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American

Policy

of

of

Pediatrics

the

Academy

AMERICAN

ACADEMY

OF

Pediatric

PEDIATRICS

Clinical Practice

Guidelines

&

Policies

A Compendium of Evidence-based Research for Pediatric Practice

15th Edition

Text and CD-ROM all in one!
Text
and
CD-ROM
all in one!
& Policies A Compendium of Evidence-based Research for Pediatric Practice 15th Edition Text and CD-ROM all

Pediatric Clinical Practice Guidelines & Policies

Pediatric Clinical Practice Guidelines & Policies A Compendium of Evidence-based Research for Pediatric Practice 15th

A Compendium of Evidence-based Research for Pediatric Practice 15th Edition

American Academy of Pediatrics 141 Northwest Point Blvd Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1019 www.aap.org

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS PUBLISHING STAFF

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Editorial Specialist

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15th Edition—2015

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8th Edition—2008

7th Edition—2007

6th Edition—2006

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The recommendations in this publication do not indicate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as a standard of medical care. Variations, taking into account individual circumstances, may be appropriate. For permission to reproduce material from this publication, visit www.copyright.com and search for “Pediatric Clinical Practice Guidelines.” This publication has been developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. The authors, editors, and contributors are expert authorities in the field of pediatrics. No commercial involvement of any kind has been solicited or accepted in the development of the content of this publication. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Pediatrics. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

INTRODUCTION TO PEDIATRIC CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES & POLICIES:

A COMPENDIUM OF EVIDENCE-BASED RESEARCH FOR PEDIATRIC PRACTICE

Clinical practice guidelines have long provided physicians with evidence-based decision-making tools for managing common pediatric conditions. Policy statements issued and endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) are developed to provide physicians with a quick reference guide to the AAP position on child health care issues. We have combined these two authoritative resources into one comprehensive manual/CD-ROM resource to provide easy access to important clinical and policy information. This manual contains

• Clinical practice guidelines from the AAP, plus related recommendation summaries, ICD-9-CM/ ICD-10-CM coding information, and AAP patient education handouts

• Technical report summaries

• Clinical practice guidelines endorsed by the AAP, including abstracts where applicable

• Policy statements, clinical reports, and technical reports issued or endorsed through December 2014, including abstracts where applicable

• Full text of all 2014 AAP policy statements, clinical reports, and technical reports The CD-ROM, which is located on the inside back cover of this manual, builds on content of the manual and includes full text of all AAP

• Clinical practice guidelines

• Policy statements

• Clinical reports

• Technical reports

Endorsed clinical practice guidelines and policies For easy reference within this publication, dates when AAP clinical practice guidelines, policy state- ments, clinical reports, and technical reports first appeared in the AAP journal Pediatrics are provided. In 2009, the online version of Pediatrics at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org became the official journal of record; therefore, date of online publication is given for policies from 2010 to present. Additional information about AAP policy can be found in a variety of professional publications such as Care of the Young Athlete, 2nd Edition Guidelines for Perinatal Care, 7th Edition Pediatric Environmental Health, 3rd Edition Pediatric Nutrition, 7th Edition Red Book ® , 29th Edition, and Red Book ® Online (www.aapredbook.org) To order these and other pediatric resources, please call 888/227-1770 or visit shop.aap.org/books/.

please call 888/227-1770 or visit shop.aap.org/books/. • All policy statements, clinical reports, and technical

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and its member pediatricians dedicate their efforts and resources to the health, safety, and well-being of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. The AAP has approximately 62,000 members in the United States, Canada, and Latin America. Members include pediatricians, pediatric medical subspecialists, and pediatric surgical specialists.

Core Values. We believe

• In the inherent worth of all children; they are our most enduring and vulnerable legacy.

• Children deserve optimal health and the highest quality health care.

• Pediatricians are the best qualified to provide child health care.

The American Academy of Pediatrics is the organization to advance child health and well-being.

Vision. Children have optimal health and well-being and are valued by society. Academy members practice the highest quality health care and experience professional satisfaction and personal well-being.

Mission. The mission of the American Academy of Pediatrics is to attain optimal physical, mental, and social health and well-being for all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. To accomplish this mission, the Academy shall support the professional needs of its members.

V

Table of Contents

SECTION 1

CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS Foreword

3

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

5

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Clinical Practice Guideline Quick Reference Tools

23

Bronchiolitis The Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Bronchiolitis

49

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Bronchiolitis Clinical Practice Guideline Quick Reference Tools

81

Diabetes Management of Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Children and Adolescents

85

Technical Report: Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents

107

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Diabetes Clinical Practice Guideline Quick Reference Tools

125

Dysplasia of the Hip Early Detection of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

129

Technical Report Summary: Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Practice Guideline

141

Dysplasia of the Hip Clinical Practice Guideline Quick Reference Tools

151

Febrile Seizures Febrile Seizures: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Long-term Management of the Child With Simple Febrile Seizures

155

Febrile Seizures: Guideline for the Neuro- diagnostic Evaluation of the Child With a Simple Febrile Seizure

163

Febrile Seizures Clinical Practice Guidelines Quick Reference Tools

171

Hyperbilirubinemia Management of Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn Infant 35 or More Weeks of Gestation

175

Technical Report Summary: An Evidence- Based Review of Important Issues Concerning Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

199

Technical Report: Phototherapy to Prevent Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn Infant 35 or More Weeks of Gestation

213

2009

Commentary: Hyperbilirubinemia in

the Newborn Infant ≥35 Weeks’ Gestation:

An Update With Clarifications

221

2009

Commentary: Universal Bilirubin

Screening, Guidelines, and Evidence

227

Hyperbilirubinemia Clinical Practice Guideline Quick Reference Tools

231

Otitis Media The Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media

235

Otitis Media With Effusion

273

Otitis Media Clinical Practice Guidelines Quick Reference Tools

293

Sinusitis Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in Children Aged 1 to 18 Years

305

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Technical Report: Evidence for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Sinusitis in Children: A Systematic Review

327

Sinusitis Clinical Practice Guideline Quick Reference Tools

341

Sleep Apnea Diagnosis and Management of Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

345

Technical Report: Diagnosis and Management of Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

357

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Sleep Apnea Clinical Practice Guideline Quick Reference Tools

399

VI

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Urinary Tract Infection Urinary Tract Infection: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of the Initial UTI in Febrile Infants and Children 2 to 24 Months

403

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Technical Report—Diagnosis and Management of an Initial UTI in Febrile Infants and Young Children

421

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

2011 Commentary: The New American Academy of Pediatrics Urinary Tract Infection Guideline

443

Urinary Tract Infection Clinical Practice Guideline Quick Reference Tools

447

SECTION 2

ENDORSED CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES

 

Autism Screening and Diagnosis of Autism

453

Cerebral Palsy Diagnostic Assessment of the Child With Cerebral Palsy

453

Community-Acquired Pneumonia The Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Infants and Children Older Than 3 Months of Age

