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TRAINING COMPOSITE STEEL-CONCRETE MODELER + RM - AASHTO

RM Bridge V8i
October 2010

RM Bridge Professional Engineering Software for Bridges of all Types

RM Bridge
TRAINING COMPOSITE STEEL-CONCRETE -MODELER + RM - AASHTO

Contents
1

General ......................................................................................................................... 1-1


1.1

Introduction.......................................................................................................... 1-1

1.2

General Remarks ................................................................................................. 1-1

1.3

Example ............................................................................................................... 1-2

Input Modeler ............................................................................................................ 2-1


2.1

Axis Definition .................................................................................................... 2-1

2.2

Cross-Section definition ...................................................................................... 2-1

2.2.1 Cross-Section Geometry .................................................................................. 2-1


2.2.2 Cross-Section Part Allocation.......................................................................... 2-2
2.2.3 Reference Set Definition.................................................................................. 2-5

2.3

Segment Definition .............................................................................................. 2-6

2.4

Export to RM ..................................................................................................... 2-10

Input RM...................................................................................................................... 3-1


3.1

Introduction.......................................................................................................... 3-1

3.2

Shear Studs .......................................................................................................... 3-1

3.3

Load Input ............................................................................................................ 3-3

3.4

Construction Stages ............................................................................................. 3-5

3.4.1 Activation ........................................................................................................ 3-5


3.4.2 Calculation Actions ......................................................................................... 3-6
3.5

Post-Processing .................................................................................................... 3-6

3.6

Cracked Tensile Zone ........................................................................................ 3-11

3.6.1 General ........................................................................................................... 3-11


3.6.2 No Tension Elements ..................................................................................... 3-12

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II

3.6.3 Reload Option ................................................................................................ 3-13

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1-1

1 General
1.1 Introduction
This document was prepared with the intention to demonstrate the procedures and
principles implemented in RM for the analysis and the design of composite bridge
structures. A simple example of a composite two-span beam will be used for this purpose.
The present document is based on the assumption that the reader has a basic understanding
of the software. Only input procedures specific for the purpose of explaining the input of
composite structures will be explained in detail.

1.2 General Remarks


A composite structure in the context of RM is any structure with cross-sections composed
of multiple parts. Each part can be made from an individual material and can be activated at
an individual time. Therefore, the definition is quite general and includes for example steel
I-beams or troughs with concrete slabs, pre-cast concrete beams with cast-in-place concrete
slabs, etc.
The concept for the analysis of composite structures in RM is based on the assumption that
partial elements are combined to form composite elements. Each part of the composite
element (steel girder, concrete slab etc.) has to be defined as a separate partial element, and
the related cross-section parts have to be assigned to the start and endpoints of these
elements. A separate composite element has to be defined for every combination of partial
elements. The composite cross-section of these elements is automatically created by
combining the cross-sections of the partial elements (Figure 1). For the composite crosssection a reference material (ER) must be given with which an equivalent stiffness can be
computed.

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E2 A2

1-2

part2 = concrete slab


part1 = steel I-beam

E1 A1

part3 = composite
beam (= parts 1+2)
E A E2 A2
A3 1 1
ER
Figure 1. Composite beam consisting of three cross-section parts.

1.3 Example
Consider the two-span continuous beam documented in Figure 2. Structural system for the
given example. It will be assumed that the steel I-girder is erected in a first construction
step. Self weight of the steel girder and the weight of the wet concrete slab are applied on
the steel girder. Once the concrete has hardened composite action can be activated. An
additional dead load of 5kN/m is then applied on the resulting composite system to finalise
the construction stages. All permanent loads up to this stage will be accumulated in load
case LC1000. Additionally, a simple traffic load of a centrally positioned concentrated load
will be applied. The traffic load is not intended to be in accordance with the AASHTO
code. Results for the traffic loading will be stored in a superposition file called Traffic.sup.
The node and element numbering scheme for this example is given in Table 1.
2.4m
0.5m
0.4m
30mm
20mm

0.8m
100mm

15m

15m

0.7m
cross-section

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1-3

Figure 2. Structural system for the given example.

Table 1: Structural system for the given example

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Component

Element #

Node #

Steel I-beam

101-130

101

Concrete slab

201-230

101

Composite beam

301-330

101

Support springs

1101, 1201, 1301

101, 116, 131

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2-1

2 Input Modeler
2.1 Axis Definition
No specific requirements exist for the definition of the axis for the given
structure. The usual procedures to define a straight axis of 30m length in
plan and elevation view can be performed. The axis will be stored under
the name axis1.

