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W-RF Optimization Operations Guide

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WCDMA RNP

For internal use only

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Total 55 pages
3.0

W-RF Optimization Operations Guide


(For internal use only)

Prepared by

He Fengming

Date

Reviewed by

Xie Zhibin, Jiao Anqiang,


Hua Yunlong, Hu
Wensong, Wan Liang, Ai
Hua, and Yan Lin

Date

He Fengming

Date

Reviewed by
Approved by

2006-01-18

2006-03-15

2006-03-15

Date

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


All Rights Reserved

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Revision Records
Date

Revised version

Description

Author

2004-12-05

1.00

Initial transmittal

Zhou Xinjie

2005-03-02

1.01

Revising it according to review

Zhou Xinjie

2006-01-18

3.0

Simplifying tasks of RF optimization,


enhancing operability, and adding
content based on KPI optimization

He Fengming

Replacing CQT method with indoor


test; Clarifying solution scale of
interference and access problems;
Deleting content of removing neighbor
cells; updating RF optimization flow
chat

He Fengming

Removing content of repeaters and


baseline; Adding optimization target
and method for SHO Factor based on
DT; updating partial cases; adding
cases for cluster division; Combining
blind coverage and coverage voids to
weak coverage; adding simple method
for removing neighbor cells

He Fengming

2006-02-27

2006-03-15

2006-01-18

3.01

3.02

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction to RF Optimization .................................................................................... 9
1.1 Contents of RF Optimization ................................................................................................. 9
1.2 Document Structure ............................................................................................................... 9
Chapter 2 Basic Processes for RF Optimization ......................................................................... 10
2.1 Flow Chat of RF Optimization ............................................................................................. 10
2.2 Detailed Sections of RF Optimization .................................................................................. 11
2.2.1 Test Preparations ...................................................................................................... 11
2.2.2 Data Collection .......................................................................................................... 12
2.2.3 Problem Analysis ...................................................................................................... 12
Chapter 3 Test Preparations .......................................................................................................... 13
3.1 Deciding Optimization Goal ................................................................................................. 13
3.2 Dividing Clusters .................................................................................................................. 14
3.3 Deciding Test Route ............................................................................................................ 15
3.4 Preparing Tools and Data ................................................................................................... 15
3.4.1 Preparing Software ................................................................................................... 15
3.4.2 Preparing Hardware .................................................................................................. 15
3.4.3 Preparing Data .......................................................................................................... 16
Chapter 4 Data Collection .............................................................................................................. 17
4.1 Drive Test ............................................................................................................................ 17
4.1.1 DT Types ................................................................................................................... 17
4.1.2 Setting DT Indexes ................................................................................................... 17
4.2 Indoor Test .......................................................................................................................... 18
4.3 Collecting RNC Configuration Data ..................................................................................... 19
Chapter 5 Coverage Problem Analysis ......................................................................................... 20
5.1 Coverage Problem Types .................................................................................................... 20
5.1.1 Weak coverage ......................................................................................................... 20
5.1.2 Cross-cell Coverage ................................................................................................. 21
5.1.3 Unbalanced Uplink and Downlink ............................................................................. 21
5.1.4 No Primary Pilot ........................................................................................................ 22
5.2 Coverage Analysis Processes ............................................................................................. 22
5.2.1 Downlink Coverage Analysis .................................................................................... 22
5.2.2 Uplink Coverage Analysis ......................................................................................... 25
5.3 Coverage Problem Cases ................................................................................................... 26
5.3.1 Weak Coverage Cases Due to Improper Engineering Parameters .......................... 26
5.3.2 Cross-cell Coverage Due to Improper NodeB Location ........................................... 27
5.3.3 Coverage Restriction Due to Improper Installation of Antennas .............................. 29
Chapter 6 Pilot Pollution Problem Analysis ................................................................................. 31
6.1 Pilot Pollution Definition and Judgment Standards ............................................................. 31
6.1.1 Definition ................................................................................................................... 31
6.1.2 Judgment Standards ................................................................................................. 31
6.2 Causes and Influence Analysis ........................................................................................... 31
6.2.1 Causes Analysis ....................................................................................................... 31
6.2.2 Influence Analysis ..................................................................................................... 33
6.3 Solutions to Pilot Pollution ................................................................................................... 33
6.3.1 Antenna Adjustment.................................................................................................. 33
6.3.2 PICH Power Adjustment ........................................................................................... 35
6.3.3 Using RRU or Micro Cells ......................................................................................... 35
6.4 Process for Analyzing Pilot Pollution Problem .................................................................... 37
6.5 Optimization Cases for Eliminating Pilot Pollution .............................................................. 37
6.5.1 Data Analysis before Optimization ............................................................................ 37
6.5.2 Data Analysis after Optimization ............................................................................... 42
Chapter 7 Handover Problem Analysis ......................................................................................... 45
7.1 Neighbor Cell Optimization .................................................................................................. 45
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7.1.1 DT Data Analysis ...................................................................................................... 45


7.1.2 Removing Redundant Neighbor Cells ...................................................................... 49
7.2 SHO Factor based on DT Analysis ..................................................................................... 50
7.2.1 Definition of SHO Factor based on DT ..................................................................... 50
7.2.2 General Principles and Methods in Optimization ...................................................... 50
Chapter 8 Adjustment Methods ..................................................................................................... 52
Chapter 9 Summary ........................................................................................................................ 53
Chapter 10 Appendix: Coverage Enhancement Technologies .................................................. 54
10.1 Coverage-enhancing Technologies ................................................................................... 54
10.1.1 TMAs ....................................................................................................................... 54
10.1.2 Receive and Transmit Diversity .............................................................................. 54
10.1.3 RRU ........................................................................................................................ 54
10.1.4 Micro Cells .............................................................................................................. 54

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List of Tables
Table 3-1 List of RF optimization goals ............................................................................................ 13
Table 3-2 Recommended software for RF optimization................................................................... 15
Table 3-3 Recommended hardware for RF optimization ................................................................. 15
Table 3-4 Data to be collected before optimization .......................................................................... 16
Table 4-1 Configured parameters to be checked ............................................................................. 19

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List of Figures
Figure 2-1 RF optimization flow chat ................................................................................................ 11
Figure 3-1 Divided clusters in a project ............................................................................................ 14
Figure 4-1 Setting DT ....................................................................................................................... 18
Figure 5-1 RSCP for 1st Best ServiceCell ........................................................................................ 23
Figure 5-2 Distribution of pilot SC for the 1st Best ServiceCell ........................................................ 24
Figure 5-3 Analyzing comparison of UE and scanner coverage ...................................................... 24
Figure 5-4 Distribution of UE transmit power ................................................................................... 26
Figure 5-5 Coverage near Xiajiao Sugar Plant (before optimization) .............................................. 26
Figure 5-6 Coverage near Xiajiao Sugar Plant (after optimization).................................................. 27
Figure 5-7 Cross-cell coverage before optimization ......................................................................... 28
Figure 5-8 Few cross-cell coverage areas after optimization ........................................................... 28
Figure 5-9 Coverage restriction due to antenna blocked by roof ..................................................... 29
Figure 5-10 Optimizing antennas by adjusting feeders .................................................................... 30
Figure 6-1 Pilot pollution due to improper antenna azimuth............................................................. 34
Figure 6-2 Pilot pollution due to improper antenna down tilt ............................................................ 34
Figure 6-3 Pilot pollution due to improper distribution of cells.......................................................... 35
Figure 6-4 Pilot pollution due to ambient factors .............................................................................. 36
Figure 6-5 Survey photo of each cell related to pilot pollution ......................................................... 36
Figure 6-6 Pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd. ........................................................................................ 38
Figure 6-7 Best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. ................................................................................... 38
Figure 6-8 The 2nd best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. ..................................................................... 39
Figure 6-9 The 3rd best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. ...................................................................... 39
Figure 6-10 The 4th best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd...................................................................... 40
Figure 6-11 Composition of pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd. .............................................................. 40
Figure 6-12 RSSI near Yuxing Rd. ................................................................................................... 41
Figure 6-13 RSCP of Best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. .................................................................. 41
Figure 6-14 RSCP of SC270 cell near Yuxing Rd. ........................................................................... 42
Figure 6-15 Pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd. after optimization .......................................................... 42
Figure 6-16 Best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. after optimization ..................................................... 43
Figure 6-17 RSCP of best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. after optimization ...................................... 43
Figure 6-18 RSCP of SC270 cell near Yuxing Rd. after optimization ............................................... 43
Figure 7-1 Changing conditions for judging neighbor cells .............................................................. 46
Figure 7-2 Generating neighbor cell analysis report by using Assistant .......................................... 47
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Figure 7-3 Result of missing neighbor cells ..................................................................................... 47


Figure 7-4 Variation of active set Ec/Io recorded by UE before call drop ........................................ 48
Figure 7-5 Variation of active set Ec/Io recorded by scanner before call drop ................................. 49
Figure 7-6 RSCP for candidate of 4th Best ServiceCell ................................................................... 51

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W-RF Optimization Operations Guide


Key words: WCDMA, network optimization, and RF optimization
Abstract: This document describes tasks to be completed during RF optimization stage in WCDMA
network optimization. The tasks include RF optimization goal, flow, procedure, input and
output, and precautions concerning RF optimization.