453

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to Steroid 21-hydroxylase Deficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

453

Depression Guidelines for Adolescent Depression in Primary Care (GLAD-PC): I. Identification, Assessment, and Initial Management

454

Guidelines for Adolescent Depression in Primary Care (GLAD-PC): II. Treatment and Ongoing Management

454

Dialysis Shared Decision-Making in the Appropriate Initiation of and Withdrawal from Dialysis, 2nd Edition

454

Endocarditis Prevention of Infective Endocarditis: Guidelines From the American Heart Association

454

Fluoride Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States

455

Food Allergy Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States:

Report of the NIAID-Sponsored Expert Panel

455

Gastroenteritis Managing Acute Gastroenteritis Among

Children: Oral Rehydration, Maintenance, and Nutritional Therapy

455

Gastroesophageal Reflux Guidelines for Evaluation and Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants and Children

455

Group B Streptococcal Disease Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: Revised Guidelines from CDC, 2010

456

Helicobacter pylori Infection Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children:

Recommendations for Diagnosis and Treatment

456

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Guidelines for Preventing Opportunistic Infections Among Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

456

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children

456

Immunocompromised Host 2013 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Immunization of the Immunocompromised Host

457

Influenza Seasonal Influenza in Adults and Children— Diagnosis, Treatment, Chemoprophylaxis, and Institutional Outbreak Management:

Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

458

PEDIATRIC CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES & POLICIES

VII

Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections

Jaundice Guideline for the Evaluation of Cholestatic Jaundice in Infants

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America for the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Adults and Children

Migraine Headache Pharmacological Treatment of Migraine Headache in Children and Adolescents

Palliative Care Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care, Third Edition

Radiology Neuroimaging of the Neonate

Sedation and Analgesia Clinical Policy: Evidence-based Approach to Pharmacologic Agents Used in Pediatric Sedation and Analgesia in the Emergency Department

Seizure Evaluating a First Nonfebrile Seizure in Children Treatment of the Child With a First Unprovoked Seizure

Status Epilepticus Diagnostic Assessment of the Child With Status Epilepticus (An Evidence-based Review)

Tobacco Use

Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence:

2008 Update

Vesicoureteral Reflux Report on the Management of Primary Vesicoureteral Reflux in Children

458

SECTION 3

AFFIRMATION OF VALUE CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES

Asthma Environmental Management of Pediatric Asthma:

459

459

459

459

459

460

460

460

460

461

462

Guidelines for Health Care Providers

465

Palliative Care and Hospice Standards of Practice for Pediatric Palliative Care and Hospice

465

Sleep Apnea Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Management of Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

465

Turner Syndrome Care of Girls and Women With Turner Syndrome:

A Guideline of the Turner Syndrome Study Group

465

SECTION 4

2014 POLICIES FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS Introduction

Accomplishments, Challenges, and

469

2014 Recommendations for Pediatric Preventive Health Care

471

AAP Principles Concerning Retail-Based Clinics

477

Adolescent Pregnancy: Current Trends and Issues—Addendum

483

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

489

Application of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale System to Pediatrics

505

Atopic Dermatitis: Skin-Directed Management

513

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Abuse

525

Child Life Services

537

Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP):

Policy Recommendations

547

Comprehensive Evaluation of the Child With Intellectual Disability or Global Developmental Delays

559

Contraception for Adolescents

577

Contraception for Adolescents (Technical Report)

593

Death of a Child in the Emergency Department

621

Death of a Child in the Emergency Department (Technical Report)

627

Emergency

Contraception: Addendum

647

VIII

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Evaluating Children With Fractures for Child Physical Abuse

655

Fluoride Use in Caries Prevention in the Primary Care Setting

671

High-Deductible Health Plans

681

Hypothermia and Neonatal Encephalopathy

693

Immersion in Water During Labor and Delivery

701

Immunization for Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections in High-Risk Children

707

Insufficient Sleep in Adolescents and Young Adults:

An Update on Causes and Consequences Interferon-γ Release Assays for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Infection and Disease

713

in

Children

727

Iodine Deficiency, Pollutant Chemicals, and the Thyroid: New Information on an Old Problem Literacy Promotion: An Essential Component

741

of

Primary Care Pediatric Practice

747

Maintaining and Improving the Oral Health of Young Children

755

Management of Dental Trauma in a Primary Care Setting

763

Nonoral Feeding for Children and Youth With Developmental or Acquired Disabilities

777

Off-Label Use of Drugs in Children

797

Optimizing Bone Health in Children and Adolescents

805

Out-of-Home Placement for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities

823

Patient- and Family-Centered Care Coordination:

A

Framework for Integrating Care for

Children and Youth Across Multiple Systems

837

Pediatric Anthrax Clinical Management Pediatric Anthrax Clinical Management:

849

Executive Summary

877

Pediatric Care Recommendations for Freestanding Urgent Care Facilities

883

The Pediatrician’s Role in the Evaluation and Preparation of Pediatric Patients Undergoing Anesthesia

889

Physician Health and Wellness

899

Promoting Education, Mentorship, and Support for Pediatric Research

907

Psychosocial Support for Youth Living With HIV Recommendations for Prevention and Control

917

of

Influenza in Children, 2014–2015

925

917 of Influenza in Children, 2014–2015 925 See Appendix 2. Recommended Childhood and Adolescent

See Appendix 2.

Recommended Childhood and Adolescent Immunization

945

Schedule—United States, 2015

Reducing Injury Risk From Body Checking in Boys’ Youth Ice Hockey

955

Referral to Pediatric Surgical Specialists

965

School Start Times for Adolescents

975

Screening for Nonviral Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adolescents and Young Adults

985

Standards for Pediatric Cancer Centers

997

Testing for Drugs of Abuse in Children and Adolescents

1005

Updated Guidance for Palivizumab Prophylaxis Among Infants and Young Children at Increased Risk of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

1017

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Updated Guidance for Palivizumab Prophylaxis Among Infants and Young Children at Increased Risk of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (Technical Report)

1027

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Updated Recommendations on the Use of Meningococcal Vaccines

1049

Withholding or Termination of Resuscitation in Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Traumatic Cardiopulmonary Arrest

1055

SECTION 5

CURRENT POLICIES FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS 2014 Recommendations for Pediatric Preventive Health Care

1073

AAP Principles Concerning Retail-Based Clinics

1073

Abusive Head Trauma in Infants and Children

1073

Access to Optimal Emergency Care for Children

1073

ACCF/AHA/AAP Recommendations for Training in Pediatric Cardiology

1073

Achieving Quality Health Services for Adolescents

1073

Active Healthy Living: Prevention of Childhood Obesity Through Increased Physical Activity

1073

Additional Recommendations for Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced-Content Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap)

1074

Admission and Discharge Guidelines for the Pediatric Patient Requiring Intermediate Care

