose; dedicated centreless grinders are used for grinding the ring blanks to achieve required
size as per process sheet.

MACHINE MAKE

GRINDING STAGE

NUMBER

BESLY

Rough/Medium Grinding

HMT

Rough/Medium Grinding

KAEFIG

Medium/Finish grinding

DFS

Finish grinding

41

Besley/HMT Rough grinding Machine:-

Used for rough/medium grinding of axial width of rings.


Working principle is centre less grinding with horizontal spindles.
Parameter controlled is axial width of ring.
Manpower 2 persons per shift.
Angle between grinding wheels 3 to 5.
Coolant used CIM cool (6-10%) mixed with water.
Difference between HMT and Besley is only of the production targets and the shape of machine.

Kaefig

(CNC) Finish Grinding Machine:-

Used for finish grinding of axial width of rings.


Working principle is centre less grinding with horizontal spindles.
Parameter to be controlled is axial width of rings.
Manpower 2 persons per shift.
Angle between grinding wheels - 3 to 5.
Comparator gauge with dial gauge having least count of .001 mm calibrated with master gauge is used
for inspecting the axial width of rings with a sample size of 2 and frequency is at setup, 6-8 times in
shift and end of production.

42

DFS finish Grinding Machine :-

Used for finish grinding of axial width of rings.


Working principle is centre less grinding.
Parameter to be controlled is axial width of rings.
Manpower 2 persons per shift.
Angle between grinding wheels- 3 to 5.
Comparator gauge with dial gauge having least count of .001 mm calibrated with master gauge is used
for inspecting the axial width of rings with a sample size of 2 and frequency is at setup, 6-8 times in

43

shift

and

end

of

production.

Splitting:-

44

It is the operation of cutting a single Double Blank into two single blanks. This operation is
not carried out on all types of rings. Usually this operation is carried on KV1 rings. KV1 rings are
hardest of all the materials used for ring manufacturing and it is usually cast in double blanks, from a
single double blank, two rings can be obtained.
KV1 composition is such that during casting maximum metallurgical and casting defects like
slag inclusion, blow holes and porosity lie in the middle of the ring. The maximum probability of
observing these defects is at a distance of 1 mm between centers. Therefore with cutter of thickness
1.25 mm, these blanks are cut from the middle. Eight double blanks are loaded on a mandrel, covered
with appropriate rubber sleeve, matching with inside diameter of ring. The cutters are fitted on
another mandrel with appropriate spacers with in the cutter. The cutter and rings are rotated in
opposite direction. The required depth of cut is set and the cutting is performed. There are 4 semiautomatic and 1 CNC splitting machines in ring shop. Manpower is one per machine.

2. DOUBLE CAM TURNING (Turning and Boring):-

Outside turning and inside boring is a very important process. In this process turning and
boring are done simultaneously. This step is of maximum importance because a number of parameters
are dependent on this operation. These are:

Major Diameter

Minor Diameter

Radial Thickness

Ovality

Closed Gap (after gap cutting)

Free Gap (after gap cutting)

Tangential thickness

Light passage test

Visual appearance

Rings in the form of packets (30 -80 rings per packet) are aligned on the horizontal bar with a
wire rotating with a motor. Ring packet is aligned such that flat surface faces upwards. After aligning,
rings are held in a clamping device called carrier, then ring packet is moved to the machine spindle
and is clamped pneumatically. At a time, six cutting tools are mounted, three tools on boring bar for
45

internal cutting and three on tool post for external turning. The usage of three tools in single pass
allows saving of time and good results. Selection of cam to suit the ovality of rings is mentioned on
process sheet.
Machines used for turning and boring are named as DCT (Double Cam Turning) machines.
These are 15 in number in the ring machine shop. These machines are semi-automatic. One operator
is employed for each machine.
After turning and boring the ring is clamped on carrier and removed from machine spindles
by releasing the air pressure and moved to gap cutting machine.

3. GAP CUTTING :46

Gap cutting operation is performed on the same station as of turning and boring. It is a semiautomatic machine. In gap-cutting, the rings are held pneumatically in gap-cutting machine and a
milling cutter is used to cut the gap in two passes.
In first pass, one end of gap is cut with a rotating cutter and the cutter is then moved backwards. The
other end of the gap is then aligned with the cutter, and this step is a part of the automatic cycle of the
machine. The cutter then cuts the other end and the gap is cut in all rings in a packet. Cutter then
moves backwards and all the rings are unloaded from the machine manually by releasing air pressure.

