You are on page 1of 28

Urban design lecture 8

URBAN DESIGN IV

Lecture 08: Urbanization & City Growth

Lawrence Ogunsanya
lawrencesanya@yahoo.com
ogunsanya@ukzn.ac.za

INTRODUCTION & DEFINITION:


URBANIZATION
Urbanization is a process that leads to the growth of
cities due to industrialization and economic
development, and that leads to urban- specific changes
in specialization, labour division and human behaviours.
The population is growing at the rate of about 17 million
annually which means a staggering 45,000 births per
day and 31 births per minutes.
Industrialization is a process that extensively uses
inanimate sources of energy to enhance human
productivity.
Following industrialization, surpluses increased in both
agriculture and industry. Larger and larger proportions of
a population live in cities. Economic forces are such, that
cities become the ideal places to locate factories and
their workers.

INTRODUCTION & DEFINITION:


URBANIZATION
Urbanization refers to the proportion of people in living
in cities.
It also refers to the process in which rural populations
move to urban areas.
Urbanization refers to all of the cities in a country,
considered as an urban system.
Implies better facilities, development, economy, health,
education, comfort.
The urban system is the network of individual cities
within a region or country.

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT


URBANIZATION
Currently more than 3.3 billion people live in towns and cities ,
the number is expected to grow to 5 billion by 2030. Over 80
percent of this growth will accrue to Asia and Africa ,
In 1800 only about 2 percent of the world's population lived in
urban areas. In only 200 years, the world's urban population
has grown from 2 percent to nearly 50 percent of all people.
The population of Chicago increased from 15 people to about
20 million, within a span of 78 years.
Almost 180,000 people are added to the urban population each
day
By 2030, it is expected that 60% of the world population will live
in urban areas.

The World At Night

URBANIZATION

Urbanization in MDCs and LDCs


More Developed Countries:
MDCs
Slow pre-industrial growth
Rapid industrial growth
Slows again once most
previously rural populations
are in cities
Europe, North America,
Australia and Japan, the
population is 75% to 80%
urban.
Canada is 80% urbanized.

Less Developed Countries:


LDCs
Rapid urbanization without
proportional industrialization
(population growth, land
tenure)
By 2020 majority of LDC
population will live in urban
areas of 1 million+
By 2020 most megacities of
10 million+ will be in LDCs

Urban Growth is Speeding Up

Time required to reach 2 million population:


Rome, Italy
Vienna, Austria
Vancouver, B.C.
Shenzhen, China

2000 years
400 years
115 years
20 years

URBANIZATION: Before & After

New York city, USA: 1876-2015

URBANIZATION: Before & After

URBANIZATION: Before & After

Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia. 19902014

URBANIZATION: Before & After

Toronto, Canada,
1930-2014

URBANIZATION: Before & After

Fortaleza, Brazil,
1975-2011

Share of World Population Growth Urban and


Rural Areas LDCs and MDCs 1950 to 2025

Over the next quarter century, increases in urbanization will be almost entirely attributable to
sub-Saharan Africa and Asia

Urbanization in Less developed countries

Source: Marshall, J. 2005

Urbanization in Less developed countries

Source: Marshall, J. 2005

Urbanization in Less developed countries

URBANIZATION

CAUSES OF URBANIZATION

The urban system of a country grows mainly by:


1. Natural population increase (births deaths)
2. Migration from rural areas (especially in countries with
large rural populations)
3. Immigration from other countries (especially in Europe and
North America)
4. Reclassification of urban boundaries to encompass
formerly rural areas
5. Economic growth
6. Emergence of large manufacturing centres/Industrialisation
7. Job Opportunities
8. Availability of easy transportation
9. Demand of More Living Space
10. Lack of Proper Planning Policies

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION

Urbanization affects a range of economic, political,


social, cultural and environmental factors:
Impact on atmosphere and climate
Creation of heat island.
Change in air quality.
Change in patterns and precipitation.
Firstly, dark surfaces such as roadways and rooftops
efficiently absorb heat from sunlight and reradiate it as
thermal infrared radiation; these temperatures are higher
than surrounding air.
Second, urban areas are relatively devoid of vegetation,
especially trees; that would provide shade and cool the air
through evapotranspiration.

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION

Impact on lithosphere and land resources


Erosion and other changes in land quality.
Pollution
Impact on hydrosphere and water resources
Flow of Water into Streams.
Flow of Water through Streams.
Degraded Water Quality.
Impact on biosphere
Modification of Habitats.
Destruction of Habitats.
Creation of New Habitats

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION
Public health issues resulting from contaminated water
and air and the spread communicable diseases due to
overcrowding.
Unemployment and under employment
Severe shortage of housing
Transportation-commuting issues, lack of public
transport, no adequate investment
Social effects - poverty, lack of opportunities,
psychological problems, alcoholism, drugs, crime,
violence and other deviant behaviors
Inflated Infrastructure and Public Service Costs
Disparity in Wealth and unequal development

RESOLUTIONS TO THE IMPACTS OF


URBANIZATION

Inner-city renewal and redevelopment.


The planning of new towns.
Rural development
Proper connectivity of environmental law and its application
to the civic society.
Reduce personal traffic and make public transport popular.
Introduce Greener and efficient concepts and strategies for
all the activities in urban areas.
Provision of urban services, infrastructure and utility of
quality
An efficient and sustainable urban development
An integrated and efficient urban transportation system
Provision and support for environmentally safe and costeffective technologies.

BENEFITS OF URBANIZATION
Benefits include reduced transport costs, exchange
of ideas, and sharing of natural resources.
Cities act as beacons for the rural population
because they represent a higher standard of living
Cities offer opportunities to people not available in
the countryside
Social & Religious taboos/ sanctions disappearing
Industrialization, Education, Legislation,
Secularization-sequence of development
Diffusion of urban culture to rural areas
Improvement in economy &Growth of commercial
activities
Social & cultural integration

Questions