1074

Adolescent Pregnancy: Current Trends and Issues

1074

Adolescent Pregnancy: Current Trends and Issues—Addendum

1074

PEDIATRIC CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES & POLICIES

IX

Adolescents and HIV Infection: The Pediatrician’s Role in Promoting Routine Testing Adolescents and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: The Role of the Pediatrician

1074

in

Prevention and Intervention

1075

The Adolescent’s Right to Confidential Care When Considering Abortion

1075

Advanced Practice in Neonatal Nursing

1075

Age Limits of Pediatrics

1075

Age Terminology During the Perinatal Period Alcohol Use by Youth and Adolescents:

1075

A

Pediatric Concern

1075

Allergy Testing in Childhood: Using Allergen- Specific Ige Tests

1075

All-Terrain Vehicle Injury Prevention: Two-, Three-, and Four-Wheeled Unlicensed Motor Vehicles Ambient Air Pollution: Health Hazards

1076

to

Children

1076

Antenatal Counseling Regarding Resuscitation

at

an Extremely Low Gestational Age

1076

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

1076

The Apgar Score

1076

Application of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale System to Pediatrics

1077

Assessment and Management of Inguinal Hernia in Infants

1077

Athletic Participation by Children and Adolescents Who Have Systemic Hypertension

1077

Atopic Dermatitis: Skin-Directed Management

1077

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Abuse

1077

Auditory Integration Training and Facilitated Communication for Autism

1077

Baseball and Softball

1077

Bicycle Helmets

1078

Bone Densitometry in Children and Adolescents

1078

Boxing Participation by Children and Adolescents

1078

Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk The Built Environment: Designing Communities

1078

to

Promote Physical Activity in Children

1079

Calcium and Vitamin D Requirements of Enterally Fed Preterm Infants

1079

Cardiovascular Health Supervision for Individuals Affected by Duchenne or Becker Muscular Dystrophy

1079

Cardiovascular Monitoring and Stimulant Drugs for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

1079

Care Coordination in the Medical Home:

Integrating Health and Related Systems

of Care for Children With Special Health

Care Needs

1079

Care of Adolescent Parents and Their Children

1080

Care of the Adolescent Sexual Assault Victim Caregiver-Fabricated Illness in a Child:

1080

A

Manifestation of Child Maltreatment

1080

The Changing Concept of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Diagnostic Coding Shifts, Controversies Regarding the Sleeping Environment, and New Variables to Consider in Reducing Risk

1080

Cheerleading Injuries: Epidemiology and Recommendations for Prevention

1080

Chemical-Biological Terrorism and Its Impact on Children

1080

Chemical-Management Policy: Prioritizing Children’s Health

1081

Child Abuse, Confidentiality, and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

1081

Child Fatality Review

1081

Child Life Services

1081

Child Passenger Safety

1082

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Child Passenger Safety (Technical Report)

1082

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Children, Adolescents, and Advertising

Accomplishments, Challenges, and

1082

Children, Adolescents, and Television

1082

Children, Adolescents, and the Media

1082

Children, Adolescents, Obesity, and the Media

1082

Children, Adolescents, Substance Abuse, and the Media

1083

Children as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donors

1083

Children in Pickup Trucks

1083

Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP):

Policy Recommendations

1083

Chronic Abdominal Pain in Children

1084

Chronic Abdominal Pain in Children (Technical Report)

1084

Circumcision Policy Statement

1084

Classifying Recommendations for Clinical Practice Guidelines

1084

Climatic Heat Stress and Exercising Children and Adolescents

1084

Clinical Genetic Evaluation of the Child With Mental Retardation or Developmental Delays

1085

X

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Clostridium difficile Infection in Infants and Children

From Everyday Interactions to Skill in

1085

Cochlear Implants in Children: Surgical Site Infections and Prevention and Treatment of Acute Otitis Media and Meningitis

1085

Collaborative Role of the Pediatrician in the Diagnosis and Management of Bipolar Disorder in Adolescents

1085

Communicating With Children and Families:

Conveying Distressing Information

1086

Community Pediatrics: Navigating the Intersection of Medicine, Public Health, and Social Determinants of Children’s Health

1086

Comprehensive Evaluation of the Child With Intellectual Disability or Global Developmental Delays

1086

Comprehensive Health Evaluation of the Newly Adopted Child

1086

Condom Use by Adolescents

1086

Conflicts Between Religious or Spiritual Beliefs and Pediatric Care: Informed Refusal, Exemptions, and Public Funding

1087

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

1087

A Consensus Statement on Health Care Transitions for Young Adults With Special Health Care Needs

1087

Consent by Proxy for Nonurgent Pediatric Care

1087

Consent for Emergency Medical Services for Children and Adolescents

1087

Consumption of Raw or Unpasteurized Milk and Milk Products by Pregnant Women and Children

1087

Contraception for Adolescents

1088

Contraception for Adolescents (Technical Report)

1088

Controversies Concerning Vitamin K and the Newborn

1088

Coparent or Second-Parent Adoption by Same-Sex Parents

1088

Coparent or Second-Parent Adoption by Same-Sex Parents (Technical Report)

1088

Corporal Punishment in Schools

1088

Counseling Families Who Choose Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Their Child With Chronic Illness or Disability

1088

Counseling the Adolescent About Pregnancy Options

1089

Creating Healthy Camp Experiences

1089

The Crucial Role of Recess in School

1089

Dealing With the Parent Whose Judgment Is Impaired by Alcohol or Drugs: Legal and Ethical Considerations

1089

Death of a Child in the Emergency Department

1089

Death of a Child in the Emergency Department (Technical Report)

1089

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Practice Guideline

1090

Diagnosis and Management of an Initial UTI in Febrile Infants and Young Children

1090

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Diagnosis and Management of Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Translating Developmental Science

1091

Diagnosis and Prevention of Iron Deficiency and Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Young Children (0–3 Years of Age)

1091

Diagnosis of HIV-1 Infection in Children Younger Than 18 Months in the United States

1091

Diagnostic Imaging of Child Abuse

1092

Disaster Planning for Schools

1092

Disclosure of Illness Status to Children and Adolescents With HIV Infection

1092

Dispensing Medications at the Hospital Upon Discharge From an Emergency Department

1092

Distinguishing Sudden Infant Death Syndrome From Child Abuse Fatalities

1092

Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders for Pediatric Patients Who Require Anesthesia and Surgery

1092

Drinking Water From Private Wells and Risks to Children

1093

Drinking Water From Private Wells and Risks to Children (Technical Report)

1093

Early Childhood Adversity, Toxic Stress, and the Role of the Pediatrician:

Into Lifelong Health

1093

Early Childhood Caries in Indigenous Communities

1093

Early Intervention, IDEA Part C Services, and the Medical Home: Collaboration for Best Practice and Best Outcomes

1094

Echocardiography in Infants and Children

1094

Education of Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Effects of Early Nutritional Interventions on the Development of Atopic Disease in Infants and Children: The Role of Maternal Dietary Restriction, Breastfeeding, Timing of Introduction of Complementary Foods,