2.2 Cross-Section definition


2.2.1 Cross-Section Geometry
The cross-section as shown in Figure 2. Structural system for the given example. will be
defined in the following steps. A cross-section object called cross1 needs to be created.

Parallel lines at 0.4, 0.43,


1.1, 1.2 meters.

As with all other crosssection types, the input of


a composite cross-section
is based on construction
lines. The construction
lines shown beside need to
be generated for this
example.

Parallel lines at 0.01, 0.25, 0.35, 1.2


meters in both directions.

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2-2

Cross-section elements can


now be defined as shown
beside.

2.2.2 Cross-Section Part Allocation


Each element must now be assigned to the correct cross-section part number. In the present
example the steel component will be part 1, the concrete component will be part 2 and the
composite section will be part 3.

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2-3

Cross-section parts are managed through the parts


management window at the bottom of the screen. By
clicking the little arrow next to Part: 1 the parts
management window can be accessed. Part 1 is added
automatically when a cross-section is started. Additional
parts can be added by editing this list in the usual way.
For every new part a reference point must be specified.
This reference point later becomes the structural node for
the element series for this particular part. Very often the
reference point for all parts forming a composite beam will
coincide (In this example part 1, 2 and 3 are on the top of
the concrete slab).
For the present example three parts need to be initialised.
Part 3 must be defined as the composite part consisting of
parts 1 and 2. The definition of the composite part can be
activated by editing part 3 in the parts management
window and selecting parts 1 and 2 as the composite parts
from the drop down menus.
After entering the described definitions part 2 should be
activated in the parts management window.

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2-4

After pressing the assign element to active part button shown on the left,
individual elements can be assigned to the active part. The active part is
displayed in the small parts window at the bottom of the screen and should be
2 in the present situation. Clicking into an element changes the part number
to the active part number.
All elements of
the concrete
slab should now
be assigned to
part 2 by
clicking near
the position of
the part
number. It is
assigned to part
2 when there is
a 2 in the
middle of the
element.

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2-5

2.2.3 Reference Set Definition


Various points in the cross-section need to be
identified for later use. These points must be
collected in so-called reference sets. For the
given example three reference sets will be
generated: one reference set called connection
for a connection point identifying the location
of support conditions and two more reference
sets called ssig and csig for the identification of
stress points in the concrete and in the steel part
respectively.
The RefSet management window can be reached
by clicking on the little arrow next to the RefSet
window at the bottom of the screen. The RefSet
input screen is reached by adding a line to the
list. The input necessary to define the three
reference sets is shown to the left. Note that all
reference sets are associated with a particular
cross-section part. For this reason, the stress
check points do not need a material assigned.
When a material is assigned to a part, all stress
check points assigned to that part will assume
the material.

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csig_top
csig_mid
csig_bot

ssig_top
ssig_bot

2-6

The
icon can be used to define the desired
reference points. The connection point should
be defined at the bottom of the cross-section in
the centre of the steel flange. The stress points
should be placed on the bottom and top of parts
1 and 2 respectively and should be called
csig_top, csig_mid, csig_bot, ssig_top and
ssig_bot as shown in the picture beside. When
placing a stress point, make sure that the correct
Ref. set is active and displayed at the bottom of
the screen, and the correct part is active and
displayed at the bottom of the screen. Ssig is
for steel stress check points (part 1), and csig is
concrete stress check points (part 2).

2.3 Segment Definition


Double click on Segments in the menu tree to define a new segment. A new segment
called seg1 should be added here. Default settings are adequate for the purpose of the
present example.
For the present
example 31 segment
points with an
increment of 1
meter should be
defined. The crosssection should be
cross1 for all
segment points.
Element series can
now be defined for
each part by
clicking the circled
icon.

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2-7

Highlight part 1 in the segment point list, click the edit


icon and enter the information as shown to the left to
define the steel elements of the beam.

Highlight part 2 in the segment point list, click the edit


icon and enter the information as shown to the left to
define the concrete elements of the beam.

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2-8

Highlight part 3 in the segment point list, click the edit


icon and enter the information as shown to the left to
define the composite elements of the beam. Note that
concrete _C7ksi will be used as the reference material for
the composite section.

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2-9

The newly assigned


elements are now
also visualised in
the segment points
window. On the
connection tab the
three support
conditions can be
defined at segment
points 1, 16 and 31
(begin, midspan,
end). Highlight
point 1, and on the
Connections tab
select insert after,
then Spring-0.

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2-10

Use the following input values to define the three spring-0 elements:

2.4 Export to RM
This concludes the definition of the composite structural system using the
Modeler. The system is now complete and available for export to RM.

