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UNIT I

WATER TECHNOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
Water is the most important compound for the existence of human beings, animals & plants.
Among the various sources of water surface & underground water are normally used for
domestic & industrial purposes. Such water must be free from undesirable impurities. The
process of removing all types of impurities from water & making it fit for domestic or industrial
purpose is called water treatment.
HARD WATER
Water which does not produce lather freely with soap is called hard water. This is due to the
formation of insoluble soaps of calcium & magnesium.
2C17H35COONa + CaCl2

(C17H35COO) 2Ca +2NaCl


Calcium stearate

2C17H35COONa +MgSO4

(C17H35COO) 2Mg +Na2SO4

SOFT WATER
Water which produce lather freely with so soft water. Hardness is the property of water which
does not produce lather with soap.
TYPES OF HARDNESS
Depending on the type of dissolved salts present in water, hardness can be classified in two types
1) Temporary hardness
2) Permanent hardness
TEMPORARY HARDNESS
The hardness which is removed by boiling of water is called temporary hardness. This is due to
the presence of bicarbonates of calcium & magnesium.
Ca (HCO3)2

CaCO3 + H2O + CO2

Mg (HCO3)2

Mg (OH) 2 +2 CO2

PERMANENT HARDNESS
The hardness which is not removed even after boiling of water is called permanent hardness.
This is due to the presence of chlorides and sulphates of Ca & Mg.

EXPRESSION OF HARDNESS INTERMS OF EQUIVALENTS OF CaCO3


The concentration of hardness is expressed in terms of equivalent amount of CaCO3. CaCO3 is
chosen as a standard because
(i) Its molecular weight (100) & equivalent weight (50) is a whole number, so tee calculations
can be simplified.
(ii) It is the most insoluble salt.
Amount equivalent to CaCO3 = Amount of hardness producing salt x molecular weight of CaCO3
_______________________________________________________________________________

Molecular weight of hardness producing salt

Molecular weights of some hardness producing salts.


Ca (HCO3)2 =162

MgSO4 = 120

MgCl2 = 95

Mg (HCO3)2 = 146

CaCl2 = 111

CaSO4 = 136

PROBLEMS BASED ON HARDNESS


PROBLEM 1:
A sample of water is found to contain the following analytical data in mg/lt. Mg (HCO3)2 = 14.6;
MgCl2 = 9.5; MgSO4 = 6.0; Ca (HCO3)2 =16.2 . Calculate the temporary & permanent
hardness of the sample of water.
SOLUTION:
Name of the
hardness producing
salt

Amount in mg/lt.

Molecular weights

Mg (HCO3)2

14.6

146

14.6 x 100
_________ =10
146

MgCl2

9.5

95

9.5 x 100
_________ =10
95

6.0

120

6.0 x 100
_________ =5
120

16.2

162

16.2 x 100
_________ =10
162

MgSO4

Ca (HCO3)2

Temporary hardness = Mg (HCO3)2 + Ca (HCO3)2


=10 + 10 = 20 mgs/lt.
Permanent hardness = MgCl2+ MgSO4
=10 + 5 = 15 mgs/lt.

Amount equivalent
to
CaCO3

PROBLEM 2:
A sample of water is found to contain the following analytical data in mg/lt. Mg (HCO3)2 = 16.8;
MgCl2 = 12; MgSO4 = 29.6; NaCl=5 . Calculate the temporary & permanent hardness of the
sample of water & express it in ppm. (Atomic weight of Mg =24; H = 1 ; C =12 ; O =16; Cl =
35.5; Na = 23; S = 32)
SOLUTION:

Name of the
hardness producing
salt

Amount in mg/lt.

Molecular weights

Amount equivalent
to
CaCO3

Mg (HCO3)2

16.8

146

16.8 x 100
_________ =11.5
146

MgCl2

12

95

12x 100
_________ =12.63
95

29.6

120

29.6 x 100
_________ =24.66
120

MgSO4

NaCl does not contribute any hardness to water & hence it is ignored
.

