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Dilatancy angle evaluation

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Dilatancy angle evaluation

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I, 145-151

TECHNICAL NOTE

T. SCHANZ' and P. A. VERMEER'

LABORATORY TESTING

strength.

quartz sand (Flavigny, Desrues & Palayer, 1990).

This socalled Hostun sand has been used for

many years (Des rues, 1984; Desrues, ColliatDangus & foray, 1988) in model tests and for

research on constitutive modelling. The material

parameters were emin = 0648; emu = 104 I; Ps =

265 g!cm]. Fig. 1 shows the grain size distribution.

All samples were compacted by pluviation in a

steel cylinder lined with a rubber membrane

(to = 03 mm). Under a back-pressure of Uo =

50 kN/m 2 , the samples (Ho = Do = 100 mm) were

placed in the triaxial cell, back-pressure was

removed, and the samples were consolidated under

ac To speed up saturation, the samples were

saturated first with C02 and then with water. The

volume change was measured by pore-water

volume change, and the specimens were axially

strained at I% per minute.

Because the hcight-<iiameter ratio Hal Do of all

the samples was unity, special means were

necessary for compensation of end restraint. The

following anti-friction system was used. Both end

plates (enlarged diameter 110 mm) were made

from polished glass with a centre hole for

drainage. A silicon grease-rubber interface was

placed between the plates and the sample. Previous

tests have shown the shear parameters measured

with this system to be equal to those measured

INTRODUCTION

peak friction angle p and the critical state friction

angle Cy. It is generally realized that the peak

friction angel depends not only on density but also

on the stress path, including differences between

plane strain and triaxial testing conditions. Indeed,

plane strain and triaxial strain angles can differ by

more than 5 for a dense sand. For a loose sand at

the critical density it is often suggesled that similar

differences occur (e.g. Stroud, 1971; Lade, 1984).

suggest a unique critical state angle (e.g. Rowe,

1962, 1971; Bolton, 1986).

critical state angle. The implication is that the

failure criterion of a very loose sand is accurately

described by the Mohr--coulomb condition, which

gives the known six-sided pyramid in principal

stress space.

The test data on dense as well as loose Hostun

sand are also used to study the rale of dilation.

This topic was extensively treated by Bolton

(1986), and it is now generally accepted that the

triaxial rate of dilation coincides with the rate of

dilation found in plane strain tests. Following

Roscoe (t970), Bohon used an angle of dilatancy

l/Jp for plane strain, but its definition is not

extended to cover triaxial strain. However, an

attempt at this was made by Vaid & Sasitharan

(1991). A different definition is presented in this

technical note which was previously given by

Vermeer & de Borst (1984) but is derived

differently here. Empirical evidence shows that

the definition matches dala from both plane strain

and tria"<.ial srrain.

100

>'

~

~

80

80

"

D

40

Q.

accepted 4 May 1995.

Discussion on this technical note closes 3 June 1996; for

further details see p. ii.

* Stuttgart Universi[)'.

20

0~063

0125

025

05

Diameter: mm

145

146

,--------------,-12

system ensures a nC3r-unifonn dcfonnation of the

The bedding error 6.r c caused by the lubrication, which can lead to a 60% reduction in the

5

-8

eliminated using

(Goldscheider, 1982) where

10

(I)

is the thickness of

effect of the lateral membrane restraint was

With the stiffness of the membrane Em (= 1400 kNl

m2 ), the correction stress I!:J.03 c can be calculated

according to

(2)

where 03 is the radial stress and E] is the radial

strain. In contrast to the bedding error, this

membrane stiffness correction had little impact on

the test results.

1 O~#'''--5t----:';!;Oc-----''1~5...L..'-~2;!;O,JO

I

(1:%

=:

5,----------_--,

-8

FRICTION ANGLES

on dense Hostun s:md, with Yo = 16-3 leN/m) and

10 = 1-15, and on loose Hostun sand with

Yo ~ 139 kN/m J

and

I D = O 38.

To check

the

were performed at a fixed cell pressure of

OJ ~ 300 kN/m'.