1094

and Hydrolyzed Formulas Electronic Prescribing Systems in Pediatrics: The

1094

Rationale and Functionality Requirements

1094

Electronic Prescribing Systems in Pediatrics:

The Rationale and Functionality Requirements (Technical Report)

1095

Electronic Prescribing in Pediatrics: Toward Safer and More Effective Medication Management

1095

PEDIATRIC CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES & POLICIES

XI

Electronic Prescribing in Pediatrics: Toward Safer and More Effective Medication Management (Technical Report)

1095

Emergency Contraception

1095

Emergency Contraception: Addendum

1095

Emergency Information Forms and Emergency Preparedness for Children With Special Health Care Needs

1096

Endorsement of Health and Human Services Recommendation for Pulse Oximetry Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Disease

1096

Enhancing Pediatric Workforce Diversity and Providing Culturally Effective Pediatric Care: Implications for Practice, Education, and Policy Making

1096

Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Health Care–Associated Infections in the NICU (Technical Report)

1096

Equipment for Ground Ambulances

1096

Essential Contractual Language for Medical Necessity in Children

1097

Ethical and Policy Issues in Genetic Testing and Screening of Children

1097

Ethical Considerations in Research With Socially Identifiable Populations

1097

Ethical Controversies in Organ Donation After Circulatory Death

1097

Ethical Issues With Genetic Testing in Pediatrics

1097

Ethics and the Care of Critically Ill Infants and Children

1097

Evaluating Children With Fractures for Child Physical Abuse

1098

Evaluating for Suspected Child Abuse: Conditions That Predispose to Bleeding

1098

Evaluating Infants and Young Children With Multiple Fractures

1098

Evaluation and Management of the Infant Exposed to HIV-1 in the United States (Clinical Report)

1098

Evaluation for Bleeding Disorders in Suspected Child Abuse The Evaluation of Children in the Primary Care Setting When Sexual Abuse

1098

Is

Suspected

1098

The Evaluation of Sexual Behaviors in Children

1099

Evaluation of Suspected Child Physical Abuse Evidence for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Sinusitis in Children:

1099

A

Systematic Review

1099

An Evidence-Based Review of Important Issues Concerning Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

1099

Excessive Sleepiness in Adolescents and Young Adults: Causes, Consequences, and Treatment Strategies

1100

Expert Witness Participation in Civil and Criminal Proceedings

1100

Exposure to Nontraditional Pets at Home and to Animals in Public Settings: Risks to Children

1100

Eye Examination in Infants, Children, and Young Adults by Pediatricians

1100

The Eye Examination in the Evaluation of Child Abuse

1100

Facilities and Equipment for the Care of Pediatric Patients in a Community Hospital

1100

Failure to Thrive as a Manifestation of Child Neglect

1101

Falls From Heights: Windows, Roofs, and Balconies

1101

Families and Adoption: The Pediatrician’s Role in Supporting Communication

1101

Fathers and Pediatricians: Enhancing Men’s Roles in the Care and Development of Their Children

1101

Fever and Antipyretic Use in Children

1101

Financing Graduate Medical Education to Meet the Needs of Children and the Future Pediatrician Workforce

1101

Financing of Pediatric Home Health Care

1102

Firearm-Related Injuries Affecting the Pediatric Population

1102

Fireworks-Related Injuries to Children

1102

Fluoride Use in Caries Prevention in the Primary Care Setting

1102

Folic Acid for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects

1102

Follow-up Management of Children With Tympanostomy Tubes

1103

Forgoing Life-Sustaining Medical Treatment in Abused Children

1103

Forgoing Medically Provided Nutrition and Hydration in Children

1103

The Future of Pediatrics: Mental Health Competencies for Pediatric Primary Care

1103

Gastroesophageal Reflux: Management Guidance for the Pediatrician

1104

Generic Prescribing, Generic Substitution, and Therapeutic Substitution

1104

Global Climate Change and Children’s Health

1104

Global Climate Change and Children’s Health (Technical Report)

1104

Graduate Medical Education and Pediatric Workforce Issues and Principles

1104

Guidance for Effective Discipline

1104

Guidance for the Administration of Medication in School

1105

XII

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions

1105

Guidelines for Care of Children in the Emergency Department

1105

Guidelines for Developing Admission and Discharge Policies for the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

1105

Guidelines for Home Care of Infants, Children, and Adolescents With Chronic Disease

1106

Guidelines for Monitoring and Management of Pediatric Patients During and After Sedation for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures: An Update

1106

Guidelines for Pediatric Cancer Centers

1106

Guidelines for Pediatric Cardiovascular Centers

1106

Guidelines for the Determination of Brain Death in Infants and Children: An Update of the 1987 Task Force Recommendations

1106

Guidelines for the Ethical Conduct of Studies to Evaluate Drugs in Pediatric Populations

1107

Guidelines on Forgoing Life-Sustaining Medical Treatment

1107

Guiding Principles for Managed Care Arrangements for the Health Care of Newborns, Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

1107

Guiding Principles for Pediatric Hospital Medicine Programs

1107

Gynecologic Examination for Adolescents in the Pediatric Office Setting

1107

Head Lice

1107

Health and Mental Health Needs of Children in US Military Families

1108

Health Care for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System

1108

Health Care of Youth Aging Out of Foster Care

1108

Health Care Supervision for Children With Williams Syndrome

1108

Health Equity and Children’s Rights

1108

Health Information Technology and the Medical Home

1109

Health Supervision for Children With Achondroplasia

1109

Health Supervision for Children With Down Syndrome

1109

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Health Supervision for Children With Fragile X Syndrome

1109

Health Supervision for Children With Marfan Syndrome

1109

Health Supervision for Children With Neurofibromatosis

1109

Health Supervision for Children With Prader-Willi Syndrome

1110

Health Supervision for Children With Sickle Cell Disease Hearing Assessment in Infants and Children:

1110

Recommendations Beyond Neonatal Screening

1110

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Helping Children and Families Deal With Divorce and Separation

1110

High-Deductible Health Plans

1110

High-Deductible Health Plans and the New Risks of Consumer-Driven Health Insurance Products

1111

HIV Testing and Prophylaxis to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission in the United States

1111

Home, Hospital, and Other Non–School-based Instruction for Children and Adolescents Who Are Medically Unable to Attend School

1111

Home Care of Children and Youth With Complex Health Care Needs and Technology Dependencies

1111

Honoring Do-Not-Attempt-Resuscitation Requests in Schools

1112

Hospital Discharge of the High-Risk Neonate

1112

The Hospital Record of the Injured Child and the Need for External Cause-of- Injury Codes

1112

Hospital Stay for Healthy Term Newborns

1112

HPV Vaccine Recommendations

1112

Human Embryonic Stem Cell (hESC) and Human Embryo Research

1112

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Other Blood-borne Viral Pathogens in the Athletic Setting

1113

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening

1113

Human Milk, Breastfeeding, and Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States

1113

Human Milk, Breastfeeding, and Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in the United States (Technical Report)

1113

Hypothermia and Neonatal Encephalopathy

1113

Identification and Care of HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Infants, Children, and Adolescents in Foster Care

1113

Identification and Evaluation of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

1113

Foster Care 1113 Identification and Evaluation of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders 1113 See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

PEDIATRIC CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES & POLICIES

XIII

Identification and Management of Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents Identifying Infants and Young Children With Developmental Disorders in the Medical Home: An Algorithm for Developmental Surveillance and Screening

An Algorithm for Developmental Surveillance and Screening See Appendix 2. Immersion in Water During Labor and

See Appendix 2.