Temporary hardness = Mg (HCO3)2


=11.5 mgs/lt. or ppm.
Permanent hardness = MgCl2+ MgSO4

=12.63+ 24.66 = 37.29 mgs/lt.or ppm.

ALKALINITY
Alkalinity is due to presence of soluble hydroxide (OH-), carbonate (CO32-) & bicarbonate
(HCO3-) ions. These can be determined by titrimetry using standard acid, phenolphthalein &
methyl orange as indicators. The determination is based on the following reactions
(i) (OH-) + (H+)

H2O

(ii) (CO32-) + (H+)

(HCO3-)

(iii) (HCO3-) + (H+)

H2O + CO2

P
M

Alkalinity is classified into three types based upon the anion present in the water
(i) Hydroxide alkalinity _ due to ( OH-)
(ii) Carbonate alkalinity _ due to (CO32-)
(iii) Bicarbonate alkalinity _ due to (HCO3-)
DETERMINATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF ALKALINITY
Steps involved in the determination of various types of alkalinity ere as follows,
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
TITRATION 1: Determination of phenolphthalein alkalinity
Pipette out 100 ml of the given water sample a clean conical flask. Add 2 to 3 drops of a
phenolphthalein indicator & titrate it against N/50 H2SO4 taken in the burette. The end point is
the disappearance of pink colour.Let the volume of acid consumed be V1.
TITRATION II: Determination of methyl orange alkalinity
To the same solution add 2 to 3 drops of methyl orange indicator and continue the titration
against the N/50 H2SO4 .The end point is appearance reddish orange. Let the volume of acid
consumed be V2.
CALCULATION
(i) Calculation of Phenolphthalein alkalinity
Volume of acid used to phenolphthalein end point V1 = V1 ml

Normality of the acid

N1 = N/50

Volume of the water sample

V2 =100 ml

Normality of the water sample

N2=?

According to volumetric law


V1N1 = V2N2
N2 = V1N1/ V2
N2 = VI/100 X 1/50
Phenolphthalein alkalinity (P) = N2 X Equivalent wt. of CaCO3 X 1000 PPM
=V1 X 50 X 1000
________________
100 X50
P = 100 V1 PPM
ii) Calculation of Methyl orange alkalinity
Volume of acid used to Methyl orange end point V1 = (V1+V2) ml
Normality of the acid

N1 = N/50

Volume of the water sample

V2 =100 ml

Normality of the water sample

N2=?

According to volumetric law


V1N1 = V2N2
N2 = V1N1/ V2
N2 =( VI+V2)/100 X 1/50
Methyl orange alkalinity (M) = N2 X Equivalent wt. of CaCO3 X 1000 PPM
=(V1+V2) X 50 X 1000
________________
100 X50

M= 10(V1+ V2) PPM

CONCLUSION
(i) When P=O, both OH- & CO32- are absent & alkalinity is due to HCO3- only.
(ii) When P = M, only is CO32- present, half of carbonate neutralization reaction takes place
with phenolphthalein indicator. Complete carbonate neutralization reaction occurs when methyl
orange indicator is used.
Alkalinity due to CO32- = 2P
(iii) When P = M, only OH- is present, alkalinity due to OH- = P = M.
(iv) When P > M, besides CO32- , OH- ions are also present.
Alkalinity due to complete CO32- = 2(M P)
Alkalinity due to OH- = (2P M)
(v) When P < M, besides CO32- , HCO3- ions are also present.
Alkalinity due to CO32-= 2P
Alkalinity due to HCO3- = (M 2P)
CALCULATION OF ALKALINITY OF WATER
Results of P &
M end point

OHppm

CO32ppm

HCO3ppm

Nature of
alkalinity

P=0

Only bicarbonate

P = 1/2 M

2P

Only carbonate

P < 1/2 M

2P

M 2P

Bicarbonate &
carbonate

P > 1/2 M

(2P M)