Figures 2 and 3 shows test results; stress-strain

curves are ploned with the stress ratio on the left

vertical axis and strain-strain curves are superposed by ploning the volumetric strain on the right

vertical a,,<is. The test data show that the

reproducibility of triaxial tests is quite good.

A second step in checking the reproducibility

and thus the reliability of test data is to compare

data from different laboratories. A direct comparison can be made between the present data (IGS)

and dara from the Grenoble Institute of Mechanics

(lMG) (Flavigny, Hadj-Sadok, Horodecki & Balachowski, 1991), as both laboratories have used the

same sand and the same testing procedure,

including the lubrication of end plates. The

comparison was made by using test data for the

dense sand and plotting average values for a series

of control tests, as shown in Fig. 4.

Even with comparable testing procedures, different laboratories appear to produce slightly

different curves. Some differences with classical

test data (aspect ratio of two and no lubrication)

are expected, but the deviations between IGS

results and IMG results are surprising; as yet there

is no clear explanation. However, in terms of

friction angles the differences between IGS and

IMG are smaller than Fig. 4 suggests, as peak

,---------------,-12

5

-8

~3

o

IGS

o IGM

.6.

Non-Iubricaled

ll".~:'--'-----':---"";----:':-'O

o

5

10

15

20

[1:%

laboratories

respectively are found (the precise values are given

in Table I.

compare well up to an axial strain of about 10%,

which is well beyond peak strength. Differences

occur beyond an axial strain of 10%, when a

critical state is approached in which the sample

147

under triaxial compression

dcg~~es

I deg~~'es

"'.. I ","

-""-'

1

dewees

10

"'"

1-15

IGS

419

34-8

133

IMG

401

357

140

Non-lubric:ued

418

l7-7

126

10 = 038

34-4

IGS

34-4

Several theories have been developed for predicting the volume strain in triaxial testing as a

function of the axial strain. In particular, the

applicabiliIy of Rowe's (1962, 1971) stress dilatancy theory has been shown by Barden & Khayan

(1966) and Wood (1990). This is also done here,

but in addition Rowe's idea of superposition is

emphasized as this is applied when considering

angles of dilatancy. The stress dilatancy theory

starts with the expression for plane states of strain

(3)

D=R/K

00

a coefficient representing the internal friction which

may be expressed as

K = lan' (45

deforms with further change of volume. At the end

of the test, at an axial strain of 17%, this critical

state is not yet fully reached but softening and

dilation are clearly damping out. At 17% vertical

strain the IGS and Th-1G data yield friction angles

of 34.80 and 35.7 0 respectively. It is possible that a

0

critical state angle of almost 34-4 would have

been reached on further straining. This angle is

obtained from the loose sand data in Fig. 3, and is

assumed here to be the critical state angle of

friction.

0

Having obtained a peak friction angle of 40-42

for the dense sand and a maximum friction angle

of 34-40 for the loose sand, it is interesting to

compare these triaxial angles to friction angles

measured in plane strain tests by Hammad (1991).

The laner data are listed in Table 2 for various

values of the confining stress.

Taking data for a cell pressure of 300 kN/m 2 as

was also done in tria"{ial testing, a peak friction

angle of 45-47 is found for the dense sand and a

maximum friction angle of 32,5-34,5 for the loose

sand. A significant difference is thus found for the

dense sand, as other studies, whereas there is very

linle difference for the loose sand at the critical

state. (This finding is confirmed below by data for

other sands.) Hence it seems that a unique critical

state angle cv exists independently of strain

conditions.

+ r/2)

(4)

cv at critical state, but values tend to be lower for

dense sands. Rowe derived these relationships by

considering the ratc of energy dissipation. On

changing from plane state of strain to triaxial

testing conditions, he computcd the ratc of energy

by adding the effects of two mechanisms. How~

ever, his resulting equation can also be obtained

without considering energy dissipation, as is now

shown. Similarly to Rowe, sliding on planes

governed by the stress ratio 0\102 (mechanism A)

and sliding on other planes governed by olloJ

(mechanism B) are considered.

Figure 5 shows the A mechanism with sliding

on a 0\--02 plane and the B mechanism with

sliding on a 01--<73 plane. Each sliding mechanism

constitutes a planar deformation, and it is thus

tempting [0 apply equation (3) to each separate

mechanism. This yields

-E,fEIA = DA = RA/K

(Sa)

= D. = R./K

(5b)

-E3/EI.

conditions. The basic idea that follows from these

considerations is that there are two contributions to

the axial strain, i.e.