Acronyms and abbreviations:


Acronyms and abbreviations

Full spelling

CPICH

Common Pilot Channel

DT

Drive Test

KPI

Key Performance Indicator

MML

Man Machine Language

OCNS

Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator

OMC

Operation and Maintenance Center

PS

Packet-Switched domain

RF

Radio Frequency

RNC

Radio Network Controller

RSCP

Received Signal Code Power

RTWP

Received Total Wideband Power

VIC

Very Important Cell

VIP

Very Important People

VP

Video Phone

RNO

Radio Network Planning

TMA

Tower Mounted Amplifier

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Chapter 1 Introduction to RF Optimization


During RF optimization stage, as one of RNO, you optimize radio frequency (RF) signals.
This aims to control pilot pollution and SHO Factor based on DT in optimizing signal
coverage, so that the distribution of radio signals is normal in next service parameters
optimization stage.

1.1 Contents of RF Optimization


RF optimization includes the following aspects:

Pilot signal coverage optimization


It includes the following two parts:
Weak coverage optimization for ensuring seamless coverage by pilot signals in
the network
Primary pilot cell optimization for ensuring proper coverage areas by each
primary pilot cell, clear edge of primary pilot cells, and that alternation of
primary pilot cells is reduced as possible.
Pilot pollution optimization
Pilot pollution refers to that excessive pilots of approximately equivalent strength
cover an area without a primary pilot. Pilot pollution might cause increasing of
downlink interference, call drop due to frequent handover, low network capacity. The
problems must be solved by adjusting engineering parameters.
Handover optimization
It consists of two parts:
Checking missing neighbor cells, verifying and perfecting list of neighbor cells,
solving handover, call drop, and downlink interference problems.
Ensuring proper SHO Factor based on DT by adjusting engineering parameters
properly.

1.2 Document Structure


This documents consists of the following chapters:

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Chapter 1 Introduction to RF Optimization


Chapter 2 Basic Processes for RF Optimization
Chapter 3 Test Preparations
Chapter 4 Data Collection
Chapter 5 Coverage Problem Analysis
Chapter 6 Pilot Pollution Problem Analysis
Chapter 7 Handover Problem Analysis
Chapter 8 Adjustment Methods
Chapter 9 Summary
Chapter 10 Appendix

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Chapter 2 Basic Processes for RF Optimization


Once all the sites are installed and verification is complete, RF optimization starts. In
some situations for a tight schedule, RF optimization might start after the construction of
partial sites is complete. RF optimization is usually performed after 80% of total sites in a
cluster are constructed.
RF optimization stage is one major stage of RNO. It aims at the following aspects:

Optimizing signal coverage


Control pilot pollution
Control SHO Factor based on DT

RF optimization also involves optimizing list of neighbor cells.


When the indexes like DT and traffic measurement after RF adjustment meets KPI
requirements, RF optimization stage ends. Otherwise you must reanalyze data and
adjust parameters repeatedly until all KPI requirements are met. After RF optimization,
RNO comes to parameter optimization stage.

2.1 Flow Chat of RF Optimization


RF optimization includes the following four parts:

Test preparations
Data collection
Problem analysis
Parameter adjustment

Figure 2-1 shows the RF optimization flow chat.

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Figure 2-1 RF optimization flow chat


In Figure 2-1, the data collection, problem analysis, and parameter adjustment might be
repeatedly performed according to optimization goal and actual on-site situations until RF
indexes meet KPI requirements.

2.2 Detailed Sections of RF Optimization


2.2.1 Test Preparations
During test preparations, proceed as below:
1)

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Decide KPI goals for optimization according to the contract

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2)
3)

For internal use only

Divide clusters properly and decide test route with the operator
The KPI test acceptance route is especially important.
Prepare tools and materials for RF optimization
This ensures smooth RF optimization.

2.2.2 Data Collection


Collect the following data:

UE and scanner data


Collect UE and scanner data by the following methods:
DT
Indoor test
Signaling tracing
Call data tracing at RNC side
Configuration data
The configuration data and the call data tracing help to locate problems.

Data collection is a precondition for problem analysis.

2.2.3 Problem Analysis


You can locate problems by analyzing collected data. After analyzing coverage problems,
pilot pollution problems, and handover problems, provide corresponding adjustment
solutions. After adjustment, test the adjustment result. If the test result cannot meet KPI
requirements, reanalyze problems and readjust parameters until all KPI requirements are
met.
Due to weak coverage, pilot pollution, and missing neighbor cells, the following problems
are related to location:

Downlink interference
Access problems
Call drop problems

The previous problems occur regularly. You can solve them by repeated optimization.
If the coverage is good, pilot pollution and missing neighbor cells are not present, the
access and call drop problems need to be solved during parameter optimization stage.
You can refer to corresponding guidebooks. The period for solving uplink interference
problems (RTWP is over high but no high traffic matches it) is long, even as long as the
RF optimization ends. For solutions, see WCDMA Interference Solution Guide.
Output an updated list of engineering parameters and list of cell parameters after RF
optimization. The list of engineering parameters reflects adjustment of engineering
parameters (such as down tilt and azimuth) during RF optimization stage. The list of cell
parameters reflects the adjustment of cell parameters (such as neighbor cell
configuration) during RF optimization stage.

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Chapter 3 Test Preparations


Test preparations include the following four aspects:

Deciding optimization goal


Dividing clusters
Deciding DT route
Preparing tools and data

3.1 Deciding Optimization Goal


The key of RF optimization is to solve problems as below:

Weak coverage
Pilot pollution
High SHO Factor based on DT

Actually, different operators might have different standards on KPI requirements, index
definition, and attention. Therefore the RF optimization goal is to meet the coverage and
handover KPI requirements in the contract (commercial deployment offices) or planning
report (trial offices).
Define the indexes as required by contract as below:
The index definition is the percentage ratio of the sampling points with the index (such as
CPICH Ec/Io) greater than the reference value in all sampling points.
Table 3-1 lists the indexes and corresponding reference values that the network should
satisfy after RF optimization.
Table 3-1 List of RF optimization goals
Index

Reference

Remarks
Test on the acceptance route

Coverage rate

95%

The planned continuous coverage


service:

CPICH Ec/Io 12 dB
CPICH RSCP 95 dBm

CPICH Ec/Io 12dB

95%

Test result by scanner in outdoor


unloaded conditions

CPICH RSCP 95dBm

95%

Test result by scanner in outdoor


unloaded conditions

SHO Factor based on DT

30%40%

Pilot pollution ratio

5%

The SHO Factor based on DT should


be 5% to 10% lower than the goal,
because the following optimizations
cause the soft handover factor to
increase

Table 3-1 provides reference values. The indexes and reference values might be different
for different projects. They depend on the contract.
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3.2 Dividing Clusters


According to the features of UMTS technologies, the coverage and capacity are
interactional and the frequency reuse factor is 1. Therefore RF optimization must be
performed on a group of or a cluster of NodeBs at the same time instead of performing
RF optimization on single site one by one. This ensures that interference from
intra-frequency neighbor cells are considered during optimization. Analyze the impact of
the adjustment of an index on other sites before adjustment.
Dividing clusters involves approval by the operator. The following factors must be
considered upon dividing clusters:

According to experiences, the number of NodeBs in a cluster depends on the actual


situation. 1525 NodeBs in a cluster is recommended. Too many or few NodeBs in
a cluster is improper.
A cluster must not cover different areas of test (planning) full coverage services.
Refer to the divided clusters for network project maintenance of the operator.
Landform factor
Landforms affect signal propagation. Mountains block signal propagation, so they
are natural borders for dividing clusters. Rivers causes a longer propagation
distance, so they affect dividing clusters in various aspects. If a river is narrow, the
signals along two banks will interact. If the transportation between two banks allows,
divide sites along the two banks in the same cluster. If a river is wide, the upstream
and downstream will interact. In this situation, the transportation between two banks
is inconvenient, dividing clusters by the bank according to actual situation.
A cell-like cluster is much usual than a strip-like cluster.
Administrative areas
When the coverage area involves several administrative areas, divide clusters
according to administrative areas. This is easily acceptable by the operator.
DT workload
The DT must be performed within a day for a cluster. A DT takes about four hours.