4.

AXIAL WIDTH INSPECTION :-

This machine is basically an inspection machine. Ring is loaded from one side and in an
arrangement which pushes the ring one by one under an axial width checking instrument. Then this
arrangement separates out the good, over-size, &under-size rings. Thus all these categories of rings
are collected separately.

5. STAMPING

MACHINE :-

This machine puts a stamp on the rings of the company like GOE. This has the same loading
and unloading arrangement as that of the axial-width machine.

6. FINISH TURNING MACHINE :47

Before this only the DCT machine does the outside turning operation i.e., reducing the
radial thickness of the ring. This gives the finishing touch to the ring from outside. Rings in
the form of packets (30 -80 rings per packet) are aligned on the horizontal bar with a wire
rotating with a motor. Ring packet is aligned such that flat surface faces upwards. After
aligning, rings are held in a clamping device called carrier, then ring packet is moved to the
machine spindle and is clamped pneumatically. At a time, four cutting tools are mounted, four
on tool post for external turning. The usage of four tools in single pass allows saving of time
and good results.
The difference is only for the type of tool used that is the tool used here is turning tool used
for finish turning. The mandrel of rings is rotated after fixing in the chuck and the work is
carried out on it. In this process the tool remains stationary while the rings are rotated at same
fixed rate of speed.
Machines used for turning are named as Finish Turning machines. These are 6 in number in
the ring machine shop. These machines are semi-automatic. One operator is employed for
each machine.
After turning the ring is clamped on carrier and removed from machine spindles by releasing
the air pressure and moved to gap sizing machines.

7. GAP SIZING MACHINE :-

48

Gap cutting operation is performed after finish turning. In gap-cutting the rings are
held like the operations of axial width and stamping machines. This is the only operation after
gap cutting it gives the finishing touch to the gap. In this procedure a cutter having teeths on
its surface is rotated and the rings are pushed with the help of a ram against it and the gap is
made of the required size. The loading and unloading are same as the axial width and
stamping machines.

8. COIL WINDING MACHINE :-

In this machine a coil is formed which is compressed in a mandrel. It is used for two
diameters i.e., 83&97mm. the material is steel. This is a highly produced ring of the moly-section.
Measurement is done by Vernier Calipers. Speed is kept at 10.42 m/min for all diameters.

9. GROOVING MACHINE :-

The process of grooving is done after stamping. This process is carried out only for
the oil piston rings and not for the compression rings. In this process firstly the rings are
closed with the help of compressed airs pressure which is used to close their gaps so that
while the process of grooving the grooving tool should not interfere with the gap. The tool
used for grooving is a multi-tool which is used to save the time. The grooves are on the
outside of the ring surface it takes the oil in it during its function in the piston ring assembly.
These machines are four in number.

10.D-SLOTTING MACHINE :-

49

The grooving process is followed by slotting. In the process the rings are again
packed closed by the compressed air pressure to remove the gaps and a mandrel is formed
which is then placed between the headstock and tailstock. Here the rings remain stationary
while the slotting tool rotates and makes a slot in the rings, when one slot is completed the
pack of rings is rotated for other slot, this all is automatic process. The tool used here is also a
multi tool and this process is assorted of milling process. Both the above said processes viz.
grooving and slotting are done only for Oil control rings. The slots are in the form of Ds.
These machines are four in number.

11. NOTCH MILLING MACHINE :-

This process is done for the compression rings in which a semicircular notch is made
with the help of a face cutter. This process is done for each and every ring. This is a small
machine and is six in number in the ring machine shop. The cutter has many teeth and they
mill the notch in forward stroke. It has one worker on it. It is a light machine. Only one ring
is operated at one time.

12.BEVELLING MACHINE :-

This process is carried out for the oil control rings and is also known as inside
chamfering or outside chamfering. Here in the chuck a die is fixed suitable to the ring size
and single ring is kept inside the die which is rotating now and with the help of a stationary
tool the process is proceeded

13.

