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IOSR Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics (IOSR-JAGG)

e-ISSN: 23210990, p-ISSN: 23210982.Volume 3, Issue 4 Ver. II (Jul - Aug. 2015), PP 31-38
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Porosity Estimation Using Wire-Line Log to Depth in Niger


Delta, Nigeria
AkankpoAkaninyene Okon1,Umoren Emmanuel Bassey2,
Agbasi Okechukwu Ebuka3,
1,2,3,

University of Uyo, Uyo

Abstract:Porositymodellingwascarriedoutinoil-wellsofstacked reservoirsinsouth-east Niger Delta usinggamma


ray,
resistivity,
soniclogs
todeterminelithologies
andporosities.
Lithologiesoftheformationwereidentifiedassandandshale.Porosityvaluesrangefrom0.013%to94.08%.
Porositydecreaseswithdepthinnormalcompactedformationforthe
twowells.Thefollowingporosityequationhasbeenmodeledforthestudyarea,Z = -3E-05z + 0.5785. This
impliesthat,intheabsenceofcoresamples,porosity,zcanbeestimatedatanydepth,Zintheareaofstudy.Theresultsofthe
porositymodelling can be appliedin petroleumevaluation and overpressure prediction.It may also be useful
for sedimentary basin analysis of the region.
Keywords:Porosity,Modelling,WellLogs,Compaction,Lithology,Reservoir,SedimentaryBasin.
I.

Introduction

Theporosityofasedimentarylayerisanimportantp a r a m e t e r
for
evaluating
the
potentialvolumeofhydrocarbonsitmaycontain.Inotherwords,oneoftheessentialattributesofany
hydrocarbonreservoirisporosity.Almostallreservoirshaveporosityinarangeof5to45%withthe majority falling
between
10
and
20%
(Selley
and
Morrill,
1983;
Egehetal.,2001).HubbertandRubey(1959),Schmidt(1973),Selly(1982),Uko(1996)appliedporosityanalysisinthe
geodynamicprocesses,whichinfluencedtheevolutionofsedimentarybasinsincludingtheNigerDelta
basinandcontinentalmarginofNigeria,andhydrocarbonpotentialsofthebasin.Whenporosityis
combinedwithpermeability,aregionshydrodynamics,hydrocarbonmigrationandaccumulationin
reservoirscouldbeevaluated.Porosityfieldcouldaswellbeusedtopredictabnormalpressureareas during oil-well
drilling
(Ukoetal.,2013,
Udo,
et
al
2015).Middleton(1984)usedthesurfaceporositytocarryoutgeohistoryanalysisofasedimentarybasin.Characterization
ofhydraulicpropertiesofrocks,suchastheporosity,isessentialfordynamicbasin
analysisbecauseporosityandpermeabilitycontroltheflowofsubsurfacefluids(Bachuand
Undersschultz,1992).Regionalstudiesinbasinanalysisarenecessaryforunderstandingbasinevolution
andthegeneration,migration,andaccumulationofhydrocarbons(Hitchonetal.,1987).Also,
dynamicanalysisdealswiththestructureandrocksinsedimentarybasins
andthedynamicprocessestakingplace,suchastheflowofformationfluidsandthetransferof
terrestrialheatfromthecrusttothesurface.BjorkunandNadeau(1998)assertedthatporosityand
permeability
distributions control fluid migration on timescales of tens of millions of years.
Chukwuekeetal.,(1992)estimatedsurface
porosityusingonlygeophysicallogs
and
obtained
valuesforsandstoneandshaleas43.38and70.09%respectivelyinthe
distilpartsoftheNigerDelta.Okiongbo(1998)workedinthenorth-easternNigerDelta
andobserved
subsurfaceporosityrangebetween10and25%,whileOfeke(1998)computed
porosity
values
usingporositylogsandobtained the subsurface porosity for central NigerDelta as 52% and14%.
Ikeagwuani(1979)obtainedporositiesof35%
and15%atdepthsof5000ftand14000ftrespectively.Theseworkers
used only porosity logs without core sample measurements to infer the porosities.
In
thiswork,wemodeledporosityequation
forthe
study areainSouth-EastNigerDelta
from
whichporositycanbeestimatedatanydepthformany applications.
Geology oftheNigerDelta
NigerDeltabasinisboundedbythegeographicalgridsoflatitudes6 o40Eandlongitudes8o30N.
ItcontainsmainlyCenozoicformationsdepositedinhighenergyconstructivedeltaicenvironmentsasdifferentiatedintocontinentalBenin,paralicAgbada,andpro-deltamarineAkatafacies (Doust and
Omatsola, 1990, Short and Stauble, 1967).