(6)

Table 2. Aooles of friction and dilatanc\' of Hostun sand in the biaxial test (Ji:lmmad , 1991)

2

3: kN/m

",,,.

P . degrces

"'~s:

degrees

<pps, degrees

P

10 095

IjIPs.

P degrees

/0 '" 0'37

100

467-475

14'5-147

35'5

00

200

464-470

141-142

32,5-345

00

400

4;1-453

114-121

330-333

-1,3

148

----------

6

/

/

/

/

,,"

",,"

//<1"='9.)

3

2

/

/

/

state

oL

~/

_ _L-_ _L-..!-_L-_-----1

0'5

=-2E:/t,

15

or in short

D=R/K

(7a)

D = -21: 3 /1:,

(7b)

(equation (3)) and equation (7a) concerns a factor

of two in the definition of D, as noted by Rowe

(1962). In the present derivation, the idea of

superposition is shown in Fig. 5, i.e. two localized

sliding motions in shear bands. In reality much

more diffuse pre-peak deformation patterns occur,

but this does not change the idea of superposing an

A~type mechanism and a B-type mechanism, which

leads to the above results.

The value of the angle ,pr in the expression for

K has not yet been defined. Triaxial test data are

now considered for this purpose. The data for

dense and loose Hostun sand are planed in Figs 6

and 7 respectively. Using equation (7) in the form

R = KD, R is plotted on the vertical axis and D is

plotted on the horizontal axis.

Nearly straight lines that pass through the

origin, as suggested by the expression R = KD,

are found. In fact the plot zig-zags around such

small increments of strain. \Vhen a ratio is

computed, small errors tend to have large consequences. Note that the zig-zagging would vanish

if D were computed from strain increments twice

as large. In Figs 6 and 7 lines are plotted for K/..

where f is taken to be the interparticle angle of

friction, and also for K ev , where the critical state

angle of friction is used. Accordingly to Rowe

(1971), the former should be used for dense sands

and the laner is more appropriate for loose sands.

However, the differences between the resulting

lines is small and an average value would be

adequate for most practical purposes.

ANGLE OF DILATANCY

strain situations and its definition is then extended

to include triaxial compression. For plane strain

conditions, the definition is given in several

textbooks and by Bolton (1986)

.

sm

/

/

Kev (ev

=34'4)

"

/

" ,,"J(

""

')1

(Q =29)

II

/

/

/

/

/

// /

<-

o,L----,d-_

_+

o

0'5

1

__-.-'15,-__--!2

D= -'id~

(me:m values)

ps

1 +)

= --.--.EI - E)

(8)

contractive strains are considered positive. When

considering the peak dilatancy angle rates rather

than mobilized pre-peak angles of dilatancy, one

should obviously use rates of strain as measured at

and beyond peak stress ratios. Analogously to the

extension of the stress-dilatancy theory, the concept

of a dilatancy angle can be extended to include

triaxial test conditions. Again the axial strain is

considered to consist of an A mechanism in

combination with Ez and a B mechanism that

relates to the other principal strain E]

(9)

149

_ D _

I - sin rp

DA - B - .

I + SIn rp

(10)

sin", =

tv/E.I

(II)

2 - iv/E.I

and the friction angle is also given by Bolton

(1986). On combining the strcss-dilalancy equations (3) and (4) with the definition of the

dilatancy angle in equation (11), it is found that

Sill

rp

Slllrp=

dilatancy angle that can be used to measure this

angle in triaxial compression testing. A more

formal deriyation based on concepts of the theory

of plasticity is given by Vermeer & de Borst (1984).

Applying equation (II) to the triaxial test data in

Figs 2 and 3, a (peak) dilatancy angle of 14 is

found for the dense Hostun sand and a vanishingly

small value of about zero is obtained for the loose

sand. These values correspond extremely well to

values measured in plane strain tests: Hammad

(1991) rep0rls virtually identical values to those

given in Table 2.