INSIDE GROOVING MACHINE

:-

50

This process is very sophisticated so it is carried out on the CNC machine in which a
bunch of rings is placed in a die, suitable to the size of rings, and is rotated. Thus the process
is carried out and inside grooving is done. This has very less working in the in a month.

14. INSIDE CHAMFERING MACHINE :-

The good after the two types of inspection are then passed through the process of
inside chamfering in which the inner sides of the rings are chamfered according to the desired
angle.

15. LAPPING MACHINE :-

The lapping machine does the operation on the axial width of the ring. It operates 25 rings in
a go. The two grinding wheels are operated at a quite high speed. The upper grinding wheel is lifted
and the rings are unloaded. It uses cutting oil which is also termed as coolant as kerosene oil. One
worker operates on it at one time. And these are six in number in the ring machine shop. Lapping
operation is a super finishing operation. It is done with the help of machine named HELLERHYDRAULIC. The machines consists of head rotating in opposite directions. Both these heads have
lapping stones attached to them. The axial width is controlled by varying the pressure of upper head
and amount of kerosene supply. Metal removal rate can be increased or decreased. The timer is also
attached to the machine for timing the process depending upon the size of cut.

16. HONING MACHINE :-

This machine does the finishing operation on the rings but the material removal is the smallest
from all other operations in the ring machine shop. The rings are placed in a packet of 15-20
depending on the size. There about sixteen honing machines in the ring machine shop. Honing
machine is another super finishing operation and also to provide good finish. It is done after first
lapping. In this process the outer surface of the rings is polished. The set of rings are fixed on a tool
and the tool is attached with a hydraulic ram, which moves up and down simultaneously revolves. The
tool reciprocates and revolves in a sleeve. During honing , a mixture of aerolite mobile oil and slurry
of silicon carbide is circulated through rings, which creates a shiny appearance on surface of rings.
51

The stroke of the ram depends on the number of rings attached to tool. The rotation of ram can be
increased or decreased according to the type of the ring. The time operation varies from ring to ring
according to the material of the ring. There are grooves provided in the sleeves as to allow oil to reach
the bottom of sleeve after rings are pressed in it. After sometimes the sleeve wears out and it is then
replaced by new sleeve. After honing the rings are washed by aerolite oil and checked for surface

finish, rejected rings are re-honed.

52

17. ADA MACHINE :-

This machine is a multi-operation. These are one man machines and are about four in number.
This does the operations like outside grooving. This machine is the only machine in the piston ring
machine shop where a robotic arm is used. The ADA machine is a grooving machine. The robotic arm
picks the un-grooved rings and puts them into chuck. The chuck in this machine is a vacuum created
inside the ring surface. A multi-point cutting tool is employed with this machine as a number of rings
are grooved at a particular time. The grooving with this machine is done on the running surface i.e. on
the outside surface of the ring. After rings have been grooved the robotic arm again comes into
operation and the picks up the grooved rings from the machines and the whole procedure is repeated
again.

18. IDA MACHINE :-

This machine is a multi-operation. These are one man machines and are about two in number.
This does the operations like inside grooving. It is an automatic machine in which the stack of rings to
be machined is placed in head tools for the boring and internal grooving are moved automatically for
performing the operations. The boring operations s done first followed by internal grooving. The CNC
program sets the path movement and the distance to be traveled by the tool. The parameter to be
controlled is groove depth and the instrument used for the purpose is the pin micrometer

19. SIDE GRINDER MACHINE. :-

This machine does the operation on the sides of the rings. Side or trapeze grinding is done to
taper. The head in which the ring is attached to swivel at an angle equal to the angle of taper required.
The ring to be tapered is fitted on the head and a grinding wheel, which is mounted, on ways is moved
horizontally to grind. Due to swiveled head the side end gets tapered. These rings are operated one by
53

one. This is a one man operated machine. It basically reduces the axial width of the ring. It is usually
for bigger ring.

20. OUTSIDE CHAMFERING MACHINE :-

The good after the two types of inspection are then passed through the process of
outside chamfering in which the outer sides of the rings are chamfered according to the
desired angle.

21. O/S EDGE BREAKING MACHINE :-

These machines are used to break the outside edges and make the ring taper in shape
from both the outer periphery edges.