2(M P)

Hydroxide &
carbonate

P=M

P=M

Only hydroxide

PROBLEMS BASED ON ALKALINITY


PROBLEM 1:
A water sample is not alkaline to phenolphthalein. But 100 ml of the sample on titration with
N/50 HCl required 16.7 ml to methyl orange end point. What are the types & amounts of
alkalinity present in the sample.
SOLUTION:
Volume of water sample

= 100 ml

Volume of N/50 HCl used to phenolphthalein end point P = O


Volume of N/50 HCl used to methyl orange end point M = 16.7 ml
Since P = O, the alkalinity of the water sample is only due to HCO3- ions.
Alkalinity due to HCO3Volume of acid used

V1 = 16.7 ml

Normality of the acid

N1 = N/50

Volume of the water sample

V2 =100 ml

Normality of the water sample

N2=?

According to volumetric law


V1N1 = V2N2
N2 = V1N1/ V2
N2 = 16.7/100 X 1/50
N2 = 0.00334 N
Amount of HCO3- interms of CaCO3equivalent= N2 X Equivalent wt. of CaCO3 X 1000 PPM
= 0.00334 x 50 x 100
= 167 PPM.

Alkalinity of the water sample due to HCO3- =167 PPM

PROBLEM 2:
100 ml of a water sample on titration with N/50 HCl gave a titre value of 6.8 ml to
phenolphthalein end point & 13.6 ml to methyl orange end point. Calculate the alkalinity of the
water sample & comment on the type alkalinity present.
SOLUTION:
Volume of water sample

= 100 ml

Volume of N/50 HCl used to phenolphthalein end point P = 6.8 ml


Volume of N/50 HCl used to methyl orange end point M = 13.6 ml
Since P = M, the alkalinity of the water sample is only due to CO32- ions.
Alkalinity due to CO32Volume of acid used

V1 = 2P = 2 X 6.8 = 13.6 ml

Normality of the acid

N1 = N/50

Volume of the water sample

V2 =100 ml

Normality of the water sample

N2=?

According to volumetric law


V1N1 = V2N2
N2 = V1N1/ V2
N2 = 13.6/100 X 1/50
N2 = 0.00276 N
Amount of CO32- interms of CaCO3equivalent= N2 X Equivalent wt. of CaCO3 X 1000 PPM
= 0.00276 x 50 x 100
= 136 PPM.

Alkalinity of the water sample due to CO32-

=136 PPM

ESTIMATION OF HARDNESS BY EDTA METHOD


This method is based on complexometric titration method. EDTA is Ethylene diamine tetra
acetic acid. The structure of EDTA is
HOOCH2C

CH2COOH
N--CH2CH2N

HOOCH2C

CH2COOH

PRINCIPLE
The amount of hardness causing ions can be estimated by titrating the water sample against
EDTA using Erichrome Black- T indicator at a PH of 8 to 10. In order to maintain the PH buffer
solution is added.
When the EBT indicator is added to the water sample it forms wine red coloured weak complex
with Ca2+ & Mg2+ ions.
Ca2+

PH 8 10

Ca

+ EBT

EBT

Mg2+

complex

Mg
Wine red coloured weak complex

When this solution is titrated against EDTA, it replaces the indicator from tee weak complex &
form stable EDTA complex. The colour of the free indicator is steel blue.
Ca