Table 3-1 shows divided clusters in a project.

Figure 3-1 Divided clusters in a project


In Table 3-1:

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JB03 and JB04 belongs to dense urban areas.


JB01 belongs to express way areas.
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JB02, JB05, JB06, and JB07 belong to urban areas.


JB08 belongs to suburban area.
The number of NodeBs in a cluster is 1822.

3.3 Deciding Test Route


Confirm the KPI DT acceptance route with the operator before DT. If the operator already
has a decided DT acceptance route, you must consider this upon deciding the KPI DT
acceptance route. If the objective factors like network layout cannot fully meet the
coverage requirements of decided test route by the operator, you must point this out.
The KPI DT acceptance route is the core route of RF optimization test routes. Its
optimization is the core of RF optimization. The following tasks, such as parameter
optimization and acceptance, is based on KPI DT acceptance route. The KPI DT
acceptance route must cover major streets, important location, VIP, and VIC. The DT
route should cover all cells as possible. The initial test and final test must cover all cells.
If time is enough, cover all streets in the planned area. Use the same DT route in every
test to compare performances more accurately. Round-trip DT is performed if possible.
Consider actual factors like lanes and left-turn restriction while deciding test route. Before
negotiating with the operator, communicate these factors with local drivers for whether
the route is acceptable.

3.4 Preparing Tools and Data


Prepare necessary software (listed in Table 3-2), hardware (listed in Table 3-3), and
various data (listed in Table 3-4), because the following test and analysis are based on
them.

3.4.1 Preparing Software


Table 3-2 lists the recommended software for RF optimization
Table 3-2 Recommended software for RF optimization
No.

Software

Function

Remarks

Genex Probe

DT

Genex Assistant

Analyzing DT data and checking neighbor


cells

Genex Nastar

Analyzing performance, checking health,


and locating problems

Mapinfo

Displaying maps and generating route data

3.4.2 Preparing Hardware


Table 3-3 lists the recommended hardware for RF optimization
Table 3-3 Recommended hardware for RF optimization
No.
1
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Device
Scanner

Specification
DTI Scanner

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Remarks

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Test terminal and


data line

U626, Qualcomm, and so on

At least two test


terminals

Laptop computer

PM1.3G/512M/20G/USB/COM/PRN

Vehicle mounted
inverter

DC to AC, over 300W

3.4.3 Preparing Data


Table 3-4 lists the data to be collected before optimization
Table 3-4 Data to be collected before optimization
No.

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Needed data

Whether is
necessary

Remarks

List of engineering parameters

Yes

Map

Yes

By Mapinfo or in paper

KPI requirements

Yes

Network configuration parameters

Yes

Survey report

No

Single site verification checklist

No

Floor plan of the target buildings

Yes

For indoor test

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Chapter 4 Data Collection


During RF optimization stage, the key is the optimization of radio signals distribution, with
the major means of DT and indoor test. Before test, confirm with the customer care
engineers the following aspects:

Whether the target NodeBs, RNCs, and related CN are abnormal due to being
disabled, blocked, congested, and transmission alarms.
Whether the alarms have negative impact on the validity of test result data.
If the alarms exist, solve the problems before test.

DT is a major test. Collect scanner and UE data of radio signals by DT test. The data is
applicable in analyzing coverage, handover, and pilot pollution problems.
Indoor test involves the following areas:

Indoor coverage areas


Indoor coverage areas include inside buildings, department stores, and subways.
Inside areas of important facilities
Inside areas of important facilities include gymnasiums and government offices.
Areas required by the operator
Areas required by the operator include VIC and VIP.

Test the previous areas to locate, analyze, and solve the RF problems.
Indoor test also involves in optimizing handover of indoor and outdoor intra-frequency,
inter-frequency, and inter-system.
The DT and indoor test during RF optimization stage is based on VP service. According
to the contract (commercial deployment offices) and planning report (trial offices), if
seamless coverage by VP service is impossible in areas, such as, suburban areas and
rural areas, the test is based on voice services. For areas with seamless coverage by
PS384K service required by the contract (commercial deployment office) or planning
report (trial office), such as office buildings, press centers, and hot spot areas, the test is
based on PS384K service.

4.1 Drive Test


4.1.1 DT Types
According to different full coverage services in the planned areas, DT might be one of the
following:

3G ONLY continuous talk test by using scanner + unloaded VP


According to simulation result and experiences, if the test result meets requirements
on VP service coverage, the test result will also meet identical coverage
requirements of PS144K, PS128K, and PS64K services.
3G ONLY continuous talk test by using scanner + unloaded voice service
3G ONLY continuous talk test by using scanner + unloaded PS384K

4.1.2 Setting DT Indexes


The following paragraphs take VP service for example.
Setting DT indexes proceeds as below:
1)
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Start Genex Probe 1.3 software


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2)
3)

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Select Configuration > System Config > Test Plan


Set DT indexes as shown in Figure 4-1

For setting voice and PS384K service, see WCDMA Test Guide 3.0.

Figure 4-1 Setting DT


For setting DT, see the following table.
Index

Meaning

Enable

Whether to implement this index. True for implementation. False for


non-implementation. The recommended value is True.

Call
Number

Called number. Whether the called terminal supports VP must be


confirmed.

Setup
Time (s)

The maximum time for setting up calls. It ranges from 2030s. The
recommended value is 25s.

Calling
Time (s)

The time for a single call from call start to normal end of call. Set it great
enough according to actual DT route. The recommended value is 99999s.

Idle
(s)

Call internal time. The recommended value is 10s.

Time

Call Count

Total call times. Set it great enough according to actual DT route. The
recommended value is 999 times.

Collect call data tracing at RNC side while performing drive test. This help to locate and
analyze problems.
Data to be collected includes:

Traced signaling messages of single subscriber


For the detailed description and collection method of call tracing data, see WCDMA
Equipment Room Operations Guide.

4.2 Indoor Test


GPS signals are unobtainable in door test. Obtain the plan of the target area before test.

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Indoor test consists of walking test and vertical test. Perform walking test to obtain
horizontal signals distribution inside buildings by selecting Indoor Measurement >
Walking Test. Perform vertical test to obtain vertical signals distribution by selecting
Indoor Measurement > Vertical Test. For the detailed method, see WCDMA Test Guide
3.0.
Indoor test services are services by seamless coverage required in the contract
(commercial deployment office) or planning report (trial office). The method for indoor
test and requirements on collecting call tracing data are the same as DT.

4.3 Collecting RNC Configuration Data


During RF optimization stage, collect neighbor cell data of network optimization and
other data configured in RNC database. In addition, check whether the configured data is
consistent with the previously checked/planned data.
While checking configured data, feed back the improperly configured data (if found) to
product support engineers. During checking, pay special attention to handover
reselection parameters and power setting parameters, as listed in Table 4-1.
Table 4-1 Configured parameters to be checked
Type
Handover
reselection
parameter
Power
configuration
parameter

Content to be checked
IntraFreqNCell (intra-frequency neighbor cell)
InterFreqNCell (inter-frequency neighbor cell)
InterRATNCell (inter-system neighbor cell)
MaxAllowedULTxPower (maximum uplink transmit power of UE)
PCPICHPower (PCPICH transmit power)

For handover reselection parameters, check list of neighbor cells, including


intra-frequency, inter-frequency, and inter-system neighbor cells.
Output an updated Radio Parameter Configuration Data Table and parameter revision
records. This is useful in problem analysis and following optimization stages.
Collecting data proceeds as below:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Start RNC LMT


Collect MML scripts
Convert neighbor cell configuration data in MML scripts to Excel files by using
Nastar
Save the data in the format in which the data can be imported to Assistant.