22. PROFILE GRINDER :-

Profile grinding is done on molybdenum coated rings. The rings after moly coating first sent
for O.D. grinding. It is done on a CNC profile grinder. In this operation a special contour is grinding
on the set of rings mounted on the spindle of the machine. The rings in the grinding wheel rotate in
the same direction. The grinding wheel has the same contour as is required on the rings. After every
cycle the wheel is dressed with dresser, which has the same profile as that of wheel. The rings are
checked for out of centre by a horizontal; sleeve that presses the rings in the centre. Profile grinding is
basically done to separate the stack of rings because if the rings are separated manually the only layer
can be chipped off, as it is brittle in nature.

54

23. TRI-BATH WASHING:-

The tri bath washing is done in a tub which contains acid. The rings are put in the try bath for
a particular time. The rings are then dried for sometime and subjected to further processes.

55

56

57

PISTON RINGS MACHINE SHOP


PROJECT:-

A. Scrap Reduction in moly coated KV1 Material Piston Rings


B. TPM(Total Productive Maintenance)
C. NPC study(National Productivity Council) or Work Measurement

Scrap Reduction in moly coated KV1 Material


Piston Rings:MOLYCOATING:58

Moly is define in the flame spraying process in which moly is fed in the form of spray wire
with the help of spray gun where it melted by a flammable gas with the help of oxygen and
acetylene. It has a very high scoffing (oil observation) properties. It has self-lubricating
property.
Advantage:1. The layer of Molybdenum gives vehicle and machine component that are exposed to
high mechanical load and good sliding properties, coupled with excellent wear
resistance.
2. It has very high oil compatibility.

Project Charter: Business case


From Jan-Dec 2013 15.07% average machining scrap in MOLY COATED KV1
Rings.
This higher scrap leads to poor delivery performance.

Problem Objective
To reduce the scrap of moly coated ring in KV1 material from 15.07% to 14.10% by
DEC 2014.
Scope

Initial improvement will be done on Indica moly coated rings & the finding will be
horizontally deployed

Resource Estimate

No need of any capital investment at this point

TYPES OF SCRAP:-

59

RING WITH
WITHOUT

RING WITH
EXTRA

NOTCH

MATERIAL

MOLY
COATED

EDGE
BREAKAGE

MOLY
COATED

EDGE
BREAKAGE

BREAKAGE

BREAKAGE

PROCESS MAPPING

Rough
Grindin
g
Profile
Gap
Grindin
gg

finish
Grinding
Barrel
Honning
Grindin
g
Inspectio
n

DCT
Final Gap
Moly
Grinding
Coating

First
Porosity
Mandrel
Boring
Preparat
Brushing ion

Gap
Grindin
g
Axial
I/S 60
Width
Chamfe
Final
ring
Lappin

FORMAT FOR DATA COLLECTION LOT TOTAL3500(INDICA)

61

DATE

OPERATION NAME

QTY

REMARKS

DETAIL

(scrap)
23/7/2014

ROUGH SECTION

60

RING BREKAGE ,
FOUNDRY

SETTING

24/7/2014

DCT( DOUBLE CAM TURING)

43

BAD BLANKS(no
notch's ring , over
sizes)

UNTURNED

28/7/2014

FIRST POROSITY

135

UNTURNED

35 BLOW
HOLES, 40
SAND
POROSITY &
60 UNTURNED

62

29/7/2014

GAP CUTTING

12

BIG GAP

MINOR BREAGE

30/7/2014

AXIAL WIDTH

34

LESS

AXIAL WIDTHLESS

31/7/2014

PROFILE GRINDING

86

PROFILE
BREAKAGE

EDGE BREAKAGE
32,VIBRATION10,
PACKET BROKEN

1/8/2014

PRE GAP CORNER

30

MOLY
BREAKAGE

CORNER16,TAPER GAP
10

7/8/2014

BARREL HONING

50

BREAKAGE,
UNHONING

UNHONING AT GAPE
-30, EDGE BREAKAGE20

11/8/2014

FINISH GAP

20

BIG GAP

GAP OVER 14, CONER


6

12/8/2014

BORING

15

OVER SIZE

BREAKAGE 15

13/8/2014

CHAMFERING

17

BREAKAGE

14/8/2014

LAPPING

48

LESS

LESS 28, SCRATCH-20

63

PROFILE GRINDING BREAKAGE OR


FINSHING PROCESS

Finishing/ Dia. Of
packet

Layer
quality

Loading of the
packet

Dresser
Condition

Bearing of
M/c
Toolin
g
Speed/Fe
ed

PG
BREAKAG
E

Axial width
variation
Between
packet
Over
Tightness
Ofmandrel

64

Listing of Known Problem


Material

Machine

Variation observed in the dia. of packet during input at profile grinding.