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3-1

3 Input RM
3.1 Introduction
Upon entering RM the structural system is displayed in the default view setting as shown in
Figure 3 a. After recalculating with a cross-section calculation and structure check, the
cross-section properties have been computed and the system can be displayed as shown in
Figure 3 b and c depending on the visualisation settings.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3. Structural system before and after recalc after export from GP.

3.2 Shear Studs


Special shear stud spring elements are available for composite cross-sections in RM (Figure
4). These shear stud elements must be defined as spring elements by the user connecting the
same structural nodes as the associated composite elements. Their number, by default, must
be the number of the elements formed by the first cross-section part plus 10000. In this
example, that means the first shear stud will have element number 101 + 10000 = 10101.
For these elements no other information needs to be defined; the warnings regarding the
missing spring stiffness during calculation can be ignored. These shear stud elements do not
contribute to the structural stiffness of the system. However, the change in normal force per
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3-2

length within this element is stored and can be accessed during post-processing. During
result superposition, results for these elements are added together as for the other structural
elements in the system, ensuring that the true minimum and maximum values for the shear
force are computed. For the present example spring elements 10101 to 10130 need to be
defined.

shear stud element (#10107)

M1

M2

#207
Nc,1

Ns,1

Nc,2

#107

Ns,2

composite element (#307)

Figure 4. Composite and shear stud elements with element numbers.

The spring elements modelling the shear studs can be input


under Structure Elements Element Types and Nodes.

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3-3

Select insert after in the window showing all other


elements already. The input defining the shear studs is
shown on left.

3.3 Load Input


Loading information will be defined in the next few input steps. Three load cases will be
defined: self weight of the steel girder (LC101a), weight of wet concrete (LC101b) and
additional dead load on the completed structure (LC201). Additionally a simple traffic load
will be defined. LC101a and LC101b will be accumulated in LC100 and LC1000 and
LC201 will also be added to LC1000 and LC200. The input sequence in the load manager
should produce a listing as shown below.

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3-4

The input for LC101a containing the


load information for self weight of
the steel girder is shown on the left.
The loading will be applied on
elements 101 to 130 which have
been assigned to the steel crosssection part. If Gamma is 0.0 RM
takes from the material table the
respective value for the unit weight
of the assigned material.

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The input for LC101b containing the load exerted


by the wet concrete slab onto the steel girder is
shown on the left. Note that the loading acts on
elements 101 to 130. Since the specific weight of
the concrete is 25kN/m3 and the cross-section
area of the concrete slab is 0.96m2 the load can be
computed at 24kN/m.
The input for LC201 containing the additional
dead load of 50kN on the composite structure is
shown on the left. Note that this load is applied
on elements 301 to 330 which is the element
series for the composite system.

In addition to the loads above, a traffic lane in the


centre of the composite beam (Macro1, elements
301 to 330) and a simple load train consisting of a
single concentrated load of 200kN needs to be
applied. Note that the Free length tick box must
be un-ticked for the load train definition.

3.4 Construction Stages


3.4.1 Activation
Four stages will be defined for this example. In the first stage elements 101 to 130 (steel
beam) and 1101, 1201 and 1301 (support springs) are activated. In the second stage
elements 201 to 230 (concrete slab), elements 301 to 330 (composite beam) and elements
10101 to 10130 (shear stud elements) should be activated. A traffic load evaluation will be
performed in the third stage and post-processing will be performed in stage four. No
elements need to be activated in stages three and four.

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3-6

3.4.2 Calculation Actions


stage1:

In stage 1 self weight of the


steel beam (LC101a) and
loading of the steel beam due to
the weight of the wet concrete
slab (LC101b) will be applied.
Some administrative actions
also need to be called in stage
one as is shown on the left.

stage 2:

In stage 2 additional dead load


(LC201) will be applied.

stage 3:

In stage 3 a simple traffic load


evaluation as shown on the left
should be defined.

3.5 Post-Processing
The existing example can now be calculated (Recalc). If no error messages or warnings
appear the calculation run has been successful and results are available for post-processing.
Depending on the particular situation it is necessary to obtain results either for the complete
composite section or for each part. In all post-processing situations within RM options can
be selected to facilitate the choice of result type. Options are usually named normal, joined,
split or joined/split. These options are only available for normal forces and bending
moments and have the following meaning:

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Normal. The results for the selected elements


and load cases will be displayed as they are
accumulated for each particular element.
Joined. The results will be displayed for the
selected composite cross-section. Results
components which have originally been
computed for parts of the cross-section will be
joined.
Split. The results will be displayed for the
selected cross-section part. Result components
which have originally been computed for the
full composite cross-section will be split as
shown in.
Joined/Split. The software determines which
option is used and suggests an appropriate
default.
Post-processing for this
training example will
be performed using
RmSets. In order to
define these RmSets
the RmSet management
window should be
opened (Properties
RmSets).
A first RmSet for the
visualisation of the
bending moment in the
steel girder due to
permanent loading
called steel_pl_Mz
should now be created.
By clicking on the Infobutton in the lower
table the contents of
this particular RmSet
can be defined in the
input screen shown in
Figure 5. Input screen
for RmSets below.