PH 8 10
EBT

Ca

+ EDTA

Mg

EDTA
Mg

Preparation of solutions
EDTA: 4 gm of EDTA is dissolved in 1000 ml of distilled water.
EBT: 0.5 gm EBT in 100 ml alcohol

complex + EBT
steel blue

Standard hard water: 1 gm of calcium carbonate is dissolved in minimum amount of dil. HCl
& then made up to 1000 ml using distilled water.
Buffer: 67.5 gms of ammonium chloride & 570 ml of ammonia are dissolved & the solution is
made up to 1000 ml using distilled water.
Experimental procedure
(i) Standardisation of EDTA
Pipette out 20 ml of standard hard water into a clean conical flask. Add 10 ml of buffer solution
& 5 drops of EBT indicator & titrate it against EDTA.The end point is the change of colour from
wine red to steel blue.
Let the volume of EDTA consumed be V1 ml.
(ii) Estimation of total hardness of water sample
Pipette out 20 ml of the given hard water sample into a clean conical flask & titrate it against as
before.
Let the volume of EDTA consumed be V2 ml.
(iii) Estimation of permanent hardness of water sample
Take 100 ml of the same hard water sample in a 250 ml beaker.Boil it for 15 minutes.Cool &
filter the solution and make upto 100 ml in a standard flask by adding distilled water. Pipette out
20 ml of the made up solution into a clean conical flask & titrate it against EDTA as before.
Let the volume of EDTA consumed be V3 ml.
Calculations
(i) Standardisation of EDTA
1 ml of standard hard water =1 mg of CaCO3
20 ml of standard hard water =20 mg of CaCO3
20 ml of standard hard water consumes V1 ml of EDTA
1ml of EDTA = 20/V1 mgs of CaCO3 equivalent hardness
(ii) Estimation of total hardness of water sample
20 ml of given hard water consumes V2 ml of EDTA
=V2 X 20/V1 mgs of CaCO3 equivalent hardness

1000 ml of given hard water = V2 X 20/V1 X 1000/20


= 1000 X V2/V1 mgs of CaCO3 equivalent hardness
Total hardness =

1000 X V2/V1 PPM

(iii) Estimation of permanent hardness of water sample


20 ml of given hard water after boiling, filtering consumes V3 ml of EDTA
=V3 X 20/V1 mgs of CaCO3 equivalent hardness
1000 ml of given hard water = V3 X 20/V1 X 1000/20
= 1000 X V3/V1 mgs of CaCO3 equivalent hardness
Permanent hardness =

1000 X V3/V1 PPM

(iv) Estimation of temporary hardness of water sample


Temporary hardness = total hardness permanent hardness
= 1000 X V2/V1 - 1000 X V3/V1
Temporary hardness = 1000/V1 (V2 V3) PPM
PROBLEMS BASED ON EDTA METHOD
PROBLEM 1:
0.28 gm of CaCO3 was dissolved in HCl & the solution made up to 1 lt. with distilled water. 100
ml of the above solution required 28 ml of EDTA solution on titration. 100 ml of hard water
sample required 33 ml of same EDTA solution on titration. 100 ml of this water after boiling,
cooling & filtering required 10 ml of EDTA solution on titration. Calculate the temporary &
permanent hardness.
SOLUTION:
1 ml of standard hard water =0.28 mg of CaCO3
20 ml of EDTA

= 100 ml of standard hard water


= 100 X 0.28 mgs of CaCO3

1 ml of EDTA

= 1 mgs of CaCO3

(i) Total Hardness


100 ml of the hard water

= 33 ml of EDTA

=33 mgs of CaCO3


1000 ml of the hard water

= 33 X 1000/100

Total hardness

= 330 mgs/lt (or) PPM

(ii)Permanent Hardness
100 ml of the hard water after boiling cooling & filtering = 10 ml of EDTA
=10 mgs of CaCO3
1000 ml of the hard water
Permanent hardness

= 10 X 1000/100
= 100 mgs/lt (or) PPM

(iii) Temporary hardness


Temporary hardness = total hardness permanent hardness
=330 100
Temporary hardness

= 230 mgs/lt (or) PPM

CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER
As per the suggestion given by World Health Organization (WHO) & by Indian Council of
Medical Research (ICMR), the following are the important characteristics of potable water.
1. It should be clear, colourless & odourless.
2. It should be cool & pleasant to taste.
3. It should be free from harmful bacteria & suspended impurities.
4. It should be free from dissolved gases like CO2, H2S etc & poisonous minerals like lead,
arsenic, manganese etc.
5. Hardness should be less than 500 ppm.
6. Chloride content should be less than 250 ppm.
7. Fluoride content should be less than 1.5 ppm.
8. Total dissolved solid content should be less than 500 ppm.