For details, see WCDMA Equipment Room Operations Guide and Nastar User Manual.

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Chapter 5 Coverage Problem Analysis


Coverage problem analysis is key to RF optimization. It involves signal distribution. The
coverage problems to be analyzed include:

Weak coverage
Cross-cell coverage
Unbalance uplink and downlink
No primary pilot cell

5.1 Coverage Problem Types


5.1.1 Weak coverage
I. Introduction
Weak coverage refer to that the RSCP of pilot signals in a coverage area is smaller than
95 dBm. It might be in:

Valley areas
Hillside back
Elevator well
Tunnel
Underground garage
Basement
Areas inside high buildings

If the pilot signals are weaker than that required by full coverage services (such as VP
and PS64K), or just meet the requirements, if the PICH Ec/Io cannot meets the lowest
requirements on full coverage services due to increased intra-frequency interference,
problems like difficult access of full coverage services will occur.
If the RSCP of pilot signals is weaker than that of minimum access threshold in a
coverage area, the UE cannot camp on the cell, so the UE drops off the network due to
failing in location updating and location registration.

II. Solutions
For previous problems, use the following methods:

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Increase pilot transmit power, adjust antenna down tilt and azimuth, increase
antenna height, use antennas with higher gain to optimize coverage.
If subscribers are abundant in the non-overlapped areas of neighbor NodeBs or the
non-overlapped areas are great, construct new NodeBs or expand the coverage
range of neighbor NodeBs. This ensures a software handover area with enough
great size. Pay attention to that increasing of coverage areas might cause
intra-frequency and inter-frequency interference.
Construct new NodeBs or add RRU in valley and hillside back areas with weak
coverage to expand coverage range.
Use RRU, indoor distributed system, leakage cable, and directional antenna to solve
problems in signal dead zone like elevator well, tunnel, underground garage,
basement, areas inside buildings.

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5.1.2 Cross-cell Coverage


I. Introduction
Cross-cell coverage refers to that the coverage range of some NodeBs is beyond the
planned range and discontinuous primary pilot coverage areas form in coverage areas of
other NodeBs.
For example, if the NodeBs with a height much higher that the average height of
adjacent buildings transmit signals along upland or roads over far, a primary pilot
coverage area form in the coverage area of other NodeBs, an "island" forms. Therefore,
if a call accesses the "island" and the nearby cells of the "island" is not configured as the
neighbor cells, call drops once the UE leaves the island. Though the nearby cells of the
"island" is configured as the neighbor cells, the "island" is over small, call also drops due
to delayed handover.
If the two-side areas along a gulf are improperly planned, cross-cell coverage occurs on
these areas due to short distance between two sides of the gulf. Consequently,
interference occurs.

II. Solutions
For the previous problems, use the following methods:

For cross-cell coverage, prevent antennas from transmitting signals straightforward


along roads or reduce cross-cell coverage areas by using sheltering effect of
adjacent buildings. Meanwhile you must avoid intra-frequency interference to other
NodeBs.
For over high NodeBs, change the site. You might have difficulties in finding new
sites due to property and equipment installation. In addition, too large mechanism
down tilt causes aberration of antenna direction maps. Therefore you can eliminate
the "island" effect and reduce NodeB coverage areas by adjusting pilot transmit
power and using electric down tilt.

5.1.3 Unbalanced Uplink and Downlink


I. Introduction
Unbalanced uplink and downlink refers to the following situations in uplink and downlink
symmetric services:

The downlink coverage is good but the uplink coverage is restricted. More specific,
the UE transmit power reaches the maximum which still cannot meet uplink BLER
requirements.
The downlink coverage is restricted. More specific, the downlink DCH transmit
power reaches the maximum which still cannot meet downlink BLER requirements.

If the uplink and downlink are unbalanced, call drops easily. The probable cause is
restricted uplink coverage.

II. Solutions
For the unbalanced uplink and downlink problems, check for interference by monitoring
RTWP alarms of NodeB. For the method, see WCDMA Interference Solution Guide.

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5.1.4 No Primary Pilot


I. Introduction
No primary pilot areas refer to the areas where no primary pilot is or the primary cell
changes frequently. In no primary pilot areas, UE hands over frequently, so the system
efficiency is lowered and probability of call drop increases.

II. Solutions
In no primary pilot areas, you can enhance the coverage by strong signals of a cell (or
near cells) and reduce the coverage by weak signals of other cells (or far cells) by
adjusting antenna down tilt and azimuth.

5.2 Coverage Analysis Processes


5.2.1 Downlink Coverage Analysis
Downlink coverage analysis involves analyzing CPICH RSCP obtained by drive test.
The quality standard of CPICH RSCP must be combined with the optimization standard.
Assume that the optimization standard is as below:
CP ICH_RSCP 95 dBm

>= 95%

Scanner test result in outdoor


unloaded conditions

The corresponding quality standard is:

Good if CPICH_RSCP 85 dBm


Fair if 95 dBm CPICH_RSCP < 85 dBm
Poor if CPICH_RSCP < 95 dBm

Mark the areas with weak coverage or common seamless coverage of large areas for
further analysis. Mark the areas with downlink coverage voids, analyze the distance
relations with neighbor NodeBs and environments, and check the following:

Whether the CPICH RSCP of neighbor sites is normal


Whether coverage can be enhanced by adjusting antenna down tilt and azimuth.

During adjusting antennas, avoid new coverage voids while eliminating some coverage
voids. If the coverage voids cannot be eliminated by adjusting antennas, construct sites
to solve it.

I. Anayzing Pilot Coverage Strength


Usually, the strongest RSCP received by each scanner in the coverage area must be
above 95 dBm.
Start Assistant. Analyze scanner-based RSCP for 1st Best ServiceCell, and you can
obtain the distribution of weak coverage area, shown in Figure 5-1.
In Figure 5-1, weak coverage areas with RSCP smaller than 95 dBm in the DT route.
According to scanner and UE, the pilot RSCP is acceptable. If the scanner antenna is
mounted outside the car, and the UE is inside the car, there is a penetration loss of 5 to 7
dB. Use scanner data to avoid incomplete pilot information measured by UE due to
missing neighbor cells.

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Figure 5-1 RSCP for 1st Best ServiceCell

II. Analyzing Primary Pilot Cell


Cell primary pilot analysis is analyzing cell scramble information obtained in DT. The
content to be checked include (by Assistant):

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Weak coverage cell


Start Assistant. Analyze scanner-based RSCP for SC, and you can obtain the
signal distribution of each cell (scramble). According to DT data, if the scramble
signals of a cell are not present, probably some sites cannot transmit signals during
test. If a cell cannot transmit signals during DT, the DT of relative areas must be
re-performed. Very weak coverage might be result of blocked antennas, so you
must check the survey report of the site and check installation of on-site antennas.
No (poor) coverage cell might be due to that the DT route does not cover the cell
coverage area. In this case, reevaluate the DT route for the rationality and perform
DT again.
Cross-cell coverage cell
Start Assistant. Analyze scanner-based RSCP for SC, and you can obtain the
signal distribution of each cell (scramble). If the signals of a cell are widely
distributed, even in the neighbor cells and the cells next to its neighbor cells, the
signals of the cell is present, the cell encounters a cross-cell coverage which might
be due to over high site or improper down tilt of antenna. The cross-cell coverage
cells interferes neighbor cells, so the capacity declines. You can solve the problem
by increasing the down tilt of antenna or lowering the height of antenna. Avoid
forming new weak coverage areas while solving cross-coverage problems. Pay
special attention to the adjustment of engineering parameters which might cause
coverage voids. Be conservative that cross-cell coverage is better than coverage
voids if no other choices are available.
No primary pilot cell
Start Assistant. Analyze scanner-based SC for 1st Best ServiceCell, and you can
obtain the scramble distribution of the best cell. If multiple best cells changes
frequently in an cell, the cell is a no primary pilot cell, as shown in Figure 5-2 No
primary pilot cell forms due to the following causes:
Cross-cell non-seamless coverage due to over high site
Pilot pollution in some areas
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Coverage voids at edges of coverage areas


Therefore intra-frequency interferences forms which causes ping-pong handover
and affects performances of service coverage.

