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Many information systems involve data about people. In order to reliably associate data with
particular individuals, it is necessary that an effective and efficient identification scheme be established
and maintained. There is remarkably little in the information technology literature concerning human
identification. This paper seeks to overcome that deficiency, by undertaking a survey of human identity
and human identification. The technique discussed includes RETINA SCAN.
The key challenge to management and security agencies is identified as being to devise a scheme
which is practicable and economic, and of sufficiently high integrity to address the risks the organization
confronts in its dealings with people and the security agencies while protecting VIPs and places of great
security concern such as treasures, ordinance factories,Parlement,State Assemblies etc. It is proposed that
much greater use be made of schemes which are designed to afford people anonymity, or enable them to
use multiple identities or pseudonyms, while at the same time protecting the nation's own interests.
This paper mainly deals with identification of an individuel based on the retinal vascular
pattern of the human eye. This pattern is a unique characteristic, even for identical twins, and remains
stable throughout an individual’s life.

Human identity is a delicate notion which requires consideration at the levels of philosophy and
psychology. Human identification, on the other hand, is a practical matter. In a variety of contexts, each of
us needs to identify other individuals, in order to conduct a conversation or transact. Organizations seek to
identify the individuals with whom they deal, variously to provide better service to them, and to protect
their own interests while security agencies will always need this for the protection of VIPs, places of high
security importance where authenticity plays.
The use of human identification in the personal data systems used by organizations, government
and security agencies is remarkably little-discussed in the information systems literature. The purpose of
this paper is to make good that gap, by undertaking a survey of the topic, and identifying matters of
concern to managers and policy-makers. The paper commences by outlining the concepts of human
identity and human identification, and examining the reasons why organizations need to identify people.
This paper mainly deals with identification of an individuel based on the retinal vascular pattern of the
human eye. This pattern is a unique characteristic, even for identical twins, and remains stable throughout
an individual’s life.
Human Identity
In the context under discussion, identity is used to mean "the condition of being a specified
person” or "the condition of being oneself ... and not another”. It clusters with the terms 'personality',
'individuality' and 'individualism', and less fashionably, 'soul'. It implies the existence for each person of
private space, in which one's attitudes and actions can define one's self.

Human Identification
The term 'identification' means the act or process of "establishing the identity of, [or]
recognizing", or "the treating of a thing as identical with another” or "the act [or process] of recognizing or
establishing as being a particular person", but also "the act [or process] of making, representing to be, or
regarding or treating as the same or identical".


The human eye is a complex anatomical device that remarkably demonstrates the architectural
wonders of the human body. Like a camera, the eye is able to refract light and produce a focused image
that can stimulate neural responses and enable the ability to see.
The inner surface of the eye is known as the retina. Each part of the eye plays a distinct part in
enabling humans to see. The ultimate goal of such an anatomy is to allow humans to focus images on the
back of the retina. Figure 1 &2 shows the structure of human eye.

Figure: 1 Human Eye

Figure: 2 Human Eyes (American Academy of Ophthalmology)

Anatomy of Retina
All vertebrate retinas contain at least two types of photoreceptors—the familiar rods and cones.
Rods are generally used for low-light vision and cones for daylight, bright-colored vision. An adult eye is
typically equipped with 120 million rods which detect the intensity of light and 6 million cones

which detect the frequency of light. The retina contains the rods and cones which serve the task of
detecting the intensity and the frequency of the incoming light. These rods and cones send nerve impulses
to the brain. The nerve impulses travel through a network of nerve cells; there are as many as one-million
neural pathways from the rods and cones to the brain. This network of nerve cells is bundled together to
form the optic nerve on the very back of the eyeball.

Figure 3. An ophthalmologist’s view of the human retina shows the optic nerve head, from which blood
vessels radiate to nourish every part of the tissue, as well as the fovea, which is where images.
The parallel sets of visual channels for ON (detecting light areas on dark backgrounds) and OFF
(detecting dark areas on light backgrounds) qualities of an image are fundamental to our seeing. Vertebrate
vision depends on perceiving the contrast between images and their backgrounds. For example, we read
black letters against a white background using the OFF channels that start in the retina.


Retinal identification is the newest and at this moment the most accurate biometrics method one
can implement. Research has proved that the vein pattern on the retina is the most unique characteristic
owned by man, including identical twins. This pattern is not determined genetically, but has a random
development with each individual. It is one of the most stable characteristics in the life of a person.
Retinal Scan technology is based on the blood vessel pattern in the retina of the eye. The (Retinal
Scan) reader contains an aperture where the user looks to align his eye with an optical target, which
appears as a series of circles.