9. PH of the potable water should be 6.5 to 8.5.

TREATMENT OF WATER FOR DOMESTIC SUPPLY


Rivers & lakes are the most common sources of water & this water should be free from colloidal
impurities, industrial effluents & disease producing bacterias.
Domestic supply of water involves the following stages,
1. Screening
2. Aeration
3. Sedimentation
4. Coagulation
5. Filtration
6. Sterilization
SCREENING
The raw water is allowed to pass through a screen which retains the floating materials like
leaves; wood pieces etc. & allow the water to pass.
AERATION
It is a process of mixing water with air. The main purpose is
(i) to remove gases like CO2, H2S and other volatile impurities causing bad taste & odour to
water.
(ii) to remove ferrous & manganous salts s insoluble ferric & manganic salts.
SEDIMENTATION
It is a process of removing suspended impurities by allowing the water to stand undisturbed for 2
to 6 hours in a big tank. The suspended impurities settle down at the bottom due to force of
gravity & they are removed. This removes only 75% of the suspended impurities.
COAGULATION

Finely divided clay, silica etc. do not settle down & cannot be removed by sedimentation. Such
impurities are removed by coagulation method. Al2 (SO4)3 is added to water. It gets hydrolyzed
to form a gelatinous precipitate of Al (OH)3 which entraps the finely divided & colloidal
impurities ,settles to the bottom & can be removed easily.

FILTERATION
It is the process of removing bacteria, colour, taste, odour & suspended particles by passing
through filter beds containing fine sand, coarse sand & gravel. When the rate of filtration
becomes very slow, the filtration is stopped & the thick top layer is scrapped off & replaced with
clean sand.
STERILIZATION
The process of destroying the harmful bacterias is known as sterilization.
The process can be carried out by
1. Boiling
2. by ozonation
3. By using ultraviolet radiations.
4. by chlorination
Chlorination can be done by
a)by adding chlorine gas
b) By adding chloramines
c) By adding bleaching powder.
When bleaching powder is added to water, it produces HOCl which is a powerful germicide.
CaCOCl2 + H2O

Ca (OH) 2 + Cl2

Bleaching powder
Cl2 + H2O

HCl + HOCl
(Hypochlorous acid)

HOCl + Bacterias

Bacterias are killed

BREAK POINT CHLORINATION


1. Intially the applied chlorine is used to kill bacteria & oxidizes all the reducing substance &
there is no free residual chlorine.
2. As the amount of chlorine increases, the amount of combined residual chlorine increases.
3. At one point on chlorination, the oxidation of chloramines & other impurities starts & there is
a fall in combined chlorine.
4. Thus the combined chlorine decreases to a point and free residual chlorine appears & this
point is known is known as Break Point Chlorination.

BOILER FEED WATER


The water fed into the boiler for the production of steam is called boiler feed water.
BOILER TROUBLES
If hard water obtained from natural sources is fed directly into the boilers, the following troubles
may arise,
1. Scale & sludge formation
2. Priming & foaming
3. Caustic embrittlement
4. Boiler corrosion
Scale & sludge formation
When water is converted into steam in boilers the concentration of dissolved salts in water
increases.
Sludge
If the precipitate is loose & slimy is called sludge. Sludges are formed by substances like
MgSO4, MgCl2, and MgCO3 & CaCl2.
Disadvantages
1. Sludges are poor conductors of heat.
2. Excess of sludge formation decreases the efficiency of boiler.