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Porosity Estimation Using Wire-Line Log To Depth In Niger Delta, Nigeria

Figure1:StructuralsectionoftheNigerDeltaComplexshowingBenin,AgbadaandAkata formations (Short and


Stauble, 1967; Weber and Daukuru, 1973; Whiteman, 1982)
TheBeninFormation(Figure1)istheupperalluvialcoastalplaindepositionalenvironmentoftheNiger
DeltaComplex.ItextendsfromthewestNigerDeltaacrosstheentireNigerDeltaareatothesouthbeyondthepresentcoast
line.Theformationwasdepositedinacontinentalfluviatileenvironmentand composed almost entirely of non-marine
sandstone.It consists of coarse-grained sandstones, gravel lignite streaks and wood fragments with minor
intercalation of shales.Benin Formation is of Miocene to younger age and has a variable thickness that exceeds
1820m.It is of Oligocene age in the north and isprogressivelyyoungersouthwards,rangingfromMiocenetoRecent.
Very little hydrocarbon accumulation has been associated with this formation (Short and Stauble, 1967).
TheAgbadaFormationunderliestheBeninFormation.Itwaslaiddowninparalicbrackishtomarine
fluviatile,coastalenvironments.Itismadeupofalternatingsandstone,siltandshale.The
sandstonesarepoorlysorted,roundedtosub-rounded
andslightlyconsolidated.ThesandstonesgradeintoshaleinthelowerpartoftheBe n i n formation.AgbadaFormation
rangesinagefromEoceneinthenorthtoPlioceneinthesouth.Thesandypartsoftheformationare
knowntoconstitutethemainhydrocarbonreservoirsofthedeltaoilfieldsandtheshalesconstituteseals
to
the
reservoirs.The thicknessof the formation reaches a maximumof about 4500m(Short and Stauble,
1967).TheAkataFormationisthelowestunitoftheNigerDeltacomplex.Itiscomposedofmainlyshalewith
sandstonesandsiltstoneslocallyinterbedded.TheFormationbecomesshalierwithdepth.Itwas
deposited
in
amarineenvironment andhas a
thickness of approximately7000min the central partofthe
delta.TheAkataFormationoutcropsoffshoreindiapirsalongthecontinentalslope,andonshoreinthe
northeast,wheretheyarecalledImoShale.TheageoftheAkataFormationrangesfromEoceneto Recent (Short and
Stauble, 1967).
Factors InfluencingPorosity
Manyauthorshaveenumeratedtheparametersinfluencingprimaryporosityinrocks:ageofthesediment
(Boswell,1961andMaxwell,1960,1964;Scherer,1987);mineralogy(Griffiths,1964;Nagtegaal,1978;
Scherer,1987);maximumdepthofburial(McCulloh,1967andSelley,1978;Scherer,1987);sorting
(BeardandWeyl,1973;Scherer,1987);grainsize(BeardandWeyl,1973;Powers,1953);grain
sphericity(TickellandHiatt,1938;Rittenhouse,1943);grainrounding(Fraser,1935andPowers,1953);
grainorientation(EmeryandGriffiths,1953;Martini,1972);formationtemperature(Maxwell,1960;de
Boeretal.,1977);abnormalporepressure(VonEngelhardt,1960;AtwaterandMiller,1965;Selley,1978);hydrocarbons
aturation(Fuchtbauer,1967;
Selley,1978);chemistryofformationwater(Rentonet
al.,1969;WolfandChilinggarian,1976;Curtis,1978;GilesandMaxwell,1986andSurdametal.,1984).
Beard and Weyl (1973)investigated theinfluenceof texture on the porosityof unconsolidated sand under
wetconditionsandconcludedthatporosityislittleaffectedbychangesingrainsizeforagivendegreeof
sorting.Heobservedthatadecreaseinporositytakesplacefrom42%forextremelywellsortedsandto
28%forverypoorlysortedsand.GratonandFraser(1935)foundthatthetightestpackingofspheresisrhombohedral(26%
porosity),andtheloosestpackingiscubic(48%porosity).Astheseextremecases
rarelyoccurinnature(BeardandWeyl,1973),Kahn(1956)andDullien(1979)observedthatmostpackingsinvolverando
massembliesbutwillalsocontainasizedistributionofparticlesthatarelikelyto
benonspherical.Henotedthattherelationshipbetweenpackingandporosityisnoteasytoisolatefrom other textural
parameters, and is thus difficult to measure.
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Porosity Estimation Using Wire-Line Log To Depth In Niger Delta, Nigeria


Importantparametersinfluencingprimaryporosityare
compaction(grainarrangement,plastic
deformation,pressuresolution,fracturing),authigenesisofminerals(cementation,alsooperatingatnearsurfaceconditions),andleaching
(WolfandChillingarian,1976;Kharaka
andBerry,1976;Schmidtetal.,1977;Scherer,1987).
Cementation
andleachingareinterrelatedwithmanyotherparameters, such as pore-water chemistry, temperature, and
hydrocarbon saturation.

II.