Immersion in Water During Labor and Delivery Immunization for Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections in High-Risk Children Immunization Information Systems Immunizing Parents and Other Close Family Contacts in the Pediatric Office Setting Impact of Music, Music Lyrics, and Music Videos on Children and Youth The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families The Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bonds The Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bond: Focus on Children in Poverty Improving Substance Abuse Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment Financing for Children and Adolescents The Inappropriate Use of School “Readiness” Tests Incorporating Recognition and Management of Perinatal and Postpartum Depression Into Pediatric Practice Increasing Antiretroviral Drug Access for Children With HIV Infection Increasing Immunization Coverage Indications for Management and Referral of Patients Involved in Substance Abuse Infant Feeding and Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States Infant Methemoglobinemia: The Role of Dietary Nitrate in Food and Water Infection Prevention and Control in Pediatric Ambulatory Settings Informed Consent, Parental Permission, and Assent in Pediatric Practice Inhalant Abuse Injuries Associated With Infant Walkers Injuries in Youth Soccer Injury Risk of Nonpowder Guns In-line Skating Injuries in Children and Adolescents Institutional Ethics Committees

1114

1114

1114

1114

1115

1115

1115

1115

1115

1116

1116

1116

1116

1116

1116

1117

1117

1117

1117

1118

1118

1118

1118

1118

1119

1119

Instrument-Based Pediatric Vision Screening Policy Statement

1119

Insufficient Sleep in Adolescents and Young Adults: An Update on Causes and Consequences

1119

Insurance Coverage of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services for Children and Adolescents: A Consensus Statement

1119

Intensive Training and Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

1119

Interferon-γ Release Assays for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Infection and Disease in Children

1119

Intimate Partner Violence: The Role of the Pediatrician

1120

Iodine Deficiency, Pollutant Chemicals, and the Thyroid: New Information on an Old Problem

1120

Lactose Intolerance in Infants, Children, and Adolescents

1120

“Late-Preterm” Infants: A Population at Risk

1120

Lawn Mower-Related Injuries to Children

1120

Lawn Mower-Related Injuries to Children (Technical Report)

1120

Learning Disabilities, Dyslexia, and Vision

1121

Learning Disabilities, Dyslexia, and Vision (Technical Report)

1121

Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth

1121

Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth (Technical Report)

1121

Levels of Neonatal Care

1121

The Lifelong Effects of Early Childhood Adversity and Toxic Stress

1122

Literacy Promotion: An Essential Component of Primary Care Pediatric Practice

1122

Long-term Follow-up Care for Pediatric Cancer Survivors

1122

Maintaining and Improving the Oral Health of Young Children

1122

Male Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Care

1123

Male Circumcision

1123

Maltreatment of Children With Disabilities

1124

Management of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

1124

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Management of Dental Trauma in a Primary Care Setting

1124

Management of Food Allergy in the School Setting Management of Neonates With Suspected

1124

or Proven Early-Onset Bacterial Sepsis

1124

XIV

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Management of Pediatric Trauma

1125

Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

in

Children and Adolescents

1125

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Marijuana: A Continuing Concern for Pediatricians

Booster Dose Recommendations

1126

Maternal Phenylketonuria

1126

Maternal-Fetal Intervention and Fetal Care Centers

1126

Media Education

1126

Media Use by Children Younger Than 2 Years

1126

Media Violence

1126

Medicaid Policy Statement

1126

Medical Concerns in the Female Athlete

1127

Medical Conditions Affecting Sports Participation

1127

Medical Emergencies Occurring at School

1127

The Medical Home

1127

Medical Staff Appointment and Delineation of Pediatric Privileges in Hospitals

1127

Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccines Policy Update:

1127

Menstruation in Girls and Adolescents: Using the Menstrual Cycle as a Vital Sign

1128

Minors as Living Solid-Organ Donors

1128

Model Contractual Language for Medical Necessity for Children

1128

Molecular Genetic Testing in Pediatric Practice:

A

Subject Review

1128

Motor Delays: Early Identification and Evaluation

Commitment to the Psychosocial Aspects

1128

Neonatal Drug Withdrawal

1129

The New Morbidity Revisited: A Renewed

of

Pediatric Care

1129

Newborn Screening Expands: Recommendations for Pediatricians and Medical Homes— Implications for the System

1129

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Newborn Screening Fact Sheets, Introduction

to

the

1129

Newborn Screening Fact Sheets

1129

Nondiscrimination in Pediatric Health Care

1130

Noninitiation or Withdrawal of Intensive Care for High-Risk Newborns

1130

Nonoral Feeding for Children and Youth With Developmental or Acquired Disabilities Nontherapeutic Use of Antimicrobial Agents

1130

in

Animal Agriculture: Implications for

Pediatrics

 

1130

Office-Based Care for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth

1130

Office-Based Care for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth (Technical Report)

1130

Office-Based Counseling for Unintentional Injury Prevention

1131

Off-Label Use of Drugs in Children

1131

Ophthalmologic Examinations in Children With Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

1131

Optimizing Bone Health in Children and Adolescents

1131

Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect

1131

Oral Health Care for Children With Developmental Disabilities

1132

Oral Health Risk Assessment Timing and Establishment of the Dental Home

1132

Organic Foods: Health and Environmental Advantages and Disadvantages

1132

Organized Sports for Children and Preadolescents

1132

Out-of-Home Placement for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities

1133

Out-of-School Suspension and Expulsion

1133

Overcrowding Crisis in Our Nation’s Emergency Departments: Is Our Safety Net Unraveling? Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout

1133

in

Child and Adolescent Athletes

1133

Palliative Care for Children Parent-Provider-Community Partnerships:

1134

Optimizing Outcomes for Children With Disabilities

1134

Parental Leave for Residents and Pediatric Training Programs

1134

Patient- and Family-Centered Care and the Pediatrician’s Role

1134

Patient- and Family-Centered Care and the Role

of

the Emergency Physician Providing Care

to

a Child in the Emergency Department

1134

Patient- and Family-Centered Care Coordination:

A

Framework for Integrating Care for

Children and Youth Across Multiple Systems

1135

Patient- and Family-Centered Care of Children

in

the Emergency Department

1135

Patient Safety in the Pediatric Emergency Care Setting

1135

Payment for Telephone Care

1135

Pedestrian Safety

1135

Pediatric and Adolescent Mental Health Emergencies in the Emergency Medical Services System