Prevention
1. Sludge formation can be prevented by using soft water.
2. They can also be removed by blow down operation .It is a process of removing a portion of
concentrated water by fresh water from the boiler during steam production.
Scale
If the precipitate forms hard & adherent coating on the inner walls of the boiler, it is called
sacle.Scales area farmed by Ca (HCO3)2, CaSO4 & Mg (OH) 2
Disadvantages
1. Scales act as thermal insulators.
2. Any crack leads to explosion.
Prevention
1. Scale formation can be removed by external & internal treatment.
2. They can be removed by applying shocks, scrapers, wire brush etc.
Priming & Foaming
During production of steam in the boiler, due to rapid boiling, liquid droplets are carried along
with steam.Steam containing liquid droplets is called wet steam. These droplets carry with them
some dissolved salts & suspended impurities. This is called carry over.
Priming
Priming is the process of production of wet steam.Priming is caused by
1. High steam velocity
2. High water level in the boiler.
3. Sudden boiling water.
4. Poor boiler design.
Prevention
Priming can be controlled by
1. Controlling the velocity of steam
2. Good boiler design

3. Keeping the water level lower


4. Using treated water.

Foaming
The formation of stable bubbles above the surface of water is called foaming.
Foaming is caused by
1. Presence of oil & grease
2. Presence of finely divided particles.

Prevention
1. Adding coagulants like sodium aluminate, aluminium hydroxide.
2. Adding antifoaming agents like synthetic polyamides.
Caustic embrittlement
Caustic embrittlement means intercrystalline cracking of boiler metal.
In high pressure boilers Na2CO3 undergoes decomposition to give NaOH.
Na2CO3 + H2O

2NaOH + CO2

This NaOH flows into minute hair cracks by capillary action & dissolves the surrounding area of
iron as sodium ferroate.
Fe + 2NaOH

Na2FeO2 +H2

This causes brittlement of boiler parts causing even failure of the boiler.
Prevention
This can be prevented by
1. Using sodium phosphate as softening agent instead of sodium carbonate.
2. By adding tannin, lignin to the water which blocks the hair cracks.
Boiler corrosion

Corrosion in boiler is due to


1. Dissolved oxygen
2. Dissolved CO2
3. Dissolved salts
Dissolved oxygen
This dissolved oxygen attacks the boiler material at higher temperature.
4Fe + 6H2O + 3O2

4Fe (OH) 3

Removal
Dissolved oxygen can be removed by chemical or mechanical methods.
a)Chemical method
Sodium sulphite, hydrazine are used for removing oxygen.
2Na2SO3 + O2
N2H4 +O2

2Na2SO4
N2 + 2H2O

b) Mechanical method
Water is allowed to fall slowly on the perforated plates fitted inside the tower.
The high temp. & low pressure produced inside the tower reduces the dissolved oxygen content
of the water.
Dissolved CO2
Dissolved CO2 in water produces carbonic acid which is acidic & corrosive in nature.
CO2 + H2O

H2CO3

Removal
CO2 can be removed by adding NH4OH.
2NH4OH + CO2

(NH4) CO3 +H2O

Dissolved MgCl2
Salts like MgCl2, CaCl2 undergo hydrolysis at higher temperature to give HCl which corrodes the
boiler.

MgCl2 + 2H2O

Mg (OH) 2 + 2HCl

Fe + 2HCl

FeCl2 + H2

FeCl2 + 2H2O

Fe (OH)2 + 2HCl

Removal of acids
Corrosion by acids can be avoided by the addition of alkali to the boiler water.
HCl + NaOH