Figure 5-2 Distribution of pilot SC for the 1st Best ServiceCell

III. Analyzing comparison of UE and Scanner Coverage


Missing neighbor cells, improper parameters of soft handover, cell selection and
reselection cause the consistent between scanner primary pilot cell and camped cell in
idle mode or Best ServiceCell in the active set in connection mode of UE. After
optimization, the Ec/Io for 1st Best ServiceCell of UE and scanner is consistent. In
addition, the coverage map of UE is marked by clear bordering lines of Best ServiceCell,
as Figure 5-3.

Figure 5-3 Analyzing comparison of UE and scanner coverage


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5.2.2 Uplink Coverage Analysis


The corresponding quality standard is:

Good if CPICH_RSCP 85 dBm


Fair if 95 dBm CPICH_RSCP < 85 dBm

Poor if CPICH_RSCP < 95 dBm


Uplink coverage analysis is analyzing UE transmit power obtained in DT.
The quality standards of UE transmit power must be combined with optimization
standards. Assume the optimization indexes of UE transmit power as below:
UE_Tx_Power 10
dBm

>= 95%

The test result of voice service by test


handset. Assume the maximum transmit
power of UE is 21 dBm.

The defined corresponding quality standards are:

Good if UE_Tx_Power 0 dBm


Fair if 0 dBm < UE_Tx_Power 10 dBm
Poor if UE_Tx_Power > 10 dBm

For areas with poor index, judge whether the increasing of UE transmit power is due to
call drop or poor uplink coverage. Geographically displayed on the map, the former is as
a point of sudden increment with call drop while the latter is an area with seamless
coverage unnecessarily with call drop.
Mark the areas with weak coverage or large common seamless coverage for further
analysis. Check whether downlink CPICH RSCP coverage voids exist in the areas with
uplink coverage voids. Solve the problem with both uplink and downlink weak coverage
by analyzing downlink coverage analysis. If only the uplink coverage is poor without
uplink interference (see WCDMA Interference Solution Guide), solve the problems by
adjusting down tilt and azimuth of antenna, and adding TMAs.

I. Analyzing Uplink Interference


Check for uplink interference by tracing and analyzing RTWP data. For details, see
WCDMA Interference Solution Guide.

II. Distribution of UE Transmit Power


The distribution of UE transmit power reflects the distribution of uplink interference and
uplink path loss. In Figure 5-4, UE transmit power is lower than 10 dBm normally. Only
when uplink interference and coverage area edge exist will the UE transmit power
increase sharply to 21 dBm (higher 10 dBm), and the uplink is restricted. Comparatively
restricted uplink coverage occurs much easily in macro cells than in micro cells.

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Figure 5-4 Distribution of UE transmit power

5.3 Coverage Problem Cases


5.3.1 Weak Coverage Cases Due to Improper Engineering Parameters
I. Phenomenon
In Figure 5-5, the pilot RSCP is lower than 95 dBm in the marked red area. This
belongs to weak coverage, which might cause call drop.

Figure 5-5 Coverage near Xiajiao Sugar Plant (before optimization)

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II. Analysis
In Figure 5-5, the problem lies in that Xiajiao Sugar Plant sector B mainly covers the
marked area but Materials Building sector A partially covers the marked area. Initially
engineers consider enhancing the coverage of the marked area by adjusting the two
cells. According to the survey report, other buildings opposite Materials Building prevent
sector A from transmit signals, so adjusting antenna fails to enhance the coverage of the
areas.

III. Solutions
Keep the parameter configuration of Materials Building sector A, but adjust the azimuth
of Xiajiao Sugar Plant sector B from 170 to 165, down tilt from 10 to 8.
Figure 5-6 shows the coverage near Xiajiao Sugar Plant (after optimization)

Figure 5-6 Coverage near Xiajiao Sugar Plant (after optimization)


In Figure 5-6, the coverage in the marked area is enhanced clearly after adjusting
engineering parameters of Xiajiao Sugar Plant.

5.3.2 Cross-cell Coverage Due to Improper NodeB Location


I. Phenomenon
In a trial office, the Erqi Rd. NodeB is 60-meter high, over 20 meters than nearby
buildings. This causes cross-cell coverage easily and brings intra-frequency interference
to other NodeBs, as shown in Figure 5-7.

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Figure 5-7 Cross-cell coverage before optimization

II. Aanalysis
For a high NodeB problem, adjust fixed electric down tilt of antenna from 2 to 6.
Because the Erqi Rd. NodeB is at the edge of network coverage, reduce interferences to
other NodeBs by adjusting antenna down tilt and azimuth. In this case, no equipment is
removed. Engineers solve the cross-cell coverage by increasing mechanism down tilt
and adjusting azimuth.

III. Solutions
After adjustment of down tilt to 4, the most cross-cell coverage areas are eliminated,
with only few cross-cell coverage areas, as shown in Figure 5-8.

Figure 5-8 Few cross-cell coverage areas after optimization


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For similar high NodeBs, you can combine adjustable down tilt of electric antenna and
mechanism antenna to better control signal coverage.

5.3.3 Coverage Restriction Due to Improper Installation of Antennas


I. Phenomenon
From Figure 5-9, the antenna of a project is mounted on a roof (10-meter tall).

Figure 5-9 Coverage restriction due to antenna blocked by roof


At the optimization stage after network construction, in front of the traffic lights below
antennas, video quality declines due to VP mosaic and PS384K service is reactivated.

II. Analysis
In terms of planning, 3G and 2G antennas are mounted in a co-location site. According to
coverage test data of 2G antenna, 2G signals does not fluctuate sharply under the site
and under the traffic lights. Namely, if the 3G and 2G antennas are in the same location,
3G signals will cover the areas around traffic lights. The problem lies in that the 3G
antenna is mounted too close to the wall on the roof and the wall blocks signals so the
special installation conditions of antennas are not met. In addition, the 2G antenna and
its installation parts affect the pattern of 3G antenna. This changes the radiation pattern
of 3G antenna. According to the installation scene, adjusting location of 3G antenna is
difficult.

III. Solutions
According to discussion between 2G and 3G engineers, the minimum adjustment
solution without affecting 2G coverage is as below:
1)
2)

Connect the 3G and 2G TX/RX feeder to two feeders of outside wideband


polarization antenna
Connect the 3G and 2G RX feeder to two feeders of inner wideband antenna.

Figure 5-10 shows the connection.


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Figure 5-10 Optimizing antennas by adjusting feeders

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Chapter 6 Pilot Pollution Problem Analysis


6.1 Pilot Pollution Definition and Judgment Standards
6.1.1 Definition
The pilot pollution is that excessive strong pilots exist in a point but no primary pilot is
strong enough.

6.1.2 Judgment Standards


Pilot pollution exists if all the following conditions are met:

The number of pilots that meet the following condition is more than Th N
CPICH_RSCP > ThRSCP_Absolute
(CPICH_RSCP1st - CPICH_RSCP(ThN +1)th)< ThRSCP_Relative

Assume that ThRSCP_Absolute = 100 dBm, ThN = 3, and ThRSCP_Relative = 5 dB, and then pilot
pollution exists if all the following conditions are met:

More than three pilots meet the following condition


CPICH_RSCP > 100 dBm.
(CPICH_RSCP1st - CPICH_RSCP4th) < 5 dB

6.2 Causes and Influence Analysis


6.2.1 Causes Analysis
Ideally the signals in a cell is restricted within its planned range. However the signals
cannot reach the ideal state due to the following factors of radio environment:

Landform
Building distribution
Street distribution
Waters

Pilot pollution is the result of interaction among multiple NodeBs, so it occurs in urban
areas where NodeBs are densely constructed. Normally typical areas where pilot
pollution occurs easily include:

High buildings
Wide streets
Overhead structure
Crossroad
Areas round waters

I. Improper Cell Distribution


Due to restriction to site location and complex geographic environment, cell distribution
might be improper. Improper cell distribution causes weak coverage of some areas and
coverage by multiple strong pilots in same areas.

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II. Over High NodeB or Highly-mounted Antenna


If a NodeB is constructed in a position higher than around buildings, most areas will be
with in the line-of sight range. Therefore signals are widely transmitted. Over high site
cause difficult control of cross-cell coverage, which causes pilot pollution.

III. Improper Antenna Azimuth


In a network with multiple NodeBs, the antenna azimuth must be adjusted according to
the following factors:

NodeB distribution of the entire (seluruh) network


Coverage requirements
Traffic volume distribution

The sector azimuth of each antenna is set to cooperate with each other. If the azimuth is
improperly(improper tdk bener) set:

Some factors might cover the same area. This causes excessive (terlalu banyak)
pilot pollution.
Weak coverage exist in some areas without primary pilot.