1136

PEDIATRIC CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES & POLICIES

XV

Pediatric Anthrax Clinical Management:

Executive Summary

Managing the Boundaries

1136

Pediatric Aspects of Inpatient Health Information Technology Systems

1136

Pediatric Care Recommendations for Freestanding Urgent Care Facilities

1137

Pediatric Fellowship Training

1137

Pediatric Mental Health Emergencies in the Emergency Medical Services System

1137

Pediatric Observation Units

1137

Pediatric Organ Donation and Transplantation

1137

Pediatric Palliative Care and Hospice Care Commitments, Guidelines, and Recommendations

1137

Pediatric Primary Health Care

1138

Pediatric Sudden Cardiac Arrest

1138

The Pediatrician and Childhood Bereavement

1138

The Pediatrician and Disaster Preparedness

1138

The Pediatrician Workforce: Current Status and Future Prospects

1139

Pediatrician Workforce Policy Statement

1139

Pediatrician-Family-Patient Relationships:

1139

The Pediatrician’s Role in Child Maltreatment Prevention

1139

The Pediatrician’s Role in Community Pediatrics

1139

The Pediatrician’s Role in Development and Implementation of an Individual Education Plan (IEP) and/or an Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)

1140

The Pediatrician’s Role in Family Support and Family Support Programs

1140

The Pediatrician’s Role in Supporting Adoptive Families

1140

The Pediatrician’s Role in the Evaluation and Preparation of Pediatric Patients Undergoing Anesthesia

1140

The Pediatrician’s Role in the Prevention of Missing Children

1140

Personal Watercraft Use by Children and Adolescents

1140

Pesticide Exposure in Children

1140

Pesticide Exposure in Children (Technical Report)

1141

Phototherapy to Prevent Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn Infant 35 or More Weeks of Gestation

1141

Physician Health and Wellness

1141

Physician Refusal to Provide Information or Treatment on the Basis of Claims of Conscience

1142

Physicians’ Roles in Coordinating Care of Hospitalized Children

1142

Planned Home Birth

1142

Poliovirus

1142

Postdischarge Follow-up of Infants With Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

Focus on Children With Impaired

1142

Postexposure Prophylaxis in Children and Adolescents for Nonoccupational Exposure to Human Immunodeficiency Virus

1143

Postnatal Corticosteroids to Prevent or Treat Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

1143

Postnatal Glucose Homeostasis in Late-Preterm and Term Infants

1143

Precertification Process

1143

Premedication for Nonemergency Endotracheal Intubation in the Neonate

1143

Prenatal Substance Abuse: Short- and Long- term Effects on the Exposed Fetus

1143

The Prenatal Visit

1144

Preparation for Emergencies in the Offices of Pediatricians and Pediatric Primary Care Providers

1144

Preparing for Pediatric Emergencies: Drugs to Consider

1144

Prescribing Assistive-Technology Systems:

Communication

1144

Prescribing Therapy Services for Children With Motor Disabilities

1144

Preservation of Fertility in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients With Cancer

1145

Preventing and Treating Homesickness

1145

Prevention and Management of Pain in the Neonate: An Update

1145

Prevention and Management of Positional Skull Deformities in Infants

1145

Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children, With Special Emphasis on American Indian and Alaska Native Children

1145

Prevention of Agricultural Injuries Among Children and Adolescents

1145

Prevention of Choking Among Children

1146

Prevention of Drowning

1146

Prevention of Drowning (Technical Report)

1146

Prevention of Pediatric Overweight and Obesity

1146

Prevention of Rotavirus Disease: Updated Guidelines for Use of Rotavirus Vaccine

1146

Prevention of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace and Educational Settings

1147

The Prevention of Unintentional Injury Among American Indian and Alaska Native Children: A Subject Review

1147

Prevention of Varicella: Update of Recommendations for Use of Quadrivalent and Monovalent Varicella Vaccines in Children

1147

Preventive Oral Health Intervention for Pediatricians

1147

XVI

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Principles for the Development and Use of Quality Measures

1147

Principles of Health Care Financing

1147

Principles of Judicious Antibiotic Prescribing for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Pediatrics

1148

Principles of Pediatric Patient Safety: Reducing Harm Due to Medical Care

1148

Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics

1148

Professional Liability Insurance and Medicolegal Education for Pediatric Residents and Fellows

1148

Professionalism in Pediatrics: Statement of Principles

1148

Professionalism in Pediatrics

1149

Promoting Education, Mentorship, and Support for Pediatric Research

1149

Promoting the Participation of Children With Disabilities in Sports, Recreation, and Physical Activities

1149

Promoting the Well-Being of Children Whose Parents Are Gay or Lesbian

1149

Promoting the Well-Being of Children Whose Parents Are Gay or Lesbian (Technical Report)

1149

Promotion of Healthy Weight-Control Practices in Young Athletes

1150

Protecting Children From Sexual Abuse by Health Care Providers

1150

Protective Eyewear for Young Athletes

1150

Providing a Primary Care Medical Home for Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

1150

Providing a Primary Care Medical Home for Children and Youth With Spina Bifida

1150

Providing Care for Children and Adolescents Facing Homelessness and Housing Insecurity

1150

Providing Care for Immigrant, Migrant, and Border Children

1151

Provision of Educationally Related Services for Children and Adolescents With Chronic Diseases and Disabling Conditions

1151

Psychological Maltreatment

1151

Psychosocial Implications of Disaster or Terrorism on Children: A Guide for the Pediatrician

1151

Psychosocial Risks of Chronic Health Conditions in Childhood and Adolescence

1152

Psychosocial Support for Youth Living With HIV

1152

Quality Early Education and Child Care From Birth to Kindergarten

1152

Rabies-Prevention Policy Update: New Reduced-Dose Schedule

1152

Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Socioeconomic Status— Research Exploring Their Effects on Child Health: A Subject Review

1152

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Health and Health Care of Children

1152

Radiation Disasters and Children

1153

Radiation Risk to Children From Computed Tomography

1153

Recognition and Management of Iatrogenically Induced Opioid Dependence and Withdrawal in Children

1153

Recognizing and Responding to Medical Neglect

1153

Recommendation for Mandatory Influenza Immunization of All Health Care Personnel Recommendations for Administering Hepatitis

1154

A

Vaccine to Contacts of International

Adoptees

 

1154

Recommendations for Prevention and Control

of

Influenza in Children, 2014–2015

1154

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care

1154

Recommendations for the Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal (GBS) Disease

1154

Recommendations for the Prevention of Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections in Infants and Children: Use of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) and Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV23)

1155

Recommended Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedule— United States, 2015