NaCl + H2O

SOFTENING METHODS
The process of hardness producing salts from water is known as softening or conditioning of
water.
Softening can be done in two methods
1. External conditioning
2. Internal conditioning
EXTERNAL CONDITIONING
It involves the removal of hardness producing salts from water before feeding into boiler. The
external treatment can be done by Ion exchange process.
ION EXCHANGE OR DEMINERALISATION PROCESS
This process removes almost all ions present in the hard water. The process is carried out by
using ion exchange resins, which are long chain, cross linked, insoluble organic polymers with a
micro porous structure. The functional groups attached to the chains are responsible for the ion
exchanging properties.
Cation exchanger
Resins containing acidic functional groups (-COOH, -SO3H) are capable of exchanging their H+
ions with other cations of hard water. It is represented as RH2
Ex: sulphonated coals, sulphonated polystyrene.
Anion exchanger
Resins containing basic functional groups (-NH2, -OH) are capable of exchanging their anions
with other anions of hard water. It is represented as R (OH) 2

Ex: cross linked quaternary ammonium salts, Urea formaldehyde resin

PROCESS
The hard water first passed through a cation exchanger column which absorbs all the cations like
Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ & K+ present in the hard water.
RH2 + CaCl2
RH2 + MgSO4

RCa + 2HCl
RMg + H2SO4

The cation free water is then passed through a anion exchange column which absorbs all the
anions like Cl-, SO42- present in the water.
R (OH) 2 + 2HCl
R (OH) 2 + H2SO4

RCl2 + 2H2O
RSO4+ 2H2O

The water coming out of the anion exchange is completely free from cations & anions.
Regeneration
When the cation exchange resin is exhausted it can be regenerated by passing dil. HCl.
RCa + 2HCl

RH2 + CaCl2

the anion exchange resin can be regenerated by passing dil. NaOH


RCl2 +2NaOH

R (OH) 2 + 2NaCl

Advantages
1. Highly acidic or alkaline water can be treated
2. The water will have very low hardness (nearly 2 ppm)
Disadvantages
1. Water containing turbidity, Fe and Mn cannot be treated.
2. The equipment is costly & more expensive chemicals are needed.

INTERNAL CONDITIONING OR BOILER COMPOUNDS

It involves the removal of scale forming substance, which were not removed in the external
treatment, by adding chemicals directly into the boiler.

1. Carbonate conditioning
Scale formation can be avoided by adding Na2CO3 to the boiler water. CaSO4 is converted into
CaCO3 which can be removed easily.
CaSO4 + Na2CO3

CaCO3 +Na2SO4

2. Phosphate conditioning
Scale formation can be avoided by adding sodium phosphate. The phosphate reacts with Ca2+ &
Mg2+ salts to give soft sludges of Ca & Mg phosphates.
3CaSO4 + 2Na3PO4

Ca3 (PO4)2 + 3Na2SO4

3. Calgon conditioning
Calgon is sodium hexa Meta phosphate Na2 (Na4 (PO3)6). This salt interacts with Ca ions forming
a highly soluble complex & prevents the precipitation of scale forming salt.
2CaSO4 + Na2 (Na4 (PO3)6)

Na2 (Ca2 (PO3)6) + 2Na2SO4

DESALINATION
The process of removing common salt from water is known as desalination. Depending upon the
quantity of dissolved solids, water is graded as
(i)Fresh water _ contains < 1000 ppm of dissolved solids
(ii)Brackish water _ contains > 1000 but < 35000 ppm of dissolved solids
(iii)Sea water _ contains >35000 ppm of dissolved solids
Desalination can be carried out either by reverse osmosis or electro dialysis.
REVERSE OSMOSIS
When two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semi permeable membrane,
solvent flows from a region of lower concentration to higher concentration. This process is called
osmosis & the driving force is called osmotic pressure.

If hydrostatic pressure in excess of osmotic pressure is applied on the higher concentration side,
the solvent flows from higher concentration to lower concentration. Thus in the process of
reverse osmosis pure water is separated from salt water. The membranes used are cellulose
acetate, cellulose butyrate etc.
Advantages
(i)The life time of the membrane is high, & it can be replaced within few minutes.
(ii)It removes ionic as well as non- ionic, colloidal impurities.
(iii)Due to low capital cost, simplicity, low operating, this process is used for converting sea
water into drinking water.