The previous two situations might lead to pilot pollution. Therefore you must adjust the
antenna according to actual propagation.

IV. Improper Antenna Down Tilt


Setting antenna down tilt depends on the following factors:

Relative height to around environment


Coverage range requirements
Antenna types

If the antenna down tilt is improper, signals are received in the areas which are covered
by this site. Therefore interferences to other areas causes pilot pollution. Even worse,
interferences might cause call drop.

V. Improper PICH Power


When the NodeBs are densely distributed with a small planned coverage rang and the
PICH power is over high, the pilot covers an area larger than the planned area. This
causes pilot pollution.

VI. Ambient Factors


The signals cannot reach the planned state due to the following factors of radio
environment:

Landform
Building distribution
Street distribution
Waters

The ambient factors include:

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High buildings or mountains block signals from spreading


The signals of a NodeB to cover a target area are blocked by high buildings or
mountains, so the target area will have no primary pilot. This causes pilot pollution.
Streets or waters influences signals
When the antenna direction is pointing a street, the coverage range is expanded by
the street. When the coverage range of a NodeB overlaps with the coverage range
of other NodeBs, pilot pollution occurs.

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High buildings reflect signals


When high glassed buildings stand near a NodeB, they will reflect signals to the
coverage range of other NodeBs. This causes pilot pollution.

6.2.2 Influence Analysis


Pilot pollution causes the following network problems.

I. Ec/Io Deterioration (memburuk)


Multiple strong pilots interferes useful functional signals, so Io increases, Ec/Io
decreases, BLER increases, and network quality declines.

II. Call Drop Due to Handover


More than three strong pilots or no primary pilot exists in multiple pilots, frequent
handover occurs among these pilots. This might cause call drop.

III. Capacity Decline (berkurang)


The interference of the areas with pilot pollution increases, the system capacity declines.

6.3 Solutions to Pilot Pollution


6.3.1 Antenna Adjustment
According to the test, change pilot signal strength of an area with pilot pollution by
adjusting antenna down tilt and azimuth. This changes the distribution of pilot signals in
the area. The principle for adjustment is enhancing primary pilot and weakening other
pilots.
To enhance pilot coverage of an area, adjust the antenna azimuth pointing the area. To
weakening pilot coverage of an area, adjust the antenna azimuth pointing the opposite
direction of the area. Adjusting down tilt is similar. You can increase the cell coverage
range by reducing antenna down tilt and reduce cell coverage range by increasing
antenna down tilt.
Adjusting antennas is restricted to a range. If the down tilt is over small, you might
enhance cell coverage but causes cross-cell coverage. If the down tilt is over large, you
might weaken cell coverage but you might change the antenna pattern.
Figure 6-1 shows the pilot pollution due to improper antenna azimuth.

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Figure 6-1 Pilot pollution due to improper antenna azimuth


In Figure 6-1, the area marked in black encounters pilot pollution due to improper
azimuth of the antenna of SC100 sector (scramble No. is 100). The SC100 sector covers
the area with an antenna azimuth of 90, so the coverage is poor with weak signals and
no primary pilot, which cause pilot pollution.
After adjustment of the antenna azimuth from 90 to 170, the primary pilot signals
become stronger and pilot pollution is eliminated.
Figure 6-2 shows the pilot pollution due to improper antenna down tilt.

Figure 6-2 Pilot pollution due to improper antenna down tilt


In Figure 6-2, the area marked in blacked encounters pilot pollution due to improper
antenna down tilt. The down tilt of SC360 cell is 2, so the coverage area is large,
cross-cell coverage is difficult to control, and interferences to other areas form.
After adjustment of antenna down tilt of SC360 cell from 2 to 7, the cross-cell coverage
by SC360 cell is eliminated and pilot pollution is eliminated.
Some areas with pilot pollution is inapplicable to the previous adjustment. You can use
the following methods based on actual situation:

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Change the antenna to a different type


Add reflection device or isolation device
Adjust installation position of antenna
Adjust NodeB location

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6.3.2 PICH Power Adjustment


Pilot pollution is caused by the coverage by multiple pilots. A direct method to solve the
problem is to form a primary pilot by increasing the power of a cell and decreasing the
power of other cells.
An over large down tilt causes aberration(penyimpangan) of antenna pattern. To reduce
coverage range by pilot, you can decrease PICH power. Over small down tilt causes
cross-cell coverage. To increase coverage range by pilot, you can increase PICH power.
Adjusting power and adjusting antenna must cooperate.
Figure 6-3 shows the pilot pollution due to improper distribution of cells.

Figure 6-3 Pilot pollution due to improper distribution of cells


In Figure 6-3,

The distance between NodeB A and NodeB B is 1260 meters.


The distance between NodeB A and NodeB C is 2820 meters.
The distance between NodeB B and NodeB C is 2360 meters.

The distances is unbalanced, so the pilot pollution is difficult to eliminate.


The optimization is to reduce weak pilot strength and eliminate pilot pollution, detailed as
below:

Ensure seamless coverage between cells by not adjusting transmit power of SC20
and SC30 cells.
Decrease the PICH power of SC10, SC40, and SC50 cells by 3 dB. These cells
have little impact on seamless coverage.

6.3.3 Using RRU or Micro Cells


If adjusting power and antenna is not effective to solving pilot pollution, use RRU or
micro cells.

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Using RRU or micro cells aims to bring a strong-signal coverage in the area with pilot
pollution, so the relative strength of other signals decreases.
When a network expansion is necessary or more requirements is on network quality,
using RRU or micro cells is recommended. Micro cells are used in traffic hot spot areas,
they support multiple carriers. Micro cells are used if large capacity is needed. Compared
with using RRU, using micro cells is more expansive.
Figure 6-4 shows pilot pollution due to ambient factors.

Figure 6-4 Pilot pollution due to ambient factors


The area marked in black encounters pilot pollution due to ambient factors. The area is
covered by SC60 cell of NodeB A, SC110 cell or NodeB B, and SC130 cell of NodeB C.
However, shown in Figure 6-5, hills prevent NodeB A from transmitting signals, high
buildings prevent NodeB B and NodeB C from transmitting signals, so the signals from
NodeB A, NodeB B, and NodeB C are weak. On the contrary(kebalikan), SC240 and
SC250 cells of NodeB D have good propagation conditions in this direction. Therefore
the cross-cell coverage is serious and pilot pollution occurs.

Figure 6-5 Survey photo of each cell related to pilot pollution


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High buildings or hills blocks the area, so no strong pilot is present in the area. For this
problem, adjusting antenna down tilt has little effect on eliminating pilot pollution. Instead
adding RRU helps solve the problem.

6.4 Process for Analyzing Pilot Pollution Problem


The process for analyzing pilot pollution problem proceeds as below:
1)

Start Assistant. Analyze scanner-based RSCP for 1st Best ServiceCell and EcIo for
1st Best ServiceCell. Select the areas with high RSCP and poor EcIo as candidate
areas with pilot pollution.
Analyze scanner-based Whole PP. Select the areas corresponding to candidate
areas as the key areas with pilot pollution.
Locate the cells that cause pilot pollution of the key areas.
Based on RSCP for 1st Best ServiceCell, judge whether the pilot pollution is caused
by existence of multiple strong pilots or lack of a strong pilot. For the former cause,
you can solve the problem by weakening other strong pilots. For the latter cause,
you can solve the problem by strengthening some strong pilot.
Analyze the RSCP and Ec/Io distribution of areas related to pilot pollution and
confirm the cells that need eliminating the coverage of an area and that need
enhancing the coverage of an area. Based on the actual environment, analyze the
specific causes to pilot pollution (for analyzing causes, see 6.2.1 ). For specific
causes, provide solutions to pilot pollution (for solution, see 6.3 ). While eliminating
pilot pollution in an area, consider the influence to other areas and avoid causing
pilot pollution or coverage voids to other areas.
Retest after adjustment. Analyze RSCP, Ec/Io and Whole PP. If they cannot meet
KPI requirements, re-optimize the network by selecting new key areas until KPI
requirements are met.