1155

Red Reflex Examination in Neonates, Infants, and Children

1155

Reducing Injury Risk From Body Checking in Boys’ Youth Ice Hockey

1155

Reducing the Number of Deaths and Injuries From Residential Fires

1155

Reducing the Risk of HIV Infection Associated With Illicit Drug Use

1155

Referral to Pediatric Surgical Specialists

1156

Reimbursement for Foods for Special Dietary Use

1156

Relief of Pain and Anxiety in Pediatric Patients

in

Emergency Medical Systems

1156

Religious Objections to Medical Care

1156

Respiratory Support in Preterm Infants at Birth Responding to Parental Refusals of Immunization

1156

of

Children

1157

Restraint Use on Aircraft

1157

Returning to Learning Following a Concussion

1157

Ritual Genital Cutting of Female Minors

1157

Role of Pediatricians in Advocating Life Support Training Courses for Parents and the Public

1157

PEDIATRIC CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES & POLICIES

XVII

Role of Pediatricians in Advocating Life Support Training Courses for Parents and the Public (Technical Report)

the Pediatrician’s Role

1157

The Role of Preschool Home-Visiting Programs in Improving Children’s Developmental and Health Outcomes

1157

Role of Pulse Oximetry in Examining Newborns for Congenital Heart Disease: A Scientific Statement From the AHA and AAP

1158

The Role of Schools in Combating Illicit Substance Abuse

1158

Role of the Medical Home in Family-Centered Early Intervention Services

1158

The Role of the Pediatrician in Rural Emergency Medical Services for Children

1158

Role of the Pediatrician in Youth Violence Prevention

1159

Role of the School Nurse in Providing School Health Services

1159

Role of the School Physician

1159

Safe Transportation of Newborns at Hospital Discharge

1159

Safe Transportation of Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants at Hospital Discharge

1159

School Bus Transportation of Children With Special Health Care Needs

1159

School Health Assessments

1159

School Health Centers and Other Integrated School Health Services

1159

School Readiness

1160

School Start Times for Adolescents

1160

School Transportation Safety

1160

School-Based Health Centers and Pediatric Practice

1160

School-Based Mental Health Services

1160

Scope of Health Care Benefits for Children From Birth Through Age 26

1160

Scope of Practice Issues in the Delivery of Pediatric Health Care

1161

Screening Examination of Premature Infants for Retinopathy of Prematurity

1161

Screening for Nonviral Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adolescents and Young Adults

1161

Screening for Retinopathy in the Pediatric Patient With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

1161

Secondhand and Prenatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure

1161

Selecting Appropriate Toys for Young Children:

1161

Self-injectable Epinephrine for First-Aid Management of Anaphylaxis

1162

Sensory Integration Therapies for Children With Developmental and Behavioral Disorders

1162

Sexual Orientation and Adolescents

1162

Sexuality, Contraception, and the Media

1162

Sexuality Education for Children and Adolescents

1163

Sexuality of Children and Adolescents With Developmental Disabilities

1163

Shopping Cart–Related Injuries to Children

1163

Shopping Cart–Related Injuries to Children (Technical Report) SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths:

1163

Expansion of Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths:

1163

Expansion of Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment (Technical Report)

1164

Skateboard and Scooter Injuries

1164

Snowmobiling Hazards

1164

Soft Drinks in Schools

1164

Special Requirements of Electronic Health Record Systems in Pediatrics

1165

Spectrum of Noninfectious Health Effects From Molds

1165

Spectrum of Noninfectious Health Effects From Molds (Technical Report)

1165

Sport-Related Concussion in Children and Adolescents

1165

Sports Drinks and Energy Drinks for Children and Adolescents: Are They Appropriate?

1165

Standard Terminology for Fetal, Infant, and Perinatal Deaths

1166

Standards for Health Information Technology to Ensure Adolescent Privacy

1166

Standards for Pediatric Cancer Centers

1166

State Children’s Health Insurance Program Achievements, Challenges, and Policy Recommendations

1166

Strategies for Prevention of Health Care– Associated Infections in the NICU

1166

Strength Training by Children and Adolescents

1166

Substance Use Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment for Pediatricians

1166

Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents

1166

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) for Children and Youth With Disabilities

1167

Supporting the Family After the Death of a Child

1167

Supporting the Health Care Transition From Adolescence to Adulthood in the Medical Home

1167

See Appendix 2.

See Appendix 2.

Surfactant Replacement Therapy for Preterm and Term Neonates With Respiratory Distress

1167

XVIII

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Surveillance of Pediatric HIV Infection

1167

The Teen Driver

1168

Testing for Drugs of Abuse in Children and Adolescents

1168

Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drugs: The Role of the Pediatrician in Prevention, Identification, and Management of Substance Abuse

1168

Tobacco as a Substance of Abuse

1168

Tobacco Use: A Pediatric Disease

1168

Toward Transparent Clinical Policies

1169

Trampoline Safety in Childhood and Adolescence

1169

The Transfer of Drugs and Therapeutics Into Human Breast Milk: An Update on Selected Topics

1169

Transitioning HIV-Infected Youth Into Adult Health Care

1169

Transporting Children With Special Health Care Needs

1170

The Treatment of Neurologically Impaired Children Using Patterning

1170

Ultraviolet Radiation: A Hazard to Children and Adolescents

1170

Ultraviolet Radiation: A Hazard to Children and Adolescents (Technical Report)

1170

Underinsurance of Adolescents: Recommendations for Improved Coverage of Preventive, Reproductive, and Behavioral Health Care Services

1170

Understanding the Behavioral and Emotional Consequences of Child Abuse

1171

Update of Newborn Screening and Therapy for Congenital Hypothyroidism

1171

Updated Guidance for Palivizumab Prophylaxis Among Infants and Young Children at Increased Risk of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

1171

Updated Guidance for Palivizumab Prophylaxis Among Infants and Young Children at Increased Risk of Hospitalization For Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (Technical Report)

1172

Updated Recommendations on the Use of Meningococcal Vaccines

1172

The Use and Misuse of Fruit Juice in Pediatrics

1172

Use of Chaperones During the Physical Examination of the Pediatric Patient

1172

Use of Codeine- and Dextromethorphan- Containing Cough Remedies in Children

1172

The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pediatrics

1172

Use of Inhaled Nitric Oxide

1173

Use of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Preterm Infants

1173

Use of Performance-Enhancing Substances

1173

Use of Soy Protein-Based Formulas in Infant Feeding

1173

The Use of Systemic and Topical Fluoroquinolones

1173

Uses of Drugs Not Described in the Package Insert (Off-Label Uses)

1173

Ventricular Fibrillation and the Use of Automated External Defibrillators on Children

1173

When Is Lack of Supervision Neglect?

