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Political Science
Unit- 2
Power Sharing
Q.1 Explain the prudential reason for power sharing?
Ans: Prudential reason for power sharing is related to
avoiding or at least to reduce the possibility of conflict
among various social groups. Since, conflict or tension
often leads to violence and political instability. Power
sharing is a way to ensure political stability. Imposing the
will of majority over minority may be good for a short
time, but in long run it affects the unity of the nation.
Q.2 Explain the moral reason for power sharing?
Ans: Power sharing is the spirit of democracy. A
democracy rule involves sharing of power with those
affected by its exercise and who have to live with its
effects. The basic principles of power sharing include
government of different political parties, protection of
minority rights and so n.
Q.3 Why power sharing is desirable?
Ans: Power sharing is desirable mainly
1. To avoid conflict:- It reduces the possibility of conflict
between the various social groups. Since, social conflict
often leads to violence and political instability, power
sharing is a good way to ensure political stability.
2. Spirit of democracy:- Power sharing is the basic spirit
of democracy. A democratic rule involves the sharing of
power with those affected by its exercise and those who
have to live with its effects.
Q.4 Explain Horizontal distribution of power?
Ans: Horizontal power sharing is shared among different
organs of government such as legislature, executive &
judiciary. The distribution of power among organs, which
are in same level, is mainly to deal with different
activities. This in turn will check on another and balance
their power.
Q.5 Explain Vertical distribution of power?
Ans: Vertical power sharing is shared among different
levels of the government. It involves highest level i.e.
central government, and lower level i.e. local
government, of government. In vertical power sharing the
lower organs work under the control and supervision of
higher organ.

Q.6 State one reason that federal government is better

than unitary government.
Ans: In Federal government, division of power is
practiced so as to avoid social conflict.
Q.7 State the two sets of reasons for power sharing.
Ans: (1). Prudential reason. (2). Moral reason.
Q.8 State one prudential reason and one moral reason for
power sharing.
Ans: Prudential reason: - Avoiding social conflict.
Moral reason: - Spirit of democracy.
Q.9 What is power sharing?
Ans:Power sharing is the process of division of power
among three organs and different levels groups etc.
Q.11 Which system or power sharing is called the check
and balance of power?
Ans: Horizontal Distribution of power.
Q.12 Give one example of power sharing among
different social groups.
Ans: Community government (Belgium).
Q.13 State three basic features of federalism.
Ans: 1). Two or more tiers of government.
2). Fundamental provision of the constitution cannot be
amended unilaterally.
3). The constitution lays down clearly the jurisdiction of
the respective levels of government
Q.14 Who interpret the constitution of India?
Ans:Courts interpret the constitution of India.
Q.15 What are the dual objectives of federalism?
Ans: 1). To safeguard and promote unity of the
2). To accommodate regional diversity.
Q.16 State two routes to the formation of a federation.
Ans: 1). Independent states coming together on their own
to form a bigger unit (USA, Australia).
2). Larger unit or country decides to divide its power
between national and state unit. (India, Belgium).
Q.17 State two measures to improve the working of
Panchayati Raj in Manipur?
Ans: 1). State government must transferred significant
power to the local government

2). State government must give adequate resources or

fund to work smoothly.

2). The bill so passed by parliament should be ratified by

the legislatures of atleast half of the states.

Q.18 State two reasons to show that Panchayati Raj

System helped in strengthening democracy at grass-root
Ans: 1). Panchayati Raj system created awareness
regarding the working of democracy at grass-root level
(village or lowest level).
2). This system created opportunities for gaining
experienced as leaders at grass-root level.

Q.26 What is the other name of Panchayati Raj?

Ans: Rural local government.

Q.19 Give one point of difference between Gram Sabha

and Gram Panchayat.
Ans: Gram sabha is the general body consisting of all
voters in the village while Gram Panchayat is a small
committee consisting of only elected members.
Q.20 State one function of state election commission
Ans: To conduct Panchayat and municipal elections.
Q.21 How many tier or level are there in Panchayat in
Manipur? Name them.
Ans: They are Village Panchayat/Gram Panchayat and
Zilla Parishad.
Q.22 Mention two items that includes in state list?
Ans: Police and Irrigation.
Q.23 What does Union list refers to.
Ans: It is sets of legislative power of union government
consisting of 97 items.
Q.24 State one advantage of decentralisation.
Ans: Decentralisation gives power to lower level of the
government (which are hitherto not available).
Q.25 State two condition for the amendment of the
basic structure of the constitution of India.
Ans: 1). Bill for such amendment should be first passed
by atleast two-third majority of both houses of

Q.27 What is decentralisation?

Ans: When some of the power and functions of the
central and state government are given to local
government then, it is called decentralisation.
Q.28 List three steps taken up by the government to
make third tier of government more powerful and
Ans: 1). Constitutionally mandatory to hold regular
elections to local government.
2). Reservation for ST, SC, OBC in the elected bodies
and executive heads of these institutions.
3). One-third of all seats are reserved for women.
Q.29 What are the key features of federalism?
Ans: 1. There are two or more level or tiers of
2. Same citizens are governed by different form of
government within its own jurisdiction.
3. Fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be
amended unilaterally.
4. Constitution of India clearly lay down the jurisdiction
of all respective levels of government.
5. Sources of revenue for each level of government are
clearly specified to ensure financial autonomy.
Q.30 Give a critical appreciation of the PRIs working at
the grass-root level of democracy.
Ans: Panchayati Raj Institution was constitutionalism in
1993. Now, there are about 36 lakhs representatives in
local government in India. However, many drawbacks
like inadequate resources, limited power, irregular
election etc. acts as great stumbling in realisation of
grass-root level decentralisation. Still PRIs plays a great
role in sharing of power.