2)
3)
4)

5)

6)

Note:

In the new optimization, do not adjust the cells that was adjusted in last optimization. You
can add other key areas analyzed by Whole PP (the part that does not correspond to the
candidate areas)

6.5 Optimization Cases for Eliminating Pilot Pollution


The following sections take an optimization by a project and describes the process for
1
analyzing pilot pollution.

6.5.1 Data Analysis before Optimization

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No new complete case is available, so an old case is used here. The future version will provide
new cases.
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I. Locating Pilot Pollution Point


Figure 6-6 shows the pilot pollution point near Yuxing Rd. SC270 cell is planned to cover
the area with pilot pollution.

Figure 6-6 Pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd.

II. Analyzing Signal Distribution of Cells Near Pilot Pollution Point

Figure 6-7 Best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd.

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Figure 6-8 The 2nd best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd.

Figure 6-9 The 3rd best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd.

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Figure 6-10 The 4th best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd.

Figure 6-11 Composition of pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd.


From Figure 6-7, Figure 6-8, Figure 6-9, Figure 6-10, and Figure 6-11, though SC20 cell
is planned to cover the area, but the best ServiceCell is as listed in the following table:
Best ServiceCell

Primary

Others

1st best ServiceCell

SC220

SC260 and SC270

2nd best ServiceCell

SC270

SC260, SC220, and SC200

3 best ServiceCell

SC200

SC270 and SC260

4th best ServiceCell

SC200

SC270 and SC260

rd

III. Analyzing RSSI Distribution Near Pilot Pollution Point


Figure 6-12 shows the RSSI near Yuxing Rd..

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Figure 6-12 RSSI near Yuxing Rd.


Figure 6-13 shows the RSCP of Best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd..

Figure 6-13 RSCP of Best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd.

No primary pilot cause pilot pollution

As shown in Figure 6-12, the RSSI of the areas with pilot pollution is not large, about
100 dBm to 90 dBm. As shown in Figure 6-13, the RSCP of Best ServiceCell is
between 105 dBm to 100 dBm. The pilot pollution of the area is caused by no strong
pilot, so you can solve the problem by strengthening a strong pilot.

IV. Analyzing RSCP Distribution of Related Cells


Figure 6-14 shows the RSCP of SC270 cell near Yuxing Rd.

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Figure 6-14 RSCP of SC270 cell near Yuxing Rd.


The SC270 cell is planned to cover the area. Figure 6-14 shows RSCP of RSCP
distribution of SC270 cell. The signals from SC270 cell are weak in the area with pilot
pollution.
According to on-site survey, the residential area is densely distributed by 6-floor or 7-floor
buildings. The test route fails to cover the major streets, and is performed in narrow
streets with buildings around, so the signals are blocked. The suggestion is to adjust the
azimuth of SC270 cell from 150 to 130 and the down tilt from 5 to 3. This enhances
the coverage of SC270 cell.

6.5.2 Data Analysis after Optimization


After analysis of DT data, the expected result after adjustment is that the coverage area
by SC270 cell increases and the coverage is enhanced.
Figure 6-15 shows the pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd. after optimization.

Figure 6-15 Pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd. after optimization

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Figure 6-16 shows the best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. after optimization.

Figure 6-16 Best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. after optimization


Figure 6-17 shows the RSCP of best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. after optimization.

Figure 6-17 RSCP of best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. after optimization
Figure 6-18 shows the RSCP of SC270 cell near Yuxing Rd. after optimization.

Figure 6-18 RSCP of SC270 cell near Yuxing Rd. after optimization
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According to the DT data, the pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd. after optimization is
eliminated, the signals from SC270 cell after optimization are stronger, and the SC270
becomes the best ServiceCell. This complies with the expected result.

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Chapter 7 Handover Problem Analysis


During RF optimization stage, the involved handover problem is about neighbor cell
optimization and SHO Factor based on DT control.
Control the size and location of handover areas by adjusting RF parameters. You can
eliminate handover call drop due to sharp fluctuation and increase handover success
rate.
For other handover problems, see WCDMA Handover and Call Drop Problem
Optimization Guide.

7.1 Neighbor Cell Optimization


The neighbor cell optimization includes adding and removing neighbor cells.
Missing neighbor cells causes that a strong-pilot cell cannot be listed into the active set
so the interference increases as strong as call drop occurs. For missing neighbor cell,
you must add necessary neighbor cells.
Redundant(berlebihan) neighbor cells causes that the neighbor cell information is
excessive(berlebihan) and unnecessary signals cost occurs. When the neighbor cell list
is fully configured, the needed neighbor cell cannot be listed. For this problem, remove
redundant neighbor cells.
During RF optimization stage, missing neighbor cell is a key problem. The methods for
adding neighbor cells are listed below.

7.1.1 DT Data Analysis


I. Scanner Data Analysis
The daemon analysis tools can usually check for missing neighbor cells. The principle is
as below:

Compare the pilots scanned by scanner and the configured pilots of neighbor cell
list.
Locate these pilot scrambles that meet the handover conditions and that are not in
the neighbor cell list. Output them as a missing neighbor cell report.

The following checks and methods related to missing neighbor cells are based on
Assistant.
1)
2)

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Type information about NodeB and neighbor cells


For details, see Assistant User Manual.
Decide conditions for judging neighbor cells
Change the conditions for judging neighbor cells by selecting Modify Dataset
Property. The default configuration is that if the difference between the pilot of
candidate cell and the base cell is within 5 dB the candidate cell can be listed as a
neighbor cell. The configuration must comply with the actual configuration of system
(overall parameters), as shown in Figure 7-1.

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Figure 7-1 Changing conditions for judging neighbor cells


The parameters and meanings are as below (according to default configuration of
RNC1.5, you just list the parameters to be changed):
Parameter

Recommended value

1A Threshold

1A event threshold

3 dB

1A Hysteresis

1A event hysteresis

0 dB

1A Time to Trigger

Time to trigger 1A event

0.320s

1B Threshold

1B event threshold

6 dB

1B Hysteresis

1B event hysteresis

0 dB

1C Hysteresis

1C event hysteresis

4 dB

1D hysteresis

1D event hysteresis

4 dB

Count Threshold

Times threshold for judging neighbor cells

10

3)

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Meaning

Generate a missing neighbor cell report

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Figure 7-2 Generating neighbor cell analysis report by using Assistant


Proceed as shown in Figure 7-2, the Assistant generates a neighbor cell analysis
report in the format of Excel. This Excel-formatted report contains four sheets:
Scanner Statistic, Scanner Result, Imported Config, and Scanner vs Config.
Wherein, the Scanner vs Config sheet is for comparing neighbor cells generated by
scanner and the configured neighbor cells.
Figure 7-3 shows the result of missing neighbor cells.

Figure 7-3 Result of missing neighbor cells

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For the missing neighbor cells generated automatically by Assistant, you must check
according to the location information of the cell on the map whether to add the missing
neighbor cells to the neighbor cell list. For the missing neighbor cells due to cross-cell
coverage, the primary task is to solve coverage problem by adjusting RF parameters. If
this fails, you can temporarily solve the problem by adding neighbor cells.

II. UE Data Analysis


The daemon analysis tool can seldom analyze UE data automatically and generate
missing neighbor cells, so RNO engineers must analyze the missing neighbor cells one
by one for confirmation. Missing neighbor cell might cause call drop or access failure or
cause Ec/Io to deteriorate for a period. Based on data analysis by scanner, you can
easily locate these points with missing neighbor cells, detailed as below:
1)

2)

3)

Compare the active set Ec/Io distribution diagram measured by UE and that
measured by scanner
The spots with missing neighbor cells has a poor Ec/Io measured by UE and a
strong Ec/Io scanned by scanner. Locate the areas for further analysis.
Check the points with poor Ec/Io and check whether the strongest scramble by
scanner is neither in active set nor in monitoring set. If yes, move to the third step
for confirmation. If the scramble exists in the monitoring set, the problem is not
about missing neighbor cell but about Ec/Io deterioration due to handover
(reselection) delay and soft handover failure.
Check the latest intra-frequency measurement control whether the neighbor cell list
contains the strong scrambles by scanner
You can also directly check the neighbor cells continuation of the base cell under
the RNC for deciding missing neighbor cells.

The following paragraphs describes a case about call drop due to missing neighbor cell.
Check the Ec/Io coverage information of active set measured by UE, and you can find
that the Ec/Io of the active set is weak near call drop point and the signals are as weak
as lower than 15 dB. The base cell is SC209 cell, as shown in Figure 7-4.