Materials AndMethods

Well Logs Pre-Processing


Volume of shalecomputation
Comparative
examination
ofthegammarayanddensitylogs,showedthatthe
gammarayadequatelyseparatessandsfromshale.In
some
logs,there
wasnoeffectofradioactivesandsonthegammaray,whileinothers;effectsof radioactivesandonthegammaray were
observed.The shale fraction of the reservoir in the five wells was estimatedas shown in Table 1.
Table 1: VSH for the five wells
Well
1
2
3
4
5

Depth(ft)Low
5999
7999
10000
11999
13138

VSH
0.98905
0.88532
0.38370
0.56835
0.36149

Depth (ft) Top


4301
6000
8000
10007
12000

VSH
0.00099
0.00171
0.00608
0.00096
0.00042

Figure 2: Density and GR Logs utilized


Porosity Calculation fromGammaLog
Althoughneutronporositieswereavailablefortheanalysis,itwasuncertainwhethereachloggingwas
usedtocalibratethesamefluidandrocktype.Noinformationwasavailableontheoverallcalibration
technique.Itisgenerallyaccepted amonggeoscientiststhatporositycalculationfrombulkdensitylogsis more accurate
(Calderon and Castagna, 2007;Issler, 1992; Horsfallet al.,2013; Udo, et al 2015).
Alogthatmeasuresintervaltransittime(t)ofacompressionalsoundwavetravellingthroughthe
formationalongtheaxisoftheborehole.Theacousticpulsefromatransmittersdetectedattwoormorereceivers.
Thetimeofthefirstdetection
ofthetransmittedpulseateachreceiverisprocessed
toproduce t.
The
tisthetransittimeofthewavefrontoverone
footofformationandisthereciprocalofthevelocity.
Intervaltransittimeisbothdependentonlithology andporosity. Units:sec/ft,sec/m. Symbol:
The sonic tool is selected to calculate the porosity in a good borehole condition. The Sonic log is used
for porosity determination according to equation 1.

(1)
Where = fractional porosity
Vp = Pore Volume
Vb = Bulk Volume
Vs = Gain Volume
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Porosity Estimation Using Wire-Line Log To Depth In Niger Delta, Nigeria

For aGammaRayvaluebelowourthreshold63.5GAPI,the lithologyisinterpretedtobesandstone.Inthe five


wells,theaveragePorosityvaluesrangesfrom0.02%
to
95.60%.
Theresultsofthisstudyshowsthatcleansandreservoirshavebetterporositythanshalysandreservoirs.
Inthecleansandreservoirs,thethicknessofthereservoirisdirectlyrelatedtotheporosity.For those reservoirs,higher
porosity values were obtained for higher sand columnsandviceversa.Thisstudyalsoshows
thatzonesofcoarselypackedsandstonesinareservoirhavebetterporositythanzonesoffinelypacked sandstones in the
same reservoir.

III.

Results AndDiscussion

PorositywascalculatedforhydrocarbonandwaterbearingreservoirsusingtheGammalog.Theplotsofporositydata againstdepthareshowninFigures3, 4, 5, 6, 7and


8.These
plots
shownormalporositydecreasewithdepth.
IntheNigerDelta,shalelithologyincreaseswithdepth,whilesandstonedecreases.Ourobservation
confirms
the
resultsof
Friedman
and
Sanders
(1978),Blattetal.,
(1980)andSelly(1982)thatporosityis
lostwithincreasingdepthofburial.Itfollowsthatporosityvarieswithlithologyanddepth,thatisit
decreaseswithincreasein
shalevolume.Thedecreaseofporositywithdepthcanalsobethoughtofas
variationofporositywithpressure.
Withinaspecificdepthandlithology,porosityis
influencedbyconfiningpressureaspointedoutbyTelfordetal.,(1976).
Fuchtbauer(1967)haspointedoutthatthepresenceofhydrocarbonsalsopreservesporosity.I n t h i s s t u d y
weobservedthatreservoirthicknessis directlyrelatedtoporosity.Thethickerthereservoir,thehighertheporosity.
The equation for the porosity trend for two wells is:
Z = -3E-05z + 0.5785.
(2)
Thisimplies that, in theabsenceofcoresampleorany porosity,z, can beestimatedatanydepth,Z,in feetinthe
area ofstudy.

Figure 3: Complete Porosity against Depth and VSH / Porosity against Depth for the Well

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Porosity Estimation Using Wire-Line Log To Depth In Niger Delta, Nigeria

Figure 4: Porosity against Depth and VSH / Porosity against Depth for Well 1

Figure 5: Porosity against Depth and VSH / Porosity against Depth for Well 2

Figure 6: Porosity against Depth and VSH / Porosity against Depth for Well 3

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Porosity Estimation Using Wire-Line Log To Depth In Niger Delta, Nigeria

Figure 7: Porosity against Depth and VSH / Porosity against Depth for Well 4

Figure 8: Porosity against Depth and VSH / Porosity against Depth for Well 5

IV.

Conclusion

Inconclusion,porosityvaluesrangesfrom0.013%to94.08%intheareaofstudy.Porositydecreaseswithdepth in
normal compacted formation for bothwells.The following porosityequations have beenmodelled for thestudy area:
Z = -3E-05z + 0.5785.This implies that, in the absence of coresample, porosity, zcan beestimated at
anydepth,Zintheareaofstudy. Reservoir thicknessisdirectly related to its porosity. Thehigher the reservoir
thickness, the higher the porosity.Porosity decreases with depth.

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DOI: 10.9790/0990-03423138

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