Sleeve alignment w.r.t spindle.
Axial width variation observed at M/C.
Validate the causes in the Aug Oct.

Method

Man

65

PROJECT- TPM (Total Productive Maintenance)


TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) is defined as to operation to achieve high efficiency
with total employee participation through TPM in safe working environment which makes us
competitive in business by enhancing productivity, Quality and reducing Cost.

DEFINITION OF TPM

What is TPM?

1. By establishing a total system for PM for the entire life of equipment.


2. To set a goal to maximise equipment efficiency (overall efficiency).
3. Participation by all departments, including equipment planning, operating and
maintenance departments.
4. Involving all personnel, including top personnel to first-line operators.
5. For promoting TPM by motivation management, namely, by autonomous small-group
activities.

66

Why this machine was selected

Dirt and sludge, oil


accumulated and heavy
coolant leakage on m/c

Oldest M/C with low OEE (60%)


High break down frequency
High scrap
High Set up time 6.82%
67

Last critical operation efforts of previous operations wasted

68

Frequency of Critical Parts

69

Who gets more benefited by TPM?

CUSTOMERS

Employees

COMPANY

BENEFITS
70

For employees

Less pressure on maintenance for urgent repairs

Less pressure on production to recover from breakdown losses

Better cooperation between maintenance, production, and other departments

Reduced chance of accidents

Higher job satisfaction

Improved job security

Improved morale

Improved team working

Better work environment

Improved communications

Increased skills through additional training

Operators More involvement in solving annoying equipment problems

Maintenance More challenging work

For the company

Higher Overall Equipment Effectiveness

Less firefighting to repair machines

Lower operating costs

Better able to meet commitments to customers.

NATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY COUNCIL STUDY OR


WORK MEASUREMENT STUDY
71

WORK MEASUREMENT STUDY:

Work measurement refers to a set of four techniques that are concerned with the
evaluation of a task in terms of the time that should be allowed for an average worker
to perform that task
:
(1) Direct time study,
(2) Predetermined motion time systems,
(3), and
(4) Work sampling
The objective of these work measurement techniques is to determine a standard time
for the task. Because of its emphasis on time, work measurement is often called time
study.

Methods to Determine Time Standards


Direct time study

ENGINEERED
STANDARD

Predetermined motion time


systems

Standard data systems

PORPORTION OF WORK
ACTIVITIES
Work sampling

Direct time study (DTS):-

Direct time study (DTS) involves direct observation of a task using a stopwatch or
other chronometric device to record the time taken to accomplish the task.
The task is usually divided into work elements and each work element is timed
separately.
72

While observing the worker, the time study analyst evaluates the workers
performance (pace), and a record of this pace is attached to each work element time.
This evaluation of the workers pace is called performance rating.
The observed time is multiplied by the performance rating to obtain the normal time
for the element or the task:

Work Measurement
Task Hierarchy levelWork Measurement

Job level

Basic motion
Work
Taskelement
element
level
level

73

Work sampling

Direct time system

Predetermined motion
Time
system

74

Software Training Report


COMPLETED AT

IDEAS DESIGN SOLUTIONS (P) LTD.


Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of

75

Degree of Bachelor of Technology


In
Mechanical Engineering

Submitted By:Name: Jaspreet Singh


University Roll No.1281217

SUBMITTED TO
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND INDUSTRIAL
ENGG
BABA BANDA SINGH BAHADUR ENGINEERING
COLLEGE
FATEHGARH SAHIB

76

Solidworks:
77

SolidWorks is a 3D mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) program that runs


on Microsoft Windows and is being developed by DassaultSystmesSolidWorks
Corp., a subsidiary of DassaultSystmes, S. A. (Vlizy, France). SolidWorks is
currently used by over 2 million engineers[3] and designers at more than
165,000 companies worldwide.