Figure 7-4 Variation of active set Ec/Io recorded by UE before call drop
You also need to check data from scanner about the call drop point for the points with
poor signals. The signals , from SC128 cell, measured by scanner is strong, as shown in
Figure 7-5.

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Figure 7-5 Variation of active set Ec/Io recorded by scanner before call drop
From Figure 7-4 and Figure 7-5, SC128 encounters missing neighbor cell. For
confirmation, check the message process behind to front for intra-frequency
measurement control message. Check whether SC128 exists in the list of intra-frequency
neighbor cells. The result is that SC128 is not in the list of intra-frequency neighbor cells,
therefore the call drop is caused by missing neighbor cell.
If only UE recorded data in the test without data from scanner, confirm by the following
method whether the problem is caused by missing neighbor cell:
1)
2)

3)

Check scrambles of all cells listed in active set measured by UE before call drop
Check scramble information of the cell where UE camps again after call drop and
check whether the scrambles are in active set and monitoring set before call drop
If yes, the call drop might be due to missing neighbor cell.
Check the list of neighbor cells

7.1.2 Removing Redundant Neighbor Cells


According to the protocol, the maximum WCDMA neighbor cells is 32. The base cell itself
is also included in the intra-frequency neighbor cell list, so the actual intra-frequency
neighbor cell is 31 at most. If there are already 31 or more neighbor cells, adding
necessary neighbor cells in optimization is difficult. Therefore, you must remove some
redundant neighbor cells.

I. Principles
You must be very careful to remove redundant neighbor cells. If the necessary neighbor
cells are removed, problems like call drop occur. Therefore follow the principles below:

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Before removing neighbor cells, check the revision records of neighbor cells
whether the neighbor cells to be removed are those that were added in previous DT
and optimization.
After removing neighbor cells, perform comprehensive test, including DT and call
quality test (CQT) in important indoor spots, and check for abnormalities. If there are
abnormalities, restore the data configuration.

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II. Possible Removals


During RF optimization stage, you might remove neighbor cells in the following
situations:

Remove the neighbor cells related to cross-cell coverage on the precondition that
the cross-cell coverage problem is solved and no new weak coverage areas are
appear.
Remove neighbor cells according to experiences while referring to the network
topology structure. This applies to that the original neighbor cell list is full and new
neighbor relations must be added. Perform test after removal and confirm that the
removal does not cause bigger problems. Otherwise, you must reselect the
neighbor cells to be removed.

In the later stages, you can refer to removing traffic measurement statistics. For details,
see WCDMA Handover and Call Drop Problem Optimization Guide.

7.2 SHO Factor based on DT Analysis


7.2.1 Definition of SHO Factor based on DT
According to the DT data from scanner, you can obtain the SHO Factor based on DT,
defined as below:

Soft Handover Ratio

Number of scanner - collectedpoints in DT that meet the handover conditions


Number of total scanner - collectedpoints in DT

No subscribers are using the network during RF optimization stage, so UE DT data of


entire network in a time is used and geographically averaged by 5 meters. You can
obtain the ratio of the points in soft handover state to all DT points. Set the scanner
consistent to the system parameters with default configuration, such as 1A and 1B
threshold.

7.2.2 General Principles and Methods in Optimization


2

The SHO Factor based on DT during RF optimization stage must be 5%10% lower
than the KPI target value, because the following optimizations cause SHO Factor based
on DT to increase and brings difficulties in ensuring traffic measurement SHO Factor
based on DT.
At the end of large-scale coverage optimization and pilot pollution optimization, the SHO
Factor based on DT will be within or close to the target range. Upon this, no specific
optimization on SHO Factor based on DT is necessary, and you can adjust the ratio
during parameter optimization. If the SHO Factor based on DT still cannot meet the
requirements after large-scale adjustment, you must optimize the SHO Factor based on
DT.
If the SHO Factor based on DT is over large, decrease or change the handover areas by
using the following methods for shrinking coverage areas:

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Increase the down tilt

Further research will be on how to define the range of difference of SHO Factor based on DT
between RF optimization and KPI
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Adjust azimuth
Decrease the antenna height
Decrease the PICH power

The precondition for adjustment is that the adjustment will not cause new coverage voids,
coverage blind zone, and more pilot pollution.
The adjustment proceeds as below:
1)
2)
3)

Start Assistant
Analyze scanner-based RSCP for 4th Best ServiceCell and RSCP for 3rd Best
ServiceCell
Select candidate cells in the 4th Best ServiceCell and 3rd Best ServiceCell
Figure 7-6 shows the RSCP for the candidates in 4th Best ServiceCell. List the
SC136 cell as a candidate cell.

At this stage, the pilot pollution comes to an end. RSCP for 3rd Best ServiceCell is more
useful in terms of reference. Select the sites or cells to which the adjustment is
applicable and does not break the preconditions. If the actual SHO Factor based on DT
after adjustment is still different from the KPI one, select candidate cells from RSCP for
2nd Best ServiceCell. The sites are densely distributed in microcell coverage areas, so
the SHO Factor based on DT is much higher.

Figure 7-6 RSCP for candidate of 4th Best ServiceCell

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Chapter 8 Adjustment Methods


The adjustment during RF optimization stage include adjusting neighbor cell list and
adjusting engineering parameters.
Most coverage and interference problems can be solved after adjusting the following site
engineering parameters (from superior to inferior):
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

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Adjust antenna down tilt


Adjust antenna azimuth
Adjust antenna height
Adjust antenna location
Change antenna type
Add TMAs
Change site type (such as changing a site supporting 20 W power amplifier to a site
supporting 40 W power amplifier)
Change site location
Construct new site or add RRU

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Chapter 9 Summary
This document describes the content of RF optimization in network optimization. RF
optimization concern the improvement of signal distribution, and it helps to provide a
good radio signal environment for the following parameter optimization.
The test during RF optimization is usually DT, with other tests as supplementary. The
problems to be analyzed during RF optimization is primarily about coverage, pilot
pollution, and handover, with problem as supplementary. RF optimization help to solve
handover, call drop, access, and interference problems. The parameters to be adjusted
during RF optimization are primarily engineering parameters. Cell parameters are
adjusted during parameter optimization stage (excluding adjusting neighbor cell list).
This document is mainly for RF optimization of new network. How to optimize an existing
network for expansion needs further tracing. The methods for optimize SHO Factor
based on DT and the judgment conditions for removing neighbor cells are still under
research, and they will be supplemented in the future versions.

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Chapter 10 Appendix: Coverage Enhancement


Technologies
10.1 Coverage-enhancing Technologies
10.1.1 TMAs
Using TMAs helps to reduce the total noise figure of NodeB receiver subsystem, so the
uplink coverage performance is improved. The coverage gain depends on the
mechanism of receiver subsystem and loss of related feeders. If the system downlink
capacity is restricted, using TMAs will shrink system capacity. The typical capacity
shrinkage is 6%10%.

10.1.2 Receive and Transmit Diversity


Increase the number and improve the quality of RAKE receivers of UE by using time
switched transmit diversity (TSTD) and space and time transmit diversity (STTD) in the
downlink. Therefore the coverage range is expanded, system capacity increases, and the
number of NodeBs decreases.
Using four-antenna receiver diversity reduces requirements on Eb/No needed in
demodulation. In line of sight, compared with the gains of 2 antennas with 2 receiver
diversity, the gain of 2 antennas with 4 receiver diversity is 2.53.0 dB. You can adjust
the uplink sensitivity by 2.53.0 dB and reduce the sites by 25%30%.

10.1.3 RRU
Remote radio unit (RRU) physically detach NodeB RF module from baseband module,
so you can place RF module afar without using very long feeders. The uplink and
downlink link budget is improved. Remote RF indicates that the coverage performance is
improved but the system capacity remains the same. Compared with remote RF, using
TMAs increases maximum path loss and lowers NodeB EIRP due to bringing insertion
loss.

10.1.4 Micro Cells


NodeBs are densely distributed in urban and dense urban areas, so selecting a site is
difficult. Using micro cells is a solution to high capacity and caters for urban and dense
urban environment. A feature of using micro cells is that buildings are used to block
signals so that the interference from neighbor cells is lowered and downlink capacity is
increased.

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References:
[1] GENEX Probe Radio Air Interface Test Software User Manual
[2] GENEX Nastar WC MA User Manual (DCHN)

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