Figure4: Blood vessel pattern of retina

As the user moves his eye around, the circles become more or less concentric. Proper alignment is
achieved when the circles appear concentric and the user is looking at the contour of the circles." With the
eye properly aligned with the reader device, an infrared light illuminates the retina heating the blood
vessels of the retina, this infrared energy is absorbed faster by the retina then by surroundings and a
camera captures an image of the infrared-enhanced blood vessel pattern which is analyzed for
characteristics points within pattern. This retinal scanning system quickly maps the eye's blood vessel

pattern and records it into an easily retrievable digitized database. The eye's natural reflective and
absorption properties are used to map a specific portion of the retinal vascular structure.
This mapping is accomplished by a device which uses a scan wheel/lens apparatus rotating at the
rate of six complete rotations per second to collect a total of 700 data points in the retina during each
rotation. Once the data is collected, it is digitized and stored as a 96 byte template.

An instrument named ICAM2001 has been implemented successfully.A user who was previously
enrolled in the system is recognized in a few seconds. He or she only has to stare with the enrolled eye at a
green dot in the instrument (ICAM 2001), push the

Figure 5: The eye scan instrument successfully implemented by an institute in Belgium.

find button and wait for a very short period. The total time for staring in the unit, pushing the find button
and gaining access takes about 4 seconds. Every
time a user gains access the exact date and time and the users name are stored in a history file inside the
ICAM. This history file gives the management a positive proof of who gained access and when. A person
can be recognized with absolute certainty out of 1 500 others in less than 5 seconds. Only 96 bytes are
used for the reference of each enrolled person. Due to this small reference and the powerful search
algorithmes the ICAM is one of the eye scan devices today that can recognize a person in a few seconds.
By means of the built in Wiegand-interface the ICAM 2001 can be easily linked to most
integrated systems for access control, time and attendance, intrusion detection and building management.
The ICAM 2001 has to be connected to a controller of the system and is seen as just another input. The
ICAM 2001 retinal recognition devices can work on a network with a host computer through the built in
RS485 interface. The built in RS232 interface is used for integration in special custom built applications.
However the method of obtaining a correct retinal scan depends heavily on the skill of the
operator and the ability of the person being scanned to follow directions. A comparative study of these
systems has been studied which can be seen below.

Biometric Crossover Accuracy

Retinal Scan
Iris Scan
Hand Geometry
Signature Dynamics
Voice Dynamics
No data
Facial Recognition
Table –1

Biometric Data Size Per Record (bytes)

Retinal Scan
Iris Scan
512 – 1000
Hand Geometry
Table 2

This leads to a very high level off accuracy in comparison to most other biometrics.
False Accept Rates (FAR) or the likelihood that a user will claim a false identity and be
accepted, as low as 0.0001% (1 in 1,000,000). Of course, there are many measures of accuracy in
biometrics, and with 0.0001% FAR's, there will be an increased number of False Rejections.
The False Reject Rate (FRR) measures the likelihood that a system will incorrectly reject
an authorized user. In the situations where retina scan is designed to be used, such as military
facilities, a false rejection rate as high as 10% may be a nuisance but is generally accepted as an
essential part of maintaining high security. Of course, in many retail settings, all but the most
nominal false reject rates would be much more problematic.
No reliable statistics are available regarding the Failure to Enroll rate, or the number of
users who are simply unable to perform an acceptable enrollment. Based on experience, it is fair to
conclude that a statistically significant number of people, perhaps 5-10%, may be unable to perform
a satisfactory enrollment.

There have been lots of rumors about use of retina scan technique. The method of
obtaining a retinal scan is personally invasive – an infrared light must be directed through the
cornea of the eye, the fact that the user has to look inside instrument with his eye, raises several
questions in their minds.
People are worried about eye diseases, eye damage and even blindness. These thoughts are
solely based on assumptions originated out of lack of information regarding the used technology.
With this brief text we would like to show you there is no need to worry about using such technique.

Well known institutes did measurements regarding retinal technology. Their findings
resulted in certificates that show that radiation is far below the Threshold Limit Values, even under
extreme conditions.
1. The light source inside the instrument produces infra red light. This light is of the same kind as
the light that is radiated by a remote control (TV and car).
2. The limit values that are used by the laboratories are allowed values for the human eye and are
much lower than the actual damaging values.
3. Prof. Larry F. Rich
The Oregon Health Science University, School of Medicine, Department of
Ophthalmology, Oregon,
Points out that the risk to get eye diseases by using the device implementing such
technique is not greater than the risk using an ordinary telephone, door knob or any other device.
When the retina is exposed on one point by two pulses, each pulse gives only 6 % of the exposure
In an unrealistically provocative situation where a person is scrutinized once a second
continuously for 30 000 seconds, 82 % of the exposure limit is reached. This means that even after
these extreme tests there is still no chance to get the eye damaged.