The plane strain definition (equation (3 for the

dilatancy angle is formally equal to the triaxial

definition (equation (11)). This is due to the

fact that E2 vanishes for plane strain, giving

Ell = El + E3, and so equation (3) reduces to equation (11). Hence the latter equation is valid for

both test conditions. This supports the finding that

Ihe same dilatancy angle is measured in plane

strain and triaxial tests. Bolton (1986) presents

numerous data to show Ihal bOlh tests yield the

same peak ratio of ElllE l .

(3) and (4) of the stress-<!ilalaDcy lheory wilh the

definition of the dilatancy angle in equation (II),

one might use Rowe's equation (equation (7 for

tria."{ial tests with equation (11) to obtain

tPr

tPr

sin tP ps - sin

=

I - sin tP ps sin

I - sin u sin tP

(13)

for the superscripts, which mean that these angles

have to be measured in triaxial tests instead of

plane strain tests. In triaxial tests one' tends to find

smaller peak friction angles than in plane strain

tests, and Rowe reports a similar tendency for cPr.

Indeed, for dense Hostun sand it is found that

tPr = 29, which is significantly different from the

345 found earlier for ~s.

[t is concluded that Rowe's stress dilatancy

theory exhibits an appealing relationship bet\vcen

the friction angle and the dilatancy angle for

planar deformation, in that 4>~s = CII. However,

this theory needs to be supplemented for triaxial

conditions of stress and strain in order to obtain a

relationship bet\veen the friction angle and the

dilatancy angle. For this reason, relationships given

by Bolton (1986) are now considered.

angle tPcv for both triaxial strain and plane strain.

This is confirmed by test data for Hostun sand.

Bohon gives a large database which leads to the

correlations for plane strain

</>~'

</>~

'" 51.

(14)

tP; -

tP~v

::::: 3/R

( 15)

srrain~

and

(12)

plane strain angles of friction, as this formula was

derived using the plane strain equations (3) and (4),

and plane strain angles of friction tend to be larger

than friction angles measured in triaxial teSIS. I a

superscript is used to denote the dilatancy angle, as

this angle is considered to be independent of testing

conditions. According to Rowe cP~s coincides with

the critical state angle cPCII. If the data in Table 2 are

used to compute cP~5 from equation (12), the dense

sand yields tP~s = 36 and the loose sand yields

tP~s = 345. As the difference is relatively small,

there exists .. more or less uniquely defined angle

f Ps which corresponds well with the critical state

angle.

for triaxial

index

10

= 10{Q -InUrn) -

(16)

was found that Q = 10 and R = 1 give the best fit

for different sands. Combining equations (14) and

(15) gives

(17)

but is a direct consequence of his findings. Fig. 8

provides data from additional sources.

There is a good deal of evidence for the validity

of equation (17). It therefore appears that differences bet\veen friction angles disappear as looser

150

50

Cornforth (1964)

,,

"

o

,,

,,

Equation (17)

..

30 "---_ _.,..

~

,,

-,':-

40

tis p: degrees

___:'

form of the limiting envelope for slates of stress in

principal stress space. For dense sJrnples the plane

strain friction is well above the Mohr-Coulomb

prediction, but looser samples give envelopes

according to Mohr-Coulomb. There arc a lot of

true triaxial data to confirm the former, but few

true triaxial tests have been performed on loose

sand. Therefore it is often suggested that friction

angles are strain-dependent for both loose and

dense sands. Considering results from Bolton and

the additional data of Fig. 8, the present authors do

not agree.

Another finding by Bolton is that the rate of

dilation is srrain-independent. It is found for both

triaxial strain and biaxial strain that

(18)

This suppons the idea of a unique angle of

dilatancy, as this angle was related to the above

rate of dilation. Combining equations (II) and (18)

gives

03[.

2 + 03[.

[.

67

+ [.

(17.

triaxial strain

smllJ=

that data from plane strain and triaxial strain

conditions yield the same angle of dilatancy at

least near and beyond peak.

In contrast to the angle of dilatancy, friction

angles differ considerably when tria...ial strain and

plane strains are compared. This difference basically depends on the critical state friction angle, as

by Bolton (1986) and other researchers. As yet it

is not fully clear whelher or not plane strain

conditions yield slightly higher critical state angles

than triaxial strain conditions. Considering data

from Hostun sand, no such difference is observed.

