Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

8/17/2015

BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol

8/17/2015 BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol LOGIN| REGISTER MENU Home / Articles / 2015 /
BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol LOGIN| REGISTER MENU Home / Articles / 2015 /

MENU

LOGIN| REGISTER MENU Home / Articles / 2015 /

Home/Articles/2015/BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol

Béla Lipták defines 5 levels of process control

Manual,feedback,cascade,feedforwardandlead/lagallhavetheirplace.

ByBelaLiptak

May11,2015

Print

Email

T weet Share Share ­
T weet
Share
Share
­
ByBelaLiptak May11,2015 Print Email T weet Share Share ­ A A A A + 1of2 <1|

A A A A +

About the Author BélaLipták,PE,controlconsultant,isalsoeditoroftheInstrumentEngineers' Handbookandisseekingnewco­authorsfortheforcomingneweditionofthatmulti­ volumework.Hecanbereachedatliptakbela@aol.com.

volumework.Hecanbereachedat liptakbela@aol.com .

Inprocesscontrol,thereareatleastfivelevelsofsophisticationthattheautomation

engineercanapply.Theadvantageofthehigherlevelsisbettercontrol,butapplying

ahigherlevelalsorequiresbetterunderstandingoftheprocess.Intheanalogage,usinghigherlevels

ofsophisticationalsoinvolvedsubstantiallyhighercosts,butinthedigitalage,thisconsiderationhas

becomelesssignificant.Toillustratethefivelevels,Iwillusetheexampleofcontrollingtheoutlet

temperaturefromasteam­poweredliquidheatexchanger.

ManualControl(Figure1):Manualfeedbackcontrolisperformedbytheoperatorbywatchingthehot

watertemperatureandmanuallythrottlingthesteamflowtokeepthisoutlettemperatureconstant.

Manualfeedforwardcontrolisperformedwhenthesteamflowisthrottledonthebasisofthe

temperatureandflowoftheincomingcoldwater.

FeedbackControl(greencomponentsinFigure2)issimilartomanualcontrol,exceptthatthe

operatorisreplacedbyanautomaticcontroller,whichismoreaccurateanddoesnotgettiredor

distracted,andits"personality"istunedtomatchthatofthecontrolledprocess.By"personality"Irefer

8/17/2015

BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol

tothedynamics(gain,timeconstant,deadtime)oftheprocess.

Hands on Manualfeedforwardandfeedbackcontroldependontheoperatortocontrol theprocess.

Hands on Manualfeedforwardandfeedbackcontroldependontheoperatortocontrol theprocess.

Figure2illustratesthecasewhenthecontrolvalveisonthesteamsideoftheheater.Ifitisonthe

condensateside,asmallervalvecanbeused,butthedynamicsoftheprocesswillbeslowerandnon­

symmetrical,becauseloweringthecondensatelevelismuchfasterthanbuildingitup.Ontheother

hand,thisconfigurationeliminatestheminimumcondensingpressureproblemsthatcaninterferewith

thesteamtrapoperationatlowloads.

Whilefeedbackcontrolisthemostcommonlyused,ithasseriouslimitations.Themainoneisthatit

cannotanticipateand,therefore,cannotpreventerrorsbecauseitcaninitiatecorrectiveactiononly

afteranerrorhasdeveloped.Therefore,inthecaseoftheliquidheaterprocess,ifeithertheproperties

ofthemanipulatedvariable(forexample,steampressure)ortheload(coldfluidflowortemperature)

change,feedbackcontrolwillwaituntilthesechangesupsettheoutlettemperaturebeforeinitiating

correctiveaction.

CascadeControl(redcomponentsinFigure2)cancorrectformanipulatedvariableupsets,suchas

steampressurechanges,beforetheycouldupsetthecontrolledvariable(temperature).Asshownin

Figure2,thecascadeloopconsistoftwocontrollersinseries,buthasonlyasinglesetpoint,thatofthe

primary(master)controller,theTIC.Themainvalueofhavingasecondary(slave)controller(theFIC

showninred)isthatitwillactasthefirstlineofdefenseagainststeamqualitydisturbances,preventing

theseupsetsfromenteringandupsettingtheprimarycontrolledvariable(temperature).

8/17/2015

BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol

Let the controller do it Moreadvancedsystemsreplacethe operatingpersonwithanautomatic controllercapableofhandlingthe

Let the controller do it Moreadvancedsystemsreplacethe operatingpersonwithanautomatic controllercapableofhandlingthe personalityoftheprocess.

Forthecascadeslaveloop(FIC)tobeeffective,itshouldbemoreresponsive(faster)thanthemaster.

Somerulesofthumbsuggestthattheslavetimeconstantshouldbelessthan1/4to1/10thatofthe

masterloop,andtheslave’speriodofoscillationshouldbelessthan1/2to1/3ofthemasterloop.In

caseofthesteamheaterprocess,thisrequirementisusuallysatisfied.

Oneshouldalsobecarefultoprevent"resetwind­up"intheprimarycontroller(TIC).Thiscanoccur

becausetheTICisusuallyprovidedwithanintegralmode,whichkeepsintegratingtheerroraslongas

itexistsand,therefore,iftheFICsetpointisblocked(suchaswhenitisswitchedtomanual)itkeeps

integratinguntilitsoutputsaturates(reachesmaximum),andwhentheFICisreturnedtoautomatic

control,alargeupsetoccurs.Toguarantee"bumplesstransfer,"provide"externalreset,"whichisan

internallogiccomponentintheTICalgorithmthatdeactivatestheintegralmodeiftheTICoutputdoes

notequaltheFICmeasurement,andreactivatesitonlywhenitdoes.

Join the discussion

Wewelcomeyourthoughtfulcomments.PleasecomplywithourCommunityrules.

Allcommentswilldisplayyourusername.

Wanttoparticipateinthediscussion?

Loginforcompleteaccess.

Comments

Noonehascommentedonthispageyet.

8/17/2015

BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol

8/17/2015 BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol Related Content Don't overlook the virtues of PID when
8/17/2015 BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol Related Content Don't overlook the virtues of PID when

Related Content

Modelpredictivecontrolisn'talwaysthebestchoice

Productsshapedbytheneedsofexpedientautomationmaygetusbittenbythewildprocess…

Herewelookathowtomakesurethemeasurementsystemisabletoprovidetheanalysis,…

Preventingwinduprequiresreconfigurationofthecontroller,accordingtoprocesscontrol…

8/17/2015

BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol

8/17/2015 BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol About ContactUs Advertise MediaKit Rates&Spec PrivacyPolicy
8/17/2015 BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol About ContactUs Advertise MediaKit Rates&Spec PrivacyPolicy
8/17/2015 BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol About ContactUs Advertise MediaKit Rates&Spec PrivacyPolicy

About

Content

8/17/2015

BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol

News

Magazine

Site Tools

Stay Connected

RSS

Copyright©2004­2015ControlGlobal.Allrightsreserved.

P:630­467­1300|1501E.WoodfieldRoad,Suite400N,Schaumburg,IL60173

8/17/2015

BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol

8/17/2015 BélaLiptákdefines5levelsofprocesscontrol