History:
Solid Works Corporation was founded in December 1993 by Massachusetts
Institute of Technology graduate Jon Hirschtick; Hirschtick used $1 million he had
made while a member of the MIT Blackjack Team to set up the company.[5]
Initially based in Waltham, Massachusetts, USA, Hirschtick recruited a team of
engineers with the goal of building 3D CAD software that was easy-to-use,
affordable, and available on the Windows desktop. Operating later from Concord,
Massachusetts, SolidWorks released its first product SolidWorks 95, in 1995.
Latest solidworks 2014software is released on October, 7 , 2013.

Features of solidworks:
Solidworks can do the following things:
1. 3D modeling.
2. Exceptional parts and assembly modeling
3.2D Drawings
4. Powerful visualization and collaboration
5. Design Validation and Simulation
6. Sustainability Features
7. Animation

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MACHINE VICE
Introduction:
Vices are used as holding device on machines like lathes, milling machine,
drilling machine etc. and also by tool makers for holding jobs. Design wise
three types of vices are very common in use namely plain vice, swivel vice
and tool makers vice which is commonly known as bench vice.

A. Plain Vices
Plain vices bolted directly on the Milling machine table, is the most common
type of machine vice used for milling operations. The vice may be fastened to
the table with the jaws set either parallel or at right angles to the table T-slots.
Work piece is clamped between the fixed and movable jaws.

B. Swivel Vice
The swivel vice is used to mill an angular surface in relation to a straight surface
without moving the work piece from the vice. In construction it may be
considered
as plain vice which is mounted on a particular base graduated in degrees. The
base
is clamped on the table with the help of T bolts.

C. Universal Vice
The universal vice can be swiveled in a horizontal plane like swivel vice
and can also be tilted in any vertical position for angular cuts. The vice
not being rigid in construction is mainly used in tool room work and hence
is called as tool makers universal vice.

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Machine Vice:
It consists of the following items:
(a) Base
(b) Fixed jaws
(c) Jaw plates or clamping plate
(d) Movable jaws
(e) Screw and nut
(f) Screw rod
(g) Handle
(h) Handle cap

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3D modeling of parts of machine vice


Home screen of solidworks:
Home screen of the solid works looks like:

Click on the new file then on part modeling then following screen will pop up:

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Base :
Step 1: First of all select plane according to requirement .
Step 2: Sketch on the plane according to required view.
Step 3: Use the commands according to requirements like extrude,extrude cut
etc.
Step 4: Save the base model with name base.

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Base will be look like:

Fixed jaw:
Make the fixed jaw according to dimensions by using required commands and
save it with the name fixed jaw. It remains fixed to the base of machine
vice.Objects can be hold between fixed and movable jaw
It will be look like:

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Movable jaw:
Open the new file again and make the movable jaw according to the drawing and
then save it to with the name movable jaw which is fixed in the handle side of
machine vice and used to hold the object with the help of fixed jaw.
It will be look like:

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Clamping plate:
Make the clamping plate in the same way from drawing dimensions and then
save it with name clamping plate
Clamping plate model is shown below:

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Handle:
Now make the handle of the machine wise and save it with the name handle.
Handle is used to rotate the screw rod so that movable jaw can move towards
the fixed jaw.
Handle will look like:

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Screw rod:
Similarly make the model of screw rod and then save it. It has threads on it which
will help it to move forward and backward according to requirements these are
meshed with threads inside the hole of base.
Screw rod with threads on it shown below:

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Handle cap:
Make the handle cap according to dimensions and save it with the name handle
cap. Handle caps are used on both sides of handle so that handle will not fall
down from hole in screw rod.
Handle cap views are shown below

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Assembly of machine vice parts:


Assembly is the process of joining the different components of the objects to
make required object.
Assembly involves the following steps:

Step 1: Open the new page and then select the assembly command.

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Step 2: Insert or import the components of machine vice as shown below:

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Step 3: Now using mate command mate the different components in a sequence
to get the final machine vice.

After mating completed machine vice will look like:

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After designing design in send to manufacturing department of the company.

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