There is linear relationship between angles of

ma.'(lmum friction for both conditions (equation

(19)

CONCLUSIONS

From the results prcsented, the following conclusions can be drawn concerning the angles of

friction and dilatancy of sand.

By using concepts of superposition it is possible

to relate the angle of dilatancy to triaxial strain

conditions. This yields an extended definition for

the angle of dilatancy which applies to triaxial

testing conditions as well as plane strain condi-

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors are indebted to Dr 1. Desrues and

Dr E. Flavigny of the Instirut de Mecanique de

Grenoble for discussion on the triaxial testing

tcchnique, and for their biaxial testing data on

Hosrun sand.

NOTATION

D diameter

e void ratio

Em membrane thickness

H height

10 dilatancy index

I R rel:ltive dil:ltancy index

K internal friction coefficient

R stress ratio (ol/oJ)

to membrane thickness

!::J.r bedding error

EJ

radial strain

p density

00

b:lck-pressure

a, axial stress

OJ

radial stress

1'". critical state friction angle

1'p peak friction angle

V'p angle of dilatancy

REFERENCES

Barden, L. & Khayatt, A. 1. (1966). Incremental strain

rate ratios and strength of sand in the tria;~ial test.

Georeclmiqlle 16. 338-357.

Bohon. M. O. (1986). The strength and dilatancy of

sands. Georeclmiqlle 36, No. I, 65-78.

Cornforth, D. H. (1964). Some experiments on the

influence of strain conditions on the strength of

sand. Georedlfliquf! 16, 193.

Oesrues, J. (1984). La localisation de fa defom/Q(;on

dUllS fes muter;Ollx grcwlIfu;res. OSc thesis, Institut de

Mecanique de Grenoble.

Oesrues, J.. ColliatOangus, J. L. & Foray, P. (1988).

Triaxial testing of granular soil under elevated cell

pressure. In Advanced tr;u..ial resting of soil ami

Society for Testing and Materials.

Flavigny, E., Desrues, 1. & Palayer, B. (1990). le sable

d'Hostun RF. Rev. Fr. Geotech. No. 53. 67-70.

Flavigny, E., HadjSadok, M., Horodecki, G. & Balachowski, L. (I991). Series repetives d'essais tria;'(iau;'(

dans dcll.,,{ laboratoires. Archwm Hydrotech. 38, 1-2.

Goldscheider, M. (1982). Results of the international

workshop on constitutive relations for soils, pp. 1154. Rotterdam: Balkema.

Hammad, W. I. (1991). Modelisation non lineaire et erude

experimentale des bandcs de cisaillement dans les

sable. DSc thesis, InstiNt de Mecanique de Grenoble.

Lade, P. V. (1984). Mechanics of engineering materials

(edited by C. S. Desai). Chichester: Wiley.

leussink. H., Wittke. W. & Weseloh. K. (1966).

Unterschiede im Scherverhahen rolliger Erdstoffe

und Kugelschiittungen im Dreiaxial und Biaxial

versuch. VeriiJJ. Illst. Bodenmech. Felsmech. TH

Frideric Karlsnlhe, 21.

151

mechanics. Geotechniqlle 20, No.2, 129-170.

Rowe. P. W. (1962). The stTess-diiatancy relation for

static equilibrium of an assembly of particles in

contact. Proc. R. Soc., A269. 50D-527.

Rowe, P. W. (1971). Theoretical meaning and observed

values of deforrnalion parameters for soil. Proceed

ings of Roscoe Memorial Symposium, pp. 143-194.

Henley-onThames: Foulis.

Stroud, M. A. (1971). The behaviour of sand at low stress

levels ill the simple-shear apparatus. Dissertation,

University of Cambridge.

Vaid, Y. P. & Sasitharan, S. (1991). The strength and

dilatancy of sand. Can. Geotech. J. 29. 522-526.

Venneer. P. A. & de Borst, R. (1984). Non-associaled

plasticity for soils, concrete and rock. Heron 29,

No.3.

Wood, D. M. (1990). Soil behaviour and critical stare

soil mechanics. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press.

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