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Figure 5. Input screen for RmSets

element selection:

Bentley Systems

Elements associated with an


RmSet can be selected by
clicking on the circled Elements
and Nodes button in Figure 5.
With the help of this RmSet the
bending moments in the steel
girder due to permanent loading
will be visualised. Therefore
elements of a group - steel need
to be selected and added to the
list by pressing the insert
before button as shown on the
left.

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result file selection

3-9

The source of the results will be the


summation file for permanent load case
results LC1000. By clicking on the circled
Load Cases button in Figure 5. the input
screen for the specification of results in
this RmSet can be reached. Since
permanent loads act partly on the steel
girder only (LC101a and LC101b) and
partly on the complete composite system
(LC201) it must be specified that the result
components for the steel be only need to
be determined. This is specified by
clicking the split tick box as shown on the
left.
Finally, the result component needs to be
chosen, in this case, Mz. This newly
specified RmSet can be stored now for
later reference in the construction
schedule. An immediate check of its
functionality can be performed by clicking
the Plot diagram button.
Similar RmSets can now be created for
bending moments and normal forces in the
steel and concrete parts as well as in the
full composite section. For the composite
section the joined button must be ticked
since the accumulated results on the full
section will be of interest. The same can
be done for the traffic load envelope
traffic.sup. Stresses can also be plotted by
selecting the appropriate Stress points
after ticking the check box for Stress.
Results for the shear studs are obtained by
creating an RmSet for elements 10101 to
10130 and visualising the normal force.

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3-10

If all RmSets as outlined above are


generated then the list of available RmSets
should look like the list shown on the left.

stage 4:

Selected RmSets can now be used for


automatic post-processing in stage 4 of the
construction schedule as shown on the
left.

Alternatively, this output can be viewed


interactively in the Results-Plot-Rm Sets

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3-11

3.6 Cracked Tensile Zone


3.6.1 General
In the design of composite multi-span bridges the consideration of cracked tensile zones in
reinforced concrete components is an important issue. Several methods of taking cracked
concrete zones into account are implemented in RM:

Computation of the structural response using linear elastic theory and the full
composite cross-sections. Based on these results, redistribution of results can be
computed for each cross-section based on material properties.

Usage of a structural model without concrete components in tensile zones.

Modelling of the full composite structure and definition of the applicable material
properties for each of the components used. The material non-linearities can then be
taken into account when computing the structural response.

For this training example, the first option will be demonstrated. After redistribution of the
forces for the composite section, forces must be the same as before this operation whereas
the stress distribution in the individual components of the cross-section will be different.
While this method is elegant because it can be performed on a complete composite system
and can be based on a linear-elastic analysis it has a number of draw-backs that must be
carefully considered when applying this procedure:

The redistribution is only performed on a cross-section level and no repercussions


on the global stiffness of the structure are taken into account.

Redistribution of the result vector can be defined in a consistent manner only in


certain cases where the cross-section axes of each part and also of the composite
section are aligned with the global axis, where shear lag is not considered etc.

The additional stiffness provided by the reinforcement is not considered.

Shear stresses cannot be redistributed in this manner.

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3-12

3.6.2 No Tension Elements


In a first step the elements which
cannot receive tensile stresses must be
identified. This is done in the input
pad reached via Structure Element
Checks.

The concrete elements 201 to 230


need to be defined as no tension
elements.
In the implemented stress
redistribution procedure it is checked
whether tensile stresses are present in
the centre of gravity of these no
tension elements. If this is the case
then normal forces are redistributed to
other cross-section parts. The
redistribution is performed in such a
way that the joined result for the
composite cross-section remains the
same.

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3-13

3.6.3 Reload Option


The Reload action has been
implemented for the purpose of result
redistribution on a cross-section level.

stage 5

In a fifth construction stage the two


commands ReloadLc and ReloadSup
need to be inserted for the permanent
load summation load case LC1000
and the traffic load envelope
traffic.sup respectively. Plotting the
stresses for the centre of the concrete
part illustrates the effects of the
Reload action.(e.g. stress; csig_top)

Redistribution, no
tensil force

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