1174

WIC Program Withholding or Termination of Resuscitation

1174

in

Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Traumatic

Cardiopulmonary Arrest

1174

Year 2007 Position Statement: Principles and Guidelines for Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs:

1174

SECTION 6

ENDORSED POLICIES Advanced Practice Registered Nurse: Role, Preparation, and Scope of Practice

1177

Appropriate Medical Care for the Secondary School-Age Athlete Communication

1177

Appropriate Use Criteria for Initial Transthoracic Echocardiography in Outpatient Pediatric Cardiology

1177

Best Practice for Infant Surgery: A Position Statement From the American Pediatric Surgical Association

1177

Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in High-Risk Pediatric Populations

1177

A Comprehensive Immunization Strategy to Eliminate Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States

1177

Consensus Statement: Definitions for Consistent Emergency Department Metrics

1178

Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders

1178

Defining Pediatric Malnutrition: A Paradigm Shift Toward Etiology-Related Definitions Diabetes Care for Emerging Adults:

1178

Recommendations for Transition From Pediatric to Adult Diabetes Care Systems Diagnosis, Treatment, and Long-Term Management of Kawasaki Disease:

1178

A

Statement for Health Professionals

1178

Dietary Recommendations for Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Practitioners

1178

Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D

1178

Emergency Equipment and Supplies in the School Setting

1178

Enhancing the Work of the HHS National Vaccine Program in Global Immunizations

1178

PEDIATRIC CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES & POLICIES

XIX

Evidence Report: Genetic and Metabolic Testing on Children With Global Developmental Delay

1178

Evidence-Based Guideline Update: Medical Treatment of Infantile Spasms

1179

Evidence-Based Management of Sickle Cell Disease: Expert Panel Report, 2014

1179

Executing Juvenile Offenders: A Fundamental Failure of Society Expedited Partner Therapy for Adolescents Diagnosed With Chlamydia or Gonorrhea:

1179

A

Position Paper of the Society for

Adolescent Medicine

1179

Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction

in

Children and Adolescents:

Summary Report

1179

Foster Care Mental Health Values General Recommendations on Immunization:

1179

Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Genetic Basis for Congenital Heart Defects:

1179

Current Knowledge

1180

Gifts to Physicians From Industry

1180

Guidelines for Field Triage of Injured Patients

1180

Guidelines for Referral of Children and Adolescents to Pediatric Rheumatologists Helping the Student with Diabetes Succeed:

1180

A

Guide for School Personnel

1180

Identifying and Responding to Domestic Violence:

Consensus Recommendations for Child and Adolescent Health Importance and Implementation of Training

1180

in

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

and Automated External Defibrillation

 

in

Schools

1180

Inter-Association Consensus Statement on Best Practices for Sports Medicine Management for Secondary Schools and Colleges

1180

Lightning Safety for Athletics and Recreation

1180

Long-term Cardiovascular Toxicity in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Who Receive Cancer Therapy: Pathophysiology, Course, Monitoring, Management, Prevention, and Research Directions: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

1181

The Management of Hypotension in the Very-Low- Birth-Weight Infant: Guideline for Practice

1181

Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization, April 2012–Conclusions and Recommendations

1181

Mental Health and Substance Use Screening and Assessment of Children in Foster Care

1181

Multilingual Children: Beyond Myths and Toward Best Practices

1181

National Adoption Center: Open Records

Recommendations of the Advisory Committee

The Medical Emergency Response Plan

1181

Neonatal Encephalopathy and Neurologic Outcome, Second Edition

1181

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Children With Congenital Heart Disease: Evaluation and Management: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

1182

Noninherited Risk Factors and Congenital Cardio- vascular Defects: Current Knowledge

1182

Pediatric Care in the Emergency Department

1182

Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease:

on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

1182

Prevention of Rheumatic Fever and Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Streptococcal Pharyngitis

1183

Protecting Adolescents: Ensuring Access to Care and Reporting Sexual Activity and Abuse

1183

Report of the National Consensus Conference on Family Presence during Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Procedures

1183

Response to Cardiac Arrest and Selected Life-Threatening Medical Emergencies:

for Schools. A Statement for Healthcare Providers, Policymakers, School Administrators, and Community Leaders

1183

Safe at School Campaign Statement of Principles

1183

Screening for Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescents

1183

Selected Issues for the Adolescent Athlete and the Team Physician: A Consensus Statement

1184

Skiing and Snowboarding Injury Prevention Supplement to the JCIH 2007 Position Statement:

1184

Principles and Guidelines for Early Intervention After Confirmation That a Child is Deaf or Hard of Hearing Targeted Tuberculin Testing and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Timing of Umbilical Cord Clamping After Birth Update on Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine for Children—United States, May 2011 Weighing Pediatric Patients in Kilograms

1184

1185

1185

1185

1185

APPENDIX 1

POLICIES BY COMMITTEE Adolescent Sleep Working Group

1189

Black Box Working Group

1189

Board of Directors

1189

Bright Futures Periodicity Schedule Workgroup

1189

Bright Futures Steering Committee

1189

Bronchiolitis Guidelines Committeee

1189

Cardiac Surgery Executive Committee

1189

Child and Adolescent Health Action Group

1189

XX

PEDIATRIC CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES & POLICIES

Committee on Adolescence

1189

Committee on Bioethics

1190

Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect

1191

Committee on Child Health Financing

1191

Committee on Coding and Nomenclature

1192

Committee on Drugs

1192

Committee on Fetus and Newborn

1192

Committee on Genetics

1193

Committee on Hospital Care

1193

Committee on Infectious Diseases

1194

Committee on Medical Liability and Risk Management

1194

Committee on Native American Child Health

1195

Committee on Nutrition

1195

Committee on Pediatric AIDS

1195

Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine

1196

Committee on Pediatric Research

1196

Committee on Pediatric Workforce

1197

Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine

1197

Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health

1197

Committee on Substance Abuse

1198

Council on Children With Disabilities

1198

Council on Clinical Information Technology

1199

Council on Communications and Media

1199

Council on Community Pediatrics

1200

Council on Early Childhood

1200

Council on Environmental Health

1200

Council on Foster Care, Adoption, and Kinship Care

1201

Council on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention

1201

Council on School Health

1202

Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness

1202

Disaster Preparedness Advisory Council

1203

Joint Committee on Infant Hearing

1203

Medical Home Implementation Project Advisory Committee

1203

Medical Home Initiatives For Children With Special Needs Project Advisory Committee

1203

Neuromotor Screening Expert Panel

1203

Newborn Screening Authoring Committee

1203

Retail-Based Clinic Policy Work Group

1203

Section on Allergy and Immunology

1203

Section on Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

1203

Section on Breastfeeding

1204

Section on Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery

1204

Section on Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

1204

Section on Complementary and Integrative Medicine

1204

Section on Critical Care

1204

Section on Dermatology

1204

Section on Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics

1204

Section on Endocrinology

1205

Section on Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

1205

Section on Hematology/Oncology

1205

Section on Home Care

1205

Section on Hospice and Palliative Medicine

1205

Section on Hospital Medicine

1205

Section on Integrated Medicine

1205

Section on International Child Health

1205

Section on Medical Students, Residents, and Fellowship Trainees

1205

Section on Neurological Surgery

1205